Darfur and Sudan

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					Sudan and Darfur


          By:
    Nick DiBerardino
       Tim Liechti
    Desiree Dabice
      Taylor Fries
Introduction
 The United Nations  "one of
   the worst humanitarian crises in
   the world.‖
 Class Brainstorming:
       What is this crisis?
       Why did it begin?
       What has Africa done
        to solve it?
       Why has world has not
        interceded when at the
        end of Holocaust the
        international
        community said "never
        again."
BASICS
 Groups involved:
      1) Sudanese government funded Arab militia, ―Janjaweed‖
      2) African farmers in the region
         Government is fighting with two rebel groups in Darfur,
           the Sudanese Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/SLM)
           and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
         However, fighting ―rebels‖ is being used as a cover-up for
           genocide

 Goal:
      The two rebel organizations have political aim to direct the
       Sudan government to address the underdevelopment and
       political marginalization of the region.
THESIS
 The crisis in the Sudan
  has been recognized by
  the UN as the most
  serious humanitarian
  crisis of the world;
  however, it is not
  receiving the attention it
  should in the United
  States.
What caused the current conflict in
Darfur?
 an "ethnic cleansing" campaign by a
  group of Arab militiamen
     a systematic campaign of rape and pillaging
          Purpose: to humiliate and punish non-Arab
           groups
 Desertification
     Arab nomads, Janjaweed, desperate for land
      that African farmers hold
Who has been involved in this
conflict?
 The Janjaweed attack black Africans from
    the Fur
    Massaleet
    Zagawa ethnic groups.
 The BBC's Alfred Taban in Khartoum declairs:
    Relatively small number of Janjaweed – about a few thousand
        However, well armed with automatic weapons and ride well-
         fed horses and camels.
        training in Libya in the 1980s, when Muammar Gaddafi set
         up an "Islamic Legion" of mercenaries recruited from across
         north and west Africa.
 Janjaweed militia supported by Sudan government.
    Musa Hilal, considered to be the top Janjaweed leader,
     ―vehemently denies taking part in ethnic cleansing. ―
 "The rebels spread the word Janjaweed as if it were an
  organization. As a political group there is no specific concept called
  Janjaweed... It means nothing, but has been used to mean
  everything,"
    Reported to the UK's Guardian newspaper
What has happened in the conflict?
 An ―ethnic cleansing‖ campaign of pillaging, looting, and
  rape intended to humiliate, punish, and drive away non-
  Arab groups.
 Statistics
    At least 400,000 people have been killed
    more than 2 million innocent civilians have been forced
     to flee their homes and now live in displaced-persons
     camps in Sudan or in refugee camps in neighboring
     Chad
    more than 3.5 million men, women, and children are
     completely reliant on international aid for survival
 Not since the Rwandan genocide of 1994 has the world
  seen such a calculated campaign of displacement,
  starvation, rape, and mass slaughter.
How is the conflict affecting the people
of Darfur economically and socially?
 People being displaced, so labor force
  being lost
 Social tensions exacerbated
 Also impacts other countries in the
  region:
     More than 2 million refugees have been forced out
      of the Sudan and into neighboring countries—
      Chad in particular
How has the international community
responded?
 China
 More than 100 US legislators signed letter
  mandating that Beijing must take immediate
  action to stop violence
     Talk of boycotting 2008 Olympic Games
     Balancing act: now China is willing to look for
      peace
 Beijing = main investor/trading partner
   Example: Khartoum exports nearly 500,000
    barrels of oil per day (majority to China)
International Response Cont.
 US’s response:
      USAID reconstruction programs support the establishment of a
       foundation for a just and durable peace with the broad participation of
       the Sudanese people. Activities focus on supporting the peace
       process, democracy and governance, education, health, and economic
       growth.
      USAID humanitarian programs work to meet immediate needs while
       simultaneously transitioning to longer-term reconstruction and
       development activities in areas outside of Darfur. Priorities include
       assisting individuals displaced by conflict, providing basic services in
       traditionally underserved areas, and improving food security through
       increased agricultural production.
      USAID food assistance accounted for over 80 percent of the
       commitments to the UN World Food Program in 2005, and supports
       ongoing programs with the Red Cross and other nongovernmental
       organizations. As the leading donor of food assistance to Sudan,
       USAID targets food aid commodities to the most vulnerable, with
       particular emphasis on women and children.
              What Needs to Be Done:


•The crisis in the Sudan must be stopped, and
peace must be restored. In order for this to happen,
there must be:
  –An effective ceasefire agreement reached
  –An African Union and United Nations military force
  deployed
  –New peace talks, with international consensus and a
  goal of unifying rebel movements
     •To read Crisis Group's latest report in full, see Darfur:
     Revitalising the Peace Process, Africa Report N°125, 30 April
     2007.
    What does this solution
    require of the US?
      As a nation, we must help by:
    1.     applying effective pressure on all sides to abandon attempts to achieve a military
           victory
    2.     supporting the AU/UN mediation as the sole international forum for pursuing a
           peaceful Darfur settlement
    3.     developing consensus for a political strategy, including the application of punitive
           measures against those responsible
    4.     applying targeted sanctions, such as asset freezes and travel bans, to key NCP
           leaders who have already been identified by UN-sponsored investigations as
           responsible for atrocities in Darfur and encourage divestment campaigns
    5.     authorizing through the Security Council a forensic accounting firm or a panel of
           experts to investigate the offshore accounts of the NCP and NCP-affiliated
           businesses so as to pave the way for economic sanctions against the regime’s
           commercial entities, the main conduit for financing NCP-allied militias in Darfur
    6.     exploring sanctions on aspects of Sudan’s petroleum sector, the NCP’s main
           source of revenue for waging war in Darfur, to include at least bars on
           investment and provision of technical equipment and expertise; and
    7.     beginning immediate planning for enforcing a no-fly zone over Darfur with U.S.
           assets in the region and additional NATO support
    8.     obtaining consent of the Chad government to deploy a rapid-reaction force to
           that country’s border with Sudan
    9.     planning on a contingency basis for a non-consensual deployment to Darfur if
           political and diplomatic efforts fail to change government policies and the
           situation on the ground worsens

				
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