Toyota Production System 2 by fdjerue7eeu


									Toyota Production System 2
?1 Introduction
Toyota Production System (TPS) Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan created a set of
production management methods, methods to eliminate waste, reduce costs for the
purpose, in-time (JIT, Just- in- Time) and automation for the pillar to improve the
activity-based. After how many Xilian, TPS has a global business practices as being
high praise; in the business, has also been widely used, has achieved remarkable
results. According to the survey, without or with little additional investment to
increase, the implementation of the TPS to obtain the following results:
&S226; Quality improvement lOO%;
&S226; Shorten production cycle 70%;
&S226; Costs reduced by 40%;
&S226; Market share increased by 20%.
In the case of global competition, especially where people have the date is
approaching, Chinese enterprises must enhance their competitive strength, hard skills,
in a short time from product design, production costs, product quality, delivery and
customer service and other aspects, and raise their own strength, to the fierce
competition in place. Chinese enterprises with foreign compared to the weakest link is
the management. The TPS is such a good medicine to improve the internal
management of enterprises, especially the weak foundation of our management,
management of the relatively low level of private and collective enterprises are more
significant results. From the early 80s, many companies have taken note of my TPS,
and its introduction of the enterprise's production management practices,
achieved considerable success, these companies, including Changchun FAW,
Shanghai- Ek Chor Motorcycle factory.
Meanwhile, China is currently in surplus from a shortage economy to a time of
economic transition, the excess in some ways since the structure of poorly designed,
and in some local Yijingmingxian revealed. With the overall economic situation, a
buyer's market has been gradually formed, business pressures, corporate
business model is gradually changing from extensive to intensive management. Lack
of demand generated in the TPS is under such conditions can be great power.
Therefore, in the current circumstances, it is an opportune time to introduce the
implementation of work 7S. "Good to be leveraging the wind, send me
Wun", learn to promote the TPS will be able to improve the basic
management of Chinese enterprises and strengthen the international competitiveness
of Chinese enterprises, China's economy to take off.
2 Development history of the Toyota Production System
As the production and operation of a unique idea and system, 175 is perfect after a
long and gradual accumulation and the formation of G, including JIT, automation and
improvement (Kaizen), etc., are various techniques and ideas with the development of
the times advances in technology and gradually develop and improve together. Toyota
production history of the development shown in Figure l.

Learn the history of the Toyota Production System, to understand the background of
various technologies and relationships, for the correct implementation of the Toyota
Production System is of great reference guide and will reduce the possibility of taking
the detour.
3 Toyota Production System Theory and Technology
Although the Toyota production system is a constantly changing, the content is
changing with the times and needs change, but time and automation are the two pillars
of 17S, it is widely recognized. Its resistance to an order for the Ono: the former is
associated with the personal skills, and the latter is associated manufacturing system.
Easy, but it has a certain benchmark, such as from the two pillars begins the definition,
Ze automation is not to fail based on the following process chemicals Jiaoji sense
rather 进行 of quality assurance measures; Congshi workers who work in Zunshou
standard practice Zhi production of qualified products, in order to promote automation;
on mechanical equipment, installation of anti-called pokayoke wrong device, in order
to avoid producing nonconforming and substandard goods to flow the following
process; a job someone to look after, such a process operation for several Road .
For JIT, in promoting the process flow, production line synchronization based on the
use of Kanban this information tool, the following process in order to minimize the
amount       extracted      in    parallel     at      the      same     time     called
"stabilization" of the balanced production. A combination of
automated standard operating &S226; and JIT &S226; Kanban
&S226; level production of the combination of TPS can be regarded as a
basic tool or concept. In addition, TPS also has a feature that the system implies that
the system would have the metabolic capacity of nerve - to improve the activity.
Effective support tools to improve the activities of management and the visual motion
system.这种 reflected in the proposals to improve the &S226; visual
management system &S226; activities, yes on that this is to stimulate the
support of the scene two Gongzhu participation in and active Xing effective method is
also based on hidden Zhao Zheng Shi-site to improve the ability of Cai ideas carried
The ultimate goal of all of the above means is: the total elimination of waste, reduce
costs and meet the market's sales potential for production in low- growth
economic environment to increase business revenue. Taiichi Ohno of the so-called
"limited production - only to be sold out production of things",
can be considered a fundamental objective of 17S. To achieve this goal, we must also
realize the following three sub-objectives:
&S226; In the number and variety of day and can adapt to changes in
demand on the number of management;
&S226; The following process to give the process only qualified product
quality assurance;
&S226; In achieving the goal of reducing the cost of the full use of human
resources, to improve respect for human nature.
Three sub-goals and main objectives of reciprocal causation, the main objective of
sub- goal no. Circumstances certainly will not achieve realization; but the main goal is
not achieved, they do not realize the situation, they affect each other, all output
products for the T7S.
In summary, TPS is a form of production can be sold only to the amount of elastic
system, the poor polar flow towards zero inventory, and a goal of promoting the
improvement of the production activities of the mechanism. This mechanism changes
with time and often times think is more suitable for practical application of practices,
follow the basic principles, but not stop in the past, serious attention to using the
flexibility. Therefore, the basic part of the TPS removed, always continuing to carry
out a small change, or more aptly referred to as evolution.
Combined with the history and concepts of TPS, the contents of the TPS further
collation, analysis, then, will be found as follows:
&S226; Banners to maintain a JIT production;
&S226; Order to adapt to changes in demand, increase production
flexibility of the system, TPS was leveling (balanced production);
&S226; Order to shorten the production cycle and shorten the time to
replace the mold;
&S226; Order to achieve the synchro nization of production carried out by
the standard operation;
&S226; Flexibility for the flexibility to increase or decrease in the number
of the production line operations for the equipment layout can be adjusted and hire
more workers;
&S226; To reduce the number of operations to improve energy operator, a
small team to carry out improvements in the form of activities and rationalization of
the proposed system;
&S226; Down in order to achieve self-concept and conduct of visual
&S226; To promote company-wide quality management and
implementation of extension can be managed.
Thus, 17S is an organic whole composed of many subsystems, the overall structure
shown in Figure 2.

4 content of the Toyota Production System philosophy
TPS was formed and developed in practice, highly empirical component. Than people
perceived it to be much more profound. It is not only an effective production
management system, even an idea, a corporate philosophy and culture.
4.1 Entrepreneurship
Every business has its own particular culture, corporate culture, the soul is the spirit of
enterprise, its success reflects the pursuit of a business enterprise spirit of members
and corporate culture. Toyota's highest performance e nterprise spirit is
"the Toyota program", the main contents:
&S226; The concerted efforts and loyalty to the company cause the results
to industry serve the country;
&S226; Painstaking research and creation, and constantly open, always
standing in the forefront of the times;
&S226; Guard against extravagance and vanity, and strive to simple sound;
&S226; Carry forward the spirit of friendship to the company for the family,
loving each other;
&S226; Respect haunting deities, grateful for the gratitude and life.
The program reflects Toyota's goals, beliefs, the pursuit of philosophy and
values of the total, reflects the spirit of Toyota. For decades, Toyota has been under
the guidance of the program in business activities. This entrepreneurial spirit has been
firmly entrenched in the hearts of people in every Toyota, Toyota of all people to form
a unity of values and shared beliefs and the same goals in life. It is in this spirit of
enterprise incentive, the Toyota were dedicated, hard work, continuously improve
productivity and create amazing results.
4.2 Behavior guidelines - non-cost doctrine and the cost-conscious
General business philosophy is built on the basis of the next type, name ly: price =
cost of 10 profit. This is called the cost of doctrine, by the producers to determine the
cost basis of cost price. In this case, the producers always try to focus on resource
prices and product prices, while ignoring the cost itself is reasonable.
In excess of economic conditions, the price determined by consumers, only to meet
consumer demands for products to sell out. So Toyota uses non-cost, and will become
the formula: profit = price - cost that the producers can not increase the price at ways
to increase profits, producers only way to profit is the total cost. In practice, the cost is
determined by manufacturing methods. Regardless of price or parts, materials
purchase cost is determined by the market, so in addition to lower their process ing
costs, the price can not be under a certain increase in the need for profits. Us. Strategy
2 further transform the formula, namely: profit = price - fixed costs (materials, parts,
etc.) - variable cost (processing fees), the more I see. From this idea, we must
consider the cost-conscious manufacturing methods.
It is based on "non-cost doctrine," the idea of Toyota for
decades to "eliminate waste, reduce costs" concept throughout
the production process from beginning to end business and create a remarkable 17S,
to achieve the production and production management a revolution.
4.3 Human Nature, said - with full respect for employees
TPS that: Everyone wants to realize its own value, want to help others, so that each
employee engaged in valuable work is the greatest respect for their humanity. Toyota,
managers are coordinators, coaches, supporters, teachers and advocates of new ideas,
they rely on workers to work, not just give orders and induce workers to work. Staff
are considered honest, intelligent and judgment and reliable, these views to the staff to
feel safe, self- confidence and self-esteem. In this more relaxed environment,
employees can play their best initiative, and get the greatest satisfaction.
It is in this goodness that basis, Toyota's corporate education through the
improvement of detailed activities to creative proposal system, QC circle activities,
etc., to maximize mobilize on his own initiative and creativity in helping employees
achieve their own value, while the company sustained development and improvement.
4.4 Knowledge and practice of a philosophy of Taiwan
In general, human intelligence can be divided into knowledge, technology and skills
Part 3. In many cases, these three are mutually inclusive and interdependent. Which in
any technology, there are skills based on knowledge and technology-based co-exist.
The skill level in order to achieve excellent specific purpose, that person or team to
maintain technical proficiency. In many cases, skills, hard information, knowledge, it
is often abstract. The existence of skills that: even if you understand, but do not
practice, and still not make any sense. Skills and practice are closely linked. 3, the
relationship between those who see Figure 3.

Through a deep understanding of TPS, we deeply feel, TPS is a unity of knowledge
and practical philosophy, is the knowledge, skills and job skills, the fusion of
excellence. It is genius to realize large-scale industrial production and a combination
of hand-workshop achieved a small amount of production value in a continuous flow.
To learn and understand even the correct application of it, are only through practice.
TPS emphasizes practicality. It is produced in practice, perfect in practice, practice is
the TPS life. It believed that "do nothing, maintaining the status
quo" is back in the beginning, is evil, and want to improve, after efforts
failed, this would be a good thing. And required it to create a fear of failure, positive
culture is a practical philosophy. It is in this practice under the guidance of philosophy,
Toyota made "to improve the endless" thinking, engaged in
continuous improvement activities.
5 steps to implement the Toyota production methods
Countries in the world to implement the results show that TPS, TPS is a very efficient
production system. So in China, how to implement it? The author believes that the
implementation of 17S is the most important changes in business ideas, and strive to
eliminate all resistance and fear of, including:
&S226; Lack of awareness of the need for reform arising from conflict;
&S226; Because of inertia (inertia) generated on the innovations of the
&S226; As helpless a sense of isolation resulting from the reform of the
&S226; Delays the implementation of the ideas, the lack of determination,
that is not dancing with the courage Pro Yuan;
&S226; Reform difficult and halfway back;
&S226; Delay can not see the fruits of reform and restless, and the half- way
&S226; Effects of reforms than the imagination of little effect, the downcast,
I turn a blind eye, allowed to return to the old road.
TPS as a new idea is an old production system, production management concept of
negation. Therefore, we can say that the introduction of 17S is in the enterprise
leading to a management revolution, will be resistance from all sides, companies must
be well prepared.
To enable implementation of the TPS to achieve the desired results, summed up the
experience at home and abroad, we believe that can be divided into the following
(1) the concept of top management changes and a strong will to reform. Haier Group
CEO said: Haier 14 years of success, the main thing is not physical, but rather what is
invisible, that is the concept of a complete new way of thinking changes. Business
leaders a thorough and correct understanding of TPS, on this basis will establish a
firm change, for the successful implementation of TPS is to play a critical role.
(2) seek a change agent. Change agent may be the company's top
management, may also be commissioned by the latter and obtain his strong support.
TPS change agent should have a full understanding, and should be for business, for
good and mad at the spirit of sacrifice, and will actively develop, manage and resolve
problems with the actual capacity.
(3) organization established to promote a change. Such as the establishment of a
"mode of production to improve the office" or
"Toyota Production Promotion Committee" of the organization,
the organization's leader is the supreme leader or his authorized
representative. Members shall be directors, ministers, chief and other management
personnel, and to the ministerial level as the center. Work of the Organization are:
&S226; Organizations on the TPS ideas, systems and methods of education
and training activities:
&S226; The introduction of TPS designation the annual plan and set goals;
&S226; Compiling the Chief (workshop director), foreman thought mainly
to implement changes to improve the team.
(4) forward from the back of the reverse start. This reversal included not only
production site started, but the whole production system for the purposes.
6 Conclusion
In this paper, combined with the author of the study, work experience, for the
development of the Toyota production history, theory and technology system,
philosophy, content and implementation steps are analyzed and discussed. Toyota
Production autonomic good - to improve the activities and Kanban tools.
Improvement is inward, and training is the internal strength. Kanban is internally and
externally to promote improvement activities to improve the basic management
stiffening; outside the contact parts manufacturer, to achieve comprehensive benefits.
Kanban is a joint enterprise between the merger and a powerful tool. I n the
increasingly fierce competition in the market, Toyota will bring production of the
implementation of the revitalization and development of Chinese enterprises.
(Except for the end of reference, the article made reference to the Toyota information:
(1) Toyota Production System.
(2) to create unlimited - Toyota 50-year history. )

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