Toyota Production System _below_

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					Toyota Production System (below)
Toyota Production System (below)
(Did not want to be divided into two parts up and down, no first words would be
excessive, not to submit, had separated.)
Toyota       Production      System      is    the    essence    of    "flow
manufacturing" as the fundamental, than the "one person can
control multiple devices," pay more attention to efforts to achieve
"one person can control multiple processes." That is, the
production flow as much as possible. Accordingly, the products can also reduce
inventory. To this end, a worker should be able to operate rotating bed, drilling and
punching machines and other equipment, with the corresponding variety of work
ability. In other words, require workers to achieve "more able to work
(everything works)" ability to work. In fact, the operation of the production
plant combined together by people completed. As the relay track and field, there must
be passing the baton of a range. If the delivery is very smooth, and create better
results certainly finish in four separate results of each individual. Work is the same,
whether it is 4 or 5 with the tie, the parts must be passed as a baton. When the back
when the workers can not keep up because Procrastination will be the equipment he
was responsible exclusion continue. When he returned to the normal configuration
after the process of workers immediately in front of the baton (in products) delivered
to him, and then returned to his position. This team, also known as "mutual
aid movement." One person is responsible for several processes of
production workshop of up to few people. How to use a lot of small number of
production? If the number of ideas to think about artificial wrong. Staff numbers
should be considered. Because, even if reduced by 0.9 person-and few people can not
be achieved based. To consider the first operation to improve, then for equipment
improvements. Only by working to improve the number of people can be reduced to
half or even 1 / 3. Again repeat, please note that the improvement and equipment not
to work to improve the mix. Should think of starting with equipment to improve the
set, then the rather, not reduce the cost of increased costs.
Completely rule out the waste there are two basic ideas:
1. Only result in cost efficiencies reduce the circumstances that have practical
significance. Therefore, we must attach importance to the number of people how to
use less to produce what they need.
2. Improve the efficiency of this idea must be that the workers in accordance with
each operation, each production line, factory as a whole, such as different levels, on
this basis, and finally get the whole effect.
Toyota Production System allows only the necessary number of products produced.
Just to improve the production efficiency of data production can not sell the product
without the product is absolutely not allowed. Such as "waste of
overproduction," because there is no conscious "control over
production         function",          developed      a      "visual
management" and "banners." As the billboards with
the regular and necessary flow of goods, it becomes necessary work certificate.
Production site in the biggest loss, "overproduction" is to
"kanban" to advance control. This management technique with
banners compared to "non-production number of products than
necessary" this time of much greater importance. Even when they no
longer use the banners, as long as there is time-oriented thinking, Toyota Production
System will be alive. JIT is the elimination of processing in the "process
downtime should be", volume unit processing time "to wait for
the formation of bulk" to wait for other parts and other activities generated
waiting time.
Whether from the perspective of each worker, or from the production line of the
overall perspective, if we really needed activities as work, which other than as waste,
then it can form the following equation:
    The current production capacity = work + waste (work = work + waste)
  Would be a waste to 0, the proportion of the necessary work as close to 100%, real
efficiency. Often been the Toyota Production System and Taylor's scientific
management method or the subsequent development of the IE for comparison.
Needless to say, Taylor is from the perspective of time and motion analysis of the
efficiency of the ancestor. From the perspective of the overall process carried out
piecemeal operations division, after which they revised the ideal form, and then
re-integrated into a process. The successful integration of operations once the cluster
can achieve the highest capacity for implementation. This is Taylor's basic
proposition. ("Create great company", p. 33)
Time of the idea, that is, no matter how many units of production (cars) should profit
ideas. Those who must rely on mass production for profit enterprise, can only be
strong in their marketing in order to maintain production and eventually die out.
In Taiichi Ohno's "Toyota Production System," a
book, not a single word to talk about "process decomposition"
method. "Process decomposition approach" characterized by a
reduction in-process inventory and shortening of the overall investment of time. In
general, through the introduction of more than one production process and teamwork,
the operating time of a single process to minimize volatility. Reflected in the
"small"          and    "to      avoid    the    island-style
production," "mutual aid activities," and so on.
Specifically,    by "a         stream",      "compressed
space" approach and the U shaped production line to achieve.
Toyota Production System is another pillar of "self-働 of (JIDOUKA,
independent of)." Not "automatic" is next with the
word "automation." Since 働 of (JIDOUKA, independent of)
is the wisdom of production, is the embodiment of Japan's manufacturing
With the recent performance of mechanical equipment and high speed, small
abnormal event, such as machine entering into the foreign body, involved in the debris,
causing damage to equipment or die, dozens of hundreds of seconds will be instant
and numerous. The automated equipment can not prevent the mass production of
defective and do not have automatic fault detection capabilities. Toyota Automatic
Loom has it functions in a warp or weft broken light of the circumstances, to
immediately stop the machine. That is, implanted in the machine, "a device
for the machine to judge good or bad." "Some words next to
automatic machines (automation with a human touch)" means
"wisdom of the human brain with machines." For example, the
"fixed position stop means," "quantitative production
systems" and "anti-error", etc., to the machine
implanted with a variety of intelligent safety devices.
To the "automatic" with the word next to the significance of the
management of great changes have taken place. That is the time when the normal
operation of the machine does not need workers and workers as long as the machine
to stop operation because of an exception when the drive came on the line. Therefore,
we can achieve more than one person in equipment, which will decrease the number
of rapid increase production efficiency. For example, machine shop, according to the
production process, vertically descending order rotating bed, drilling, drilling
machines and other equipment all 5 sets. Here, if a worker operating five units
rotating bed, then called the "one person controlling multiple
devices", this presentation of a way of scheduling jobs. Different, to a
rotating platform bed, 1 drill, 1 drilling machine into a single process, by a number of
workers to operate such a process, as "a person control over
process." This workshop presentation of a mobile workshop. To achieve
more than one control device or control more than one process, it must be processed
at the end of the machine automatically stops, or to stop the machine when an
exception occurs in a safe location.
Since 働 of (JIDOUKA, independent of) of this way of thinking not just stop at the
machine level, but also extends to the level of artisanal production. When a manual
production line when an exception occurs, workers can press the stop button operation
to produce the first stop. After the stop line, known as the
"andon" the display will light up. See the display, the workshop
team leader will confirm what kind of exceptions are, according to the reasons for the
implementation of countermeasures. More important here is the exception to prevent
the same situation does not recur the second time we must seize the real reason, and to
take thorough measures. Secondly, as the representative of the andon the same
meaning, the production of normal and abnormal conditions can be seen in the eyes of
the moment can understand, this approach is the "visual
management." Kanban and visual management, standard operating method
is. Although self-働 of (JIDOUKA, independent of) is to ensure quality from the start
means, but it also has the equipment to production scheduled to automatically stop
after the number of features.
Since 働 of (JIDOUKA, independent of) is not simply "a machine with
automatic stop device" is a way of thinking about the management of
origin. Spin off is a waste of time beginning when the machine will stop, workers in
the event of abnormal operation of a waste of time beginning on the stop button.
Source management is the only key to cutting costs. Therefore, attention should be
paid "visual management."
  Toyota production of another nature, namely, people's jobs and machines
operating separately, the machine can do the job who do not, the machine can not do
the job to do by the people. Rule out the possibility for operators in terms of pointless
waste of operations, equivalent to raising the significance of everyone's
labor. Since 働 of (JIDOUKA, independent of) as to allow each person to fully
develop their capabilities mechanism can be very human.
In the eyes can not see clearly where the problem lies when the Toyota production
divided manner, "repeated five times why", dig out the hidden
reasons behind the "real cause" of this approach is based on the
formation of a very scientific attitude. In "The problem was in the
technology", the repeated "5 Why" dug
"real cause" to play the wisdom of the implementation of field
staff "improve." It is easy to think of to eliminate problems
frequently arise. This is not so, to form such a positive attitude, it is precisely because
a problem can find opportunities for improvement. This is because the Toyota
Production System is not just to improve as the purpose, but to train people as a
purpose of improvement.
However, the "5 why" reasonable, if obvious (logical) also
simple, the real time of practice to fully understand some of the principles and
guidelines. Because the Toyota Production System in the dedication to improve the
same time, personnel training as a target.
("5 why") means that in the event of problem, a problem not
just focus on the point, but look to find the real cause of the abnormal, that is
"true for", the radical thinking, "Why do the .
" And thus to prevent the recurrence of similar anomalies
"countermeasures." If there is no real right path to take the
"measures", just stay in the "disposal"
abnormal position of the point, it will happen like.
Always increase the number of billboards can only be "disposed
of" problem. Kanban sure there will be lost after the increase. Kanban as
glue to prevent the oil and bonded together to remove billboards from the box is the
"measures", it really solve the problem.
("Toyota's strong where" 81 to 82 pages)
"Now, the current object, the reality" of the three current
doctrine, not simply mean "in situ (on site), is observed objects, grasp the
reality", it is only in considering the causal relationship between problems
based on made a prerequisite. "In situ (on site), observation is material, to
grasp the reality" is not objective, but is considered a means of causation
For the labor of workers, but also to develop a system to play through continuous
improvement in all capacities. Regardless of anything, as long as from 0 to
re-examine, there is room for improvement and will also bring progress. This is not
only believe that people have the "wisdom" is more important is
whether the workers to the site the chance to play smart. Toyota Production of the
essence is "to give every employee in the work on their shoulders to
discovering problems to solve problems and to improve opportunities for all the
Toyota people into a whole, Weilechengjiu more remarkable enterprises 而
 In the Toyota Production System, the standard operating and production processes of
development are very strict. Because the Toyota Production importance of knowledge
and that this is a prerequisite for improvement. Standard operation is the transfer of
knowledge, the means to prevent the knowledge of aging.
The purpose of the development of standard operating yes, when production workers
suffered or change in operation can also be immediate implementation of operation, it
has the function of operational guidelines, to ensure quality. Toyota Production
System, the new low for skilled staff, developed a "work independently
within 3 days" goal. To this end, there must be no matter who
"can glance" operating standards. Mr. Taiichi Ohno deepest
feelings for the standard operation, and is the World War II frontline skilled workers
are drawn away a piece of paper so that when the call was being replaced one by one
skilled amateur men and women workers.
Another effect of operating standards, is that it is the basis for improvement. As
standard operating have been determined, the point should be improved also can see
out. Not based on improving the superiors of the order quietly, but front-line workers
to standard operating for the scale on his own thinking, themselves.
 Standard operation can be divided into the following steps:
1. The actual operation of the current standard operation as the table (the surface of
the standard), standard books,
2. According to this table for standard operating practice,
3. Out a prospective job in this table is difficult to do, or where there are problem
areas, to be revised
4. Repeat the process 1 to 3, set up the standard.
Development of standard operation procedures and guidelines need to front-line
workers, team leaders assume operational responsibility, also need front-line staff
involved in improvement. This process not only will contain a method of operation
many years of experience turning tacit knowledge from explicit knowledge of the
process, has become a training operation to improve the personnel process.
Furthermore, the shift of production system, production and small batch production
orders when there is a need to change the subject. That is, the plant must be a able to
produce any more new products to the factory instead of a factory can only produce a
specific product or you will not survive the next era.
In this sense, we can achieve knowledge of creative processes. Secondly, a person can
not understand the question or point improvement topics to be addressed through full
participation, on a process to create.
The United States in the 1980s, many of the Japanese automotive industry. They call
it the Japanese auto industry, production, and in fact is the center of the Toyota
Production System Research. In the "lean production that change the
automotive industry," a book, it is said that the Toyota Production System
as the ideal way to lean production is described.
Toyota production heavily influenced by the Toyota Motor brink of bankruptcy. The
"customers to create and maintain" to concentrate on investment,
simply does not cost any cost and efficiency of investment. However, the 1980s car
factory automation has been greatly upgraded, tried to gains in North America,
effective investment to achieve beyond. As "the truth of the Toyota
Production System," a book described as a time Toyota has lost the essence
of the Toyota Production System.
In the "Toyota-style manufacturing products talents to create"
the beginning of the book have such a record, Taiichi Ohno went to the United States
about to assume office Kentucky Toyota plant Cho suggested that, "Chang,
you have to remember that you do not know the selling period how to do it (can be
understood as you should always have a sense of crisis can not be carried away when
the product sold). " Toyota Production System is not Stingy mode of
production. This also shows that the Toyota Production System is multi-faceted, for
all walks of life to follow.
Toyota is the essence of production, training people to bear manufacturing method
with self-discipline. Toyota plant in the United States when, in the use of staff spent a
lot of time. Attention to the Toyota Production System used to control things to
consider ways of people. Second, the emphasis on the nature of a self-employed
farmers the autonomy of staff has a way of thinking, it will be factory selected in the
rural areas.
Toyota to train staff, developed a 2001 version of the Toyota way. Use, distribution,
training and the Toyota Production System that has the same ideas, who can work
independently, the system as a whole, is the Toyota Production System.