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- Interview with University of Michigan professor of industrial engineering and
operations management 杰弗瑞莱克
● Toyota thinking long-term development-oriented philosophy to eliminate waste as
the core of the process to employees as business partners, and grow together with
them, and the continuous improvement and learning to solve problems, it is the most
classic and most successful production organization
● Toyota derivatives regardless of how different their ideas are the core concept of
the enterprise production-related factors at the same time improve
● different corporate culture determines Toyota enterprises must take greater
account of internal factors. But beyond the business leaders and cultural beliefs
extended to other employees, lean production and continuous improvement of the
model is more easily sustained advance. Changes relative to the process, these internal
changes is also very important factors
● Toyota model is a recurring cycle of problem-solving process. When those who
are most vulnerable to problems already found a solution, some managers or
employees who will turn a blind eye is often overlooked or considered to be
commonplace. The complete Toyota does requires a sustained, continuous
improvement in the small, the company captured a large number of small-scale
opportunities that will promote the organization last innovative changes
● software can optimize the process for those who have become better, while
allowing the process of bad worse. Between software and business efficiency is itself
a paradox. When the process is really a growing resistance to corporate efficiency, I
recommend first optimizing the process, taking the experience of Toyota, and then
take the so-called ERP and other tools to be rendered
● Toyota model is to change people's thinking Fang Shi Tong Guo Lai
optimization process, and this guarantees a good way of thinking, attempting to Zhe
Xie and Ren Xiang Guan Dao Ruanjian embedded in the thinking process and to be
Jiejuebingbu Xianshi
□ reporter Liu Lijuan
What is the most appropriate management of manufacturing organizations? Most
people the answer is Toyota Production System. Following the Taylor system and the
Ford system, the Toyota model of production organization in the power management
has been recognized worldwide, and as Toyota's DNA, is
Toyota's commitment to pursue subsequent leaders and beliefs.
"Toyota can lean production methods in organizational management will
carry out in the end, the continuity from that." University of Michigan
professor of industrial engineering and operations management, world-renowned
expert Toyota 杰弗瑞莱克 (Jeffrey K. Liker) said.
The Toyota Way can be briefly summarized as "continuous
improvement" and "respect for the staff," the two
pillars, and to speed up the process, eliminate waste, improve quality, such as
infiltrating the basic method of continuous improvement.
In fact, China's manufacturing industry is no stranger to this Toyota model.
FAW, for example, from the 1970s, the lead in organizing the delegation of 40 senior
managers to Toyota to learn; to the 1980s, but also invite co-founder of the Toyota
production model Taiichi Ohno on-site instruction. In 2002, Toyota's joint
venture plant with FAW, FAW is in full practice of the lean production learning and
localization.
At the same time, not only those all-powerful European and American auto giants, the
world's shipbuilding industry, heavyweight project assembly industries
have also added to the lean manufacturing transformation.
杰弗瑞莱克 involved in different industries Toyota production process consulting
services. His experience is that Toyota's practice is to combine all the
elements of the formation of the system, but this system needs to carry out day after
day, and not a cyclone-learning movement.
"Toyota is the overall optimization of thinking, rational allocation of
production factors and long-term use of the production process to eliminate all does
not produce value-added labor and resources to the pursuit of perfection, and enhance
their ability to respond to market demand, better health rate of efficiency and greater
economic efficiency. "Professor Lake," the industrial sector,
"said.
However, the Toyota model of learning and import, after all, is a high investment.
Many companies in the implementation of the Toyota model, there was no benefit of
the overall value of the upgrade. "Toyota model is a macro guidance for
different business process optimization of thinking, which requires companies to do in
light of local conditions when the introduction of Toyota models, so as to
succeed." Said Professor Lake, "as opposed to process changes,
some internal changes factor is also very important. "
Toyota introduced the light of corporate culture
"Industry":           From     1998    to    write    "lean
towards" beginning, and you wrote "Toyota case",
"Toyota lean model of practice" and other works relating to the
Toyota model, works as an operations management expert Toyota models for all of
your heart? In your opinion, if Toyota has become an alternative, the most effective
mode of production organization and management?
杰弗瑞莱克: A long time ago, I started on the Toyota lean manufacturing and product
development research, and various institutions and enterprises in the United States to
promote, received wide acclaim. Manufacturing is the long-term development needs
of the industry, it is necessary to find long-term advance of production, but Toyota is a
good example.
For example, Toyota President Fujio Cho has emphasized, when you honestly face
their own failure, will know that they know very little, the next task is to do in an
attempt to rectify the failure of the enterprise is the production process constantly
trying to get improved. The scholars in the management of the expression seems to be
easier, it is the secret of the success of Toyota. But for most businesses, when
associated with the external market environment, or in customer-focused strategic
direction is clearly determined, companies need to be precisely managed Yu
Shengchanzuzhi closely related Gengjia simple and practical management principles.
To be sure, Toyota is a classic pattern, the most successful organization of production.
Toyota's 4P model for its focus on long-term development, including the
thinking principle, to eliminate waste-centric process, to employees as business
partners and grow with them Gong Tong and improvement in Chi Xu and Xue Xi and
to solve problems. This from the improved sales to product development, marketing,
logistics operations and management of business processes, enterprises have been
hundreds of practice. We see China's FAW, as well as the U.S. car
companies and even foreign heavy machinery industry, regarded as a model Toyota.
The Toyota model to learn the practice of the company has even produced a Toyota
model derivatives. But no matter what approach the company's own
practice, their success is ultimately based on the model of Toyota.
"Industry": You, as a lot of the company's advisers,
in your opinion, these companies learn from Toyota models in derivatives are
successful? Their practical experience and Toyota itself any different?
杰弗瑞莱克: "double helix" are no strangers to the word you,
which includes the Toyota and the Toyota production method, I am also in the
"double helix" Thought for the different enterprises under the
guidance of the introduction of Toyota to provide services. That is, regardless of the
Toyota model how different derivatives, their core ideas are the concept of enterprise
production-related factors at the same time to improve.
There is a good example is Caterpillar. I came also to Caterpillar's Beijing
Tianjin and Suzhou in China, the implementation of the two production models from
Toyota, rather, I was to communicate with their management. This project from July
2006 began, went smoothly, but the process is very complicated. Because, after all,
Caterpillar is a large company. Full implementation of the overall company Toyota is
not easy, I am also more carefully the progress of the project.
The process of each project are at the core of Toyota models, but the model I would
rather call it the birth of Caterpillar models. Why? Because Toyota is a macro
guidance for process optimization of various business ideas and very flexible. This
requires the introduction of Toyota to do when local conditions, so to be successful.
Caterpillar Toyota to the implementation of the process, for example, we will be
Toyota's 14 principles of successful models to 15, more of a principle is the
balance of the process, which is the actual situation by the decision Caterpillar . Also,
I mentioned earlier, for the implementation of the Toyota way of thinking is very
important. Different corporate culture also determines the Toyota enterprises must
take greater account of internal factors.
"Industry": Since the implementation of Toyota Caterpillar is a
huge project, in addition to the existing process for major surgery, the internal factors
is what you are considering?
杰弗瑞莱克: You are talking about internal factors is the so-called corporate culture.
Corporate culture is often the belief that policy-makers and staff to a set of values,
beliefs or assumptions. When these beliefs extend beyond the leader and other staff,
lean manufacturing and continuous improvement of the model is more easily
sustained advance. This means that, relative to the change process, these internal
changes is also very important factors.
On the process of continuous improvement in terms of Caterpillar, in the process, the
previous tools and all parts are placed in a large pond, when the production or
assembly workers need, you need to get around the production line equipment. Later
in the process of changing to do the surgery is to allocate a pool of many small parts
box, and placed in the middle of different production lines. We and the Caterpillar
product line managers to do is put these little boxes are the different production lines,
calculate the different production cycles and accessories load time. I call this process
operation is called "progressive therapy."
Production and assembly of the core processes can be quantified to achieve, but
implementation is still the core of Toyota models such intangible elements of culture.
When we Caterpillar Zhiding 100 program, we work with the company's
managers, all of these changes in senior management agree with the importance of
planning. The next step is that these changes in the awareness of senior managers will
penetrate to the grassroots workers. Gradually, the company's management
and staff's way of thinking has changed. In this way, companies from the
local to the whole possibility of maintaining a sustainable and stable development.
"Industrial sector": the different books that you own both
mentioned the establishment of a learning organization, which for a complete
understanding of what it means to Toyota?
杰弗瑞莱克: The Toyota Way is a circular process: Process to achieve stability -
standard operation - continuous extrusion process to make the barrier exposed. This
enterprise problem solving and continuous process models form the basic framework
for Toyota. It is this framework, Toyota has made more than competitors in the short
term to achieve more results with less cost.
Effective problem-solving organization in the final analysis is the Learning
Organization. The progress of the learning organization needs continuity, as those
who are most vulnerable to problems already found a solution, some managers or
employees who will turn a blind eye is often overlooked, or that these problems are
commonplace. Indeed, Toyota and complete a continuing requirement. Continuing to
promote and encourage each employee to use problem-solving process every day, and
working together to solve the problem; to simplify the responsibilities of staff, more
focus on solving problems, so the 80% focus on to produce 80% of the total benefits
of 20 % of the issue, this result is that in the continuous improvement in small
enterprises to seize a large number of small-scale opportunities. Finally, these
opportunities to promote innovative organizational changes.
Secondly, I also believe that continuity is important, because effective use of human
resources. When the human factor was fully activated in the implementation of the
Toyota business model does not require the skills and tools are too complex, only
through the planning, implementation, inspection and actions link, you can enhance
the activities within the company the breadth and depth of the final The result is we
see an effective execution. Thus, in the continuous improvement of business from
good to great natural speed up the process.
Implementation of the Toyota model can not be scripted
"Industry": You spent a lot of time for enterprises to provide
consulting services to implement the Toyota model, also written books about the
Toyota model again, this mean that with the widespread dissemination of Toyota,
Toyota will have more people to become an expert?
杰弗瑞莱克: Sometimes a lot of people think that, after reading the book, Professor
Lake, and remember those rules, can become an expert Toyota. My answer is NO!
Why? McKinsey's strategic consulting Shangju need experience, not to
mention Toyota, which requires strict depth to the production process, so the
accumulation of practical experience is very important. One example yes, McKinsey
had never failed to businesses process consulting Fu Wu's experience, and
later to Bangzhu business process improvements for enterprise customers to provide
more effective consultation, even in Europe, acquired Le a machinery Shengchan
factory in person consultation Shi research workshop, and finally develop an effective
program. This production is like the same as their laboratory. Of course, this lab is not
necessary for me, because I work all the time line.
Give you an example from my personal experience. My current job is to teach, but
also the general manager of OPTIPRISE consulting firm. I once received a resume,
resume the description is that he graduated from Harvard, and Toyota have had two
years of working experience, like in my company as a consultant, eventually I refused.
I always think that worked for Toyota does not mean you will become Toyota experts,
not to mention in his resume and did not specify their optimization in the process have
made the contribution.
Toyota expert is always scarce talent. For process optimization expert is real research,
and communication through the wisdom of the last to achieve. Each Toyota model
experts are pragmatic, they focus on the business realities of thinking, to help
enterprises make full use of existing resources to process optimization.
"Industry": experts such as Toyota scarce, your cost of
providing services for the Caterpillar is not very high? You mentioned Toyota is not
easy to achieve, and high costs, whether there will be many companies discourage it?
杰弗瑞莱克: implementation of the Toyota mode is indeed very expensive consulting
fees. Therefore, the full implementation of the Toyota business model is the need for
courage. By Caterpillar, for example, first half of 2005, Caterpillar Toyota U.S.
companies after the implementation, the company's Asia Pacific president
sit still, he found me, Caterpillar's Asia Pacific region need to Toyota .
Caterpillar's global decision-making at a time that U.S. companies are still
in the initial pilot phase of the Toyota model, the implementation of the Asia-Pacific
Region Toyota is the next step. But the managers do not mechanically follow the
global headquarters of feedback, but to convince his top bosses in the region as early
as possible to promote and undertake sales from the Asia-Pacific business advisory
services fees paid in advance. Clearly, the managers take decisions in this very high
risk.
However, the high-risk decision-making has indeed brought about
Caterpillar's Asia Pacific business efficiency, in the past 18 months,
Caterpillar's Asia Pacific Region through the implementation of lean
production and eliminate waste, cost savings of about 25 million dollars, the figures
show investment is worth it, while the manager is very visionary. Later, I stay with
this company in senior and junior staff monthly pace of work a week, working with
more than 20 weeks. The current work is to help Caterpillar Asia Pacific buyers and
suppliers Toyota penetration.
I am not easy to disclose the specific advice for the Caterpillar project cost, only
saying it does require the courage of policymakers, but when more companies to
benefit from the continuous change, companies will not have deterred Toyota.
Toyota first imported, then the ERP
"Industry": Well, as Toyota model experts, when the business
through information technology software systems and solutions optimize processes,
you how to persuade more companies to accept your offer consulting services?
杰弗瑞莱克: Software? ! Do you really trust the software to bring the value of
production? Bill Gates said the software can optimize the process for those who have
become better, while allowing the process of bad worse. Between software and
business efficiency is itself a paradox. So when the process is really a growing
resistance to corporate efficiency, I recommend first optimizing the process, taking the
experience of Toyota, and then take the so-called ERP, etc. can be achieved by
rendering a variety of effective tools with features.
Software system can only calculate the numerical measurement of waste generated,
can not help the production process to reduce or avoid waste, waste, after all, caused
by human factors. Toyota is by changing the way people think to optimize the process,
which guarantees a good mode of thinking, and then through software effective
information management. This is a process to improve the efficiency of business
operations and reasonable path. When I was a middle manager with Caterpillar to
work with when, two years ago, how important they think ERP, and now they have
not seen it.
In fact, SAP for many European and American companies have provided large-scale
manufacturing ERP system, in the United States, they have let me to have said
high-level class, but will be associated with people thinking that these embedded
software program is too complicated, try to those issues to be addressed by the
software is not realistic. However, PTC is now my partner. The software company
specializes in engineering design, preparation of professional software design idea to
take the essence of Toyota, which of course is a good opportunity for cooperation.
Thus, when the Internet-based industrial processes designed to achieve the priority of
process management and data transfer time, continuing to promote the effective
process management tool may also not far away.

								
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