The key elements of successful implementation of ERP by fdjerue7eeu

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									The key elements of successful implementation of ERP
The key elements of successful implementation of ERP
    ERP in China, management of information has become almost synonymous,
several experts, academics, business people have expressed their opinions and are
akin. As a long line of information in business management people who work, the
author of this combined with years of theoretical research and business practice in the
process of summing up the experiences, lessons learned and experience, summarizes
some impact to the enterprise ERP application is able to build and the key to success
elements of hope and readers to share their experience.
    1, system planning and demand analysis is a key element of the implementation

  ERP system planning of the construction process should be the key link, but often
overlooked. Some enterprises are often in the daily management feels inadequate on
many issues, so that in the muddle of the project should be addressed on the computer,
and then, without scientific planning and careful analysis of requirements of the case
hastily, did not happen, the last not over. Therefore, in the system planning stage,
there are several aspects that must be seriously analyzed, treatment.

  1. To determine the objectives and scope of the system construction

   "Do the right thing than doing things right much more
important." ERP system, clear business objectives and building
construction area is to ensure the success of ERP system, a crucial first step. Because
the broader the scope of ERP project, management, optimization and improvement is
endless, it is necessary to establish clear objectives: that is how long the cycle, with
much input, in which business or management of content, to what kind of standard.
So as to make the project under the guidance of the overall planning, construction,
and periodically summarize, continuous improvement and investment. Objectives and
scope of the definition of good, easy to read step by step implementation of the
project, technology and management into the details of the expense of the overall
effect of the lack of stage time results confirmed that both sides will make mental and
physical exhaustion, reduced enthusiasm, and finally the whole project of a power
loss Kui.

   ERP implementation is a complex system engineering, project planning before the
start of the unified guidance of phase into the implementation stage to achieve the
objective and plans for the implementation of the programmatic document, only the
target plan and stage plan closely and to realize business information target.

  2. Based on business type and production organization mode of the right ERP
software selection
   Correct choice of software and implementation partners are the basis of ERP
success, but only to their own business operations, production and organizational
characteristics are able to make correct judgments and analysis, so that to know
ourselves. Due to the production type, product quantities, organizations in different
ways, ERP solutions are also different. Figure 1 shows, different types of enterprises
in the ERP software selection and use there is a big difference.

                      ?Figure 1 Classification of manufacturing enterprises
   Manufacturing can be divided into two discrete manufacturing and process industry
categories. Process industry is the raw material through mixing, separating, forming,
or chemical reaction, the material most continuously through the same path, to
produce different grades and specifications of products. Process Manufacturing with
formula management, products, joint products, a variety of units of measurement,
quality and grade of the same item number, lot number tracking, shelf life
management, management needs and characteristics, the general process industries
using professional software.
   Discrete manufacturing is different from the movement of material through the
non-continuously, through different paths, producing different materials and products.
Such as cars, airplanes, appliances and computers. Discrete manufacturing production
organization is relatively complex, can be further subdivided into single production,
and more varieties of small batch production, mass production and mass
customization types.
   ☆ one-piece production design products according to orders, according to
customer demand production. Product complex structure, design and production are
often parallel, the production cycle is generally very long, sometimes several times for
a product in accordance with the parts delivered. Such as the three major power plants
(large motors, steam turbines, boilers), heavy machinery and shipbuilding. In such
enterprises ERP system, network planning, project management, critical resources,
sorting techniques is very important.
   ☆ multi-variety small batch production mode of production of these products are
standard or optional. Organization of production divided by technology features
workshops, sections, teams and groups, such as casting, forging, riveting, welding,
turning, milling, planing, grinding, assembly. Production management of these
enterprises have the typical MRP Ⅱ plus configuration control features.
   ☆ mass production mode of production of these products is a standard or a few
matching. Production equipment is based on materials (parts, components) for the
object component assembly line. Production plan is characterized by traditional MRP
Ⅱ and JIT mixed: long-term procurement plans produced using material
requirements planning (MRP), product production implementation of the plan to use
JIT, Kanban, recoil inventory, bar code tracking technology materials. At the same
time in such enterprises, CRM, SRM, and other applications of the more important.
   ☆ Such mass customization production mode will be more variety and small batch
production to meet individual needs of different customers to improve productivity
and mass production advantages of lower costs combined. Organization of production
is still the line, but the product configuration is varied. In the production planning
control requires a combination of MRP, JIT, integrated configuration control

  Therefore, production of different types, the choice of ERP software, according to
the management of these different features to find the software to meet business needs.
An annual output of hundreds of thousands of car manufacturers, the software does
not JIT No; if a pharmaceutical factory, ERP products, does not address the batch
number, lot number tracking, multiple units of measurement, more quality levels and
other functions does not work, it is necessary Debate disease and treatment, prescribe
the right medicine.

    3. Combined with a reasonable business organizations choose software architecture

   Business organizations to set up and distribution also chose the important factors in
ERP software, 其 and software architecture and network technology, hardware,
operating systems and databases supporting environment is particularly strong
selection of Lian Ji.

                   ?Figure 2 Organization of a group enterprise case diagram
   Figure 2 shows a group company, manufacturing is divided into several
manufacturing units, the organization of their products vary widely, but in the
procurement of raw materials and other important materials, the company full play to
the advantages and brand groups, centralized purchasing, Product uniform sales, and
because of differences in product characteristics, sales practices varied. This type of
enterprise ERP software selection, to support multi-company, the Group's
financial management operations. At the same time, for various types of production
planning and organization, to adopt B / S structure, in order to facilitate maintenance,
upgrades, systems and data management. And to support internet applications (taking
into account the distribution of the national and even worldwide sales offices, regional
centers of products and accessories warehouse, offices, service agencies, located in
different parts of the production unit, etc.). In the implementation of the basic data
preparation stage, from the Group perspective the question given to harmonization of
material coding ... ... as many points, a wide range of high requirements, this type of
business in the ERP Jianshe Zhong more reflective of the general program, and
important to the implementation step sex, only immediate and local interests, will
only increase the system's construction of the road gets narrower and
eventually fall into a passive and failure situation. Therefore, the organizational
structure and management of the different architecture of the ERP software selection
and implementation of strategy formulation has great and far-reaching impact.

  Second, ERP solutions in the key elements of the development

   Solution is the basis of the implementation of ERP, business and service
organizations to guide the implementation of the Programme of Action and guidelines.
A good ERP solution is an important guarantee for the smooth implementation of the
system, otherwise it may lose the whole game. In this stage, enterprises, and
implementation of the units in the model for many Guan Li, process, technical details
and special requirements of communication and should have sufficient depth
discussion and, ultimately forming the advanced, practical and the ERP 解决, and to
guide system implementation and Ying Yong.

  1. Determine the marketing model

   Marketing system is the leading business enterprises, business management is the
most flexible component of almost exactly the same marketing model is not the
existence of the two companies. But in large, it can be the first to distinguish between
a direct sales model or distribution model (including some classified by product
characteristics of the distribution). In the distribution mode, a self-distribution or
distribution channels. Different marketing patterns in the ERP system, institutional
arrangements, information collection and management of the end position is quite
different. In addition, the distribution business in the distribution resource planning
(DRP) is also a key element of program development.

  2. Determine the mode of production planning and plant management

  As mentioned earlier, production planning and organization to manage different
types of business models and processes where the largest differences, the construction
of a manufacturing enterprise ERP important and difficult. We used to talk of
"mechanical industries", "auto industry"
and so on, this division is too coarse lines, businesses can not locate itself in such a
big industry for program development. Mechanical industries, for example,
shipbuilding enterprises are typically single organizing production according to the
project, the production of machine tools and other enterprises are typical of many
varieties of small batch, the automobile represented the typical products of the
enterprises are large-volume production line, they produce organization very different
way, absolutely impossible to use the standard MRP theory "win a
war." Even in the automotive industry, car and bus production organization
there are also quite different. Therefore, the product according to the specific
characteristics of enterprises, production and distribution unit, the organizational
characteristics of the development of specific programs. This part of the focus is to
determine the first model is the single management plan, many varieties of small
batches or JIT; second is to determine the fine degree of plant management: whether
to shop Gongxu-level Scheduling for the preparation and reporting, whether the
ability to accurately account for these and the underlying data has a significant
relationship between the preparation.
   In the planning model to determine, after, according to enterprises and products
feature the development of specific production and procurement plans algorithm: (1)
belongs to MRP Ⅱ algorithm range of materials, Tong Guo BOM and material
Tiqian Qi Zhan Kai net Xuqiu calculation, the generated program under the Da Dao
workshop. Task management through workshops and workshop processes operating
plan on the further decomposition of the production process, so that guide the
production, led feeding, completion reports and so on. This is a typical push-type
program. (2) is by way of JIT production of products, need to define the production
line, station, station and the station BOM material master account. Also need to beat
according to the preparation of production plans, and then pull the upstream
production line production plan. The supplies can be banners, reported the completion
of product can be automatically inverted red material inventory. This is a typical pull
program. (3) in addition to order "a la carte" product
configuration control, in accordance with the orders of single pieces of production
design of network planning, universal components, assembling the final assembly of
customized plans and a series of techniques and algorithms.
   As can be seen from these algorithms, discrete manufacturing enterprises of
production management is very complex, in fact the choice of different algorithms is
to select a different management model, we must and business organization,
management models and processes, product features combine ERP system can be
truly effective.

  3. Determine the mode of supply of goods

   Material supply of the key question is whether there are groups right harmonization
of procurement, sub-base of different storage and feeding situation. Because different
modes of supply affects not only supplies the implementation of the system itself will
also affect the underlying data preparation. Such as: What material should be uniform
code, which should be separate, set the price system, the accounting relationship
between departments, material allocation, procurement plan and other multi-point
formation and aggregation, which is a measure of ERP software to support the
importance of multi-business One of the criteria.

  4. Financial Information Integration

   Highlights of the financial part of the financial system to ensure the integration of
applications. As we all know, our work has been carried Accounting for many years in
many areas of technology and applications have been relatively mature. But the
financial management information system is absolutely not a simple accounting, this
is only the most basic work. Application of CAD software, like get rid of the design
drawing board is the same basic stages of information technology. ERP Financial
System lies "integrated" word, it must be realized and sales,
purchasing, inventory, cost accounting, human resources management and other
aspects of business and information integration.

  5. Determine the cost accounting system and fineness

   Another focus of the financial system construction cost accounting and control
system of the content is the establishment. This is the traditional manual management
or individual management difficult. The difficulty is not the cost of the specific
algorithm, but in information gathering and information collection point for basic
information on the accuracy of their grasp. Cost systems, the focus is to determine the
accounting object (number of levels of accounting), accounting methods (program
costs or actual cost), accounting fineness (product category, product, or including all
parts), Information pooling and sharing method (from information obtained or
generated by re-sorting), etc.. Cost is an information Guiji, processing, redistribution
process, and inventory, production, sales, workshops, financial and other aspects of
management information are closely related. Cost accounting described above reflect
the major content of the management company at this stage fineness, management
focus and capacity and level of information transmission.

  6. To prepare the basic data from a global perspective

   In the marketing, purchasing, production, finance, cost management and process
planning and analysis, based on business can from the global point of view, correctly
based on the data preparation.

   In the ERP field circulating this statement: "one-third of Technology,
seven management, and twelfth of the data" reveals that a profound
knowledge of the underlying data. But never implemented ERP of people difficult to
understand, based on data and not just a standard issue, but with the business
organization, production and business model, management is very fine degree of
relationship. For example, BOM data not imagine the preparations from the
technology sector through the design of direct conversion of BOM can be used to
create BOM's level representatives of the program fineness fineness
completion reporting, inventory, and lead the management of feeding and fineness .
Even affected should a part at different stages were cloned Haishi unified
management, Shipi need to set the Middle Library or virtual warehouse Deng. Thus, a
BOM data is definitely not a simple relationship between father and son assembling
items. Here there is no question which method is better, the key is to consider the type
of enterprise, characteristics, management, fineness, and products or parts of
properties, processing and other global factors. Therefore, the basic data to prepare
statistical work is a comprehensive, long-term work, there must be consideration of
the overall situation, only the establishment of continuous improvement and
maintenance of the system, the basic data to establish an effective system.
   Moreover, in addition to the above mentioned "system based on
data" (such as encoding, BOM, process route, a variety of fixed, etc.), the
closely related with the specific business applications there are "basic data
services," the preparatory work, such as inventory management in the
storage type, sales management agreement, order type, customer files and credit,
purchasing management and supply ratio of vendor files, financial management
system and other subjects are interrelated, mutual influence, see like a sector of the
thing, in fact, the global information.

  7. Supporting platform must be advanced and forward-looking

   By the servers, switches, operating system, database, network management and
security systems and other support system is composed of information systems
infrastructure. Different business organizations and information collection points set
up, often deciding business network coverage and use of technology. If it is
Internet-based applications, VPN's technology is a good choice. With the
development of WEB-based components and systems, distributed computing,
application and database server farms and other sophisticated techniques and methods
applied, to support the platform with a greater scope for choice. Enterprises in the
selection, the key is to think of the application at the planning stage; the reality
conditions to think about expansion and upgrade; single enterprise applications group
to think of application integration network; local applications to think of Internet
applications and network security. In short, the establishment of adequate support
system of advanced and forward-looking, business the right way is to determine the
software, and then decided to support the system of related equipment and

  Third, ERP implementation process of the key elements

  ERP software application determines the particularity of the implementation of a
successful construction business in the important position information.
Implementation of the ERP is a system engineering, enterprise and software / service
providers to complement each other, the process of division of work is the integration
of process management and technology. ERP project a success, the key lies in

  1. In the overall planning, objectives and plans further clear phase

   ERP in enterprises under the guidance of the overall development goals, objectives
and plans follow-up phase of the work of the guiding document for all, while the
overall implementation plan based on the refinement and decomposition will also
affect the focus of the work in different stages of implementation, and evaluation
criteria. In content, the need to manage the work of the many, while the capacity of
enterprises and suppliers is limited, what do do first, after which things to do, what
conditions are needed for each job, personnel, methods, standards, objectives and
become program key. In the evaluation, since management optimization are endless, it
is necessary to work in various stages of the target in order to always maintain the
building enterprise ERP, applications, conclusion, to enhance a virtuous circle. Good
goals and plans to avoid the implementation phase of the process see the wood for the
trees, into the local technical and management details Ershi frustration in the situation
of global optimization, but also to ensure the implementation of both will not engage
in a one-time on-line acceptance, nor become a permanent project indefinitely. Stage,
continuous optimization and improvement of the management of ERP implementation
is the real purpose.

  2. Grasp two aspects of staff organization

   Who is the main ERP implementation and application. Personnel involved in the
project can simply be divided into two kinds of internal and external personnel.
The implementation of the enterprise group is the number one team under the
authority of the project leader. They have to understand the current management of
enterprises, but also the theoretical knowledge of the ERP in a systematic and
in-depth grasp, but also a certain degree of organization and coordination.
Implementation of the project, and various departments within the enterprise
personnel coordination, and software vendors / consultants to implement the
coordination, business leaders to provide specific solutions to achieve until the final
major project is to organize them done. Therefore, the enterprise project
implementation team is to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of the
project key to success.
   For applications to enterprises, can be hired outside companies to implement the
consultants as a teacher. Excellent ERP implementation consultant is an important
condition for success. Implementation Consultant with extensive ERP not only
theoretical knowledge, familiar with the company will use the ERP system is more
important is the status of the enterprise to fully understand, especially for enterprise
management of the global pattern of an accurate judgments. Only in this way, external
consultants that reaches these theoretical knowledge into practice Linghuo to Qu,
through research, analysis, communications, management of enterprises in Xian Xing
problems the solution proposed by Heli 方案.

  3. We take the initiative in the implementation of the principle

  In the implementation, the company generated an error easily understood: Since we
spend money on software and services providers should do all the work for us, then
we went to use on it. This view is harmful. The successful implementation of ERP
systems, primarily by the company's internal forces, not all of the job to the
consultant or software vendor. ERP algorithm logic, thinking can borrow, but business
management ideas and management thinking can not be directly copied. Experience
of external consultants can refer to, but must be considered in the implementation
process Zhong factor enterprise itself: Corporate culture, staff quality, staff
characteristics, such as enterprise development history will be generated in the
implementation process how does the effect of enterprise's established Zi
Yuan, Shi it becomes the driving force in the implementation process, rather than
resistance, enterprise managers more accurately than external consultants.

   "We" thought we should always run through the system
implementation. This is the meaning of which contains two, one at the firm and
suppliers, enterprises must establish a principal of the working principles, a clear
understanding of the enterprise in the leading position in the ERP implementation -
suppliers and service providers for enterprises to provide advanced products and
services in technology and management mode to develop a practical plan for business,
but the implementation and practice must be the enterprise itself, service providers
play only the role of technical and management support; Second, management within
the enterprise sector and the information sector, management is the application of the
subject, must not appear management arms folded, waiting for the situation.
Information technology sector has played only procedural support and the role of
management thinking, they are part of the leading technology, application and
implementation process of the supporting roles.

  4. Bi-directional shift, gradually accurate, continuous improvement of the
implementation strategy

   Enterprise in the implementation process will find that hinder the successful
application of ERP is the biggest obstacle to the practical and business management
software differences. How to eliminate the difference? On the one hand, as mentioned
above, as to carry out plans to set interim goals and seize the contradictions and solve
key problems; the other hand, a "two-way displacement gradually
accurate" implementation of the strategy. Included in the implementation
of ERP or the consultant's advanced management concepts and methods,
enterprises should try bold, creative, management of change is a revolution, the only
way to manage progress. For enterprise specific industry characteristics, country
characteristics, product characteristics, or concluding business for many years of
effective management mechanisms and methods, if the existing software can not
cover, they have targeted customers through the work of improving the software to
prevent management systems and manual mismatch of the phenomenon. But the core
of ERP systems thinking and the main logic should not be a big change and
adjustment. Otherwise, the only show that when considering the lack of software
selection, and the fundamental needs of enterprise management mode and there is a
difference. Such a system, even if it took a lot of energy to modify, the application
will not produce good results, but make the system bigger and cure, loss of room for
  4, system evaluation of the key factors

   How to evaluate the success of ERP system is implemented in a very difficult task,
as in the management as difficult to define right and wrong. Some effects can be
quantified, some can not. Figures show the effect can be used in addition to, the
following key to several non-quantifiable "indicators" can be
measured from another side effect of ERP applications.
   ☆ ERP system is the management and daily close together. Form of data entry and
report output does not represent the true success of ERP implementation, ERP and
decision-making for the management of business services, to integrate the
management of daily business, not in a separate data entry and statistical tools.
   ☆ whether the project preparation stage in the development of goals and plans.
Stage of the experiment and the comparison is a measure of the outcome of this phase
of the important ways, the project small companies than large companies, even large
projects in the application level, shallow, small range, but as long as the objective was
achieved, that is successful, at least stage successful, after all, management is endless.
   ☆ From the company's global perspective, the original troubled
business problem is solved, whether the increased efficiency of business management.
Local interest may be under attack after the implementation of ERP, the workload
increased, the process cumbersome, but to judge from the overall perspective, local
optimization can not represent the overall optimization, which is the ultimate goal.
   ☆ ERP in enterprise data is a guide to policy information. ERP in addition to
improving management efficiency, reduce administrative and operating costs, more
importantly, quantified for management decision-making, dynamic and accurate
information supporting decision-making, if this is achieved, only show business still
remain in the "data" in dealing with not yet upgraded to
"information" used up.

   Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Company on the success of ERP has a very
appropriate analogy: the election success of the software is the first step in process to
go through only 20% of the success with everyone, also is called "on
line" can only be a success by 60%, and only learn the information system
provides the right decision, reform the irrational process, to see the effect, it basically
be 100% successful.

                 ?Figure 3 Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Company's
implementation of a successful stage
   ERP implementation is a systematic, arduous and complicated, the key elements
mentioned here, the key to success is related to the project, hoping for the enterprise
and ERP system vendors to provide some reference, in the ERP in the construction
process and avoid detours.


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