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The key elements of successful implementation of ERP The key elements of successful implementation of ERP ? ERP in China, management of information has become almost synonymous, several experts, academics, business people have expressed their opinions and are akin. As a long line of information in business management people who work, the author of this combined with years of theoretical research and business practice in the process of summing up the experiences, lessons learned and experience, summarizes some impact to the enterprise ERP application is able to build and the key to success elements of hope and readers to share their experience. ? 1, system planning and demand analysis is a key element of the implementation process ERP system planning of the construction process should be the key link, but often overlooked. Some enterprises are often in the daily management feels inadequate on many issues, so that in the muddle of the project should be addressed on the computer, and then, without scientific planning and careful analysis of requirements of the case hastily, did not happen, the last not over. Therefore, in the system planning stage, there are several aspects that must be seriously analyzed, treatment. 1. To determine the objectives and scope of the system construction &quot;Do the right thing than doing things right much more important.&quot; ERP system, clear business objectives and building construction area is to ensure the success of ERP system, a crucial first step. Because the broader the scope of ERP project, management, optimization and improvement is endless, it is necessary to establish clear objectives: that is how long the cycle, with much input, in which business or management of content, to what kind of standard. So as to make the project under the guidance of the overall planning, construction, and periodically summarize, continuous improvement and investment. Objectives and scope of the definition of good, easy to read step by step implementation of the project, technology and management into the details of the expense of the overall effect of the lack of stage time results confirmed that both sides will make mental and physical exhaustion, reduced enthusiasm, and finally the whole project of a power loss Kui. ERP implementation is a complex system engineering, project planning before the start of the unified guidance of phase into the implementation stage to achieve the objective and plans for the implementation of the programmatic document, only the target plan and stage plan closely and to realize business information target. 2. Based on business type and production organization mode of the right ERP software selection Correct choice of software and implementation partners are the basis of ERP success, but only to their own business operations, production and organizational characteristics are able to make correct judgments and analysis, so that to know ourselves. Due to the production type, product quantities, organizations in different ways, ERP solutions are also different. Figure 1 shows, different types of enterprises in the ERP software selection and use there is a big difference. ? ?Figure 1 Classification of manufacturing enterprises ? Manufacturing can be divided into two discrete manufacturing and process industry categories. Process industry is the raw material through mixing, separating, forming, or chemical reaction, the material most continuously through the same path, to produce different grades and specifications of products. Process Manufacturing with formula management, products, joint products, a variety of units of measurement, quality and grade of the same item number, lot number tracking, shelf life management, management needs and characteristics, the general process industries using professional software. Discrete manufacturing is different from the movement of material through the non-continuously, through different paths, producing different materials and products. Such as cars, airplanes, appliances and computers. Discrete manufacturing production organization is relatively complex, can be further subdivided into single production, and more varieties of small batch production, mass production and mass customization types. ☆ one-piece production design products according to orders, according to customer demand production. Product complex structure, design and production are often parallel, the production cycle is generally very long, sometimes several times for a product in accordance with the parts delivered. Such as the three major power plants (large motors, steam turbines, boilers), heavy machinery and shipbuilding. In such enterprises ERP system, network planning, project management, critical resources, sorting techniques is very important. ☆ multi-variety small batch production mode of production of these products are standard or optional. Organization of production divided by technology features workshops, sections, teams and groups, such as casting, forging, riveting, welding, turning, milling, planing, grinding, assembly. Production management of these enterprises have the typical MRP Ⅱ plus configuration control features. ☆ mass production mode of production of these products is a standard or a few matching. Production equipment is based on materials (parts, components) for the object component assembly line. Production plan is characterized by traditional MRP Ⅱ and JIT mixed: long-term procurement plans produced using material requirements planning (MRP), product production implementation of the plan to use JIT, Kanban, recoil inventory, bar code tracking technology materials. At the same time in such enterprises, CRM, SRM, and other applications of the more important. ☆ Such mass customization production mode will be more variety and small batch production to meet individual needs of different customers to improve productivity and mass production advantages of lower costs combined. Organization of production is still the line, but the product configuration is varied. In the production planning control requires a combination of MRP, JIT, integrated configuration control techniques. Therefore, production of different types, the choice of ERP software, according to the management of these different features to find the software to meet business needs. An annual output of hundreds of thousands of car manufacturers, the software does not JIT No; if a pharmaceutical factory, ERP products, does not address the batch number, lot number tracking, multiple units of measurement, more quality levels and other functions does not work, it is necessary Debate disease and treatment, prescribe the right medicine. 3. Combined with a reasonable business organizations choose software architecture Business organizations to set up and distribution also chose the important factors in ERP software, 其 and software architecture and network technology, hardware, operating systems and databases supporting environment is particularly strong selection of Lian Ji. ? ? ?Figure 2 Organization of a group enterprise case diagram ? Figure 2 shows a group company, manufacturing is divided into several manufacturing units, the organization of their products vary widely, but in the procurement of raw materials and other important materials, the company full play to the advantages and brand groups, centralized purchasing, Product uniform sales, and because of differences in product characteristics, sales practices varied. This type of enterprise ERP software selection, to support multi-company, the Group&#39;s financial management operations. At the same time, for various types of production planning and organization, to adopt B / S structure, in order to facilitate maintenance, upgrades, systems and data management. And to support internet applications (taking into account the distribution of the national and even worldwide sales offices, regional centers of products and accessories warehouse, offices, service agencies, located in different parts of the production unit, etc.). In the implementation of the basic data preparation stage, from the Group perspective the question given to harmonization of material coding ... ... as many points, a wide range of high requirements, this type of business in the ERP Jianshe Zhong more reflective of the general program, and important to the implementation step sex, only immediate and local interests, will only increase the system&#39;s construction of the road gets narrower and eventually fall into a passive and failure situation. Therefore, the organizational structure and management of the different architecture of the ERP software selection and implementation of strategy formulation has great and far-reaching impact. Second, ERP solutions in the key elements of the development Solution is the basis of the implementation of ERP, business and service organizations to guide the implementation of the Programme of Action and guidelines. A good ERP solution is an important guarantee for the smooth implementation of the system, otherwise it may lose the whole game. In this stage, enterprises, and implementation of the units in the model for many Guan Li, process, technical details and special requirements of communication and should have sufficient depth discussion and, ultimately forming the advanced, practical and the ERP 解决, and to guide system implementation and Ying Yong. 1. Determine the marketing model Marketing system is the leading business enterprises, business management is the most flexible component of almost exactly the same marketing model is not the existence of the two companies. But in large, it can be the first to distinguish between a direct sales model or distribution model (including some classified by product characteristics of the distribution). In the distribution mode, a self-distribution or distribution channels. Different marketing patterns in the ERP system, institutional arrangements, information collection and management of the end position is quite different. In addition, the distribution business in the distribution resource planning (DRP) is also a key element of program development. 2. Determine the mode of production planning and plant management As mentioned earlier, production planning and organization to manage different types of business models and processes where the largest differences, the construction of a manufacturing enterprise ERP important and difficult. We used to talk of &quot;mechanical industries&quot;, &quot;auto industry&quot; and so on, this division is too coarse lines, businesses can not locate itself in such a big industry for program development. Mechanical industries, for example, shipbuilding enterprises are typically single organizing production according to the project, the production of machine tools and other enterprises are typical of many varieties of small batch, the automobile represented the typical products of the enterprises are large-volume production line, they produce organization very different way, absolutely impossible to use the standard MRP theory &quot;win a war.&quot; Even in the automotive industry, car and bus production organization there are also quite different. Therefore, the product according to the specific characteristics of enterprises, production and distribution unit, the organizational characteristics of the development of specific programs. This part of the focus is to determine the first model is the single management plan, many varieties of small batches or JIT; second is to determine the fine degree of plant management: whether to shop Gongxu-level Scheduling for the preparation and reporting, whether the ability to accurately account for these and the underlying data has a significant relationship between the preparation. In the planning model to determine, after, according to enterprises and products feature the development of specific production and procurement plans algorithm: (1) belongs to MRP Ⅱ algorithm range of materials, Tong Guo BOM and material Tiqian Qi Zhan Kai net Xuqiu calculation, the generated program under the Da Dao workshop. Task management through workshops and workshop processes operating plan on the further decomposition of the production process, so that guide the production, led feeding, completion reports and so on. This is a typical push-type program. (2) is by way of JIT production of products, need to define the production line, station, station and the station BOM material master account. Also need to beat according to the preparation of production plans, and then pull the upstream production line production plan. The supplies can be banners, reported the completion of product can be automatically inverted red material inventory. This is a typical pull program. (3) in addition to order &quot;a la carte&quot; product configuration control, in accordance with the orders of single pieces of production design of network planning, universal components, assembling the final assembly of customized plans and a series of techniques and algorithms. As can be seen from these algorithms, discrete manufacturing enterprises of production management is very complex, in fact the choice of different algorithms is to select a different management model, we must and business organization, management models and processes, product features combine ERP system can be truly effective. 3. Determine the mode of supply of goods Material supply of the key question is whether there are groups right harmonization of procurement, sub-base of different storage and feeding situation. Because different modes of supply affects not only supplies the implementation of the system itself will also affect the underlying data preparation. Such as: What material should be uniform code, which should be separate, set the price system, the accounting relationship between departments, material allocation, procurement plan and other multi-point formation and aggregation, which is a measure of ERP software to support the importance of multi-business One of the criteria. 4. Financial Information Integration Highlights of the financial part of the financial system to ensure the integration of applications. As we all know, our work has been carried Accounting for many years in many areas of technology and applications have been relatively mature. But the financial management information system is absolutely not a simple accounting, this is only the most basic work. Application of CAD software, like get rid of the design drawing board is the same basic stages of information technology. ERP Financial System lies &quot;integrated&quot; word, it must be realized and sales, purchasing, inventory, cost accounting, human resources management and other aspects of business and information integration. 5. Determine the cost accounting system and fineness Another focus of the financial system construction cost accounting and control system of the content is the establishment. This is the traditional manual management or individual management difficult. The difficulty is not the cost of the specific algorithm, but in information gathering and information collection point for basic information on the accuracy of their grasp. Cost systems, the focus is to determine the accounting object (number of levels of accounting), accounting methods (program costs or actual cost), accounting fineness (product category, product, or including all parts), Information pooling and sharing method (from information obtained or generated by re-sorting), etc.. Cost is an information Guiji, processing, redistribution process, and inventory, production, sales, workshops, financial and other aspects of management information are closely related. Cost accounting described above reflect the major content of the management company at this stage fineness, management focus and capacity and level of information transmission. 6. To prepare the basic data from a global perspective In the marketing, purchasing, production, finance, cost management and process planning and analysis, based on business can from the global point of view, correctly based on the data preparation. In the ERP field circulating this statement: &quot;one-third of Technology, seven management, and twelfth of the data&quot; reveals that a profound knowledge of the underlying data. But never implemented ERP of people difficult to understand, based on data and not just a standard issue, but with the business organization, production and business model, management is very fine degree of relationship. For example, BOM data not imagine the preparations from the technology sector through the design of direct conversion of BOM can be used to create BOM&#39;s level representatives of the program fineness fineness completion reporting, inventory, and lead the management of feeding and fineness . Even affected should a part at different stages were cloned Haishi unified management, Shipi need to set the Middle Library or virtual warehouse Deng. Thus, a BOM data is definitely not a simple relationship between father and son assembling items. Here there is no question which method is better, the key is to consider the type of enterprise, characteristics, management, fineness, and products or parts of properties, processing and other global factors. Therefore, the basic data to prepare statistical work is a comprehensive, long-term work, there must be consideration of the overall situation, only the establishment of continuous improvement and maintenance of the system, the basic data to establish an effective system. Moreover, in addition to the above mentioned &quot;system based on data&quot; (such as encoding, BOM, process route, a variety of fixed, etc.), the closely related with the specific business applications there are &quot;basic data services,&quot; the preparatory work, such as inventory management in the storage type, sales management agreement, order type, customer files and credit, purchasing management and supply ratio of vendor files, financial management system and other subjects are interrelated, mutual influence, see like a sector of the thing, in fact, the global information. 7. Supporting platform must be advanced and forward-looking By the servers, switches, operating system, database, network management and security systems and other support system is composed of information systems infrastructure. Different business organizations and information collection points set up, often deciding business network coverage and use of technology. If it is Internet-based applications, VPN&#39;s technology is a good choice. With the development of WEB-based components and systems, distributed computing, application and database server farms and other sophisticated techniques and methods applied, to support the platform with a greater scope for choice. Enterprises in the selection, the key is to think of the application at the planning stage; the reality conditions to think about expansion and upgrade; single enterprise applications group to think of application integration network; local applications to think of Internet applications and network security. In short, the establishment of adequate support system of advanced and forward-looking, business the right way is to determine the software, and then decided to support the system of related equipment and technologies. Third, ERP implementation process of the key elements ERP software application determines the particularity of the implementation of a successful construction business in the important position information. Implementation of the ERP is a system engineering, enterprise and software / service providers to complement each other, the process of division of work is the integration of process management and technology. ERP project a success, the key lies in implementation. 1. In the overall planning, objectives and plans further clear phase ERP in enterprises under the guidance of the overall development goals, objectives and plans follow-up phase of the work of the guiding document for all, while the overall implementation plan based on the refinement and decomposition will also affect the focus of the work in different stages of implementation, and evaluation criteria. In content, the need to manage the work of the many, while the capacity of enterprises and suppliers is limited, what do do first, after which things to do, what conditions are needed for each job, personnel, methods, standards, objectives and become program key. In the evaluation, since management optimization are endless, it is necessary to work in various stages of the target in order to always maintain the building enterprise ERP, applications, conclusion, to enhance a virtuous circle. Good goals and plans to avoid the implementation phase of the process see the wood for the trees, into the local technical and management details Ershi frustration in the situation of global optimization, but also to ensure the implementation of both will not engage in a one-time on-line acceptance, nor become a permanent project indefinitely. Stage, continuous optimization and improvement of the management of ERP implementation is the real purpose. 2. Grasp two aspects of staff organization Who is the main ERP implementation and application. Personnel involved in the project can simply be divided into two kinds of internal and external personnel. The implementation of the enterprise group is the number one team under the authority of the project leader. They have to understand the current management of enterprises, but also the theoretical knowledge of the ERP in a systematic and in-depth grasp, but also a certain degree of organization and coordination. Implementation of the project, and various departments within the enterprise personnel coordination, and software vendors / consultants to implement the coordination, business leaders to provide specific solutions to achieve until the final major project is to organize them done. Therefore, the enterprise project implementation team is to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of the project key to success. For applications to enterprises, can be hired outside companies to implement the consultants as a teacher. Excellent ERP implementation consultant is an important condition for success. Implementation Consultant with extensive ERP not only theoretical knowledge, familiar with the company will use the ERP system is more important is the status of the enterprise to fully understand, especially for enterprise management of the global pattern of an accurate judgments. Only in this way, external consultants that reaches these theoretical knowledge into practice Linghuo to Qu, through research, analysis, communications, management of enterprises in Xian Xing problems the solution proposed by Heli 方案. 3. We take the initiative in the implementation of the principle In the implementation, the company generated an error easily understood: Since we spend money on software and services providers should do all the work for us, then we went to use on it. This view is harmful. The successful implementation of ERP systems, primarily by the company&#39;s internal forces, not all of the job to the consultant or software vendor. ERP algorithm logic, thinking can borrow, but business management ideas and management thinking can not be directly copied. Experience of external consultants can refer to, but must be considered in the implementation process Zhong factor enterprise itself: Corporate culture, staff quality, staff characteristics, such as enterprise development history will be generated in the implementation process how does the effect of enterprise&#39;s established Zi Yuan, Shi it becomes the driving force in the implementation process, rather than resistance, enterprise managers more accurately than external consultants. &quot;We&quot; thought we should always run through the system implementation. This is the meaning of which contains two, one at the firm and suppliers, enterprises must establish a principal of the working principles, a clear understanding of the enterprise in the leading position in the ERP implementation - suppliers and service providers for enterprises to provide advanced products and services in technology and management mode to develop a practical plan for business, but the implementation and practice must be the enterprise itself, service providers play only the role of technical and management support; Second, management within the enterprise sector and the information sector, management is the application of the subject, must not appear management arms folded, waiting for the situation. Information technology sector has played only procedural support and the role of management thinking, they are part of the leading technology, application and implementation process of the supporting roles. 4. Bi-directional shift, gradually accurate, continuous improvement of the implementation strategy Enterprise in the implementation process will find that hinder the successful application of ERP is the biggest obstacle to the practical and business management software differences. How to eliminate the difference? On the one hand, as mentioned above, as to carry out plans to set interim goals and seize the contradictions and solve key problems; the other hand, a &quot;two-way displacement gradually accurate&quot; implementation of the strategy. Included in the implementation of ERP or the consultant&#39;s advanced management concepts and methods, enterprises should try bold, creative, management of change is a revolution, the only way to manage progress. For enterprise specific industry characteristics, country characteristics, product characteristics, or concluding business for many years of effective management mechanisms and methods, if the existing software can not cover, they have targeted customers through the work of improving the software to prevent management systems and manual mismatch of the phenomenon. But the core of ERP systems thinking and the main logic should not be a big change and adjustment. Otherwise, the only show that when considering the lack of software selection, and the fundamental needs of enterprise management mode and there is a difference. Such a system, even if it took a lot of energy to modify, the application will not produce good results, but make the system bigger and cure, loss of room for expansion. 4, system evaluation of the key factors How to evaluate the success of ERP system is implemented in a very difficult task, as in the management as difficult to define right and wrong. Some effects can be quantified, some can not. Figures show the effect can be used in addition to, the following key to several non-quantifiable &quot;indicators&quot; can be measured from another side effect of ERP applications. ☆ ERP system is the management and daily close together. Form of data entry and report output does not represent the true success of ERP implementation, ERP and decision-making for the management of business services, to integrate the management of daily business, not in a separate data entry and statistical tools. ☆ whether the project preparation stage in the development of goals and plans. Stage of the experiment and the comparison is a measure of the outcome of this phase of the important ways, the project small companies than large companies, even large projects in the application level, shallow, small range, but as long as the objective was achieved, that is successful, at least stage successful, after all, management is endless. ☆ From the company&#39;s global perspective, the original troubled business problem is solved, whether the increased efficiency of business management. Local interest may be under attack after the implementation of ERP, the workload increased, the process cumbersome, but to judge from the overall perspective, local optimization can not represent the overall optimization, which is the ultimate goal. ☆ ERP in enterprise data is a guide to policy information. ERP in addition to improving management efficiency, reduce administrative and operating costs, more importantly, quantified for management decision-making, dynamic and accurate information supporting decision-making, if this is achieved, only show business still remain in the &quot;data&quot; in dealing with not yet upgraded to &quot;information&quot; used up. Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Company on the success of ERP has a very appropriate analogy: the election success of the software is the first step in process to go through only 20% of the success with everyone, also is called &quot;on line&quot; can only be a success by 60%, and only learn the information system provides the right decision, reform the irrational process, to see the effect, it basically be 100% successful. ? ? ?Figure 3 Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Company&#39;s implementation of a successful stage ? ERP implementation is a systematic, arduous and complicated, the key elements mentioned here, the key to success is related to the project, hoping for the enterprise and ERP system vendors to provide some reference, in the ERP in the construction process and avoid detours. ?
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