Reposted elsewhere: on Tibet Glossary

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					Reposted elsewhere: on Tibet Glossary
1, the three major monasteries:
The three major monasteries in Lhasa, according to the sequence of set-up time,
should be Ganden, Drepung, Sera; according to the size now, should be Drepung, Sera,
Ganden; but in Tibet used to say, is a salad, Drepung, Gan Dan, referred to as
se-vbras-dgav-gsum, reading philosophy purity Nardostachy chinensis Batal.
Tibetan Buddhism, or Lamaism, with the rest of the world religions, is divided into
many sects, including the Yellow Sect is the most important sects in recent centuries.
Support the development of the Yellow Sect of the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama are
the two major Living Buddha system and the University system.
Ganden, Drepung, Sera, Zhashilunbu known as the Yellow Sect of the four Temple,
Temple of the establishment of four years are as follows: Ganden dgav-ldan (1409
years, the Ming Yongle years); Drepung vbras-spungs (1415 In the Ming Yongle 10
years); Sera se-ra (1418, the Ming Yongle 16 years), Tashilhunpo bkra-shis- lhun-po
(1447, the Ming Zhengtong years). In these four temple, Ganden, Drepung, Sera
Monastery are all three of the Dalai Lama system, composed of the three major
monasteries in Lhasa famous. Between them have a common college system,
Tashilhunpo are Panchen system, it has a parallel in the college system and the three
major monasteries. From the academic content and spirit, the three major monasteries
in Lhasa and among Tashilhunpo, only some of the names and details of the
differences, but not fundamentally different.
2, Khenpo
Drepung, Sera, Ganden Monastery are three of several basically independent units,
this unit called the two protests. If a temple than to a modern university, then we can
make a chacang likened to a modern university college. Chacang head as abbot.
3, Yellow Sect / Gelugpa
Gelug Sect: China Tibetan Buddhist sects. Tibetan Grew means good law, the school
emphasizes strict discipline, hence the name. The monks wear yellow hats to send, it
is also called the Yellow Sect. Creative teaching people Tsongkhapa, Kadampa monks
originally, so the school is also known as New Kadampa.
Tsongkhapa He studied with various sects such as the 14th century, Tibet, Sakya,
Kagyu and so on, he was against the Tibetan Buddhist monk discipline lax, corr uption
of monastic life, while promoting the Reformation, the proposed strict precepts monks,
engaged in farming , single not married, and to strengthen monastery management
system. On self-cultivation, he advocated both were close, close after the first was
stressed out and so on doctrines, and for help to escape.
I, I, the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama are the disciples of Tsongkhapa.
To the Qing Dynasty, the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama sent the two to confirm
the reincarnation system of support by the Qing court. Gelugpa sect as the ruling
regime in Tibet, Religion and Politics in the further development of the rule of the
form since then.
In addition to the four major Gelug Sect of Tibetan Temple, there are Kumbum
Monastery in Qinghai, Gansu Labrang Monastery, collectively known as the six
Mongolia, Erdene also called Gelugpa sect centers.
The school has strict management system of monasteries, monks and staff members
perform their duties, strict mother temple affiliation.
Gelugpa sect of Tibetan Buddhism, the major rise in the last one, in the 15th century
AD, when the rise. It is rapidly replacing a rise on the status of other sects,
Chengweihouqi protagonist of Tibetan Buddhism's unique, Zai Shi Shang
development of Tibetan society, Ta has Renhejiaopai can not Dadao important
position. Both school repair, repair both speaking style of study of Tibetan Buddhism
to become the most influential faction in the Tibetan, Mongolian was very popular
residential area, a great impact.
4, the Dalai Lama
The title of the Dalai Lama began in 1578 to determine the period of the third Dalai
Lama Sonam Gyatso. He was preaching to the Qinghai region, to persuade the leader
of the Mongolian Altan Khan Tomoto converted to Buddhism, they had gained
another politically, and give each other appellation. Altan Khan donated to Sonam
Gyatso the appellation: "La Santa know a 切 瓦 齐 尔 达 the Dalai
Lama." In 1587 the Ming government officially recognize this title, and
sent envoys to Chifeng. Junji decade (1653) and Qing ancestor Fulin (Junji) Lobsang
Gyatso Dalai V officially canonized as the "Dalai Lama",
recognizes the Dalai Lama's political and religious status.
5, Panchen
The title of Panchen Lama began in 1645, when control of Tibet leader of Gushi Khan,
the Mongol power, said closure of four disciple of Tsongkhapa Lobsang Gyaincain
Kyrgyzstan indeed the "Panchen blogs and more."
"Class" is the Sanskrit "Pandita&a mp;quot; in
Chinese means "scholar"; "Zen" is the
Tibetan "Qinbo" in Chinese means "big"
together is a "scholar" meant. "Blog more"
is a Mongolian, means a wise, courageous heroes. Gushi Khan presided over that
Lobsang Gyaltsen Choegyal Tashilhunpo, and the division of parts after the
possession of under his jurisdiction, known as the Panchen Lama IV (III was posterity
before ratification).
   1713, Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi the fifth Panchen Lama Lobsang formal
canonization of the Greek meaning of "Panchen" (Manchu
language means "treasure") and given the gold book gold seal,
known as the Panchen Lama V. Since then, established the status of the Panchen
?6, reincarnation
Including the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama of Tibet, including the Living
Buddha reincarnation have adopted a unique system. Reincarnation of the Dalai Lama
system, the system began in the Dalai Lama III. The Panchen Lama reincarnation
system began in IV. Apart from the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama the two, the
temple has also introduced some major Living Buddha reincarnation system. Living
Buddha in Tibetan Buddhism that is eternal, through the continuous
"reincarnations" came into the world of life. Therefore, when a
living Buddha passed away, we must under all kinds of "signs"
and "enlightenment", to determine the direction and location of
the Living Buddha reincarnation, and then sent along a certain direction to find the
Living Buddha incarnation is considered a "reincarnation."
7, lot-drawing
Sometimes get the "soul boy" more than - one, there will be
disputes and arguments, the Qianlong Emperor Qianlong Emperor in fifty years (1792)
Special issue two gold bottle, a set Beijing Lama Temple, the Jokhang Temple in
Lhasa for a home. Where the registration of Disaster Mongolian Tibetan Buddhism,
Tibetan Living Buddha, such as Akiyoshi Hutogtu Jebtsundamba, the Dalai Lama, the
reincarnation of the Panchen Lama, etc., must be to find a certain "soul
boy" in the name written as toothpicks, placed in gold bottle, by the Court
of Colonial Affairs Book of the Lama Temple, or supervision by the Resident Minister
in the Jokhang Temple cast lots to determine the "soul boy", and
then through the "enthronement" ceremony will officially
become a "reincarnation of Living Buddhas" .
8, the relationship between the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama, the Dalai Lama should be a mutual mentoring relationship, simply,
surviving the Dalai Lama / Lama is the new Panchen Lama / Dalai Lama's
In the Qing Dynasty, yellow Buddha taught the four side by side, the main Maekura
Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama after the Tibetan master, Akiyoshi main Inner
Mongolia, Outer Mongolia Jebtsundamba main, roughly equal political status.
Tibetan Buddhists believe the Dalai Lama was "pleased to
Buddhists," the incarnation of Bodhisattva; Panchen Lama is the
"ink on Pakistan Buddha" is the embodiment of limitless
Guangfo. Teach-order terms, higher than the Dalai Lama, but since the Ming and
Qing Dynasties, as the Dalai Lama in the political control of the local situation, while
the Panchen Lama is away from worldly things, so the higher the Dalai
Lama's actual popularity.
Dalai Lama lives in the Potala Palace - and the former Tibetan local government
office to theocracy. The Panchen Lama lives in Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse.
Specifically, the Dalai Lama issued with nine-tenths of the population of Tibet, the
Panchen obtain a one-tenth.
9, Kashag and Kalon
Kashag: official signature, Tibetan transliteration, that is, the former Tibetan local
government, formed by the Kalon 4 is 1751 by Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong in
the abolition of the system after the approval of the Tibetan Dukes estab lished, Tibet
and the Dalai Lama by the Central Government together jurisdiction. Rebellion in
Tibet in 1959 after the dissolution of the incident.
16 years of the Qing Emperor Qianlong (1751) Custom, located Kalon (also translated
Karma Buren, Karma Bulun) four, handle all administrative matters. Kashag their
bodies have translated position (the equivalent of Secretariat), Tsai Kang (equivalent
to Audit Department) and various ground space (Bureau).
10, Regent
Origin of the regency regent system is an important political system in Tibet. Due to
historical and religious reasons, Tibetan Buddhist heritage by way of the Living
Buddha reincarnation, the Dalai Lama passed away, the reincarnated soul boy of the
search, confirmation, and seated, study and ordained, until the reign of 18 years of age,
at least 20 years or so, who presided over this period if no political and religious
affairs of Tibet, will form a power vacuum. Qing government and others to prevent
Galoins "without authorization to make trouble," Dan Suiming
local authorities of Tibet from Karma, Drepung, Sera three major monasteries and the
four Lam (Lin Dan end, of virtues, full of forest policy, Xide Lin) in the selection of
learned and prestige of excellence for the Regent Grand Living Buddhas of candidates
appointed by the high commissioners petitioned the Qing, the Qing court as their
origin and the Meritorious rewarded Khutuktu, Norman Khan, Zen Master and other
name, awarded gold volumes Bank of India, the Dalai Lama is not the new found
spirit and soul boy child enthroned after the ruling has not yet reached the legal age
(18 years) before the temporary agency Dalai Lama presided over political and
religious affairs of Tibet. This measure established the Qing Tibet Budd hist regent by
the ruling regime in the system. Regent on the religious status, since the canonization
by the central government, Dalai Lama, Deputy Prime Minister of the Tibetan
political and religious affairs, how high, all the major issues are decided at the Regent.
Therefore, the Tibetan people called Zao. Regent power system began in Tibet in
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