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WHAT IS A PREPOSITION? A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition: The children climbed the mountain without fear. In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed. There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing. The spider crawled slowly along the banister. The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the banister" and the prepositional phrase "along the banister" acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled. The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes. Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase "under the porch," which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb "is hiding." The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office. Similarly in this sentence, the preposition "in" introduces a prepositional phrase "in his office," which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers. Written by Heather MacFadyen THE PREPOSITION Recognize a preposition when you see one. Prepositions are the words that indicate location. Usually, prepositions show this location in the physical world. Check out the three examples below: The puppy is on the floor. The puppy is beside the phone. The puppy is in the trashcan. On, in, and beside are all prepositions. They are showing where the puppy is. Prepositions can also show location in time. Read the next three examples: At midnight, Jill craved mashed potatoes with grape jelly. In the spring, I always vow to plant tomatoes but end up buying them at the supermarket. During the marathon, Iggy's legs complained with sharp pains shooting up his thighs. At midnight, in the spring, and during the marathon all show location in time. Because there are so many possible locations, there are quite a few prepositions. Below is the complete list. about concerning onto above despite on top of according to down out across during out of after except outside against except for over along excepting past along with for regarding among from round apart from in since around in addition to through as in back of throughout as for in case of till at in front of to because of in place of toward before inside under behind in spite of underneath below instead of unlike beneath into until beside like up between near upon beyond next up to but* of with by off within by means of on without * But is very seldom a preposition. When it is used as a preposition, but means the same as except—Everyone ate frog legs but Jamie. But usually functions as a coordinating conjunction. Understand how to form a prepositional phrase. Prepositions generally introduce prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases look like this: preposition + optional modifiers + noun, pronoun, or gerund Here are some examples: At school At = preposition; school = noun. According to us According to = preposition; us = pronoun. By chewing By = preposition; chewing = gerund. Under the stove Under = preposition; the = modifier; stove = noun. In the crumb-filled, rumpled sheets In = preposition; the, crumb-filled, rumpled = modifiers; sheets = noun. Realize that some prepositions also function as subordinate conjunctions. Some prepositions also function as subordinate conjunctions. These prepositions are after, as, before, since, and until. A subordinate conjunction will have both a subject and a verb following it, forming a subordinate clause. Look at these examples: After Sam and Esmerelda kissed goodnight After = subordinate conjunction; Sam, Esmerelda = subjects; kissed = verb. As Jerome buckled on the parachute As = subordinate conjunction; Jerome = subject; buckled = verb. Before I eat these frog legs Before = subordinate conjunction; I = subject; eat = verb. Since we have enjoyed the squid eyeball stew Since = subordinate conjunction; we = subject; have enjoyed = verb. Until your hiccups stop Until = subordinate conjunction; hiccups = subject; stop = verb. If you find a noun [with or without modifiers] following one of these five prepositions, then all you have is a prepositional phrase. Look at these examples: After the killer calculus test After = preposition; the, killer, calculus = modifiers; test = noun. As a good parent As = preposition; a, good = modifiers; parent = noun. Before dinner Before = preposition; dinner = noun. Since the breakup Since = preposition; the = modifier; breakup = noun. Until midnight Until = preposition; midnight = noun. 1997 - 2010 by Robin L. Simmons All Rights Reserved Preposition By English Creation on Thursday, June 25, 2009 Preposisi atau kata depan adalah kata yang dihubungkan denan kata yang lain sehingga mempunyai arti tersendiri. Contoh: By bus = dengan bus By night = pada malam hari By David = oleh david By the river = dekat sungai Preposisi dalam bahasa inggris adalah: in, at, on, of, for, from, to, into, by, with, without, about, after, before, above, over, under, below, beneath, inside, outside, beside, besides, near, behind, opposite, across, along, alongside, toward, between, among, round (around), via, versus, during, until, within, upon, beyond, against, through, throughout, up, down, like, as, per. Contoh penggunaan Preposisi: • I live in Ngabang. • I live on Jalan Manunggal. • I live at Gang Manunggal 71. Untuk menyatakan nama kota harus menggunakan in. Untuk menyatakan nama jalan harus menggunakan on. Untuk menyatakan nomor rumah harus menggunakan at. Jadi, preposisi digunakan dengan kata tertentu sebagai pasangannya masing-masing sehingga mempunyai arti tersendiri. Penempata preposisi harus memperhatikan jenis kata yang mendampinginya. Berikut ini aturan- aturan penempatan preposisi. KATA BENDA + PREPOSISI PREPOSISI + KATA BENDA Ketika bertemu dengan kata benda, preposisi harus diletakkan sebelum kata benda dan atau sesudah kata benda yang mempunyai makna tersendiri. Contoh preposisi yang diletakkan sebelum kata benda sebagai berikut. • I’ll pay in cash. (saya akan membayar dengan uang tunai) • We are in agreement on that point. (Kami sepakat dalam hal itu) • The ownership of this house is in dispute. (Kepemilikan atas rumah ini sedang dalam perselisihan) • The typewriter is in use. I can do this later. (Mesin tik itu sedang dipakai. saya bisa mengerjakan ini nanti. KATA BENDA + PREPOSISI Contoh preposisi yang dletakkan sesudah kata benda sebagai berikut. • There has been a rise in prices recently. (Ada kenaikan dalam harga akhir-akhir ini) • There is an increase in population every year. (Ada peningkatan dalam jumlah penduduk setiap tahun) • There was a decrease in traffic accidents last month. (Ada penurunan dalam kecelakaan lalu lintas pada bulan yang lalu) • We hope there will be a fall in crimes. (Semoga akan ada penurunan dalam masalah kejahatan) KATA SIFAT + PREPOSISI Ketika bertemu dengan kata sifat, preposisi harus diletakkan setelah kata sifat dan mempunyai arti yang berlainan. • The bottle is full of water. (Botol itu penuh dengan air) • The letter you wrote was full of mistakes. (Surat yang kamu tulis penuh dengan kesalahan) • He is capable of taming horses. (Dia mampu untuk menjinakkan kuda) • Robert is fond of detective stories. KATA KERJA + PREPOSISI Ketika bertemu dengan kata kerja, preposisi harus diletakkan setelah kata kerja dan mempunyai makna yang berlainan. • They care about wild animals. (Mereka peduli terhadap binatang liar) • Sally often complains about food. (Sally sering mengeluh tentang makanan). • I dreamt about you last night. (Aku mimpi tentang kamu tadi malam). • Did you hear about the fire on Friday night? (Apakah kamu mendengar tentang kebakaran pada Jum’at malam?) KATA KERJA + OBJEK + PREPOSISI Ketika bertemu dengan kata kerja dan objek, preposisi harus diletakkan setelah kata kerja dan objek dan mempunyai makna yang berlainan. • Fred is going to ask them for information about the concert. (Fred akan meminta informasi dari mereka tentang konser itu) • They blamed me for the accident. (Mereka menyalahkan saya atas kecelakaan itu). • Simon accused Helen of breaking the glass. (Simon menuduh Helen memecahkan kaca itu). • This village reminds me of mine. (Desa ini mengingatkan saya pada desa saya sendiri). PREPOSISI + GERUND Ketika bertemu dengan gerund, preposisi harus diletakkan sebelum gerund dan mempunyai makna yang berlainan. (Gerund adalah kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja dengan akhiran –ing, misalnya: singing, parking, playing). • Jessica is very fond of singing. (Jessica sangat gemar menyanyi) • Febby is in the habit of talking to herself. (Febby sudah terbiasa bicara sendiri) • You must choose between working hard or being poor. (Kamu harus memilih antara kerja keras atau menjadi miskin). Posted by Real_Comment at 4:25 AM Mr. Awaludin Blog.... Two-word Verbs Diposting oleh miewie pada Dec 31, '08 11:50 AM untuk semuanya Two-word verbs disebut juga Two-part Verbs adalah kata kerja yang dikombinasikan dengan Preposition atau Adverbial Particle yang mengandung satu kesatuan arti. Two-words Verbs ini ada yang bisa dipisahkan (Separable) jika memiliki obyek dan jika obyek tersebut diganti dengan Obyek Pronoun atau obyek tersebut pendek (me, him, her, it, us, you, them) dan ada yang tidak dapat dipisahkan (Non-Separable). Two-word Verbs yang dapat dipisahkan oleh Object Pronoun adalah kombinasi Verb + Adverbial Particle, sedangkan Two-word Verbs yang tidak dapat dipisahkan oleh Object Pronoun adalah kombinasi Verb + Preposition. Two-word Verbs yang tidak memiliki obyek juga adalah kombinasi Verb + Adverbial Particle. Apakah Adverbial Particles itu? Adverbial Particles adalah kata-kata yang ditempatkan sesudah kata kerja untuk menunjukkan posisi dan arah gerakan. Contoh Two-word Verbs yang dapat dipisahkan oleh Object Pronoun (Separable Two-word Verbs): 1. Break down the door. Please, don’t break it down. 2. Call off the meeting. Students, I wanna call it off. 3. Cross out the wall. Please, don’t cross it out. 4. Do over our classroom. Students, we will do it over tomorrow. 5. Don’t hang up the window. Boy, Don’t hang it up! 6. Don’t put off your work. Student, don’t put it off till tomorrow, Ok! 7. Figure out the problem. I see. I figure it out. 8. Fill in the form. Please, fill it in carefully. 9. Find out the solution. Student, I have find it out. 10. Give back the books. Nanda, Please, give them back. 11. Hand in your homework. Please, hand it in on my desk. 12. Hand out the papers test. Now, I will hand them out to you. 13. Keep off the grass. Students, don’t keep it off! 14. Look over the notes. Class, I’ll look them over. 15. Pick up the pencil. Please, pick it up, Anna. 16. Put away the books. Joey, Put them away, Ok! 17. Tear up the paper. Don’t tear it up! 18. Throw away the rubbish. Please, throw it away to the litter-bin. Here, little bit of test for you. Please, write new words from the last letters that has given. For instance: 1. pencil 2. lion 3. et cetera (dll) phrasal verb, is a special type two word verb idiom made up or adverb. Like most idioms, the 2-word 2-2-word verb ttusually has a m1997 INTERLINK LanguageCenters - Created by Mark Fede ea A 2-word verb, also called a phrasal verb, is a special type of idiom made up of a verb plus a preposition or adverb. Like most idioms, the 2-word verb usually has a meaning different from the words it is composed of. For example, when you look up a word in the dictionary, you are not really looking up - you may even be looking down. It is important to study 2-word verbs because they are very common, especially in everyday speech. Phrasal Verbs By Kenneth Beare, What are Phrasal Verbs? There are four types of phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs can be separable or inseparable and they can take an object or not. Here is a guide to the basics of phrasal verbs. Phrasal Verbs which Take Objects Phrasal verbs which take objects can be separable or inseparable: Separable phrasal verbs can remain together when using an object that is a noun or noun phrase. I picked Tom up. OR I picked up Tom. They put their friends up. OR They put up their friends. Separable phrasal verbs MUST be separated when a pronoun is used: We picked him up at the station. NOT We picked up him at the station. They put them up. NOT They put up them. Inseparable phrasal verbs always remain together. It makes no difference if a noun or pronoun is used. We set off for the beach. / We set off for it. They are looking after the children. / They are looking after them. Phrasal Verbs which Don't Take Objects Some phrasal verbs do not take objects. These phrasal verbs are ALWAYS inseparable. They thieves got away. The bus broke down on the way to work. She got up early.
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