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Prospect of shale gas development

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					Prospect of shale gas development




Although natural gas is not renewable energy, but the carbon emission reduction is
concerned, it is better environmentally than coal, cheaper than nuclear power,
renewable energy is also not as lack of stability. Now with the development of science
and technology, particularly the Gaishan fracturing technique, number of previous
access can not get the gas, ie non-Chuan Tong natural gas, natural gas use Conger
Taidayanchang the years.

Many Europeans may also be the beginning of 2006 Russia's shutdown of
natural gas to Ukraine, the event also lingering fear. But the new technology of using
natural gas exploration, especially for "non-traditional Tianran Qi
Tian," exploitation, means that even at the current consumption rate, global
natural gas can also supply the United States and Asia and Europe and other countries
then 100 years.

"Non-traditional natural gas," the major reserves in
underground hard rock or sandstone and coal, whilst most developers feel hopeful that
the shale natural gas reserves.

Global annual consumption of about 3 trillion cubic meters of natural gas. EU data
show that the traditional proven natural gas will be exhausted in 2068. In fact, as early
as the late 20th century, the Canadian province of British Columbia University of
Victoria professor Hans - Holger? Rogne (Hans-Holger Rogner) study discovered that
the global non-conventional natural gas reserves as high as 900 trillion cubic meters,
half of them shale gas. The International Energy Agency estimates, the shale gas have
180 trillion cubic meters of natural gas recoverable re-use.

Technical progress for shale gas exploration

In the United States in recent decades the use of shale gas only small-scale,
small-scale. Compared with traditional natural gas, shale gas exploitation difficult.
Because shale is not permeable, to make gas leaking into the gas well, must first of
the rock fracturing treatment. Over the past decade, horizontal drilling and hydraulic
fracturing techniques to achieve significantly improved shale gas exploitation has
become better easily.

This year the United States a day of shale gas production is expected to reach 295
million cubic meters in 2000, this figure was only 31 million cubic meters. U.S.
Department of Energy estimates, the eastern United States along 海马塞卢斯 shale
(Marcellus shale) of recoverable shale gas reserves of up to 7 trillion cubic meters. In
2008, the United States consumed about 62 billion cubic meters of natural gas. Do the
same consumption rate, the 7 trillion cubic meters of shale gas reserves available for
U.S. consumption over a hundred years. About 60% of U.S. natural gas will come
from non-traditional natural gas. If the U.S. shale gas model can be replicated globally,
the world's energy future will be greatly improved.

Currently, many countries have large oil and gas companies worldwide to find gas,
such as Australia, China, South Africa and Europe. Europe, especially mining, Shell
in Sweden, Exxon Mobil and other companies in Germany, Poland, are engaged in the
exploitation of shale gas.

Earth Sciences Research Centre, Germany Brian? Horsfield (Brian Horsfield)
professor, said: "In the past, major oil and gas company to abandon mining
in the United States, shale gas opportunities, primarily not realize that technology has
developed to such a fracture point. Today, these companies do not want to repeat the
same mistake in Europe. "Horsfield a research consortium led by Professor
specializing in shale gas field in Europe.

European shale gas reserves of up to 15 trillion cubic meters, its development has
revealed a number of advantages. Horsfield said that the Swedish alum schist,
northern Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom southern 波西多尼亚
schist, shale similar to the U.S.. European black or dark brown shale, said during the
formation of rocks, rich in the growth of the soil with organic matter by biological,
most of these organic materials into the existing shale gas.

If the shale storage can confirm, this will change the European countries, the fate of
long-term dependence on Russian natural gas. Currently, a quarter of EU gas supplies
from Russia. Washington advanced energy industry consulting firm Resource
International (ARI) main Xiwei Luo? Kusikela (Vello Kuuskraa) said:
"The shale is the world's richest reserves of rock. Despite the
lack of tradition in many parts of the world's natural gas resources, but
these places are rich shale resources. "

Raised concerns about shale gas development

Although the shale gas is a clean energy, but people fear to rely on technical
exploitation of shale gas fracturing process would endanger the environment. For
example, because the process of hydraulic fracturing would be the use of chemical
products, so shale gas mining may contaminate groundwater. However, in 2004 a
study conducted by EPA shows that there is no real evidence that hydraulic fracturing
of the chemicals will pollute the groundwater. Before next year, EPA will complete
the other on the hydraulic fracturing of shale gas exploration on environmental impact
studies.
On the other hand, there are concerns that the process of hydraulic fracturing will
consume a large amount of water. Professor Horsfield, each port shale gas well, would
entail 4 million gallons of water to make shale break. (About 3.78 liters 1 gallon)

Shale gas development industry is trying to reduce gas well drilling and hydraulic
fracturing, the environmental footprint, such as after the completion of each fracturing
of water access and reuse. Shale gas drilling on the U.S. built many of the traditional
natural gas production sites in the vicinity, so the water can be after fracturing cap ture,
processing, and recycling to the next hydraulic fracturing. The U.S. shale gas drilling,
70% water recycling water from hydraulic fracturing.

Fungicides used in hydraulic fracturing is one of the concerns raised. Originally, the
water by adding chemicals to make water a gel properties, beneficial to hydraulic
fracturing; while, the bacteria may prevent chemical reaction, so the water only needs
to join the fungicide. But people worried about similar chemicals can leak into
groundwater less. Currently, many places have to consider high- intensity ultrasound,
filters or other environmental chemicals to kill bacteria in the water.

Hydraulic fracturing technology

As the shale is not permeable, so rock can not just rely on gas exploration drilling for
natural gas in the traditional vertical wells. Back in the 90's, some
companies began test drilling horizontal wells, which can drill a lot more natural gas
field in depth. Even so, shale gas exploitation is not enough for a larger profit. Further
drilling company began exploring ways to artificially split the rock, that is fracturing.

Illinois Institute of Technology United States natural gas (Gas Technology Institute) in
Kent? Perry (Kent Perry) said: "The close of the sha le fracturing
technology makes traditional natural gas permeable."

Fracturing process is to first of all the millions of liters of water mixed with sand and
chemicals, and then the mixture under high pressure into the rock, so that the rock
split. Mixture into the rock crevice, while the infiltration of water back, sand were
kept in the rock crevices, and then maintain the rock split open state, shale gas could
be gradually penetrate them.

Currently, the U.S. shale gas developers are 9 km stretch of shale gas in the drilling of
horizontal wells, the use of hydraulic fracturing of shale gas exploration. According to
Perry introduced in Houston, Texas, oil and gas services company is studying how to
drill a gas well as the vertical root system o f multi-port horizontal drilling. This
method can be exposed to more in the underground shale gas field.
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