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Prospect of shale gas development Although natural gas is not renewable energy, but the carbon emission reduction is concerned, it is better environmentally than coal, cheaper than nuclear power, renewable energy is also not as lack of stability. Now with the development of science and technology, particularly the Gaishan fracturing technique, number of previous access can not get the gas, ie non-Chuan Tong natural gas, natural gas use Conger Taidayanchang the years. Many Europeans may also be the beginning of 2006 Russia&#39;s shutdown of natural gas to Ukraine, the event also lingering fear. But the new technology of using natural gas exploration, especially for &quot;non-traditional Tianran Qi Tian,&quot; exploitation, means that even at the current consumption rate, global natural gas can also supply the United States and Asia and Europe and other countries then 100 years. &quot;Non-traditional natural gas,&quot; the major reserves in underground hard rock or sandstone and coal, whilst most developers feel hopeful that the shale natural gas reserves. Global annual consumption of about 3 trillion cubic meters of natural gas. EU data show that the traditional proven natural gas will be exhausted in 2068. In fact, as early as the late 20th century, the Canadian province of British Columbia University of Victoria professor Hans - Holger? Rogne (Hans-Holger Rogner) study discovered that the global non-conventional natural gas reserves as high as 900 trillion cubic meters, half of them shale gas. The International Energy Agency estimates, the shale gas have 180 trillion cubic meters of natural gas recoverable re-use. Technical progress for shale gas exploration In the United States in recent decades the use of shale gas only small-scale, small-scale. Compared with traditional natural gas, shale gas exploitation difficult. Because shale is not permeable, to make gas leaking into the gas well, must first of the rock fracturing treatment. Over the past decade, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to achieve significantly improved shale gas exploitation has become better easily. This year the United States a day of shale gas production is expected to reach 295 million cubic meters in 2000, this figure was only 31 million cubic meters. U.S. Department of Energy estimates, the eastern United States along 海马塞卢斯 shale (Marcellus shale) of recoverable shale gas reserves of up to 7 trillion cubic meters. In 2008, the United States consumed about 62 billion cubic meters of natural gas. Do the same consumption rate, the 7 trillion cubic meters of shale gas reserves available for U.S. consumption over a hundred years. About 60% of U.S. natural gas will come from non-traditional natural gas. If the U.S. shale gas model can be replicated globally, the world&#39;s energy future will be greatly improved. Currently, many countries have large oil and gas companies worldwide to find gas, such as Australia, China, South Africa and Europe. Europe, especially mining, Shell in Sweden, Exxon Mobil and other companies in Germany, Poland, are engaged in the exploitation of shale gas. Earth Sciences Research Centre, Germany Brian? Horsfield (Brian Horsfield) professor, said: &quot;In the past, major oil and gas company to abandon mining in the United States, shale gas opportunities, primarily not realize that technology has developed to such a fracture point. Today, these companies do not want to repeat the same mistake in Europe. &quot;Horsfield a research consortium led by Professor specializing in shale gas field in Europe. European shale gas reserves of up to 15 trillion cubic meters, its development has revealed a number of advantages. Horsfield said that the Swedish alum schist, northern Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom southern 波西多尼亚 schist, shale similar to the U.S.. European black or dark brown shale, said during the formation of rocks, rich in the growth of the soil with organic matter by biological, most of these organic materials into the existing shale gas. If the shale storage can confirm, this will change the European countries, the fate of long-term dependence on Russian natural gas. Currently, a quarter of EU gas supplies from Russia. Washington advanced energy industry consulting firm Resource International (ARI) main Xiwei Luo? Kusikela (Vello Kuuskraa) said: &quot;The shale is the world&#39;s richest reserves of rock. Despite the lack of tradition in many parts of the world&#39;s natural gas resources, but these places are rich shale resources. &quot; Raised concerns about shale gas development Although the shale gas is a clean energy, but people fear to rely on technical exploitation of shale gas fracturing process would endanger the environment. For example, because the process of hydraulic fracturing would be the use of chemical products, so shale gas mining may contaminate groundwater. However, in 2004 a study conducted by EPA shows that there is no real evidence that hydraulic fracturing of the chemicals will pollute the groundwater. Before next year, EPA will complete the other on the hydraulic fracturing of shale gas exploration on environmental impact studies. On the other hand, there are concerns that the process of hydraulic fracturing will consume a large amount of water. Professor Horsfield, each port shale gas well, would entail 4 million gallons of water to make shale break. (About 3.78 liters 1 gallon) Shale gas development industry is trying to reduce gas well drilling and hydraulic fracturing, the environmental footprint, such as after the completion of each fracturing of water access and reuse. Shale gas drilling on the U.S. built many of the traditional natural gas production sites in the vicinity, so the water can be after fracturing cap ture, processing, and recycling to the next hydraulic fracturing. The U.S. shale gas drilling, 70% water recycling water from hydraulic fracturing. Fungicides used in hydraulic fracturing is one of the concerns raised. Originally, the water by adding chemicals to make water a gel properties, beneficial to hydraulic fracturing; while, the bacteria may prevent chemical reaction, so the water only needs to join the fungicide. But people worried about similar chemicals can leak into groundwater less. Currently, many places have to consider high- intensity ultrasound, filters or other environmental chemicals to kill bacteria in the water. Hydraulic fracturing technology As the shale is not permeable, so rock can not just rely on gas exploration drilling for natural gas in the traditional vertical wells. Back in the 90&#39;s, some companies began test drilling horizontal wells, which can drill a lot more natural gas field in depth. Even so, shale gas exploitation is not enough for a larger profit. Further drilling company began exploring ways to artificially split the rock, that is fracturing. Illinois Institute of Technology United States natural gas (Gas Technology Institute) in Kent? Perry (Kent Perry) said: &quot;The close of the sha le fracturing technology makes traditional natural gas permeable.&quot; Fracturing process is to first of all the millions of liters of water mixed with sand and chemicals, and then the mixture under high pressure into the rock, so that the rock split. Mixture into the rock crevice, while the infiltration of water back, sand were kept in the rock crevices, and then maintain the rock split open state, shale gas could be gradually penetrate them. Currently, the U.S. shale gas developers are 9 km stretch of shale gas in the drilling of horizontal wells, the use of hydraulic fracturing of shale gas exploration. According to Perry introduced in Houston, Texas, oil and gas services company is studying how to drill a gas well as the vertical root system o f multi-port horizontal drilling. This method can be exposed to more in the underground shale gas field. ?
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