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Philip Kotler is the world authority on marketing one. He is a Northwestern
University Kellogg School of Management Graduate School of International and SC
Johnson, professor of marketing scholars. He has received master's degree
in economics from the University of Chicago and Massachusetts Institute of
Technology Ph.D. in economics. He has also engaged in mathematics at Harvard
University, University of Chicago, engaged in conduct post-doctoral and post-doctoral
scientific work.
Dr. Kotler, "Marketing Principles" and "Introduction
to Marketing," the main author. Its "non-profit marketing
organization", is now publishing the fifth edition, is the best-selling book
in the field. Dr. Kotler's other books include: "marketing
model",         the    "new       competition"         and
"Marketing professional services", "educational
institutions,    strategic    marketing,"       "Health        Care
Marketing",         "marketing      the       collection,"
"High View" "Social Marketing",
"marketing site" and "national marketing",
"Hotel and Tourism Marketing", "Standard room: a
strategic marketing performance art", "Museum Strategy and
Marketing,"         "marketing       activities"       and
"Kotler On the marketing. "
In addition, he also first-rate publications, such as "Harvard Business
Review", "Sloan Management Magazine" and
"commercial level", "California Management
Journal," "Marketing Magazine", "Journal
of Marketing Research," "Management Science",
"Journal of Business Strategy" and "future
scholars," and so on, has written more than 100 papers. He was the only
won three times, "阿尔法卡帕普 West Award" for scholars, the
prize is a special award was published in "Journal of
Marketing," the best paper of the year.
Professor Kotler is the establishment of the American Marketing
Association's         "Outstanding        Marketing        Educators
Award" winners of the first (1985). He has won the European marketing
and sales training consultancy Association awarded the "Marketing
Excellence Award." In 1975, Kotler was awarded the American Marketing
Association's "Paul D. Converse Award" in
recognition of his originality in marketing's contribution to science. In
1995, international sales and marketing management organization named him
"marketers." He also received Stockholme University,
University of Zurich, Athens University of Economic and Business, DePaul
University, Krakow Business and Economics, HEC Group Paris and Vienna
University of Economics and Business Administration awarded the honorary
Professor Kotler is now the number of U.S. and foreign companies in marketing
strategies and plans, marketing organizations, integrated marketing consultants, these
companies include: International Business Machines Corporation, General Electric,
American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Honeywell, Bank of America, Merck,
Scandinavian Airlines and the Michelin Company.
Kotler, Professor of Management Science America's current Chairman of
the Joint Marketing Association, American Marketing Association, Marketing Science
Institute trustee, director of management analysis, Yang Keluoweiqi Advisory
Committee, Copernicus Advisory Board. He is a board member of Art Institute of
Chicago and the Drucker Foundation consultant. He has extensive visit to Europe,
Asia and South America, the global marketing opportunities and provide lectures for
many companies refer to any enterprise engaged in marketing activities, will surely
bring more or less the marketing risk and marketing losses. Marketing companies in
order to avoid the risks and losses, normally should be possible potential risk to the
trading system sorting through the development of a complete business process
management and internal audit activities through a rigorous, one can risk the loss
down to marketing minimum, two transactions can improve the quality of marketing
activities, reduce the risk of loss.
Frequent trading enterprise risk types and prophylaxis described as follows:
1. Ignore the market changes or changes in consumer habits, leading to sluggish sales.
a. a system of collecting market information, and the depth of the problem for the
market, prepare strategies and action programs in market activities and implement to
restore the market.
b. depth business growth strategy and a plan put into action.
2. Enterprise product life cycle in the mature stage, growing market competition,
leading to marketing of earnings.
a. Enterprises should be cautious on the product re-positioning, target customers for
new products or new positioning.
b. continuing to further improve product performance, enhanced product features.
c. product and then find new uses and new markets.
3. The lack of an overall marketing strategy company, loss of competitive advantage.
a. Strategic Management awareness training and thinking patterns to outwit.
b. competitors daily to collect relevant information, to get to know ourselves and
benefit from, the development of effective competitive strategy.
c. in-depth consumer behavior and consumer characteristics, development of
differentiated marketing strategy.
d. seeking business advantage, seeking to enhance industry barriers to entry.
4. Enterprises lack the product marketing mix concepts and practices, resulting in low
profit marketing
a. the marginal product of other marketing profit contribution analysis to identify key
marketing products to reduce low-profit products marketing.
b. committed to enhancing value added products, improve product profit contribution.
c. fully extend the product life cycle, improve product profit contribution.
5. Violate government regulations, subject to penalties for government agencies,
resulting in damage to corporate image.
a. a thorough study of the legal rules and regulations, such as fair trade, to avoid being
6. The loss of customer information, resulting in unnecessary competition with the
a. The establishment of customer database and set up customer information
confidential defense system.
b. complete the employee information confidential education, understanding customer
information is the most important intangible asset.
7. Sales for insolvent clients, resulting in bad debts.
a. development of customer credit information and credit measures to implement the
b. full use of external credit information such as the use of the survey is refused to
have contact information to help make credit work.
8. Sales of goods sold below cost price.
a. Cost of goods pricing information must be correct and the market price of the same
industry as commodity pricing.
9. International trade due to currency changes, no foreign exchange hedging,
exchange losses occurred.
a. Enterprise depth analysis of foreign exchange risk and risk characteristics according
to well to avoid foreign exchange risk management measures in response to operation.
10. Marketers sell for less than the reserve price established companies, but not bound,
easy to create unnecessary price competition.
a. the price below the minimum operational staff is through the marketing manager of
the sales agreement, and pay attention to its decision to lead the market to avoid price
competition with industry.
11. Customer order issues to handle errors, the customer refused to accept the sales
transaction matters.
a. Business Process Management System to establish a sound, business processing
requirements in accordance with the provisions of the relevant officers caution.
b. can not forcibly demanding business on behalf of customers to sell to the shipment.
12. Easily accept not manufacture products or orders can not meet quality standards,
resulting in trade disputes.
a. strengthening the business staff product knowledge and business to avoid excessive
emphasis on performance, increase operational staff to prevent abuse of the pressure
to sell from happening.
13. Customers to change orders for the content of effective treatment without delay.
a. Change order to make our customers business processes and requirements related to
personnel coordinate implementation.
14. Without the authorization of the transactions are frequent, business people from
a. business process system was established to strengthen the internal audit, in
particular, enterprises should make computerized computerized internal audit.
15. Customer delivery management flaws often occur late delivery, resulting in trade
disputes occur.
a. development of shipping business process management to require delivery
personnel implemented with certainty. In particular, the manufacturing sector to make
schedule management.
16. Transactions intentional error, or fictitious transactions from fraud.
a. marketing business process management system to establish and implement,
strengthen the computerization of the internal control.
17. All sales activities without an invoice and increase the risk of corporate taxes.
a. All goods shipped actions must be accompanied with the same content of the
b. the stub invoices associated with the contents of customers in line.
c. reasonable grounds for invoice void which can not be canceled, and make void the
invoice processing, to avoid the unnecessary risk of occurrence of the tax.
18. Issuance of invoices not paid in advance for invoice adjustment, inflated sales
a. the establishment of advance payment business process management approach and
b. regular or irregular advance payment for audit to improve the quality of work.
c. uniform invoice to do the necessary adjustments when reporting.
19. Unprovoked stolen goods, the loss occurred.
a. Strengthening the security capabilities and Warehouse personnel due sense of
b. Storage preservation measures to fully prepare.
c. the pragmatic implementation of the internal audit system.
20. Misappropriated client accounts were business people, resulting in bad debt
a. periodic reconciliation of accounts receivable from time to time for work, or have
questions about the reasons for in-depth investigation.
b. the implementation of operational staff work regularly irregular rotation.
c. fidelity insurance business personnel requirements, and guarantee implementation
of the system.
21. Marketers accounts are not actively recycling, resulting in increased bad debt
losses and lead to reduced cash flow. a. specifically responsible for tracking accounts
payable recovery situation, an excuse to avoid marketers evading recover amounts.
b. Customer accounts receivable aging analysis of the table do not provide, and
thorough examination of the accounts in the implementation of effective recovery
strategies and incentives and disincentives.
22. Matter of delay in dealing with customer complaints, damage corporate image,
and even lead to loss of customers so.
a. companies devote their business to build customer complaints is the best
recommendation to improve the corporate culture.
b. enterprises to set up a special department dealing with customer complaints,
customer complaints, according to type of the designated department.
c. advise the customer will deal with the results on the one hand, on the one hand to
the relevant departments for business improvement purposes.
23. Sales return job loss, leading to customer complaints.
a. storage sector actually received by the customer to return goods in a timely manner
in accordance with rules and regulations sales return Sales return operation matters.
b. storage sector should restore product to be re-sales, to reduce the loss of goods
c. whether the correct implementation of the customer accounting unit sales back
d. Unity has asked customers return the invoice.
24. Sales allowance job loss, increased tax burden on enterprises.
a. whether the sales staff to customers on a certificate issued by sales discounts and
b. whether the after sales charge discount to the approval of matters.
c. establish the correct collection of receivables and train staff how to reduce the loss
of sales discounts various methods.
25. Return loss claims operations, resulting in unnecessary losses to increase.
a. Return the causes and responsibilities of the claim confirmed, business is only
responsible for return business claims resulting from improper because expenditures.
b. in-depth study of causes and countermeasures return claims for return of claim does
not happen again.
26. Unauthorized entry into computer operating system operations, data tampering
with a variety of marketing, engaged in corrupt practices. a. computer terminal access
to strictly enforced.
b. the implementation of a computer on every day does end operations to ensure
security of computer database information.
27. Business stakeholders collective cheating.
a. Marketing and business process management system to improve the
implementation of the total paid.
b. marketers character and life assessment should be carried out regularly or
c. establish internal auditing system and implemented.
Author: Chen Huiji

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