Ningbo Modern Industry and Hubei

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					Ningbo Modern Industry and Hubei
Wuhan is a modern businessman Ningbo one of the main activity area. With a good
location advantages of Wuhan and shrewd business sense, to Ningbo Zhejiang
represented groups, active in all areas of modern industry and commerce of Hubei, the
attractive returns, but also for the development of modern industry and commerce of
Hubei has made important contributions.
Active promotion of Hakka businessman is always the main driving force of urban
development in Wuhan. Early in the Hankou business to help the biggest trade of
course ought to Ningbo, and Guangdong merchants. The "Businessmen in
particular for the most unique things 。...... Hankow where, are all buying, selling or
more shipped elsewhere ...... Ningbo, Shanghai, local merchants to 500,000 within a
year Two of the 70 traders, no less than six, so anticipated, then total volume of trade
when no less than 30.002 million or 35.002 million carry on. But those so-called
Shanghai Gang, with its known as the Shanghai Gang, better known as the Shanghai
to the businessmen are more appropriate. "Among them, Zhejiang Ning
merchants in the majority. Ningbo mainly engaged in aquaculture business in Hankou,
jewelry industry, shipping industry, match industry, the hydropower industry, the
cereals line, kerosene line, hardware firms, banks, etc., the main commercial port of
Matheson comprador Hubei mostly encumbered by the Ningbo people.
"Ningbo, Shaoxing, known to help ...... or co Ningshao help. Where a sea
of products of Hankou shops and fine gold and silver industries, mostly to help
account for this. Also the Yangtze River shipping plywood boat operated by both the
Merchants, The inputs for the cotton yarn, cotton cloth, silk, sea products, and the like;
output products as cereals, soybean, tung oil, butter, piece hemp, ramie, cotton, rice,
and the like. "Businessmen many as Hankou, a quick mind, in soliciting
freight, sell foreign goods, the Ningbo comprador often best meet the needs of
Western companies, "easily Zuocheng tobacco, sugar and kerosene, etc.
In Shashi, Ningbo largest number of business is jewelry. "Old Pou
Chen," "old Tian Bao" and "old with the
shock" and "old Danfeng" and other well-known are
the silver floor, Zhejiang No. prescribed Ning help. Swire Pacific, Jardine, An Liying,
Japan and other trading firms in the sand clear comprador Beijing and Taipei is from
Zhejiang. Who act as agents from Ningbo "Shen big",
"Sang", "Matilda" and kerosene number,
taking the surrounding counties Shashi most of kerosene required for wholesale.
Zhejiang Ning help Shashi also diversified into other businesses, such as the old silver
floor Tempo concurrently complex and hospitals, be careful as both a large number of
kerosene,      "Union        Pacific",      "Health       and
Chang" within the village. Management of cotton, grains and other
services. Zhejiang Ning help in the Shashi-run restaurant is also very famous, such as
"Jane          Sea"         and      "Fortune",
"good justice", "Jing Jiangchun" Great
restaurants and so on. Daly is more famous U.S. department store, mainly from
Shanghai and Hankow purchase, engaged in the wholesale business. Yichang Three
North Branch establishment of shipping companies, thus expanding the impact of
Zhejiang. Three North Yichang Branch Manager Renzi Qing Hui and Tu monks, such
as Zhejiang Ning Zhang and Thailand to help traders, businessmen long as the
fire-fighting organizations in appropriate (water dragon above) person in charge of
business quite reputation in Yichang. Renzi Qing Ren Yichang has a Chamber of
Commerce Executive Committee and chairman.
Bulk wholesale trade is the lifeblood of business early in Wuhan. Zhenhai famous
Fang family, which opened there in the Hankou business firms and foreign fabric
wholesale banks with Hong as its Shanghai, Hangzhou, an important part of the firm.
Shi Jinsheng Chen Zhongji is a partnership with the Hangzhou people. In sailing
between Yichang to Zhenjiang trade, from transport timber and kerosene. British and
American Tobacco Company in Hubei, Beijing and Taipei as the first agency
wholesaler from Zhejiang. Which started in Wuchang, Gu Dexin Xu Qing tobacco
companies, British and American tobacco business for 16 years the brand of cigarettes,
is considered the first person to Wuchang area manager. Sanjiang Hankou Lu Chao
Rong tobacco company managers, from 37 years of age, as the company's
manager for 17 years, "called Anglo-American Tobacco Company Hankow
managers of leading it."
"War" period, Ningbo, run by businessmen in Hubei, silk,
jewelry, hardware, paint, dried seafood shops business burgeoned, generally profitable.
"Qu total Chinese market profiteers, still proves the most money to the
industry, especially in Zhejiang to help Coal, the most, followed by Jiangxi to help,
the help and Huizhou, Zhenjiang, followed by help it." After the war, to
help with the logo fading compared to the burgeoning forces of Zhejiang Ning help,
greatly surpass the potential. Hankow market seafood sugar and salt a huge business,
marketing a wide Zhe Su Ning help big help for the industry. Since 1871, Merchants
Dong Shun-venture set up in Hankow No. seafood with spring, there was plenty
smooth, Lichang students, with HSBC, the town of Chang, Yuyuan Xiang, etc.
gradually set up more than 30, the founder to Zhenhai other people. Wing Shing Ping
Ho Street in 1910 set up the "Association of Zhejiang Ninghai
taste." The first franchised store seafood, sugar, after more than
concurrently. 1927 years ago, the import of sugar was occupied by Wuhan market,
such as Zhejiang and sugar Hongchang Ning help line with help of the fellow with the
Shanghai and Zhejiang, the massive wholesale large profits. Hankow Hung
Hung-Chang Chang-Yong Chou Duandian Department of Ningbo silk warehouse
manager Ma Guanqun founded in 1903 The annual rate of about 30% net profit.
Zhejiang Ning as the Banks, the major banks all over the north and south of Yangtze
River Ports, which makes Ningbo businessmen in exploring the mainland market have
a distinct advantage. No matter where they go, there is a ready source of credit loans.
Because most banks prefer to shop on the Association to finance the investment or
convenience. Zhejiang to help banks in the financial industry Hankow plays a
decisive role, "lid operated by Zhejiang silk, jewelry, hardware, paint and
other industries, are accounted the first Chinese port, thus the power to help the
financial industry with the largest. And Zhejiang to help the Chuang, well-managed,
can work together to echo the well-informed on the one hand and the banks close, one
side strive to compete with his help, complex in their capitalized, the highest in the
help, capable, and more money good Jia, resulting in today's situation,
good non-accidental. "" War "period, the Shanghai
Financial via Hankow put a lot of money on behalf of banks, the Banks of Zhejiang
Ning intermediary operations, business is very active in the industry for the money
Hankow zenith. 1925, 17 Hankow the Banks capital of Zhejiang 1,178,000 2, more
than this to help the Banks other than the sum of the capital. The banking sector,
National Commercial, Industrial, Zhejiang, four-Dominion Bank, Commercial Bank
of China to establish a branch in Hankou long. In which National Commercial Bank
as Hankou, Wuhan branch will not only focus area, while Hanyang, Yellowstone lime
kiln and other places set up offices in the financial sector in Hubei influential. 4 out
bank notes were once popular in northwestern Hubei shops welcome discount for
each silver dollar notes about race than 2 percent, mainly due to local banditry serious,
silver coins carry the inconvenience of it.
Businessman and Hubei Modern Trade is also reflected in the weights and measures
and so on. Balance by the Ningbo Zhejiang Ning from merchants into Hankou, the
first only in rice, coal, firewood and other transactions to use. The balance due after
the British equivalent to every fear, a fear scale with the same customs, used by
foreign businessmen, the music, then big obtaining the trade will cosmopolitan,
Hankow market and become one of GM's major scales. Where the input
output of goods, are subject Zhejiang Ning scale.
Commercial lines market is slow to promote the development of modern Hubei
important driving force. As a major business group of modern, Ningbo businessmen
in Hubei Province was the first foreign business to help build one of the clubhouse.
Kangxi reign (1662), Zhejiang silk merchant first in Hankow Landmark Square
through the construction of Jiangsu and Zhejiang ceremony hall. Qianlong 40 years
(1780), Ningbo merchants to contact the Association to maintain the business for the
purpose of the construction of the Hankow Kau Bridge Zhejiang Ning hall. Xuantong
first year (1909) renamed as Ningbo Hall. In Gaza City, Zhejiang businessmen built
Hall of original purchase, within the stage, statues, large-scale. Businessman up for
funding, advocate the use of the name of Ningbo Hall. But other Zhejiang divided,
then naming isolated Pang Hall, take in Hangzhou and Ningbo Pang Mountain
Gushan the word. Merchants then in Shashi liujiachang Hall was built in Ningbo, one.
Hankou Business Association was established in 1907, held the public familiar with
Business, the expectations of those who as prime minister prime Fu, associate,
representative of various sectors gang were elected as members of the Board and
Directors meeting. In 1916, Hankou business reorganization of the Federation of
Chamber of Commerce according to law. Zhejiang Ning Chamber of Commerce to
help business in the early Hankow previous total, the Associate and the proposed
directors will be directors in a considerable proportion (see Table 1).
Table 1 Ning businessmen in Zhejiang Chamber of Commerce in previous positions
Hankow List

If not listed in the table with the other Zhejiang businessmen, and after two
consecutive terms president of the Association of Zhou Xingtang Hankou (Shaoxing),
to Ningbo, Zhejiang businessmen represented in the Hankou business after obtaining
a business in Shanghai position. Businessman from Zhejiang ranked first in the old
China trade, the second of two major commercial port, which has the status of proof
in modern China's tremendous impact on commercial trade.
The situation and be good at the commercial capital to industrial capital
transformation, which is Ningbo businessmen have a prominent feature. 1889, Zhang
was transferred to Hubei and Hunan Governor, blow away the cobwebs, massive
Westernization set up the New Deal. Late Wuhan to become one of the fastest
growing industries. Cause when we Hubei process of modernization, but also clearly
see the figure Ningbo. One of them was Zhang Zhidong as "persons with
whom," Song Wei Chen, shall be the main representative. Chen Wei Song
boyhood home of specialties, in Zhenhai shop apprentice, after relatives and taken to
Shanghai, Introduction to business celebrities Ye Cheng Zhong. After several life
experiences, Xie Chang-match factory manager in Shanghai. 1896, Song Wei Ye
Cheng Zhong Chen commissioned by the Hankow to look for investment
opportunities. The following year, he and Ye Cheng Zhong invested 140,000 yuan
each, offering 140,000 yuan, was founded in Hankow Tongji Xie Chang matches
outside the second plant, to become the first from the national capital of Hubei
modern industrial enterprises operate. Plants produce 100 million boxes of matches
Shuangshi card, the output ranks first in the country. Production was divided into
profit 180 000 2.
1903, Xie Chang-match factory established the success of Song Wei Chen, see Tai
Hing Hubei Academy, training new troops, needs a lot of woolen uniforms, school
uniform, shoes and boots. Washington was set up in Jianghan Road, leather woolen
uniform number, military camps and schools contracted to produce bulk orders. Since
the main raw materials and skilled workers are from Shanghai, produced, popular.
Early 20th century, the company set up both economic and Hydropower, Wuhan city
is an important symbol of modernization, founder of both water and electricity
companies to become the economic minister at the pinnacle, Song Wei. 1906, Zhang
Zhidong, Times New Roman police to intervene hydropower reluctant to let foreign
investment intentions, then invite the rich provinces of Hubei, Zhejiang and Jiangxi,
set stock investment, water and electricity company was founded in Hankou. Both the
economic meaning of the fire water, known as the "commercial town of
both the Chinese economy run and Hydropower Corporation." Approved
by Zhang Zhidong under construction, and granting patents. Transmission plant built
in 1908, completed the following year water plant. After a subsequent expansion of
the company's equipment, the total installed power of 1,500 kilowatts,
accounting for the domestic private power plant at that time the total installed
capacity of 1 / 3 or more, become well-known commercial enterprises run water and
electricity. During this period, Song Wei Chen has also invest Hankou Yangtze
Machinery Plant, Shenyang new fuchikou copper, copper and other factories, mines
Chushan Ng Fung. In which he and Zhejiang Railway Corporation, the Hanyang Iron
Works, and Wang Guang, who founded the Yangtze Machinery Plant Joint Stock
full-scale production at a large shortage of railways, bridges, engines, boilers and
machinery parts company who have created the Han Ye Ping 20 large barges, in
Hubei modern machinery occupies an important position in the history of industrial
In the Hankou business in Ningbo, Song Wei Chen as the commercial profits that
investment in industry, business capital and industrial capital in close connection with
the examples abound. The market for commercial capital keen sense of Ningbo
merchants who often first to market needs, and have good prospects for investment
products, with special emphasis on style and production. In its demonstration effect,
the other manufacturers competing to follow, so as to promote a product upgrade.
Modern industry and handicraft in Hubei many famous enterprises are founded by
Ningbo merchants. Such as the 1911 He Baoqing (Zhenhai) founded BAUER dyeing;
1912, Hou-mo (Zhenhai) shoe factory founded by Mao in mind, and founded in
Ningbo and Shaoxing Association Stock in the East China silk dyeing factory, Yaohua
glass, realgar plant and so on. Hubei flour industry is the fastest growing sectors of
modern industrial one. The first mechanism Hubei mill shall be founded by Ningbo
merchants. In 1904, Sheng Chu-books financing purchase, founder of the Han Feng
Flour Mill in Hankou. Sheng, general manager, the workers mostly from Ningbo and
Shanghai. In 1906, there Ningbo King Hing Wan bought the machine in France,
owned start-up dragon mill in the French Concession, namely, 18-inch, 20 inch mill 4,
the daily output of 300 packets. In addition, grain and oil processing industry there is
still Nguyen Van Zhong (Ningbo) factory founded in Hankow Yuanfeng soybean meal,
and Stock in 1907 traders Ningbo Hanyang run in SF oil extraction plant.
Building and Construction industry is the modernization of Ningbo for the Hubei
made outstanding contributions to another important area. Early construction of the
skilled workers in Wuhan, many from Shanghai and Ningbo. Help as the
representative of Ningbo Zhejiang help create a factory once occupied the half of
modern construction market in Wuhan, Wuhan city for the modern face of
fundamental change, made an indelible contribution. Hankou in Hubei since the early
years, particularly after the New Deal Zhang massive Westernization set up all kinds
of modern buildings and industrial production base in the construction sequence.
Cement, refractory cement, steel structure and a large number of European and
American architectural styles were introduced, forming a rather impressive modern
construction market. By Ming Changyu Han Association represented Zhejiang Sheng
Ning help builders, in Wuhan is still left a large number of commendable works of
modern architecture. In 1894, Zhou Kunyu Dinghai people by their serving sent to
Hankou Shanghai Construction Co., for Yokohama Specie Bank Building, the
building construction. Responding to Hankow Matheson everywhere, the market
becomes more prosperous, the future of the construction market wide, week resigned
from the work of Shanghai Construction Co., the joint venture with counterparts in
Hankow Mingchang too wooden factory, began contracting housing construction. In
1898, founder of the Ming Changyu Zhou Kunyu wood factory, opened in Wuhan to
become the first Chinese production plant. Tsun Wen has been the construction of
cotton mills, tobacco companies Yizhong, Shashi packing plants, commercial
racecourse west of Shanghai cinema and other large projects. To resolve the brick
Zhicijiagao, shortage of contradictions, the beginning of the Ming founder Changyu
began concurrently brick and tile production, offering a margin note brick. German
business ethics through the modeled source brick products and production techniques
pioneered in Hankow Chinese businessmen in the mechanism of red tiles. Si has
imitated Jiande type kiln, to make brick production, quality and a substantial increase,
and led the industry race to follow, promote Wuhan brick and tile production machine
into a new stage. Compared with the Ming Changyu, then run by the Chinese
Association Sheng Construction Co. grow faster and soon occupied the first name of
Wuhan location of the construction industry. In 1905, packaged plant engineering
contractor Hankow peaceful co-Sheng Construction Co., Shanghai, Ningbo Shen wish
to appoint three to come over the construction. 1908, Shen Shuzo Liuhe Road in
Hankou, the Society founded the Han Sheng Construction Co., construction contracts
with foreign countries. Since there is calm and packaging plant in the project
demonstrated the level of first-class construction, and soon the three famous town.
To ensure the quality of brick, Chinese companies co-Sheng Fu Cheng Tak brick
purchase price, purchase 60 horsepower steam engine, l6-inch brick and other key
equipment, annual production capacity of more than 10 million bricks, a brick factory
in Hubei's largest mechanism . Si-Fu Cheng Rolling Stone has opened
factories in Hankou, a factory was built in ash refining the use of lime shaft kiln.
Resort and Commercial Bank Relationship Manager, Dao-Ping Wang of the
Association, Chinese Association and eaten in large enough areas to facilitate
financial intermediation, one should equipment, everything. Wuhan quickly
developed into the largest, and the nature of a trust to create a factory, worked in
Wuhan, the construction of a number of large cotton mills, banks, and Jing Ming
Building, domestics such a large number of famous buildings and building modern
industrial and mining enterprises (see Table 2).
Table 2 Association Sheng Han Chinese and they undertake to create a plant list in

Reinforced concrete structure in which the four-Dominion Bank building is the tallest
building in Wuhan three time. Constructed by the Chinese Association for containing
the main building of Wuhan University and Xuan Palace Hotel, due to unique design,
engineering quality, still considered masterpieces of contemporary architecture in
Wuhan, praised by the community. In addition to co-Sheng Han, Ming Changyu, the
Zhejiang in Chinese construction companies are run by Hong Sang Han Cheong Shun
Qian Mei Kee, Kee Yip, Chinese Hexing other home. As the Chinese construction
industry of Zhejiang to the large number of Zhe Jiang Lvhan mud carpenter division
as early as 1909, and financed the construction of building offices, a meeting of
Procedure of the Office. Ningbo builders to build tall buildings in Wuhan and
factories, hospitals, schools, it is also a group of new neighborhood built in Wuhan,
residential areas. 1908, Ye Cheng Zhong purchase land for the construction in Taixing
in Hankow. In 1921, four out banks in the vicinity of Hankow busy Jianghan purchase
land for the construction Ningbo Li. Han Sheng Construction Co. Association by the
remaining building materials and old materials were in San Yuan Li, the Republican
years, Germany and China in the construction of residential buildings and pavement.
There are also commercial bank, Societe Generale acquired or constructed, the
Zhejiang Industrial Bank in such acquisition or construction of Yichang. Of the
increase in Western-style buildings and Lane Residence before, Wuhan as
"siding" Residential construction is increasingly representative
of the old pale. Recalling the recent changes have taken place in Wuhan, Ningbo Ji
deserve credit for builders.

Hubei Province to transport the beginning of modern wooden transportation sectors.
Hankow until after the Opening wheeled transport, but mostly dominated by foreign
shipping companies, China Merchants, a ferry company only. 1908 initiative by the
fear of contact Qing, Zhejiang Ningbo, Shaoxing and Ningbo and Shaoxing two are
fellow founder of the Merchant Shipping Company. In 1913, Yu Qing contact another
wholly-owned shipping company offering three north. In the same year, the French
Business Eastern Shipping Company closed down, the company rented the East
Ningshao pier warehouse in Hankow, with three North company agent Hung company
to come and Han, opened in Shanghai Chinese route. The two companies combined in
Jianghan      Road     office,  has     invested    "Ningshao",
"Chang",         "Tak"         3.    When      the
"Ningshao" maiden voyage arrived in Hankou, the trip by the
Chinese Association of Ningbo and Shaoxing two 23 thousand welcomes. Crowded
near the pier, very temporary Sheng. "War" period, the Yangtze
River tariffs rise, Ningbo and Shaoxing in the company purchase the
"quiet" to join the Shanghai Chinese route. Three companies are
set up so quickly the North Course, "Xing" round, once per
week between Shanghai and the Han, while additional positive class and vice classes,
input "Changxing," "Ming Xing",
"Desing" and six passenger ships, every 10 days from the first.
Xiangtan Hankow to open soon after flights to Shanghai ~ ~ Changsha Hankou direct
flights. In 1921, three North Huachang in Hankow shipping companies to buy all the
industries to operate Han Xiang line. The following year, the ED also great to Western
companies to buy American in Hankow of terminals, warehouses and barges, in
Hankow ho Road is a four-office building and warehouse. CDB 1927, Yichang,
Hankou to the route. Then purchase Kawafune 2, open-line application Yu direct route,
and the construction of buildings and goods in Yichang stack. To June 1936, the
Yangtze River Three routes between North company has reached 10 ships, 14,582
tonnages. 3 North, Ningbo and Shaoxing in the Yangtze River shipping company
continued to expand and close the coastal and southwest Hubei and economic ties,
promoting the development of international trade port. Hubei agricultural output to
the bulk of cotton, cotton trade is dominant in Hubei Chinese businessmen to trade
one of the very few. The company previously shipped from the foreign ships, often in
the freight and shipping arrangements discriminated against. Since the three North,
Ningbo and Shaoxing in the rise of the two companies, Hubei to Shanghai, Qingdao,
cotton, and more shipments from the two companies, and China Merchants. In 1934,
Hankou cotton business with three companies a one-year contract of reciprocity. 3
North, Ningbo and Shaoxing in tariffs and priority shipment in the right context, are
favored. "The spirit of fellowship, to the foot is also admirable."
Along with the three North, Ningbo and Shaoxing cities along the Yangtze River in
Hubei, business expansion, many businessmen began to get involved to help Zhejiang
Ning Hubei modern insurance industry and warehousing. Ningshao insurance
companies such as shipping companies in Hankou and Wuchang Pei Ho Street
Ningshao agents are equipped to fire water main. Ningshao life insurance companies
established in Hankou Road, Hankou Branch civil rights. 4 out insurance companies
and the Warsaw branch office Hankow grouped, they also cover the main water and
fire insurance. Here, banks pledge loans, they sell storage business is common in
Hubei Province. National Commercial Bank that opened there in Hankow Mega, Star
note stack, and the Societe Generale of Hanyang stack. Zhejiang Industrial Bank to
open a letter in the Hanyang Fu stack, to serve multiple, multi-profits.
Market history. Looking back at recent history Ningbo businessmen in Hubei
contribution and impact, Zhejiang, shrewd businessmen, tenacity and pioneering spirit
is impressive. May 24, 2004, Wuhan, local newspapers have published such a
message: "Zhejiang Army yesterday signed a large single, 40.3 billion
investment in building participation in our province." "Zhejiang
investment will help River City BAL." We believe, Zhejiang and Hubei,
the capital, and mechanisms and resources, cost advantages complement each other,
the two provinces of economic development will be even more powerful and brilliant

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