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Question: To what extent was Canada a Major
Participant in the Second World War?
Answers by: Steven

1) Canada joins World War 2

   (Pg103)

   Canada declared war on Germany in September 10, 1939

2) Canada wasn’t prepared for the war

   (Pg103-104)

   Canada had low army, air force and navy troops. Equipments were outdated and unfit for combat. Only
   4500 troops with low equipments such as anti-tank gun.

3) Canada’s involvement of British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

   (Pg104)

   Canada hosted and administers a training plan in which British can train their troops in Canada. BCATP
   trained over 130,000 pilots, navigators, flight engineers, and ground staff. Canada paid 70% of the $2.2
   billion spent.

4) Canada used Total war again during World War 2.

   (Pg104)

   King and C.D. Howe directed manufacturing. They made industries what to produce and how to
   produce. Crown corporations (industry owned by the government) replaced those private sectors that
   can‟t produce what Howe wanted.

5) Canada was in the Allies’ force in the War

   (Pg106)

   The allies‟ force, including Britain, France, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, stationed quietly along
   France border with German and waited for German‟s movement, which was known as the “phoney war”.

6) Involvement of the Battle of Britain

   (Pg107)

   80 Canadian fighter pilots joined British forced against Germany.




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                            1
7) Involvement of War in the Pacific

   (Pg108)

   Canada sent 1975 troops to Hong Kong, but all were either killed or taken prisoner.



8) Canada’s involvement in Dieppe Raid

   (Pg109)

   Canada tried to secretly attack German from the shore, but met a German convoy on the way. They
   were mulled down when they got to the shore. On August 19, 1943, the most terrible mistake was made.
   907 Canadians died, 1874 taken prisoner and 586 wounded.

9) Royal Canadian Navy was very important to Battle of the Atlantic

   (Pg111)

   They started massive training and building program. Canadian built warships such as corvettes and
   convoys to protect vital supply ships

10) Benefit of the Battle of Atlantic

   (Pg113)

   Canada had 400 vessels and over 100,000 sailors by 1945. Merchant navy, protected by convoys,
   completed over 25,000 voyages across the Atlantic.

11) RCAF(Royal Canadian Air Force) played an important role

   (Pg113-114)

   250,000 Canadians joined RCAF during the World War 2. They bombed raids in Britain, North Africa,
   Italy, Northwest Europe and Southeast Asia. They were also bombing Germany at night.

12) Canada joined allies’ invasion of Italy

   (Pg115-116)

   The invasion went from July 10, 1943 to May 8, 1945(spring, last took over Rome). 1372 soldiers died.

13) Involvement in D-Day, which was the biggest invasion of the war

   (Pg116)

   June 6, over 30,000 Canadians landed on Juno Beach as part of first attack.

14) Canada was giving separate tasks during the D-Day Invasion

   (Pg118)
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                         2
   They needed to liberate Netherlands. After Netherlands surrounded, Canada begun air drop food and
   fuels and traveled by convoy of truck to the civilian of Netherlands. Therefore, Canadians were hailed as
   heroes of Netherland.

15) Involvement of the Nuclear Bomb

   (Pg122)

   Canada secretly bought the uranium mine in Great Bear Lake, NWT for the U.S. and British scientist to
   work on the nuclear bomb.

16) Canada’s prevention of Inflation.

   (Pg 123)

   Because of the war, production and employment were very high, so King wanted to prevent inflation
   (spending too much, taking in too little). In 1942, he introduced food rotation, which limited Canadian‟s
   good s per week.

17) Conscription Crisis

   (Pg124-125)

   In all provinces but Quebec, most people agreed on conscription, which had divided the nation again.
   King‟s slogan “Not necessarily conscription, but conscription if necessary” failed to work. He avoids
   conscription oversea, but in 1944, the invasion of Europe leads conscription again oversea. 2463
   Canadian conscripts out of 12,000 reached the front.

18) Rapid increase of manufacturing production in Canada

   (Pg125, 128)

   All goods (transportations, food) and services (nursing) increased. Canada provided military and
   economic support to the Allies. Canada became a modern industrial nation.

19) Urbanization due to the total war

   (Pg128)

   Many people moved to urban to look for jobs. Manufacturing was more important then agriculture, so
   Canadian cities and industrial areas became important to the economy of Canada.

20) Result of World War 2 to Canada

   (Pg128)

They had world‟s third-largest (allied) navy and fourth-largest air force.
Largest navies: Britain, US (only joined in 1941), Germany, Canada.




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                             3
20 Answers
Question: In its treatment of minorities, have
Canadians become more tolerant during the period of
1914-2000?
Answers by: Abraham

1) Starting in 1914, minorities were not accepted at all. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-In the summer of 1914- Komagata Maru incident – because of Canada imposing the continuous
voyage act, the Komagata Maru, carrying mostly Sikh‟s were forced to return to India from
Vancouver. P.12

2) Land was often taken without consent or care. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-In the early 1900‟s. Aboriginals were put onto reserves and their children were put into residential
schools to assimilate into white culture. P.12

3) Immigrants were unable to come to Canada. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-A head tax was imposed on immigrants – particularly the Chinese and east Indians to prevent
many east Asians from coming to Canada. P.12

4) Immigrants were often victims of open discrimination. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
 -During the early 1900‟s immigrants were openly discriminated. They were paid less for doing the
same jobs as whites and prices for goods cost more. There were also many instances of riots and
in 1907 whites attacked stores and homes owned by Chinese and Japanese Immigrants. P.12

Aboriginals have their rights to religious and cultural ceremonies taken away by changes to
the Indian Act. [aboriginal powerpoint]

5) Canadians didn‟t let aboriginals enlist at the start of the First World War. Canada wasn’t
tolerant of minorities
-Aboriginals were not originally accepted into the army until after the Government needed more
soldiers and many African and Japanese Canadians were enlisted reluctantly. Even though these
groups overcame racist attitudes there was still discrimination evident as few were promoted. P.25

6) During WWI and WWII immigrants were treated unfairly. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-During WWI, many east Europeans were detained without the government having to lay charges
due to the War Measures Act. The habeas corpus was taken away. P.27

7) In WWI, the French living in Quebec did not get a say in many things. Canada wasn’t tolerant
of minorities
-When PM Borden introduced the military service act aka conscription, the French were outraged.
They did not believe in fighting a war that had nothing to do with them and didn‟t feel a connection
between Britain. P.39-40

8) In 1920, even after Aboriginals fought in the war and died along side Canadians, it didn‟t change
anything back home. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
-Aboriginals still weren‟t classified as people and Social and economic conditions on reserves were
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                      4
poor. They also tried looking for jobs but were met with hostility and discrimination.
P.69-70

9) The KKK rose to power in the 1920‟s following the war. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
-During this time the KKK started hunting Blacks or people from different ethnic origins. They would
drag Black citizens out onto the street and hang them. The KKK was a white supremacist group
that even consisted of people who upheld the law. P.71

10) After the WWII, immigrants from East Europe were only treated worse. Canada wasn’t
tolerant of minorities.
- Immigrants from Russia and Eastern Europe were often accused of being socialist revolutionaries
and the government deported them. The government also adopted immigration restrictions so only
British and U.S citizens could. Immigrants were also treated unfairly as they did dangerous jobs for
low pay that no Canadians wanted, and unions were unsupportive. P.71

11) During WWII, Japanese Canadians were discriminated against. Canada wasn’t tolerant of
minorities.
 -Japanese Canadians were jailed and help in internment camps. Their land was also taken away
from them and sold. P.126
Doukhobors, Hutterites and Mennonites were not allowed to vote because they refused to
participate in the war due to religious beliefs. Doukhobors were only given the vote back in 1953.

12) Canada didn‟t listen to French Canadians. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
- When Canada was discussing the matter regarding the new Canada flag, the French citizen‟s
pleas went unheard and this emotional debate split the country. P.194

13) Trudeau imposes the war measures act in Peace times. Canada wasn’t tolerant of
minorities.
-Trudeau imposes the war measures act in peace time to combat the FLQ crisis. This is the only
time it has ever been used in a peace time. Quebec citizens were outraged when troops moved in
and let to Trudeau‟s famous interview “Just watch me.” P.195

14) Trudeau created the official language act. Canada gradually becomes more tolerant of
minorities.
- Trudeau created the official language act in 1969 under the Bi-Bi Commission. This stated that
English AND French were the official languages of Canada. P.194

15) Canada watches as the 1980 referendum takes place. Canada is tolerant of minorities.
-The 1980 referendum called by PQ leader Rene Leveque ended in a failure, however, Canada
respects this act and Trudeau makes a speech about how Canada should remain united.
P.198

16) Night of the long Knives. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
- The “Night of the long Knives” happened when all province leaders minus Quebec come to a
compromise late at night in a kitchen hotel. When Quebec found out they felt betrayed. Notes

17) Charter of rights and Freedoms. Canada is tolerant of minorities.
- The charter of rights and freedoms is established in 1982 to guarantee minority equality with
fellow Canadians. Minority language and education is allowed. P.199

18) Aboriginals deemed as “Persons” Canada is tolerant of minorities.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                   5
- Aboriginals are considered “persons” under the law in 1949. They are allowed to vote in provincial
governments and later in federal governments in 1960. Throughout the 1950s, laws restricting their
rights to lawyers for land claims battles and potlatches are revoked. However, they are still subject
to abuse (adoption scoop and relocation of Inuit) during this time. P.68-70

19) Canada becomes a middle power. Canada is tolerant of minorities.
- Canada becomes more respectful of minorities and becomes a middle power to help poor
Countries and build links between the East and West and North and South. They aim to establish
global peace. P.147

20) “Bill 101” Canada is tolerant of minorities.
-Canada respects Quebec when they pass Bill 101 which makes French the only official language
in Quebec. P. Notes

Also:
St. Louis – Canada turns away Jews trying to escape the Holocaust
Komagata Maru
Head Tax
Anti-Potlatch laws




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                  6
20 Answers

Question: Describe Canada‟s shift from being under
the British sphere of influence to being under the
American sphere of influence between 1914-2000.
Answers by: Martin

   1. The Battle of Vimy Ridge: This battle had showed Canadian independence since they were
      chosen to lead an assault. These Canadian troops were brave and precise and completing
      their objective in less than 2 hours. Canadians take pride from this battle since it‟s their great
      achievement, with little to no help from Britain.

   2. The Alaskan Panhandle: When the British voted to let the US have the Alaskan Panhandle,
      Canadians dislike that the British sided with the Americans. This has loosened their bonding
      relationship with each other.

   3. Women changes over the 1920s: The fashion of women has changed drastically compared
      to the Victorian era that was influenced by the British. Now, “Flappers” are the new fashion
      of women, which shows Canadian society differing from Britain‟s.

   4. The Chanak Crisis: When Britain was planning on an invasion on Turkey in the 1920s,
      Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King refused to help with the invasion. This shows
      more independence and confidence of Canada.

   5. The King-Byng Crisis: After the 1925 elections, King was about to get resigned since his
      part of the government was too weak with the Conservatives against him. King wanted to
      call an election and asked Governor General Viscount Byng, but he refused King‟s advice.
      Soon after, King forced Byng to call an election and from then on, no Governor General has
      ever disobeyed the Prime Minister.

   6. The Balfour Report: In 1926, the Imperial Conference had pushed away Canada from much
      of British influences. Britain wanted Canada to govern itself without Britain‟s help or
      autonomy.

   7. The Statute of Westminster: This gave Canada the official right to be equal to Britain since
      Britain cannot afford to fund all of its colonies. All British Colonies are then freed from under
      Britain.

   8. The US investing in Canadian‟s economy: In the 1920s, Canada could not have traded with
      Britain since they were too much in debt from the Great War. The US decided to invest more
      in Canada, sending in branch plants all around Canada. This increased American influence
      to Canada.

   9. Many cultures and fads from the US: These traditions had directly came from the US
      including songs, what young teens do, fashion, style, radio staions and others. When the

20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                        7
       tourists from the US come to visit Canada, Canadians were highly influenced by the fashion
       the tourists had.
   10. Hollywood stars and their influences: Many Hollywood movie stars have made Canadians
       gone crazy. None of any Canadian films could‟ve compared to American movies.

   11. Racism and the KKK: The racist group, Ku Klux Klan was founded in the US and hated all
       non-protestants and all non-whites. They had moved from the US to Canada as smaller
       branches of their Klan. These were all American influences affecting Canada. An example
       would be the branch in Vancouver of 1925.

   12. The Halibut Treaty: In 1923, Canada had signed their very first treaty with the US on it‟s own
       without Britain under control. This treaty made it so people now have fishing rights in the
       Northern Pacific Ocean, since there had be a decline on Halibuts. King resisted when the
       British also wanted to sign the treaty, which shows Canada‟s independence and how British
       influences don‟t affect Canada anymore.

   13. Canada‟s declaration of war: On September 10, 1939, Canada had officially declared war
      on Germany. This has been the very first time that Canada had declared war as autonomy.

   14. The Dieppe Raid: Canada was seen so less in Europe, therefore, they were chosen to be
       the main attackers in the Dieppe Raid. Canada had engaged battle with little to no help from
       the British, but unfortunately, the raid failed with high casualties.

   15. NATO, alliance with the US: The US as a superpower after the Second World War made it a
       great country to befriend. Canada joined the military alliance of NATO with the US as the
       superpowers of it influences Canada greatly.

   16. NATO in affect: The US built radars: Pinetree Line, DEW Line, and the Mid-Canada Line.
       This is the first time the US had built military personnel in Canada. This can bond the
       relationship with the US greatly.

   17. Korean and Vietnam War: As the US backed up both South Korea and South Vietnam
       because they were both democratic, Canada had supported just like the US. Canada was
       very dedicated in helping as the US had subliminally influenced them to do so. However,
       although Canada participated in the Korean War, they did not back the US in the
       Vietnam War. Many Americans who refused to be conscripted fled to Canada at this
       time.

   18. The Suez Crisis: Although the Suez Canal was privately owned by the British and the
       French, Canada had help solve the problem. Lester Pearson had won the Nobel Peace
       Prize medal as well as Canada taking the leading role in the United Nations.

   19. The Mulroney Era: Mulroney had gotten closer ties with President Reagan and they
       replaced Trudeau‟s FIRA with Investment Canada and were open for the US to trade. This
       led to the Free Trade Agreement with the US.

   20. US interests and the CRTC: The US culture and tradition had overwhelmed Canadian
       citizens so much such as Marilyn Monroe, in movies, radio, television, Canadian
       government had to but the Canada‟s Regulation for Telecommunication Commission in
       affect. This means all television; radios or other entertainment must have at least 30% of
       Canadian content in it. As the government is afraid Canada will lose it‟s identity.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                  8
20 Answers

   Question: Describe the role of French Canada in
   influencing Canadian politics from 1914-the present.
   Answers by: Aaron


1917 (p39-41) - During WWI, Henri Bourassa and Quebecois opposed conscription. They did not
see WWI as their was and expressed their views very vocally. They would have won the election,
but Borden ensured victory by allowing all those affiliated with the war vote. Riots occurred when
conscription passed, and left a lasting impression on Canada.

1936-1939, 1944-1959 - Maurice Duplessis is the Premier of Quebec, and sees Quebec as a
distinct nation rather than just another Canadian province. He strongly opposed the growing
powers of the federal government, and did everything he could to get him and Quebec what he
wanted.

1938 (p103) - Canada is about to enter war. Minister of justice, Ernest Lapointe from Quebec told
parliament that Quebec "will never afree to conscription and will never be members or supporters
of a government that will try to enforce it." William Lyon Mackenzie King needed the support of
Quebec to enter the war, so he assured Quebec (and parliament) that 'so long as [the Liberals]
may be in power no such measure] conscription] shall ever be enacted."

1949-1951 (p133) -In Quebec, Premier Maurice Duplessis was very vocal about his views against
communism. Police were given the authority to raid homes and offices in search any material that
could be dubbed 'revolutionary.' The Padlock Law (adopted in 1937) was used to shut down
newspapers and suspected organizations spreading communist propaganda. These views of
communism spread across Canada.

1955-1960 (p174-175) - Prime Minister Diefenbaker was a firm believer in unhyphenated
Canadianism. Quebec did not appreciate this, as they saw their culture as distinct. This eventually
led to a new take on multiculturalism -- known as Bi-Bi.

1960 (p192) - The Quiet Revolution begins. Drastic political and social changes occur. The
influence of the Roman Catholic Church declined, and people began to think of themselves as
citizens of the 20th century. These ideas began to spread across the nation.

1960 (p193-194) - Prime Minister Lester Pearson notices that Quebecois are getting increasingly
more opinionated about separation. He appoints the Royal Commission to investigate how he can
make them happy. They Bi-Bi solution becomes very popular.

1964-1965 (p193-194) More pressure applied to Prime Minister to make Quebecois happy. A new,
less British flag is to be issued. Many Canadians opposed the new flag because they thought that
Quebec was getting too spoiled.

1967 (p193) - René Lévesque leaves the Liberal Party and forms the separatist Parti Québécois.
This party proves to be very influential in its time.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                    9
1968-1969 (p194-195) - Pierre Trudeau comes into power and believes that Quebec should be
catered to in order to keep them happy. He passes the Official Languages Act, thus making French
one of two official Languages of Canada.

1970 (p195-196) - The FLQ kidnap two political figures and will only release them if their requests
are met. Their requests are not met, and Trudeau decides to take drastic action -- he puts the Was
Measures Act into effect. When a reporter asks how far Trudeau will go, he simply replies 'Just
Watch Me.'

1977 (p196-197) - Premier Lévesque passes the 'Charter of the French Language,' also known as
'Bill 101.' French becomes the ONLY official language. Non-Quebecois saw this move as too
extreme and oppressive. They looked to the federal government to find a way to preserve a united
Canada and decrease separatist ideas.

1976-1980 (p196-197) - René Lévesque and the Parti Québécois come to power in Quebec. A
provincial referendum is held to see whether or not Quebec should seperate from Canada. The
referendum ended up 60 to 40 with the PQ losing. This was not the last of these votes to come.
Quebec's separation is a constant theme in the 20th century.

1981 (p200) - Lévesque fears that the Charter will be used to override the language laws he had
set up in Quebec -- so he gives all the premiers (and PM) a hard time when trying to come to terms
on an amending formula. This makes Trudeau go behind his back with the other premiers and
reach a final decision. This betrayal is known as the 'Kitchen Compromise,' and will forever leave a
bad taste in Quebec's mouth.

1982 (p199-200) - In order to keep Quebecois happy, PM Trudeau announced plans to revise the
constitution. He brought it all the way from Britain and patriated it just to keep his word (and satisfy
Quebec).

1981-1982 (p200) - Trudeau and the gang rewrite the amending formula to make sure that
changes could be made to the constitution even without the consent of Quebec. They knew French
Canada was very opposed to some of their ideas, so they found a way around it. Flags in Quebec
flew at half-mast when the new Constitution Act was signed in 1982.

1984 (p201) - Prime Minister Brian Mulroney promises to repair the damage done in 1982 to
Quebec by getting their consent to the Constitution. This is a major campaign promise the
essentially won him the election.

1987 (p201-202) - The Meech Lake Accord draws much attention to the state of Quebec. The
Accord will recognize Quebec as a distinct society and create 'two solitudes' in Canada. This
sparked many heated debates as to whether this would strengthen relationships or strain them.
Once again, Quebec was politicians' center of discussion.

1987 (p202) The Meech Lake Accord ultimately disintegrated because Manitoba and
Newfoundland had not supported it. This failure was seen as humiliating for Quebec. By 1990, 64
percent of Quebecois supported separation. Lucien Bouchard leaves Mulroney's cabinet and forms
the Bloc Quebecios, heavily-separatist party.

1994-present (p203-204) The Parti Quebecois is provincially elected in 1994. Once again, a
referendum is held to see whether or not Quebec would separate from Canada. This is a very
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                     10
close vote. It ends up not passing at the count of 49.4 to 50.6. In the wake of almost losing one of
its key members, some politicians believed that the constitution should be changed to satisfy at
least SOME of Quebec's needs. Others think that the separatists should be set straight. Either way,
Quebec has been taken into heavy consideration into every political move since. After 1996,
separatist ideas seem to be declining.




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                11
20 Answers

Question: Describe the evolution of Canadian
autonomy from 1914-1982
Answers by: Altamish

   1. 1914- CEF. Fought independently during WWI, as a separate Canadian unit.(P.26)
   2. 1916-WWI Battle of Vimy Ridge. The CEF proved that the Canadian army is just as strong
      as any other army by wining this battle on their own.(P.31-32)
   3. 1919-Paris Peace Conference. PM Borden made sure that Canada had it‟s own seat at the
      conference.(P.43)
   4. 1919- The Treaty of Versailles. PM Borden also made sure his signature was on the
      treaty.(P.43)
   5. 1920-Canada joins the League of Nations as an independent nation.(P.45)
   6. 1922-Chanak Crisis. British declared war on Turkey, Canada (PM King) refused to support
      the British. (P.55)
   7. 1923-The Halibut Treaty. Only Canada and U.S. officials were involved in the signing of this
      treaty.
   8. 1926- Balfour Declaration. All of the British Commonwealth were given equal status. (P.55)
   9. 1926- King-Byng Crisis. (P.55)
   10. 1927/1928- Canada opened its own embassy in the US.
   11. 1931- Statute of Westminster. British Parliament can not make laws for Canada. Canada
       can modify or repeal past British-made legislation. Canada has the right to its own foreign
       policy. Political independence from Britain.(P.56)
   12. 1939- Canada entered World War II one week after Britain declared war. (P.101)
   13. 1943- Italy Invasion. Canada successfully invaded Italy. (P.115)
   14. 1941-Battle of Atlantic. Canada helped supply Britain food and military supplies. (P.111)
   15. WWII- Canada had the 3rd largest navy and 4th largest air-force in the world. (P.128)
   16. 1945-Canada joins the United Nations as free member. (P.137)
   17. 1946- Canadian Citizenship Act. Our own Canadian identity.
   18. 1949- Supreme Court of Canada is given supreme powers; cases cannot be appealed to in
       Britain.
   19. 1949- BNA Act amended, giving the Parliament of Canada the right to amend the
       constitution. (P.199)
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   20. 1956- Suez Canal Crisis, Canada (Lester Pearson PM) doesn‟t help Britain invade Egypt.
      (P.139)
   21. 1965- Canada gets a new flag.
   22. 1977- The Canadian Citizenship Act is changed. The phrase "A Canadian citizen is a British
       subject" is removed from passports. Canadian Citizenship becomes the only legal form of
       citizenship in Canada.
   23. 1980- Canada gets it‟s own national anthem.”Oh Canada” replaces “God Save the Queen”.
   24. 1982- Canada Act. An Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament that severed all
       remaining constitutional and legislative between Britain and Canada.
   25. 1982-Charter of Rights and Freedom
   26. 1982-Patriating the Constitution. The Canadian constitution was returned to Canada.
       (P.200)




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                13
20 Answers
Question: Between 1914-2000, to what extent has
Canada become an autonomous nation?
Answers by: Shabrina

★ In 1917, during WWI, The Battle of Vimy Ridge developed a sense of nationality to the
  .
Canadians. [Pg. 31-32]
“They said it couldn’t be done but we did it,” quoted Historian Pierre Berton. Canadians gained
more ground, taken more prisoners, and captured more artilleries than any other previous British
offensive in the entire war.

☆. In the following battle, Passchendaele, a Canadian named Arthur Currie was first
appointed to command Canada’s troops. [Pg. 32]
It brought an increasingly independent Canadian point of view to the British war effort.

★ On January 10th, 1920, Canada was permitted to become a free-voting member in the
 .
League of Nations. [Pg. 45]
Prime Minister Borden fought hard to earn his position as an independent representative.

☆. In 1920, the growing sense of independence was shown by the Group of Seven whom
had held exhibitions of paintings which was mostly drawn from Canadian scenes,
celebrating Canada’s wilderness. [Pg. 66]
National identity was formed as more and more work of Canada‟s beauty was featured across the
country.

★ In the 1925 election, the King-Byng crisis proved Canada’s independence on behalf of
  .
their government. [Pg. 55]
King won the election. No governor general since has acted against the wishes of an elected prime
minister.

☆. On December 11th, 1931, the Balfour Report became law as the Statute of Westminster
was passed by the British government. [Pg. 56]
The British Empire was turned into the British Commonwealth later known as the Commonwealth
of Nations. Canada was now a country equal in status with Britain, entitled to make its own laws.

★ On September 10th, 1939 in the midst of WWII, Prime Minister Mackenzie King declared
 .
war on Germany, pledging Canada's voluntary support to Britain. [Pg. 103]
No conscription was involved in this decision. King had previously called a special session to
decide Canada‟s response to decide Canada‟s response.

☆. In December 1939, Canada agreed to administer British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
(BCATP). [Pg. 104]
The program was a major Canadian contribution to the war effort, as it required Canada‟s safe
ground to train pilots.

★ In 1940s, Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force was credited and awarded
  .
for their bravery. [Pg. 112-114]
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                  14
Canadian Navy grew significantly as it was to the RCAF. Most aces of the war were Canadians.

☆. Canada’s enormous contribution in the war from 1939 to 1940 gave it a new role on the
world stage. Canadians were now one of the major players in the global conflict. [Pg. 128]
At the time, Canadians had built the world‟s third-largest navy and fourth-largest air force.

★ On February 29th, 1952, First Canadian-born Governor General was appointed by Prime
 .
Minister St. Laurent. [Look up notes]
Vincent Massey, born in Canada, was rightly chosen as the Governor General, instead of a British
person.

☆. In 1953 and 1956, Lester Pearson had globally helped urged peace at the Korean Conflict
and proposed Emergency Force to be sent to the Suez Canal to separate and mediate
between the rival armies. [Pg. 138-139]
Lester Pearson, Canada‟s Minister of External Affairs, was then awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for
his efforts in defusing the Suez Canal crisis.

★ On June 21st, 1957, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker was elected. He was the first non-
  .
English, non-French Prime Minister in Canada. [Pg. 173-174, 298-299]
Diefenbaker introduced Bill of Rights, a bill that could be amended like any other piece of
legislation.

☆. On February 15th, 1965, Canada’s new flag was raised on Parliament Hill for the first time.
[Pg. 193-194]
The complete obvious British symbol on the flag was no more and instead, a red-and-white maple
leaf design was chosen.

★ In 1969, the Official Languages Act was passed, making Canada an officially bilingual
  .
country. [Pg. 194-195]
Many Canadians embraced the idea of bilingualism with enthusiasm. It increased the
understanding of the other national culture.
.
☆. In 1971, Prime Minister Trudeau introduced an official policy of multiculturalism. [Pg.
204-205]
The said policy encouraged immigration to vary the different cultures and ethnic groups to prevent
racism by promoting respect to another. Even till now, Canada is still the number one most multi-
cultured country in the world.

★ On July 1st, 1980, "O Canada" was officially adopted as Canada's national anthem,
  .
replacing "God Save the Queen." [Look up notes]
The song symbolized the unity of the country instead of focusing on the British colony, which
offended the French-Canadians and the Natives.

☆. On April 17th, 1982, the Constitution Act was revised. It was signed by Queen Elizabeth II
and Prime Minister Trudeau outside the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa. [Pg. 199-200]
The British Parliament can no longer amend Canada's Constitution. The last step towards making
Canada a completely independent nation had been taken, but more had yet to come.



20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                               15
★ On October 27th, 1982, the Dominion Day was renamed Canada Day. [Not on the text]
 .
The change reflected the policy of successive government and showed that the British Era would
not affect Canada‟s constitution any longer.

☆. In 1989, Canadian Coalition for the Rights of Child was one of the Canadian oriented,
non-British associated organizations to be fully acknowledged by many. [Pg. 310]
The organization had looked into such issues as child abuse and neglect in Canada, refugee
children, education and health care, and other basic rights and freedoms of Canadian children.




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                               16
20 Answers
Question: Analyze the global threats to the planet
caused by an increased standard of living.
Answers by: Tanie

     Automobiles, factories and electricity:
Combustion of fossil fuels causes greenhouse gases and global warming from the release of CO 2. The CO2 can also
seep into the oceans, and raise acidity levels of the water, causing a major threat to all marine life, from mammals, to
fish, to coral reefs. The United Nations formed a group of scientists called the International Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) to determine the latest changes to our environment.
     Urbanization:
As the government builds more cities to accommodate the increasing amount of people in cities, deforestation occurs.
Without our forests to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and restore O2 into our system, global warming increases, and
clean air is scarce.
     PCB’s:
Polychlorinated biphenyl‟s engineered by Monsanto to combat weeds and insects, and enhance the durability of crops.
Unfortunately, these chemicals polluted the waters and intoxicated the food chain, as it biomagnified and
bioaccumulated through the food web. They are also airborne, and can cause major damages to individuals, such as
causing cancer. They are so toxic that they can transfer to children and last seven generations.
     Cement:
In developing countries, and even in developed countries, cement and concrete is one of the most common ingredients
to a city. But the manufacturing of it is environmentally hazardous. The energy used to mix the quality raw materials,
including the 2.5% of fresh water available on Earth, is extremely wasteful and greatly reduces the Earth‟s supplies.
     Air Condition:
Air condition adds around 50 percent to the energy consumption of a building, and in cars, it increases fuel
consumption by 10 to 14 percent. Electricity is produced by burning coal. So, like winter heating, cars and other forms
of transit, air-conditioning contributes to dirty air, acid rain and global warming
     Medicines:
Pharmaceutical drugs are chemicals used to relieve a person‟s disease, but they actually bioaccumulate in the food
chain, since they are hard to biodegrade. These medicines are also toxic to some organisms, and the amounts of
medicines produced are no small number, meaning scores of organisms are being killed. Another problem is the
packaging of these drugs. They are commonly packaged by plastics, materials that take many years to decompose,
and add a lot of waste to the environment.
     Land Degradation:
Over farming, deforestation, pollution, and overgrazing are just a few of the causes that damage land, particularly
farms. But food depletion is not the only concern. Water cycled through the system carry nutrients and pollutants with
it, less nutrients and more pollutants carried throughout the ecosystem causes damage to the food chain, and other
aspects. As well, loose soil is needed to prevent flood. Without soil to recycle the water, the rising sea levels due to
global warming will make agriculture impossible, as well as flood the world, IPCC report in 2007 states.
     Nuclear Energy:
While it creates abundant of energy, the radioactive waste will remain in our Ecological system for millions of years. It
can also be released into the atmosphere, causing nuclear poison to many organisms in the world.
     Cemeteries:
Most bodies are embalmed are buried in vaults or coffins that aren‟t easily decomposed. This causes a major block in
the food chain, and lack of land, contributing to land degradation. The bodies that are decomposed by bacteria or
cremation contribute a lot of harmful gases to the atmosphere, and increases global warming.


     Exploitation of Resources:
As people continually abuse our natural resources, the Earth cannot keep up with the speed at which the resources are
taken. This causes a decline of elements needed for plant growth, and as a result, animals are scarcer. These animals
carry nutrients to other parts of the world, and without them the cycle stops.
     Genetically Modified Food:
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                                          17
The “suicide seed” generated by Monsanto stops food chains. This seed can not reproduce itself, and it sucks nutrition
out of the soil, causing desertification. Genetically modified animals take over natural populations of species and
destroy the food chain.
     City Dump:
Most of the things we throw away are not biodegradable, and just gather in dumps. This causes less land available for
use. Most of the waste can ignite, causing fires and emitting dangerous gases. The decomposition of this waste
causes CO2, which also goes to the atmosphere. In automobiles, the battery can leak dangerous chemicals such as
mercury into the water supply, and this will affect the food chain.
     Livestock:
In order to feed the people in developed countries, animals must be bred, and the forests are cut down to provide
grazing land. The specific problem with animals is that their flatulence contributes perilous gases to the atmosphere,
and increases global warming.
     Tourism:
Most Tourists like to bring their animals to their trips. If those animals escape, they cause a major threat to the existing
population of species. They can obliterate some breeds of animals. This inevitably affects the rest of the food chain.
     Toiletries:
To flush a toilet consumes a lot of energy, as well as clean water. The clean water is now wasted.
     Computer:
A computer demands a lot of energy, and most people do not turn theirs off if not in use, which wastes even more
energy. The waste products are environmentally hazardous, and when computers are thrown away to accommodate
new models, and this creates a huge strain to the dumps. The computers are not easily decomposed, since it‟s is
made of plastics, silicon, and other artificial materials.
     Air bags:
Air bags in cars need potassium nitrate to inflate. As well, there are many other chemicals to inflate, deflate, and store
the air bag. These chemicals are then released into the atmosphere, which damages the environment.
     Salt on the Pavement:
To melt the snow on roads, salt is sprinkled onto the pavement. The salt needs to be specially manufactured to
maintain the road conditions, and to melt ice in a speedy manner. The salt transfers to the water cycle and it
bioaccumulates in many animals. The artificial salt also causes oxidation of elements, and when these elements
oxidize, the by products of the element pollute the environment.
     Housing:
The houses built to accommodate people take up a lot of natural resources. The materials needed for a building are
usually not environmentally friendly. Rains that fall on buildings and aren‟t used properly and they just drain into the
sewers, or mix with harmful chemicals on the house.
     Education:
While the education system has promoted comfort of humans, the materials needed to teach students are a waste to
the environment. The paper and wood needed in a single school is taken from a huge forest. This as well as all the
other raw materials and people needed to sustain a school are a huge strain to our environment.




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                                         18
20 Answers
Question: Evaluate the impact of global warming on
Canada
Answers by: JJ


1. Canada‟s gas prices have doubled in the five past years, to a high of over $1.50/litre last
   summer.

2. The BC government has placed rebates on environmentally-friendly vehicles under their
   ecoAuto program. The rebates are $2000 towards hybrid Toyota Prius, Civics + Smart cars,
   Ford Escape hybrid and Saturn Vue Hybrid. Larger cars like the Camry Hybrid, earn $1500
   rebate. Purchasing a regular gas car of a smaller variety, like the Toyota Yaris or Honda Civic,
   earn the purchaser a $1000 rebate.

3. Government has charged a carbon tax on gas for cO2 emissions. The carbon tax applies to
   virtually all fossil fuels, including gasoline, diesel, natural gas, coal, propane, and home
   heating fuel. Drivers pay an extra 2.4 cents per litre of gasoline at the pumps.

4. Canada has used alternate source of energy such as wind energy in Quebec, Saskatchewan ,
   Manitoba , Ontario and New Brunswick.

5. Canada has used alternate source of energy such as Solar Energy in Ontario, Quebec and the
   prairies.

6. Canada agreed to the Kyoto protocol which promised to reduce gasses by 6% by 2012 but did
   not agree to the treaty till 2002 but Stephen Harper kept prolonging it.

7. Permafrost is melting causing gasses to be released as greenhouse gasses. According to the
   United Nations, the vast amounts of methane, which are 25 times worse than CO2 as
   greenhouse gasses, could trigger rapid global warming.

8. The increase in deforestation equals less plants to absorb carbon dioxide which means more
   carbon dioxide is left on earth.

9. The increase of natural disasters for example the forest fire in Blackholmes the fire started due
   to dry lands.

10. The water temperatures affect the fish with diseases which they can catch in warmer waters

11. If animals can‟t adapt to the environment like humans and die then it will be the end of the food
    chain

12. Limited supplies of goods makes the prices increase drastically making it hard for people to
    afford.

20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                  19
13. the pine beetles are turning a lot of the forests into carbon resources causing the plants to die
    faster than it is suppose to

14. Coral reefs are sensitive to changes in water temperature which releases bleach into the
    waters harming and killing other animals

15. Glaciers melting making it hard for animals to survive in the waters for a long period of time

16. Because of weather changes it is most likely for diseases to change into brutal and more life
    threatening. Threatening water supplies and air supplies

17. Because of the weather droughts are likely to occur which cause less crops, death of plants
    and animals

18. Due rise in population and rivers drying up through global warming it is causing desertification

19. Global warming is a good thing for Canadian‟s because the heat makes humans sweat making
    them eat less = diet

20. Melting of glaciers causes water levels to rise, therefore residents that live in isolated areas
    near water are forced to move




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                      20
20 Answers

Question: To what extent did Canada participate in
the Cold War?
Answers by: Kevin


1) Canada played a middle power and an important role in the cold war. (pg 132)

      Canada obtained a “middle power” which are no superpower, or superior, but still have a
large or moderate influence.

    Canada was involved in international affairs, and sought for diplomatic relations with
Communist countries that the US was not fond of, (ex: Cuba and China) after their revolutions.

2) Commitment to NATO. (pg 134)
   Canada promised to serious commitments such as…
        Keeping a full army and several air squadrons in Europe.
     Supplying military bases overseas.
     Tracking down movements of USSR submarines

3) Communist Paranoia (McCarthyism) afflicted from the US

    Communist paranoia took place in Canada everywhere; those that were suspected as
communists were immediately dismissed from their jobs
    This implies Canada‟s heavy reliance on its neighboring country during the beginning of the
cold war era (however, as the time goes by, Canada slowly becomes neutral with both sides)


4) Canada lined up with its allies in opposition to the Soviet Union, supplying their troops with guns,
food and shelter to fight a counter-revolution.

     Canada supplied a lot of the weapons and also many troops for defense.

5) In the domestic front, the Canadians state at all levels fought vehemently against the “red
menace”. (pg 133)

     They were fighting against the communists.

     Red Menace was the term used to describe the Soviets

    Even hockey teams from Canada “fought” their Russian opponents in series like the 1972
   Super Series against the Russians.

6) Canada began to assert the international clout that went along with the reputation it had built on
the international stage during the cold war.


20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                   21
     Canada made noteworthy contributions to the United Nations forces and served with
   distinction in the Korean War.

7) Canada‟s major Cold War contribution to international politics was made in the innovation of
“Peacekeeping”. (pg 144)

   Canadian activist Therese Casgrain helped form the Québec chapter of the VOW. Organized
to promote Peace.

8) For the first time, in Cold war, Canada lets the US military bases to be stationed in its own soil.
 To protect against USSR‟s air attack, the US constructed 3 lines of radar stations; Pinetree Line,
Mid-Canada Line, and DEW line.

9) NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command) 1957 (pg 136)

    The cause of this agreement was made by the development of “intercontinental ballistic
   missiles”, which made 3 radar stations unnecessary, as the missiles could get to North America
   from USSR in less than 30 min.

10) Canada takes part in the UN

      Canada has been an active supporter of UN ever since its creation, and is supporting them
in the cold war.

11) Suez Canal Crisis

     For the first time Canada has a chance to voice their opinion by refusing to support its allies
(Britain, France, Italy) of attacking Egypt

     A Canadian diplomat Lester Pearson introduced the UN military force concept which form a
„human shield‟ between the two rival armies; this was carried out as the first peacekeeping force,
leading Canada to be the first peace keeping country

12) Growing tension between the US and Canada

    When Lester Pearson became the Prime Minister, he criticized the role of the US in the
Vietnam War

    Canada also refused to join the Organization of American States

    During the Trudeau Era, nuclear weapons are removed from the Canadian soil, and
decreased the number of Canadian troops stantioned at NATO bases in Europe, implying its
neutrality of the two superpowers

13) BOMARC program
       A joint US -Canada effort between 1957 and 1972 to protect against the USSR bomber
threat
        Prime Minister Diefenbaker agreed to buy this program



20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                  22
14) End of the Cold War

          Canadian Forces withdrew from the NATO commitments
          Canada continues to participate in Cold War institutions such as NORAD and NATO,
but they have been given new missions and priorities.

15) Playing a small role

         Canada helps to bring about glasnost (openness) and perestroika(restructuring of the
Soviet economy) in USSR

16) Federal Government creates civil defense plans. (pg 136)

 Cities had nuclear shelters in basements, subway lines, or underground.

 “Duck and Cover” drills were practiced at schools

 Sirens were set up around towns for warnings

 The shelters were not useful for it did not work properly.

17) International Development Agency

  Canada aided less industrialized countries. They also boosted foreign aid to other international
countries. Canada is one of the top 10 contributors to the IMF and the World Bank.

 Those countries in return agreed to buy products that were manufactured in Canada.

  Canada extended total amount of aid towards developing from $275 million to
over $2 billion.

18) Francophone and the commonwealth (pg 149)

 Canada invited students overseas to study in Canada

 Sent teachers/professors overseas to teach.

 Building bridges from North to South, creating membership in two organizations.

19) Trudeau‟s Foreign Policy (pg 146)

 Recognizing communist government of China

 More independent from the United States.

20) Canada built the fighter jet the Avro Arrow
The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow was a delta-winged interceptor aircraft, designed and built by Avro
Aircraft Limited (Canada) in Malton, Ontario, Canada, as the culmination of a design study that
began in 1953. Considered to be both an advanced technical and aerodynamic achievement for
the Canadian aviation industry, the CF-105 held the promise of Mach 2 speeds at altitudes
exceeding 50  000 ft (15  000 m), and was intended to serve as the Royal Canadian Air Force's
primary interceptor in the 1960s and beyond.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                               23
Not long after the 1958 start of its flight test program, the development of the Arrow (including its
Orenda Iroquois jet engines) was abruptly and controversially halted,[1][2] sparking a long and
bitter political debate.

21) Canada mined Uranium in Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, to help in the Cold War
effort. To this day, 25% of the world‟s uranium is mined in Canada.




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                      24
20 Answers

Question: Describe the Canadian Election Process
Answers by: Sean




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                 25
20 Answers

Question: To What Extent Between 1939 and 1970
did Canada evolve from being an insignificant nation
to being a Middle Power?
Answers by: Lucas

   1. Canada was dependent on British Empire Before 1939. In WW1 (1914-1918) Canada had
      to support British army to fight Triple Alliance. Canada supported the British army by
      sending 25000 troops and make munitions for them. (Page25/38)

   2. Canada‟s economy depended on U.S before 1939. (57/75)
      -U.S invested on Canada‟s paper, pulp and mine industries and they set branch plants.
      -When U.S stock market crashed in Oct. 19 1929 it affected Canada‟s economy causing
      depression.

    3. Canada became autonomous.
    - Canada was able to decide by themselves; fighting in WW2.
    - Returning of St. Louis
    - Canada fought in WW2 as a single nation; after Commonwealth was created.

    4. Britain desperately needed the support of Canada.
    - British army was weak and was unprepared.
    - Canada started BCATP; helping British with pilots.

  5. Canada received a lot of support from the Canadians.
      - In September alone, over 58000 people volunteered for service in WW2
      - Some Canadians volunteered from a sense of duty and a sense of new-found national
      pride.
      - Canadians supported the war by accepting „Total war‟

  6. Canada had the third largest Navy in the world.
    - In 1942, Battle of the Atlantic, Canadian corvettes fought back German u-boats.
    - Protected the convoys to reach Britain.
       -By 1945 Canada had 400 vessels and over 100000 sailors.
       -RCN was also credited with having provided about half the escorts across Atlantic.

  7. Canada supported the Allies with military and economic support in WW2.
      - Supported them by spending 3.5 billion on financial aid.
      - RCAF helped Britain bomb the cities in Germany.
      - Allies were able to advance through Italy because of Canadian Navy‟s support.

   8. Canada had their own important task on D-day which helped the allies to win the battle.
       - Canada was responsible to attack Juno beach.
       - Canada liberated the Netherlands.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                              26
       - Because of destruction of Amsterdam and Rotterdam Netherlands was in desperation of
     food, but Canada supplied them with food and fuel which was transported by planes and
     ships.

 9. Canada was important in the Manhattan Project. (122)
      - Supported U.S‟s invention of nuclear bomb by buying mines that contained Uranium.
     - Canadian bought the mine secretly.
     - They were able to end the war

   10. After WW2 Canada‟s economy was stabilized. (123)
       - Encouraged people to buy victory bonds.
      - Increased income taxes which prevented the price to go up and prevented inflation.

   11. Canada became a modern industrial nation after the war.
      - Mine and other industries produced a lot.
      -GDP was doubled after the war.

   12. In 1949, Canada decided to join NATO, and protect Canada and also North America.
             - Canada made a serious commitment; it agreed to keep a full army brigade and
        several air squads in Europe. Canada had to adapt its defence policy to those of its allies.
        -NORAD was created to protect North America. Canada has its own command center.

   13. Canada Joins with the world as an important nation. (137)
       - 1945, with other 50 countries, including Canada created a United Nation.
       - Canada is a strong supporter of UN. They aided from war and natural disasters and
       worked on development projects.

   14. U.S encouraged Canada help fight in the Korean War. (138)
       - Canada sends troops and 3 naval destroyers.
       -Lester Pearson told to cease fire. And prevented U.S from using A bomb.

   15. In 1956, in Suez Crisis UN gave Canada lead of this battle. Liberal P.M Laurent refused to
        support the battle. Lester Pearson found a solution; sent UN‟s Emergency Force in Suez
        Canal to separate and mediate between the rival enemies.
   16. Canada becoming less participative with the U.S
        - During Cuban Missile Crisis Canada refused to support and get ready. P.M Diefenbaker
        proffered that UN send a fact-finding mission to Cuba.
        - Us-Canada relation was damaged but Diefenbaker believed he was protecting Canada‟s
        independence.
        -Diefenbaker and conservative reveal Canadian‟s nationalism.

   17. 1968, Trudeau became a P.M. His goal was to bridge a gap between east and west.
       Canada became a middle power building links to all south, north, east, and west.

   18. In 1949, Federal government established the Massey Commission to investigate Canadian
        culture. They suggested that Canadian culture needed to be protected from U.S influences

   19. Canadian firms sold goods and explosives to the U.S defense department. Pearson had
       doubts about the war. He was criticizing the Operation Rolling Thunder which made the
       U.S president was enraged.

20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                27
   20. In 1970 Trudeau wanted to scale back Canada‟s participation in the nuclear arms race with
      the Soviet Union. He removed nuclear missiles from Canada‟s NATO forces in Europe.




20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                            28
20 Answers

Question: To What Extent Was Canada a Major
Participant in the WWI?
Answers by: Alex

   1. As one of the dominion countries of the British Empire, Canada had to participate in the Great
      War along with other dominion countries. Once the war started, many imagined the war as an
      exciting adventure. Canadians were weary of the awful sacrifices they had to make. (pg 21,24)

   2. Canada made a great contribution in the air. More than 23,000 Canadian air men served with
      British Forces and over 1,500 died. Many aces were produced by Canada such as Billy Bishop (pg
      34-35)

   3. Canada also contributed at sea. Canada‟s navy consisted of two warships. The Rainbow patrolled
      the West Coast. The Niobe stationed in Halifax and its protected harbor made it a base for the
      refueling and repairs of Allied warships and the chief departure point for Europe. Also, Canada‟s
      merchant marine became involved in the dangerous work of ferrying munitions and food to Britain.
      (pg 35-36)

   4. Canadian women joined the medical and field ambulance corps. Almost 2500 Canadian women
      served as nurses in the Canadian Army Medical Corps. They were called “Bluebirds” after the color
      of their uniforms. Many were injured or killed by artillery fire, bombs, or poison gas. (pg 33)

   5. Although they were not accepted in the beginning of the war, 3,500 Aboriginal Canadians
      would eventually serve with the Canadian Forces. These volunteers managed to overcome such
      racist attitudes and join, but few were promoted within the ranks. (pg 25-26)

   6. Sam Hughes, in charge of Canada’s armament industry, provided Canadian troops with faulty
      equipments. Many soldiers were forced to use the guns of dead British soldiers’ rifles. Also,
      soldiers were provided with boots made of cardboard and faulty shells. (pg.27)

   7. Canadian troops were faced with heroism; the first poison-gas attack in the history of warfare
      during the second battle of Ypres in 1915. 6000 Canadians were killed, wounded, or captured in
      the fields of Flanders. (pg 30-31)

   8. Almost 85% of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, over 700 men including all officers, were
      killed or wounded within half an hour in the Battle of the Somme. In addition, Battle of the
      Somme claimed 24,029 Canadian casualties. General Haig‟s strategies were useless in the
      trench warfare. But it also gave Canadian units the reputation of a formidable assault force. (pg31)

   9. Canadian troops led the Battle of Vimy Ridge to a victory under the command of General
      Julian Byng. Byng developed strategies for attack and trained the troops well, rehearsing their
      movements thoroughly. The victory at Vimy Ridge marked a Canadian milestone, and Canadians
      took great pride in the success. Their victory was noted outside Canada as well. (pg31-32)



20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                           29
   10. Four divisions of the Canadian troops were transferred to Passchendaele and led to victory
       after 16 days of fighting. Under terrible conditions, Canadian troops fought under the command of
       General Arthur Currie. (pg 32)

   11. Canada had its own seat at the Paris Peace Conference. Prime Minister Borden fought
       successfully for Canada to have this opportunity and not simply be represented by Britain. He also
       insisted that he be included among those leaders who signed the Treaty of Versailles.

   12. Canadians continued to lead in other major battles, and the period between August 8th 1918
       and November 11th 1918 is called "Canada's Hundred Days." Finally on November 11, 1918,
       the war ended after an armistice was signed. (pg 43)

   13. The after math of war affected Canadian citizens. Many returning solider scarred the virus (aka
       Spanish Flu) to North America. From 1918 to 1920, approximately 50000 Canadians died during this
       epidemic. Schools and public places were closed for months in an effort to stop the spread of the
       virus.

       (pg 46)

   14. Over 66 million shells were produced in Canadian factories. However this was only the $5.5
       million worth shells. The original contract guaranteed $170 million worth shells. Some of the shells
       were of such poor quality that they exploded before being fired, killing the gun crews. (pg 27)

   15. 47,000men were conscripted to the Canadian forces by the end of the war. Conscription turned
       out to be very controversial and emotional issue that divided the country and left lasting scars.
       However, it had to be done to win the war by PM Borden. (pg 39-40)

   16. Canada was able to become a member of the newly formed League of Nations. Prime Minister
       Borden fought hard to achieve this goal. This was one step forward to Canada being an independent
       country. (pg 45)

   17. The launching of the Military Voters Act and the Wartime Elections Act led to a controversial
       election in 1917. Prime Minister maintains his position and successfully wins the election. (pg 40-
       41)

   18. The Halifax Disaster led to between 2000~3000 deaths. The Mont Blanc, a French vessel carrying
       more than 2500 ton of dynamite, was accidentally hit by another ship. The collision caused an
       explosion so powerful that it devastated Halifax‟s harbor and much of the city. (pg38)

   19. Propaganda affected people in many ways during the WWI. Propaganda appeared in a variety of
       media: films, magazine articles, radio programs, political speeches, and posters. Appealing to a
       sense of patriotism, propaganda encourage people to join the army, buy savings bonds, use less
       fuel, eat less meat, and support the government in whatever way necessary. It often distorted the
       truth and selective. (pg 38)

   20. While production levels were at an all-time high, the Canadian government was unable to
       raise sufficient money to pay for its contribution to the war. New technology and the large
       number of troops involved made this war very expensive. The gross national debt soared from 544
       million dollars in 1914 to almost 2 1/2 billion dollars in 1919, most of the money being raised in
       Canada itself through public war loans. (pg36)


20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                            30
20 Answers
Question: Describe the Main Provisions of the
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
by Gina

1) In the Charter of Rights and Freedoms it states that everyone has the freedom of conscience
and religion. This is to prevent the reoccurrence of events like the following:
     After World War 2 the Doukhobor‟s right to vote was revoked for their refusal to fight in the
        World War 2. The Doukhobors refused to fight because of their religion and because they
        were pacifists. This violates their freedom of religion.

2) Sometimes the protection to freedom of conscience and religion is controversial. For example:
    Some pastors felt that, when Gay Marriage was introduced in Canada, they would be forced
      to marry gays, which runs counter to their religion. Their rights to refuse marriage to gays
      are protected by freedom of religion. However, if they work for the government (for
      example, the military employs pastors), they must marry homosexuals.
    In 1997, Hugh Owen, a Saskatchewan prison guard, published an advertisement that made
      referenced Bible verses related to homosexuality. The Saskatchewan Human Rights Board
      ruled that while it was offensive it is not illegal.

   3) Freedom of religion also covers religious clothing:
        In 1991, an Ontario school board‟s “zero tolerance” for weapons had an impact on Sikh
          men who are required by religion to carry a kirpan, a ceremonial dagger. Despite the
          school board‟s complaints in 2006, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Sikh
          children can wear a kirpan to school based on freedom of religion.

4) Freedom of religion has been controversially used by Jehovah‟s Witnesses to refuse blood
transfusions for underage children.
A set of Jehovah's Witness parents refused blood transfusions for their 1-year-old daughter after
doctors decided the baby urgently needed them. The baby was made a ward of the state in order
to receive blood transfusions. The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that this was a legitimate
limitation on religious freedom

5) Another freedom that everyone has is the freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression,
including freedom of the press and other media of communication. This freedom was shown in
1935 when William Aberhart publicized the social credit theory in his weekly radio program, “
Voices of the Prairies.” This theory was based on the belief that capitalism was not a good
economic system.

6) Everyone has the freedom of peaceful assembly. Unfortunately, this was not the case in 1935.
Over a thousand men from working camps decided to take their complaints about the conditions of
the camps to Ottawa. However, they were stopped in Regina and130men were arrested.

7) After many years every citizen of Canada was finally given the right to vote in an election. This
right was violated back in 1939. Under the Provincial Elections Act, S.B.C. 1939, c.16 s. 5,
Chinese, Japanese, Hindu or Indian persons were denied the right to vote in provincial elections in
B.C.

20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                    31
8) Before the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, gays could have been sent to jail because of their
sexual orientation, however, once the Charter came into play, section 15 could be interpreted as a
prohibition of discrimination of a person because of their sexual preferences. On July 20 th, 2005 Bill
C-38, which inally includes same sex couples in definition of marriage received Royal Assent from
the Governor General.

9) Around the 1950‟s the practice of McCarthyism was common. This practice violated people‟s
rights not to be arbitrarily detained or imprisoned because it was a practice of making accusations
of disloyalty and being a communist without proper evidence.

10) During the FLQ crisis James Cross and Pierre Laporte was kidnapped. In response Trudeau
asked Parliament to impose the War Measures Act. Under this act, Habeas Corpus rights were
taken away. Anyone could be arrested and detained without being charged of an offence. ( pg.195
)

11) Another right that is stated in the Charter of Rights and Freedom is that everyone has the right
not to be subjected to any cruel and unusual treatment or punishment. If this right had existed
earlier many acts of racism could have been prevented. For example in 1907, a group of whites
attacked stores and homes owned by Chinese and Japanese immigrants in Vancouver.( pg.12 )

12) Over the years Canadians have voiced concerns about their safety and support laws that deal
effectively with terrorism. However, at the same time they want their rights and freedoms to be
protected. As a result the Anti Terrorism Act was created. This act recognizes that terrorism is a big
issue that must be addressed while continuing to respect the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

13) The fight for equality that many people had participated in was finally won when the right that
everyone is equal regardless of their race, religion, sex, ethnic origin etc. was included in the
Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Persons Case of 1929 is an example of sexual
discrimination. When Emily Murphy was appointed a magistrate in Alberta many people challenged
her appointment saying that only “persons” could be a judge and that under the BNA act women
were not considered “persons”. ( pg.60 )

14) Even after fighting in World War 1 Aboriginals were still not classified as “persons” under the
law. It was not until 1949 that Aboriginals were given the right to vote in BC and finally in 1960 that
Aboriginals across Canada could vote in federal elections. This is an example of racial equality. (
pg.69 )

15) Under equality rights it also says that we cannot preclude any program or activity because of
their race, sex, religion etc. If this right existed back in 1918 the Education Act that Nova Scotia
had enforced would be illegal because it was not allowing black children to receive the same
education as white children instead it provided for separate schools. ( pg.70 )

16) Since 1982, people with disabilities made great strides towards being treated as equal. In
1986, the federal government announced plans to implement a national strategy to integrate
people with disabilities into the social and economic mainstream.

17) Bill 101 used the NOTWITHSTANDING CLAUSE in the 1990s to circumvent the Charter of
Rights and Freedoms in Quebec and make French the sole language of the province. This led to
many English-speaking towns protesting and declaring themselves “English-speaking only”


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18) During the Depression, in 1935 over a thousand men left the work camps in BC in protest
against camp conditions. The
men decided to take their complaints to Ottawa. This On-to-Ottawa Trek displays the right that they
had to move to and take up residence in any province.

19) In 1982, when the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was introduced, Aboriginal Rights were
finally guaranteed. Section 25 quotes, “The guarantee in this Charter of certain rights and freedoms
shall not be construed as to abrogate or derogate from and aboriginal, treaty or other rights or
freedoms that pertain to the aboriginal peoples of Canada including: a) any rights or freedoms that
have been recognized by the Royal Proclamation of October 7, 1763: and b) any rights or
freedoms that now exist by way of land claims agreements or may be so acquired.” This section
basically maintains that any rights given to Aboriginal citizens prior to the introduction of the
Charter and protects them from being voided. It also ensures that Aboriginal rights aren‟t limited by
the Charter and implies autonomy for Native self government under the Indian Act.

20) In the Charter of Rights and Freedom it says that the official languages of Canada are French
and English. In 1969 this required that all federal government agencies across the country to
provide services in both English and French. ( pg.194 )




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20 Answers
Question: Explain the effects of WWII on Canada
by Daniyal


1.            Boosted Canadian export. Demand for goods, food, raw material and military
equipment increased greatly from Britain because of the damage done by war, and Canada was
able to supply it.

2.            Women earned respect      Canadian women proved that they could do jobs that men
could do, by playing a huge part in Canada‟s economic system during the war when men workers
were unavailable. They were also allowed to join the armed forces.

3.         Expanded Canada‟s diversity          Refugees came to Canada to escape from
communism and the war.

4.             Expanded Canada‟s industry         Most of the industries in Canada started producing
supplies for the war, and if an already existing company could not build what was needed, then the
Minister of Militia created Crown Corporations to do the job. After the war, all these companies,
including the Crown Corporations started manufacturing non-war time products.

5.             Canada became a leader in technology Much of the government‟s money was going
into manufacturers to build supplies for the war, and as a result Canada became one of the world‟s
top industrial powers. It became a world leader in medicines and medical research, optics,
communications, synthetic rubbers and in many more areas of technology.

6.           Agriculture became increasingly mechanized More factories were being created
and as a result, technology was becoming cheaper and farmers could afford to buy tractors and
other machines to help them farm.

7.            Caused a massive increase in the younger population Most of the soldiers who went
to war were very young. Many of them had delayed their marriages until after the war. When the
soldiers returned home, lots of them got married and had kids. So for the 6 years the war was
going on, there were very little births, and after the war almost a million soldiers returned home and
had kids. This resulted in the Baby Boom.

8.          Unemployment went down          Demand for goods form foreign countries went up
and so Canadian industries needed more workers to keep up with the demand. As a result, the
number of employees in Canadian manufacturing went up by 50% and the unemployment rate was
down to 1%.

9.             Regionalism went up          Quebec, Ontario and B.C‟s economic growth and
employment went up, and while the Prairies and Atlantic provinces also got better economically,
they did not have as much success as the other three. This caused a feeling of jealousy and
alienation in the Prairies and Atlantic regions. Also the country became divided on the issue of
conscription, in which Quebec was against it while the rest of the country was for conscription.

10.          Canada and U.S relations grew After the war, the U.S and Canada were the only
two major countries which were positively affected by they war. The two countries undertook many
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projects together such as the St. Lawrence Seaway, and the DEW (Distant Early Warning) lines.
This created a partner ship between Canada and the U.S.

11.           Canada was established as a powerful nation Canada built up its image by being so
successful in the war and established itself as a powerful nation and not just a British colony.
Canada saw success in the Battle of the Atlantic and its role in the Manhattan Project, in which it
supplied uranium to the U.S.

12.            The values of Canadian goods rose(pg. 125) Canada provided lots of goods and
supplies to the allies and as a result, the value of its goods rose from $5.6 billion in 1939 to $11.8
billion in 1945.

13.         Alberta prospered(pg. 125) Exploration led to the discovery of oil in Alberta. Oil was in
demand because it was needed for planes, tanks, cars and trucks. To process and transport the oil
many new jobs were created.

14.          Industry overtook agriculture(pg. 128) Industry became more important to Canada
and so more investments were made in industry rather that agriculture. This resulted in industry
overtaking agriculture.

15.          Canada‟s armed forces grew (pg. 128) For the war, Canada built lots of ships and
planes. By the end of the war, Canada had the third largest Navy in the world and the fourth largest
Air Force.

16.           Started the Teenager era Due to the Baby Boom, the majority of people in Canada
were in between 13-19 years of age during the 1950‟s-1960‟s. Factories and business owners
started gearing their products towards this age group when they discovered this large marketing
segment, and adults finally embraced the concept of a teenager.

17.            The government began to fund Daycare(pg. 122)         During the war, workers were
in high demand, and since the men were out fighting the war and many single women already had
jobs, factories had to hire married women. While the married women were working, they needed
supervision for their children. So the provincial government began to fund daycare services.

18.            Companies started building dormitories(pg. 122)        Companies built dormitories in
the city for workers to live in so they didn‟t have to commute to work everyday. The government
helped the workers pay for food and rent.

19.          Government put in place the National Resources Mobilization Act (NRMA)(pg. 124)
      Many people, as well as the opposition party, thought that the government was not doing
enough to help the war. In response to this, King‟s government came up with the NRMA. It gave
the government power to use all its resources to win the war. It also allowed conscription.

20.           Helped build Canadian identity Canada had entered the war according to its own
reasoning, independent of Britain‟s decision. It had also made many contributions to help the war
effort. Because of this, the war created a stronger feeling of Canadian identity.




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20 Answers
Question: Describe the various causes of poverty.
                                                      by Gora


Refer to Figure 14-9 The cycle of poverty on p.347 of your textbook. There are 10 components in the cycle.

                    Family in debt Baby born to a
                                   malnourished
       Marry young;
                                   mother                         Baby's
       few job
       prospects                                                  development is            Physical & mental
                                                                  slowed                    development are
                                                                                      Poor nutrition
                                                                                            slowed
                                                                                      & medical
                                                                                      care


Limited diet,                                                           Poor performance
poor general                                                            in school
health                                      Low literacy level
                  Reduced likelihood
                  of economic
                  success



         1) Overpopulation
         The situation of having large numbers of people with too few resources and too little space.
         Overpopulation can result from:
               High population density (the ratio of people to land area)
               Low amounts of resources
               Both
         Excessively high population densities put stress on available resources.

         In developing countries like Mongolia, despite its low population density, people engage in manual farming and
         only small amounts of food are produced. It is not enough to support the entire population.
         In developed countries such as Belgium, despite their high population density, overpopulation does not pose as
         a major problem because Belgium produces large quantities of food through mechanized farming to support
         the large population.
         How overpopulation fits into the cycle: Overpopulation (which causes insufficient food) is linked with 'Baby is
         born to a malnourished mother', 'poor nutrition & medical care', & 'limited diet; poor general health'.

         2) Lack of Education
         Whereas virtually all children in industrialized countries have access to an education, only about 60 percent of
         children in sub-Saharan Africa even attend elementary school.



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        Lack of education keeps children from obtaining jobs that would lift them and their families out of poverty.
        Often, children are kept from school because they are needed at home to support their family with additional
        income. In addition, developing countries tend to have few employment opportunities, especially for women.
        How Lack of Education fits into the cycle: Lack of education is linked with 'Low literacy level'.

        3) Poor Health/Disease
        Poor health decreases the amount of work the already poor people can do, lowering their income and driving
        them deeper into poverty.
        The onset of disease, such as HIV/AIDS or malaria, can result in death (which can cut off a major source of
        income for a family), or high medical costs that many poor families cannot afford.
        How Poor Health fits into the cycle: Poor health is linked with 'Limited diet, poor general health'.

        4) Limited Economic Choices
        The poor often have very limited economic choices – they are often prevented from receiving loans and other
        financial benefits. This makes it hard for them to establish businesses, increase their income, and break out of
        poverty.
        How Limited Economic Choices fits into the cycle: limited economic choices is linked with 'Reduced likelihood
        of economic success'.

        5) Centralization of Power
        In many developing countries, political power is disproportionately centralized. Instead of having a network of
        political representatives distributed equally throughout society like we do, in these countries one major party,
        politician, or region is responsible for decision-making throughout the country. This often causes development
        problems. Politicians might make decisions about places they are unfamiliar with, lacking sufficient knowledge
        about the context to design effective and appropriate policies & programs. This results in inefficient government
        and a possible lack of government infrastructure (public sanitation, schools, social welfare, etc.), which leaves
        present problems in the poverty cycle unsolved.
        How Centralization of Power fits into the cycle: Centralization of Power (and inefficent government) is linked
        with 'poor nutrition and medical care' and also indirectly with all the other problems because they are left
        unsolved.

        6) Corrupt Government
        Oftentimes, money loaned to developing countries by the IMF to help improve their economies, and hopefully
        relieve poverty, lands in the hands of corrupt dictators. Resources that should have gone to the development of
        the country are diverted instead to fiscal havens, solving nothing and even halting progress of the country.
        How Corrupt Government fits into the cycle: corrupt government is linked with 'poor nutrition and medical care'
        and also indirectly with all the other problems.

        7) Militarism
        Some developing nations put excessive emphasis on their military in attempt to defend themselves from
        possible invasion. The governments pour a huge portion of their economic resources into the military; money
        that would have been better spent on schools, infrastructure and health care, and could have contributed to the
        progress of those nations.
        How Militarism fits into the cycle: Militarism is linked with 'Reduced likelihood of economic success'.

        8) War
        Germany, especially after WWI, is a classic example of how war can cause poverty. Much of Germany's money
        & manpower was drained on the war, mainly due to the mass production of weapons & ammunition. Germany's
        currency eventually declined to a point that it was virtually worth nothing to some people. Germany plunged
        into poverty.

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        In developing countries, war takes the lives of many needed to help with the manual labour at home (like
        farming) and the loss of these lives puts pressure on the survival of individual families. Families might go into
        debt.
        How War fits into the cycle: war is linked with 'family in debt'.

        9) Neoliberalism (& SAPs)
        Following an ideology known as neoliberalism, Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) have been imposed on
        developing countries to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring. But the way it has happened has
        required those countries to reduce spending on things like health, education and development, while debt
        repayment and other economic policies have been made the priority. Jobs were also lost in the process. In
        effect, the IMF & World Bank have demanded that poor nations lower the standard of living of their
        people.
        How Neoliberalism fits into the cycle: Neoliberalism & the SAPs are linked with 'Marry young; few job prospects'
        and 'poor nutrition & medical care'.

        10) MNCs & Cash Crops
        Cash crops are grown to be sold, rather than consumed. In developing countries, cotton, coffee, tea, and
        tobacco are carefully cultivated and eventually sold to multinational companies (MNCs). Land is used to grow
        cash crops instead of food. Many people in these developing countries are starving or malnutritioned as a
        result. Also, very little of the profits actually go back to the farmers.
        How MNCs fits into the cycle: MNCs & Cash Crops are linked with 'baby is born to a malnourished mother',
        'poor nutrition and medican care', and 'limited diet, poor general health'.

        11) Lack of infrastructure
        Infrastructure is a key element of poverty alleviation and often acts as a catalyst to development. For example,
        without roads, people would not be able to sell their output on the market. However, many developing countries
        lack infrastructure, which means that even the opportunity for development is difficult to obtain.
        How lack of infrastructure fits into the cycle: 'Marry young; few job prospects', 'reduced likelihood of economic
        success'.
        12) Environmental forces/Natural disasters
        Many developing nations are located in areas of the world where natural disasters occur frequently and leave
        behind devastating effects. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and droughts are especially
        prevalent. Thousands of homes and acres of precious farmland, which are the only sources of income for
        some, can be destroyed by a single earthquake or flood. For example, if a drought happens, the effects could
        be crippling. Since the farmers lack access to irrigation systems (they do not have the wealth to obtain such
        technology) to counter the effects, they might be left without anything of much worth.
        How Natural disasters fit into the cycle: Natural Disasters is linked with 'family in debt'.

        13) Debt
        The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World bank were set up after WWII to provide loans and
        development assistence around the world. The developing countries are heavily in debt. The debt burden
        weighs heavily on the governments of these developing countries, and this means that improvements to the
        standard of living of the people have to be sacrificed just to pay off the debt. The government will not be able to
        fund things like welfare programs.
        How Debt fits into the cycle: Debt is linked with 'poor nutrition and medical care'.

        14) Lack of Property Rights
        Property rights are one of the most basic tools of wealth accumulation, yet developing nations lack these rights.
        Without clear title to their land, houses, stores, and so forth, the poor cannot sell their assets or borrow against
        them. Therefore the properties that they own would be “informal”. Moreover, their "properties" are subject to

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        seizure at the whim of a government bureaucrat. Understandably, the poor are reluctant to invest in improving
        them and thus, they remain poor.
        How Lack of Property Rights fits into the cycle: It is linked with 'Reduced likelihood of economic success'.

        15) Age Structures
        If the dependency ratio (proportion of the population that is being supported by the working age group) is high,
        there would be more pressure on society for medical, education, housing and other various services. In lots of
        developing countries, a significant portion of the population is in the 'dependent' category because the fertile
        population is not properly educated and births are not controlled. These countries might remain in poverty as
        their limited resources and attempts to improve development are swallowed up by young populations.
        How Age Structures fit into the cycle: 'limited diet, poor general health'

        16) Environmental degradation
        Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the natural environment. Throughout the developing world,
        the poor often rely on natural resources to meet their basic needs through agricultural production and gathering
        resources essential for household maintenance, such as water & firewood. As forests, land, air, and water are
        degraded, people who live directly off these natural resources suffer most from the effects. Some might starve
        from the depletion of food. People in developed countries, on the other hand, have technologies and
        conveniences such as air and water filters, and industrially produced and stored foods to buffer themselves
        from the effects of environmental degradation.
        How Environmental degradation fits into the cycle: environmental degradation is linked with 'baby is born to a
        malnourished mother', 'poor nutrition & medical care', and 'limited diet, poor general health'.

        17) Social Inequality
        Many developing countries have male-dominated societies where women have lower status than men. Women
        are automatically placed in roles that do not allow them to explore their potentials or to contribute to the
        economic well-being of the country. Education was restricted to men.
        How Social Inequality fits into the cycle: social inequality links to 'low literacy level' & 'few job prospects'.

        18) Dependency (on a specific sector)
        The economies of some developing countries are extremely reliant on a specific sector (for example,
        agriculture). This is dangerous, because once that particular sector faces any sort of hardship, the economy
        suffers greatly. For example, A drought that damaged the agriculture of the country could potentially cause an
        economic crash.
        How Dependency fits into the cycle: It is linked with 'Reduced likelihood of economic success'.
        19) Climate & Geography
        It is no coincidence that the poorest countries are in the tropics, where it is hot, the land is less fertile, water is
        more scarce, where diseases flourish. Conversely, Europe and North America profit from huge tracts of very
        fertile land, a temperate climate, and good rainfall. They have to work twice as hard to get enough to eat out of
        the ground; they have to irrigate where others can depend on rainfall. Some countries are just at a natural
        disadvantage. It does not help that these developing countries are highly reliant on agriculture, too, where
        climate is a large factor that affects yield.
        How climate & geography fit into the cycle: 'Reduced likelihood of economic success'.

        20) Geographical location
        Geographical location plays a part in access to markets. All the great empires have been based around trade
        routes, and these are almost always maritime. (Of course there are exceptions). Many of the world’s poorest
        countries are severely hindered because they are landlocked, which means that they are situated in high
        mountain ranges; or lack navigatable rivers, long coastlines. This makes these developing countries less
        attractive to other traders. How Geographical location fits into the cycle: 'Reduced likelihood of
        economic success'.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT                                                                                                            39