Secular Cycles

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					                                                                                    Book Reviews

of the Muslims — happily state that they          different communities is described as some
are “auslaender”, without the claim of be-        kind of liberation without a cause, with an
ing of the same “nationality” of the “host        emphasis on the private over the public. In-
society” they live in. Joppke states that the     deed when pressed to define Britain’s values
German way of defining the state in Chris-        Gordon Brown is quoted to have included
tian-Occidental terms is a mistake for the        “putting civil society before the state” as a
ideal liberal space that Europe wants to ad-      principle, rather than the correctionist and
vertise itself as. However, what comes out        the emancipatory mission that France, at
of the discussions concerning the veil cases      the other end of the liberal spectrum as
that Germany has had to deal with is that         defined by Joppke, assumes. Various Brit-
because Germany has no immediate desire           ish cases of the “veil problem” are recorded,
to make fully fledged “German citizens” (in       in which the courts almost always favor the
Joppke’s definition “Christian-Occidental”)       hijabi’s right to wear the veil, the problem
out of these self-proclaimed auslaender,          raising its expected head only in the case of
the state has fewer expectations from Mus-        the niqab which, as the courts argue, makes
lim women, and it does not expect them            the identification of the wearer impossible.
to show their allegiance by throwing away
                                                      Joppke’s conclusion is a little more of the
their veils á la Française. This, in turn, in-
                                                  same as the introduction, with a call to fur-
deed gets reflected in the number and na-
                                                  ther examine the ways in which each state
ture of “veil controversies” that come about
                                                  may be getting it wrong or right. He suggest
in Germany and the incidents stay limited
                                                  that time will tell which position will remain
to teachers who are thought to be in a posi-
                                                  tenable in the future, and in homage to the
tion to influence younger people.
                                                  possibly misguided French attempts to cre-
    Lastly the British case is described by       ate a uniform republican subject, refers to
the adjective “extreme”, no doubt with ref-       the French ban as the “swan song” of French
erence to the incidents of violence in Brit-      republicanism, that very institution which
ain that Joppke speaks about in passing to        gave Europe its form of the nation state.
remind the reader what “toleration liberal-
ism” may lead to. Britain’s way of treating the                             Nagihan Halilo
Description: Secular Cycles, by Peter Turchin and A. Nevedov, is reviewed.
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