Grundtvig Out of Europe Winner 2

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					Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
 Capital City      Addis Ababa
 Area              1,098,000 sq km
 Population        71,000,000 estimate
 Country Dialing   + 2511
 Currency          1 Birr=100 cents (1US$=ca. 8,2)
 Time              GMT/UTC + 3; Julian Calendar
 Weight Measure    metric
 Government        Federal Republic with 2 legislative houses –
   Form              Federal Council (117) & Council of
                     Representatives (548)
 Government        Head of Government:
   Leaders         Prime Minister Meles Zenawi
                   Head of State:
                   President Girma Wolde-Giorgis
 Religion          Ethiopian orthodox (45%), Muslim (40%),
 Livelihoods Skills Training
 for Poor Youth and Adults
    (EXPRO) in Ethiopia

Fighting Poverty through Learning

              Presentation by Samuel Asnake
 IIZ/DVV Regional Office East Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                  November 2006, Spain                        1
EXPRO - Objectives

    Contributing to the reduction of poverty in
     selected regions/federal states of Ethiopia

    Establishment of the model community skill
     training centers (CSTCs) as well as capacity
     building and provide training

    Enabling poor youths and adults to generate
     income through market oriented skill trainings
     particularly in the rural areas where poverty is
     especially striking
EXPRO – Objectives Cont’d

    To help poor youth and adults with incomplete
     primary or secondary education, without
     access to formal education and without any

    Enabling and empowering poor people
     through training includes systematic selection
     of skill areas, occupational requirements,
     target groups, training contents (curriculum),
     entrepreneurship orientation, and access to
     micro and small credits and follow up

EXPRO - Beneficiaries
    Girls, women and landless poor youths and

    Administrators,      technical     instructors,
     coordinators/facilitators of the CSTCs

    Ministry of Education (MoE), Regional
     Education    Bureaus   (REBs),      Non-
     Governmental Organizations, Civil Society
     Organizations   and  Community     Based

The EXPRO offers

 • A model in respect of how to organize development-
   oriented adult and non-formal education as means
   for improving the livelihood of poor people

 • A model in respect of how to use adult education as
   an effective means for fighting and reducing poverty
The Situation of Poor Youths and
 • Socioeconomic and demographic situation of the
    – Population of 79 million in September 2006 real
      per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of
      about US $90 proportion of people in Ethiopia
      who are absolutely poor during the year
      1999/2000 was 44.2 percent

   – Roughly 31 million Ethiopians do not have
     enough food items in their food basket

   – Poverty is more common in rural areas than in
     urban areas
The Situation of Poor Youths and
Adults… cont’d
  – Female-headed households are poorer than male-
    headed households (because they have less land
    and cattle)

  – Households with a larger proportion of dependants
    such as children under the age of 15 and the old
    above the age of 65 and a bigger family size than the
    average of 4.9 persons are more vulnerable to
    poverty and generally poorer than smaller

  – Households that are involved in off-farm activities
    are more likely to be poor than those who are not

The Situation of Poor Youths and
Adults … cont’d
 -   Poor households, particularly in the rural areas,
     have lower levels of education and health

 -   The poverty incidence, depth and severity decrease
     with an increase in the level of the education of the
     head of the household

 -   Basic education particularly for women, as formal
     schooling or non-formal equivalences, reduces

The Situation of Poor Youths and
Adults … cont’d
 -   70 percent of the adult population is illiterate
 -   Adult literate at 33 percent for men and only 11
     percent for women
 -   The labour force population was projected at about 42
     million people (youths and adults) in 2004 out of these
     figures, only half a million have access to or are
     enrolled in education and/or training
 -   In 2002 about 25 million adults working in agriculture
     only were lacking any basic education, skill and
     technical knowledge

Model CSTCs as a Professional Training
Providers - New Concept

  Because of the shortage of funds from the federal and
  regional governments revitalization of the potential
  model CSTC must be done in cost-effective way.

  The EXPRO has develop two guides which must be
       followed in order to identify and utilize the
       potential resources for income generation.

1    Profile of a model CSTC:   In brief
the minimum necessary human and physical
resource and management requirements:

   Type, qualification and number of staff,
   compound type and number of buildings,
   facilities and training tools

   Materials planning and management

   Monitoring and evaluation and
   documentation tools
2 Ten basic activity steps strategy: to fulfil
the minimum basic requirements that enables it
carry out basic activities for need-based
training, income-generation, self-employment
and development.

1.   situational analysis
2.   Market analysis
3.   Training needs assessment
4.   Institutional analysis
5. Annual training program
6. Criteria and procedures for selecting the
   target group
7. Criteria and procedures for selecting and
   employing technical trainers
8. Training curriculum
9. Management of the training program
10. Evaluation of the training and assessment
    of its impact
The impact of the EXPRO / What Could be
Achieved by Going to Scale
 Impact on livelihood and aspects such as food security
 and manpower provision – if implemented at national
   • Instead of about 7,000 people, between 60,000 and
     85,000 people would be trained annually!

  • These people would make an income by improving
    their immediate livelihood needs through self-
    employment or employment or even a small

  • Semi-skilled manpower will be available in areas
    where there is no such expertise! This in turn will
    lead to improvements in the quality of the lives of
    the people, such as better food, clothing, housing,
    shelter!                                          14
• These impacts will become a strong incentive for
  not only those who successfully participated in the
  skill training but also for others to invest in learning,
  training and self-help initiatives, and finally strive
  for literacy!

• Successfully participating in the training means
  impacting on the livelihood of the family members
  (on average between 300,000 and 450,000 people
  annually), for example with regard to food security!

• Impact of the EXPRO on the livelihood situation of poor youths and
  adults. There are some good practices:

  First Example

                       Misrak in her pastry, Mojo
Second Example

  Zabish, Abebe and Gizaye at the primary school site, Mertolemariyam   17
Third Examples

          Producing school furniture at Yebu SCST   18
The costs for establishing a model CSTC may be
different in size and capacity of the existing centers
between regions and even within. The following are
average cost figures.

 Costs of an average three-months training
 Establishing a model CSTC which includes basic
 research/assessments,      renovation,     upgrading,
 provision of tools and equipment, basic maintenance
 plus training of the coordinators costs between Birr
 85,000 (Euro 7,727) and 120,000 (Euro 10,909)

 Constructing a completely new model CSTC with two
 workshops including basic research/assessment,
 provision of tools and equipment, basic maintenance
 plus training of the coordinators may amount to
 approximately Birr 160,000 (Euro 14,545)
Cost of an average three-month training course
per trainee
• Costs for training in livelihood-agriculture related
  course will be between Birr 100 (Euro 9 one month)
  and Birr 300 (Euro 27 three months)

• Training on technical skill related courses costs
  between Birr 700 (Euro 64) and Birr 800 (Euro 73)

• Seed or credit money needed per trainee to enable
  him/her to start self-employment will cost between
  Birr 250 (Euro 23) to 1,500 (Euro 136), depending on
  the skill area
 For example: The number of trainees trained in 2004 at
 all model CSTCs has reached 2,013 out of which 541 are
 male and 1472 are female. model CSTC can train between
 100 and 150 trainees per year.                         20
Important policies of the country as well as on
international developments goals
 • The vision of the ESDP II of training 65,000 youths
   and adults annually would come true.

 • Furthermore, the EXPRO could serve as a model for
   ANFE strategies and programs in the ESDP III. Thus,
   the Ethiopian ESDP, needless to say, will contribute
   directly to two of the goals of the Dakar Framework
   for Action

 • If the CSTCs and VTCs are officially recognized as
   non-formal vocational training providers, the EXPRO
   would considerably contribute to a rapid
   implementation and expansion of the national TVET
   program, and again help to achieve the goals of the
• it will directly and significantly contribute to the
  reduction of poverty among poor youths and adults,
  and     thus     contribute    to    the   successful
  implementation of the Ethiopian SDPRS, thereby
  again directly contributing to the achievement of one
  of the major MDGs – reducing the poverty rate by
  half by the year 2015!

Thank you
 for your

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