ICT for Local Governance Needs A by wulinqing

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 29

									  ICT for Local Governance:
       A Case Study for e-Local Governance in the Kebeles
    of the City Government of Addis Ababa (CGAA), Ethiopia


     LOG-IN Africa Project, Mid-Term Workshop

Solomon Atnafu, Dessalegn Mequanint, and Yigeremew Adal
           Department of Computer Science
               Addis Ababa University

                        June 7, 2007
                         Mauritius
                      Outline
   1.   Introduction
         1.1. The National Team Research Project
         1.2. Research Problem
   2. Research Methodologies
   3.   Status of the Project
   4.   Research Results
         4.1 Findings and Analysis on the Data Collected from Key Informants
         4.2 Findings and Analysis on the Data Collected from Kebele Residents
                 4.2.1 Information on the Respondents
                 4.2.2 Level of ICT Tools Usage by the Residents
                 4.2.3 e-Local Governance Readiness
                 4.2.4 Services to Citizens – Life-Event Services

   5.   Summary


June 7-9, 2007                LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                   2
1. Introduction
• Objectives of the LOGIN Africa Network:
      – Create and design a standard roadmap and Strategy for e-Local Governance
        Projects in Africa;
      – Define a standard framework of measurement and a commonly accepted
        methodology of monitoring and evaluation of the impact of ICTs on local
        governance in Africa;
      – etc.
• The Ethiopian team, under the framework of LOGIN, focuses on e-
  local governance at Kebeles,
      – which are the lowest administrative units in Ethiopia where citizen-
        centered services are rendered.
• The team has chosen Addis Ababa since it provides a number of
  opportunities for the successful implementation of the Project.

June 7-9, 2007            LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                     3
1.1. The National Team Research Project
Objectives
• to identify the key drivers/factors for successful implementation of
  e-local governance in the local administrative systems, “Kebeles”
  of the CGAA;
• to identify policy and strategy-related issues for successful
  implementation of e-local governance;
• to propose a roadmap for an effective implementation of e-local
  governance at the Kebeles of the CGAA;
• to identify priority areas on life-event services where ICTs
  intervention is required, and
• to develop a prototype system that serves as a showcase on the
  application of ICT on local governance.


June 7-9, 2007         LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop              4
1.2. Research Problem
• What is the level of ICT usage for local governance purpose at the
  Kebeles’ of the CGAA?
• What is the e-local governance readiness status of the Kebeles’ of the
  CGAA?
• How can the application of ICTs on local governance bring the
  participation of citizens into a higher level?
• What policies and strategies are needed for the application of ICTs on
  local governance at the Kebeles’ of the CGAA?
• What are the key factors and drivers that impact the successful
  implementations of e- local governance at the Kebeles of the CGAA?
• What is the reaction of the Kebele staff and end-users to the
  governance aspects in the implementation of the prototype developed?

June 7-9, 2007         LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                    5
2. Research Methodologies
• Data Collection
     – Document Research and On-site Observation,
     – Selection of the Case
     – Assessment of Case Studies and relevant experiences of other countries,
     – Design of data collection Instruments and collection of relevant data from
       users and services providers,
• Data Analysis
     – Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
• Review
     – Consultative workshop with stakeholders on the outcome of the research
• Prototype System Development
     – Testing of the system developed


June 7-9, 2007             LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                         6
3. Status of the Project
   •   relevant documents collected,
   •   created contact to selected Kebeles
   •   identified targeted respondents,
   •   designed questionnaires,
   •   trained data collectors,
   •   conducted the data collection, and
   •   performed preliminary data analysis.

June 7-9, 2007    LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop   7
Some of tasks that remain to be carried out are:
 • Conduct more detailed data analysis.
 • Conduct stakeholders meeting.
 • Implementation of National Research Activities (Developing
   a prototype system for a prioritized citizen-oriented service,
   and testing them on selected Kebeles’ life-event service
   delivery system).
 • Prepare Report of the National Team.
 • Contribute for the final LOG-IN Africa Report preparation.
 • Conduct dissemination and popularization activity on the
   findings and results of the national team research project.

 June 7-9, 2007      LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop            8
                                                       Contd.

• Conduct assessment and impact of the system.
• Participate in the Final workshop in Senegal to present the
  findings and results of the Research Network Activities
  and LOG-IN Africa Network.
• Participate in the Research Network Evaluation and
  publication of the Research Network results.
• Prepare Final technical and financial progress report.
• Explore possible follow-up activities of the research
  project.


June 7-9, 2007      LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop            9
 4. Research Results
• Findings and Analysis on the Data Collected from
  Key Informants
     – Kebele Managers are considered (questionnaires &
       interviews)
     – Relevant documentations are explored
• Findings and Analysis on the Data Collected from
  Kebele Residents
     – Two Kebeles are selected
     – 200 residents identified randomly


 June 7-9, 2007       LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop    10
4.1 Findings and Analysis based on the Data
    Collected from Key Informants

   a) Level of ICTs usage:
   •     ICTs equipments currently being used by theKebele offices are:
         Fixed phone, Mobile phone, Computers, Radio and TV
            – Purpose of use:
                 • Computers are mainly used for revenue administration. However, at
                   present no computer systems are in use for the delivery of life-event service.
                 • Fixed telephones are used for the day-to-day activities of the Kebeles.
                 • Televisions and Radios are used only for refreshments.
            – ICTs skills of Kebele staff
                 • No formal training on ICTs particularly on Computer use has been given to
                   both Kebele staffs, particularly those employees working on life-event
                   services are not trained on Computer use.

   •     Kebele managers believe that ICT can bring change in efficiency.

June 7-9, 2007                LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                          11
b) Local e-governance readiness:

     • The staff of both Kebeles are not trained on Computer use.
     • Aside from their fiscal budget allocated to them by the
       sub-city, Kebeles have no other financial support or means
       to acquire and use ICTs for their day-to-day activities.
     • Computers available at both Kebeles are not networked.
     • At present both Kebeles do not have Internet connectivity,
       and they have no web presence.




June 7-9, 2007       LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop        12
c) Services to Citizens
    • There are a number of life-event services offered at both
      Kebeles.
    • Kebeles collect and keep information about residents,
    • However, information about residents is not up to date




June 7-9, 2007       LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop          13
d) ICTs policy and strategy

     • we have learned that there is no ICTs policy and
       strategy tailored made to Kebeles.
     • both Kebeles have a short-term desire to use ICT-based
       life-event services




June 7-9, 2007       LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop       14
 4.2 Findings and Analysis on the Data
     Collected from Kebele Residents
    4.2.1 Information on the Respondents
Table 01: Background information about the Kebeles considered for the case study
 Kebele      Population           Total number of staff         Number of staff in life events

03/05             37,000                     53                                5
04/06/07          70,000                     53                    6 (5 in related activities)


           Table 02: ICTs equipments available in the two Kebeles:
                      Fixed            Mobile
   Kebele                                           Computers         Radio        Television    Fax
                      Telephone        telephone*
03/05                  5                 0                4             1              1          0
04/06/07               3                 0                11            1              4          0


 June 7-9, 2007                    LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                              15
  4.2 Findings and Analysis on the Data
      Collected from Kebele Residents
          4.2.1 Information on the Respondents
Table 03: Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Sex and Family Responsibility
                                                         AG E    GROUP
 Respondents by Sex
                      18 - 19   20 - 24   25 - 29   30 - 34   35 - 39   40 - 44   45 +    Not stated   Total
              No.           5        16        38        11        17        11     33             1        132
 Male
              %          2.50      8.00     19.00      5.50      8.50      5.50   16.50         0.50    66.00
              No.           5        14        19         9         3         6     11             1         68
 Female
              %          2.50      7.00      9.50      4.50      1.50      3.00    5.50         0.50    34.00
              No.          10        30        57        20        20        17     44             2        200
 Total
              %          5.00     15.00     28.50        10     10.00      8.50   22.00         1.00   100.00




  June 7-9, 2007                  LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                                     16
          Table 04: Distribution of Respondents by Level of Education & Employment Status

                                                               Employment Status
Level of Education   Government     Private Sector   Self-Employed    Not Employed     Students       Retired             Total
                       No   %       No       %       No       %       No      %        No   %         No   %        No         %
Illiterate              -       -      -         -        -       -     1     0.50      -         -    -        -     1           0.50
Read & Write            1    0.50      1      0.50     7       3.50     2     1.00      -         -    -        -    11           5.50
Elementary
                        -       -      1      0.50     8       4.00     4     2.00      -         -    -        -    13           6.50
School
High School            22   11.00    18       9.00    52      26.00    20    10.00      2   1.00       1   0.50     115        57.50
Diploma                 9    4.50      7      3.50     4       2.00     2     1.00      -         -    -        -    22        11.00
BA/BSc                 11    5.50      8      4.00     9       4.50     6     3.00      -         -    -        -    34        17.00
MA/MSc                  2    1.00      1      0.50     1       0.50     -          -    -         -    -        -     4           2.00
       Total           45   22.50    36      18.00    81      40.50    35    17.50      2   1.00       1   0.50     200       100.00


  • the majority of the respondents are adequately qualified for ICT training.
  • about 80 percent of respondents are employees


      June 7-9, 2007                       LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                                              17
    4.2.2 Level of ICT Tools Usage by the Residents

Table 05: Percentage Distribution of Respondents by usage and place of ICT Equipments

          ICT Equipments             Home             Work Place         Service Center          Not Used ALL
                           No.         Percent      No.       Percent    No.       Percent       No.    Percent
    Fixed Telephones        159             79.50     55         27.50     15          7.50        30      15.00
    Mobile Telephones       152             76.50     38         19.00         2       1.00        42      21.00
    Computers                45             22.50     49         24.50     30         15.00       102      51.00
    Fax                          5           2.50     21         10.50     10          5.00       165      82.50
    Radio                   188             94.00         2       1.00         -             -     12       6.00
    Television              181             90.50         3       1.50         1       0.50        19       9.50


    • about half of the respondents have access to computers either at home or
      at work place or at computer service centers.
    • 79 and 76 % of the respondents have private access to fixed and mobile
      telephone respectively.


    June 7-9, 2007                    LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                                       18
  Table 06: Respondents who take Training on
        computer by Educational Status
                             Take Training on Computer Use
                                                                                    • 53 % have taken some
Level of Education         Yes                 No                 Total               trainings in using computers
                     No.         %       No.        %       No.       %
                                                                                    • correlation of computer use
Illiterate             -             -     1        0.50      1           0.50
                                                                                      training and level of education
Read & Write           2         1.00      9        4.50     11           5.50
Elementary School      3         1.50     10        5.00     13           6.50
High School           44     22.00        71    35.50       115       57.50
                                                                                        Type of Course   No.    %
Diploma               20     10.00         2        1.00     22       11.00
BA/BSc                33     16.50         1        0.50     34       17.00          MS-Windows            99   93.40

MA/MSc                 4         2.00      -            -     4           2.00       MS-DOS                70   66.04
        Total        106     53.00        94    47.00       200      100.00          MS-Excel              86   81.13
                                                                                     MS-Word               91   85.85
                                                                                     MS-Access             77   72.64
                                                                                     Others*               24   22.64


                                                                                 Table 07: Respondents who took Courses
                                                                                 on computer by Type of Training


    June 7-9, 2007                        LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                                       19
Table 08: Percentage of Respondents by Level of
Competence in Using Computer

     Level of Competence   No.         %
   Very Good                 19          17.43         Reasons for not to take   No.    %
   Good                      45          41.28         courses on Computer Use
   Fair                      33          30.28     Financial Problem              30   31.91
   Poor                      12          11.01     Not a Priority                 49   52.13
             Total          109         100.00     Lack of English Knowledge      11   11.70
                                                   Due to Age                      1    1.06
   • about 59% feel that they have good
     and very good level of competence.            Personal Problem                1    1.06
   • about 30 percent also feel that their         Don't have Interest             1    1.06
     competence is fair.                           Don't think about it            2    2.13
                                                   No favorable Time               2    2.13
                                                   No Specific Places              1    1.06
                                                   No Chance                       1    1.06
                                                   Table 09: Reasons for not taking
                                                             Courses on computer
    June 7-9, 2007               LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                      20
   4.2.3 e-Local Governance Readiness
      Table 10: Distribution of Respondents by Access to Internet and Employment Status
                                                                    Access to Internet
              Employment Status                Yes                 No            Not Stated             Total
                                        No.          %       No.        %       No.      %        No.           %
         Government Employee             23           11.5    12         6.00    10       5.00     45           22.50
         Employed in Private Sector      22          11.00     9         4.50       5     2.50     36           18.00
         Self-Employed                   29          14.50    26        13.00    26      13.00     81           40.50
         Not Employed                    14           7.00    12         6.00       9     4.50     35           17.50
         Students                          -             -     2         1.00       -         -     2            1.00
         Retired                           -             -     1         0.50       -         -     1            0.50
                     Total               88          44.00    62        31.00    50      25.00    200      100.00

                                                                            Place of Access Internet                No.           %
                                                                        At Home                                         17    19.32
                                                                        At Work Place                                   36    40.91
                                                                        At Internet Cafés                               60    68.18
Table 11: Respondents who have Access to                                University/Collage                               2        2.27
internet by Place of Access [n=88]                                      At School                                        1        1.14
                                                             Friends/Colleagues Work Place                               1        1.14
    June 7-9, 2007                    LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                                                       21
Table 12: Respondents who have
                                                      Table 13: Respondents by Means of
Access to internet by Reason for use
                                                      Communication with the Kebeles
[n=88]
      Reason for Use of Internet      No.    %             Means of Communication   No.    %
E-Mail                                 79   89.77
Online Resources                       48   54.55      Telephone                     12    6.00
For Chatting                           27   30.68      e-Mail                         -        -

Have access never used it               4    4.55      Physical Presence            195   97.50
To Read news                            1    1.14
                                                       Others                         5    0.50
Net Work Marketing                      2    2.27




June 7-9, 2007                     LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                       22
  4.2.4 Services to Citizens – Life-Event Services

          Table 14: Respondents by type of life-event Services they get from the
          Kebele [n=200]
                                    Life-Event Service               No.       %
                 Issuance of ID Card                                  195      97.50
                 Testimony on Marital Status                           96      48.00
                 Testimony on unemployment                             90      45.00
                 Housing                                              141      70.50
                 Tax Services                                              1    0.50
                 Testimony on Health fee Exemption                         2    1.00
                 Testimony on low income Earner                            2    1.00
                 Testimony on Contribution residents did                   1    0.50
                 Testimony on School fee Exemption                         1    0.50
                 Borrowing Money                                           1    0.50


June 7-9, 2007                    LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                     23
  Table 15: Respondents by Number of Times they Visit Kebele to get Services

                 Number of Times      Per Month                 Per Year
                                     No.              %       No.           %
                      1–2              31             62.00    91            65.00
                      3–4              12             24.00    34            24.29
                      5–6               1              2.00    12             8.57
                      7–8               1              2.00         -            -
                      9- 10                -              -         -            -
                      > 10              5             10.00     3             2.14
                      Total            50         100.00      140           100.00
                      Mean                     2.68                     -




June 7-9, 2007                LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                       24
Table 16: Respondents by Average time it takes to get the listed Services

                                 Services               Year     Month      Day    Minutes
                   Issuance of ID Cards                      -          -   3.03     62.44
                   Testimony on marital Status               -          -   3.00     69.61
                   Testimony on unemployment                 -          -   2.27     71.78
                   Housing (Registration, renting..)      1.00     1.00     4.89    102.11
                   Testimony for School fee Exemption        -          -   2.33    106.83
                   Testimony for health fee Exemption        -          -   2.09     56.62
                   Testimony for low income level            -          -   2.46     65.76
                   Testimony for Living in the Kebele        -          -   2.33     59.32




  June 7-9, 2007                     LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                        25
Table 24: Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Speed
of Life-Event services delivery in the Kebele
               Responses                   No.       %
  Adequate                                   82      41.00
  Inadequate                                101      50.50
  Poor                                       16       8.00
  Not Stated                                  1       0.50
                   Total                    200    100.00
                                                                    Table 28: Problems identified by
                                                                    Respondents related to service delivery
                                                                                                     No. of
                                      Problems associated to service delivery
                                                                                                  Respondents
                       It takes long time to get the Services                                         49
                       The Workers does not respect working Hours; Some times files and
                       records are lost; Lack of Leaders Responsibility                               24
                       The Number of People who need services is not proportional to the
                       number of workers in Kebeles, hence mostly, there is queue to get
                       service; Employees have lack of knowledge and competence                       18
                       There is no respect for residents who need services; poor service
                       delivery                                                                       16
                       Not sufficient information given to residents; No strict rules to follow       13
  June 7-9, 2007                    LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                                   26
   Table 29: Opinions of Respondents on which of the services require improvement.


                                                                            No. of
  Respondents opinion on where improved service delivery is required     Respondents
 All the Services has to be Improved                                         33
 The Housing Services needs improvement                                      17
 ID Issuance Services                                                        17
 Proper time Improvement for all Services                                    15
 Hire Skilled man power                                                      12
 Service related to health fee exemption; Testimony on marital status;
 Issuance of Ownership Certificate                                           9
 File Management system                                                      6
 Employment of Responsible Administrator                                     4
 Communication with the Residents                                            4


June 7-9, 2007                LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                    27
5. Summary
The data collected indicate that:
• While the level of ICT usage of the Kebele residents is in a good and
   encouraging status, there is no adequate implementation of ICTs for life-
   event services. Yet service delivery is rated as inadequate by the majority.
• While the Kebele managers believe that ICTs are the menses to create
   efficiency for better service delivery, they are in a position where they
   can do little about it due to the absence of adequate strategy and
   determination.
• While the residents complain that service delivery in life-event
    services are time consuming and inefficient, the Kebele administration
    is doing little to change the situation but still believing that ICTs are
    manses to get out of it.
In such a situation, this project will contribute a lot to initiate the Kebeles and
    the concerned offices and organizations for change towards the use of
    ICTs for local governance in an effective manner.


June 7-9, 2007           LOG-IN Africa, Mid-Term Workshop                     28
Thank You 
  Merci 

								
To top