Merchants of by fdjerue7eeu

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									Merchants of
Shanxi Merchants in Ming and Qing as an important socio-economic forces at that
time in China, has profound impact on business and financial history to the far left
behind a worthy cultural treasures dug deep. For further study and discussion, and
often Shanxi's culture to enhance the theoretical thinking, Sanjin Culture
Standing Professional Committee's Scholar and Jinzhong Chronicles
Research Institute, Shanxi University, School of Economics and Business
Administration on September 2, 2004 to 6, in Jinzhong jointly organized the
"Merchants. Chang's Culture Symposium" of
Merchants from all over the country and often the family's more than 80
experts and scholars attended the meeting. The conference received a total of more
than 50 academic articles, showcases the latest academic research related to Shanxi.

A

Merchants of years have focused on the Merchants own research, show the limitations
of the study field and methodology of unity, lack of foresight perspective and analysis,
macro-examine and grasp remained weak. The conference showed that more scholars
are slowly beginning to attach importance to the definition of Merchants and culture,
and consciously explore the use of new theoretical developments within the law of
Shanxi.
Shanxi University of Economics and Business Administration Professor Liu
Jiansheng and other scholars, the introduction of new institutional economics of the
system analysis method, the fortune of Shanxi as a process of institutional change
caused scholars attention. Merchants institutional change their theme, motivation,
methods have been systematically analyzed in theory the development of Shanxi
context, mechanisms, changes in the pattern of the comb and demonstration. Professor
Liu Jiansheng said: ancient Chinese government's strict control on the salt
industry, property rights are unclear and the "economic man"
behavior created Shanxi merchants, it is set by the Government rent, rent-seeking
merchants, businessmen and the government was established in Shanxi close officials
and businessmen and their relationship to long-term maintenance. Although Shanxi
merchants in the course of the activity spent a lot of cost, but this solved the problem
of information asymmetry, decision-making to achieve the internalization and
transaction cost savings, and for a monopoly businessman to create the conditions.
Zhang Xiqin in the "Merchants of institutional change,
Conditions" article mentioned that the system of constant change from
Shanxi Merchants profit organizations continue to identify potential sources of
economies of scale, risk, incomplete markets, externalities, while Merchants
institutional change but also by system suppliers and system environmental
constraints. Feng either in the "Merchants of Institutional Change on the
type of basic judgments," a paper that institutional change is not limited to
Merchants a particular manner or type of change, but at different stages, reflecting
different aspects Shanxi system system towards. Wu Fangmei "informal
system, the impact of the decline of the Merchants" is that the informal
system of Shanxi Merchants prosperous period in its operations from a moral and
legal norms binding the double effect, in large part to promote the Jin Dynasty
business prosperity. But with the economic environment changes, the constraint of
Shanxi Merchants set up an informal system of organization and management systems
began to fail, Shanxi behavior distorted, resulting in a higher level affect Merchants
decline. Ma Wenjing "Change from a business organization's
family often flourished," the changes from the organizational model of the
Merchants often rise and prosperity of the family's reasons.
Ren Kai, Liu Xia in the "Merchants Credit System and the construction of
the current credit Enlightenment" article, in-depth analysis of the Ming and
Qing Shanxi credit credit system and to capital formation, marked by the modern
credit system. Made by comparing the analysis of carrying forward the spirit of
traditional credit, absorb and learn the results of the modern capital of the credit
system to promote the construction of the credit point of view of property rights.
"Chang's commercial credit of Economic Analysis"
From the perspective of economics, a commodity credit, often at home, often using
game theory analysis of family credit. From the faith and dishonesty of the Strategies
and pay more, often obtained in the community's economic development,
goods game under different conditions, the optimal solution, which can build the new
Merchants enterprises play a credit reference.
Social History Research Center of Shanxi University, Professor Xing Long
"from the Perspective of Social History of Jin Merchants and the local
community," a paper presented on the Merchants research should not only
rest on their attention and analysis of Shanxi, Shanxi As should be widely social
background to Shanxi to coordinate center, vertical and horizontal space of time to
seek his influence around the social and economic life and radiation, clear Merchants
Association and interaction with society. Merchants and the local community, social
history, should adhere to traditional research methods based on the use of comparative
study, field research, interdisciplinary research methods and other new methods to
re-examine the previous research results, new research horizons .
Comparative study of the basic features. Shanxi Research Center of Shanxi Academy
of Social Sciences researcher Zheng-Ming Zhang Ming and Qing Shanxi and Anhui
Merchants compared, from the origin, faith and worship, and official relations firm
staff composition, houses built form, so "thrifty luxury"
concepts, catering and other aspects of the similarities and differences between the
two. Affirmed the geo-cultural and human factors play a role.
Shanxi University of Finance and the Professor Kong Xiangyi depth of the
"Shanxi culture and its characteristics" and described the
relationship between culture and economics. Fan Jiexiu home to Shanxi for example,
defines the meaning of Commercial Culture and the extension and that its extension is
different from other cultures unique enterprise system, commercial art, philosophy,
urban and rural construction, ethics, cultural practices and education; its meaning lies
in the material and spiritual wealth of Shanxi merchants combination of. That the
cultural characteristics of the Merchants mainly from the internal influence of
traditional culture, embodied worship Guan benevolence, righteousness, loyalty, faith
Confucianism, geographical characteristics of trade favorable factors to rural-centric
concepts financial management culture, and human resource development in human
thinking and the Benevolence of the love ideas. Wei Ming Kong Institute of
Economics Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researcher in the
"Merchants and the Chinese Economic History," in that
commercial trade is the economic history of the region an integral part of Shanxi
Merchants in Ming and Qing dynasties which China's commercial,
financial industry and made important contribution. National trade in the northwest,
Zhongshan Shan tea-horse trade status and role of business is very important.
Merchants development issues in his view, separation of ownership, at every level of
management control and operational concepts are the key changes in its rise and fall
of one of the factors. In addition, he studies the development of future trends
Merchants analysis.

Two

Merchants research on micro-grasp, this meeting made a number of the many scholars
explore new areas. Inner Mongolia Academy of Social Sciences researcher Lu
Minghui history of "Qing Mongolia Mongolia business impact of changing
social and economic life - on the family's regular business operations in the
Mongolian region", the analysis of Chinese and Mongolian trade hub
opened main causes of Han kept in the production of consumer goods on the
complementarity and the Government's political and military requirements.
Further discussed the Chinese-Mongolian trade relations between officials and
businessmen. Merchants often expounds Fan's family and family business
in the North Road area of radiation, and talked about the way big business Sheng-kui,
transportation and trading methods.
Shanxi Academy of Social Sciences researcher Chun-Ping "On the small
businessman Jinzhong Ming and Qing Dynasties," the article pointed out
that previous studies focus on the Merchants are many large family, while supporting
the foundation of Merchants Group, a slight shortage of small and medium business .
He believes that small business is an integral Merchants research groups, representing
the interests of businessmen in the middle and lower classes, the Ming and Qing
dynasties in the process of economic development, commodity markets play an active
role in their research for the current private SMEs development and transfer of rural
surplus labor problems, such as certain practical significance.
Shanxi University of Finance and the Professor Huang Jianhui often talked about as a
family of clan foreign trade in the tea trade, but also the financial industry and the
workers involved in mining. And the reign of Qianlong has set up three accounts
Authority and the ticket number, is also actively involved in the campaign and Paul
Jin Paul mining company's operations. And stressed the importance of
Shanxi historical materials.
Capital Normal University, Department of History, Dr. ZHANG Gui-ping
"from the perspective of deep stock of human capital and the rise and fall
Merchants Draft" article, from the perspective of human capital theory,
highlighting Merchants "body shares" the era of implied
meaning, and to explore the "personal top stock" system the
incentive mechanism and Shanxi relationship between the success or failure. Social
History Research Center of Shanxi University, Yan Junling's
"Apprentice of the Convention and Ceremony of Shanxi test,"
the article suggested that the development of commodity economy with the Ming and
Qing Dynasties, business practices are increasingly developed. Shanxi as a major
provider of this period to help in the development process has also created a relatively
stable industry, customs and etiquette heritage. Business customs and etiquette of the
Shanxi for a comb and investigates Shanxi commercial operation in the human
concept, explain its positive business content. Wang Yong red "Qianlong
Dong Merchants business trade estimates," said Dong group of merchants
is an important part of Shanxi, but the number on the business side of Shanxi
relatively small. In this paper, the quantitative analysis of the salt on the salt
merchants in the Qing period in areas such as price and trade volume was estimated in
order to explore the east of the river merchants in the Qianlong period of operation.

Three

Shanxi culture is the subject of more academic research has made considerable
achievements. At this meeting, the scholars of the existing studies were re-examined
and put forward some new ideas.
Zhao Yuntian Chinese Academy of Social History Institute, Shanxi Academy of
Social Sciences Luo Chun Pu, Shanxi University, School of Economics and Business
Administration Shi Tao and other scholars of the Merchants "excellent
learning, Jia" questioned the concept of re-interpretation of the rise and
decline of traditional culture and Merchants relations that Shanxi is leaving school
career in business due to unreasonable, Shanxi brilliant business performance can
only show them as a local area on the tie break, this effect only changes the awareness
of business community, and not really break the feudal society "segment of
society" in order to improve the status of traditional society, businessmen.
At the same time, they emphasized a variety of education should focus on instead of
Shanxi "excellent learning, Jia" formulations, in fact, Shanxi, or
to complete the "Making A Good School" -
"excellent learning culture" of the ultimate goal . Shanxi
University of Finance and Professor Huang Jianhui that of Jin Shang Ru relations in
three forms: that is, from reading to doing business, so to abandon Confucianism from
the operators; family in both reading official who also businessmen; also to business
support Confucian . More important is the regular's family and many other
family Shanxi importance of education, active schools, and deserves our full attention.
Shanxi University History and Tourism Zhoushan Ren in the "From
business to Confucianism - a hundred years of regular home education, and on
the" Confucian Jia "," also stressed the centuries
have often experienced a family business family, to education, culture, family changes,
the fundamental What does not exist, "Scholar" or
"Confucian Jia", there is only achieved by the commercial
capital of culture after the investment in business education from the Confucian
family in order to avoid the rise and fall of customary law. Han Xiaoli's
"Merchants of female family role" of women through the
analysis of Shanxi family, rich in Shanxi in the meantime, the poets on the edge of
living memory in the history of women groups to give more attention and
understanding.
In addition, scholars from the architectural culture, tourism and cultural development
of the compound angle of analysis is a multi-level and multi-cultural perspective
Merchants useful complement.
In short, this meeting has achieved encouraging results. Merchants on existing studies,
many scholars made a brilliant conclusion that with the various organizations, the
establishment, Shanxi research has become old, young combination of the three
generations of academic faculty, the academic research to create a new development
opportunities. The scholars discussed by the meeting, so that some of the main issues
to be clear and thorough, promoting academic exchanges and promote theories.
Shanxi Academy of Social Sciences of the high growth in Germany and the outcome
of this meeting, while certainly hope that the academic study to further broaden the
Merchants academic horizons and improve their academic level, rich content of its
research to potential deep-seated cultural spirit of the Shanxi Mining obtain the
history of the times really good for inspiration.




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