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					Global Marketing
    Spring 2003
    Some Abouts
                 About   me
                 About   this course
                 About   the project
                 About   the examination
                 About   grading (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Text Structure
           Introduction to global marketing
           The global marketing environment
           Global market opportunities
           Global marketing strategy
           Global marketing program
           Global marketing management (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      List of Questions
   What is global marketing?
   Do we have to go global?
   Why?
   Where shall we go?
   What shall we know before plunging
    ourselves into the storming sea?
   How can we survive and thrive in a foreign
    market? (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
           Global Marketing

             -- Introduction (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    What is Global Marketing? (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    What is marketing?
       The process of planning and executing
        the conception, pricing, promotion, and
        distribution of ideas, goods, services,
        organizations, and events to create and
        maintain relationships that will satisfy
        individual and organizational objectives. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    The Three Principles of Marketing

         Customer Value
             Value Equation: V=B/P
         Differential Advantage
         Focus (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    What is global marketing?
       Practicing marketing in the global
       An organization that engages in global
        marketing focuses its resources on
        global market opportunities and threats (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
           An open economic system

           Non-discrimination

           Global brands

           Global structures (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Exports % share of world production





                1913      1950        2000 (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Annual % Growth of trade and GDP
                 1959 – 96

 10            Trade


  6                                    Trade
         GDP                   GDP
         GDP                   GDP

            World                     USA (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
          Effects of globalization on
        Cheap offshore production
        Reduced transport costs
        Virtual communication
        Standardization of logistics
        Global marketing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Export & Import By Regions

国家(地区                                            累计比上年同期增减%
  )     进出口额           出口额          进口额         进出口  出口  进口
总 值     50,025,801     26,249,924 23,775,878    19.7   20.6   18.7
 亚洲      28,989,873     13,725,513 15,264,360   23.2   20.3    26
 非洲        1,001,081        561,926   439,156   10.8   12.9    8.3
 欧洲        9,116,406      4,750,486 4,365,920   13.9    18     9.8
 拉丁美洲      1,438,463        783,826   654,637   16.2   13.3   19.8
 北美洲       8,494,617      6,001,213 2,493,404   16.6    25     0.4
 大洋洲         984,621        426,226   558,395   17.3   27.6   10.6 (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
          Corporate Globalization
              -China’s Case
         Walmart
         World Women Basket Ball Games
         Haier in USA
         Tsingdao Beer (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
Global Marketing VS Domestic Marketing

      More difficult: language, law, culture, trade
       and non-trade barriers, market research, and
      More complicated: currency, measures and
       weights, customs, monetary exchange,
       transportation, insurance, and counter-claim
      More risky: credibility, currency exchange,
       political risk, transportation, and pricing
      More opportunities and more profitable,
       hopefully. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Should we go global?
    Internal analysis
        Resources, managerial mindset, strengths,
    External analysis
        Competition, opportunities, threats, benefits,
         risks, etc.
    Cost VS Income (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Management Orientation
       Management’s assumptions or
        beliefs-both conscious and
        unconscious-about the nature of the
       Ethnocentric
       Polycentric
       Regiocentric
       Geocentric (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Home country is superior.
     Domestic Company:
          No opportunities outside the home
     International Company
         Products and practices that succeed in the
          home country will be successful anywhere;
         Foreign operations are secondary or
     Nissan (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Each country is unique.
      Multinational Company:
          Each subsidiary should develop its own
           business and marketing strategies
           according to the specific situation in that
      Problem: Cost, control, headquarter out
       of game (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Regiocentric & Geocentric
    Regiocentric: Each region is unique and an
     integrated regional strategy is to be developed
     to serve that region.
    Geocentric: The entire world is a potential
     market and integrated world market strategies
     should be developed.
    Global or transnational company.
    Global Localization: Think globally, act locally. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Philips VS Matsushita
       Philips Electronics
           Polycentric: 7 models of TV based on 4
            chassis, Variety
       Matsushita
           Geocentric: global strategy, 2 models of TV
            based on a single chassis, low price (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
  Driving and Restraining Forces
   Affecting Global Integration
       and Global Marketing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Driving Forces
      Technology
          Internet, Satellite Dish, Globe Spanning TV
      Regional Economic Agreements
          NAFTA, EU, ASEAN, GCC, APEC
      Market Needs and Wants
          Converging, Global Brand,
      Transportation and Communication
          Jet Plane, Large Cargo Ship, email, fax,
           videoconferencing, cost deduction (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Driving Forces Cont.
    Product development costs
    Quality
    World Economic Trends
        More opportunities
        Less resistance
        World-wide deregulation and privatization (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Driving Forces Cont.
       Leverage
           Experience transfers
           Scale economies
           Resource utilization
           Global strategy
       The Global/Transnational Corporation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Restraining Forces
    Management Myopia
    Organization Culture
        Integrate global vision and perspective
         with local market initiative and input
        Mutual respect
    National controls and barriers
        Tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
The Global Economic Environment (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
  Changes in The World Economy
       Emergence of global markets
           Economic integration
           Global companies, global brands
           Capital movements far exceed the volume
            of global merchandise and services trade
                $4 trillion VS. London Eurodollar Market, $100
                 trillion, VS. Foreign exchange $250 trillion (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Changes in The World Economy
       Productivity VS. Employment
           Application of new technologies
           Increase in production efficiency
           Plant emigration
           Internal reforms (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Changes in The World Economy
       World economy becomes the dominant
        economic unit
       The end of the cold war
           Collapse of USSR, ISC, E. European
           China, Vietnam,
           Cuba, North Korea (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Economic Systems
           Market Allocation
               Market economy
               Role of the state
           Command Allocation
               Planned economy
               Role of the state
           Mixed System
               Which plays the leading role? (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Stages of Market Development
         Based on GNP Per Capita
          Lower-Income Countries
              <$766
          Lower-Middle-Income Countries
              $766-$3036
              China 10239.8/129=$799
              Shanghai >$2000
          Upper-Middle-Income Countries
              $3036-$9386
          High-Income Countries
              >$9386 (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
            Low-Income Countries
       Preindustrial countries, less than $766
       Limited industrialization, high percentage of
        population in agriculture and farming
       High birth rates
       Low literacy rates
       Heavy reliance on foreign aid
       Political instability and unrest
       Africa, south of Sahara (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Lower-Middle-Income Countries
       Less developed countries (LDC)
       Early stage of industrialization
       Consumer markets expanding
       Low labor cost
       Labor-intensive products manufacturing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Upper-Middle-Income Countries
       Industrializing countries
       Percentage of people in agriculture
        dropping sharply
       Degree of urbanization increasing
       High literacy
       Relatively low wage costs (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    High-Income Countries
       Industrialized Countries
       Sustained economic growth
       Knowledge-based
       Service sector
       New products and innovations (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Income and PPP
     Purchasing Power Parity
     Real Income
     Standard of Living
     The concentration of income
         Regional, nationally, and within nations
         “Triad”: US, Canada, EU, and Japan
     Income inequality in developing countries (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Implication for Marketers

           Profitability
           Chances and challenges
           Marketing’s Role
           Market potential evaluation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Emerging Markets Evaluation
             Size     Growth Intensity Infrastructure Freedom Risk    Overall
Countries      Rank    Rank     Rank       Rank        Rank    Rank     Rank
HONGKONG        21      6         1          1           4       2        1
SINGAPORE       24      8        14          2          12       1        2
 S. KOREA        6      1         4          6           7       7        3
  ISRAEL        23      9         3          5           9       3        4
   CHINA         1      11       24         17          24       8        5
 HUNGARY        22      19        5          4           2       4        6
CZECH REP.      18      23       15          3           2       6        7
  POLAND        10      18       12          7           6      11        8
   CHILE        19      3         9         10           1       5        9
   INDIA         2      16       20         23          17      14       10
  MEXICO         5      12        6         14          13       9       11
 THAILAND       13      5        21         19           8      13       12
  RUSSIA         3      2        22         12          22      23       13
  TURKEY         9      7         7          9          20      21       14 (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Social and Cultural Environments
       Differences
       Similarities
       Marketers’ two-folded task.
           Recognize difference
           Find similarities (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
   Culture includes both conscious and
    unconscious values, ideas, attitudes, and
    symbols that shape human behavior and
    that are transmitted from one generation to
    the next.
   Culture is learned, not born with.
   Culture can be changed. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
        Implications for Global Markers
   Food, drink preferences
       KFC, Colgate, Coco-cola, Green Giant Foods,
        and soy sauce
   Color, flower, and other preferences
       White, green, chrysanthemum, Corbie, dog,
   Converging global attitudes
   Cultural universals
   Be culturally sensitive! (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     High and Low-Context Cultures
   Low-context: messages are explicit, words carry
    most of the information in a communication. “I
    mean what I say”.
   High-context: much more information resides in
    the context of communication, including
    background, associations, and basic values of the
    communications rather in the verbal message.
    “Guess what I really mean.” (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    High and Low Context Cultures
Factor    High Context           Low Context
Lawyer    Less important         Very important
Space     People breath on       Bubble of private
          each other             space, no intrusion
Time      Polychronic, things    Monochronic, linear
          dealt simultaneously
Negotiati Lengthy, get to        Quick, get things
ons       know each other        done
Countries Japan, Middle East,    US, Northern Europe (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Communication and Negotiation
       Language barriers
           It’s a “yes” or “no”?
           “You are invited to take advantage of the
           “Ease your bosoms. This coffee has carefully
            selected high quality beans and roasted by our all
            the experience.”
           The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that
            time we regret you will be unbearable.”
       Nonverbal communication
       Verbal VS. Nonverbal (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Social Behavior
     Sneeze, belch, sharing food
     Saudi: Don’t ask the host about the health of
      his spouse. Don’t show the soles of your shoes.
      Don’t touch or deliver with the left hand.
     Japan, Korea, China, India
     Venezuela, Indonesia
     Africa
     “Madam” or “ma’am” (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
          Analytical Approaches
          to Cultural Factors
   Don’t assume you know everything.
   Don’t judge others by the culture you are from.
   There are no perfect cultures in this world, or
    there is no such culture superior than another.
   Try to understand the beliefs, values, and motives
    of another culture
   Be open, be understanding. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

                    Physiological (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Hofstede’s Cultural Typology
       Power distance
       Individualism or Collectivism
       Masculinity or Femininity
       Uncertainty avoidance (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Power Distance
    The extent to which the less powerful
     members of a society accept or expect
     that power to be distributed unequally.
    High power distance
    Low power distance (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Individualism or Collectivism
       Individualistic culture: Each member of
        society is primarily concerned with his
        or her own interest and those of the
        immediate family.
       Collectivist culture: All of society’s
        members are integrated into cohesive
        in-groups (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Masculinity of Femininity
       Masculinity
           A society in which men are expected to be
            assertive, competitive, and concerned with
            material success while women fulfill the role of
            nurturer and take care of the family
       Femininity
           A society in which the social roles of men and
            women overlap, with neither gender exhibiting
            overly ambitious or competitive behavior (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Uncertainty Avoidance
      The extent to which the members of a
       society are uncomfortable with unclear,
       ambiguous, or unstructured situations. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Environmental Sensitivity
            The extent to which products must be
             adapted to the culture-specific needs of
             different national markets.
         Product Adaptation



                              Low    Circuit
                                    Low                       High
                      Environmental Sensitivity (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Impact on Marketing
       Consumer behavior
           Campbell in US VS in Italy
           Instant coffee in UK VS. in Sweden
           Cake in US VS. in UK
       Personal aspect of international
        business (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Suggested Solutions
       Stake: expatriate failure averages
        $75,000, loss of business: $2.5 billion
       Research
       Training in cross-cultural competency
           “Boot camp”
           “International exposure”
           “Workshop” (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    The Political, Legal, and
   Regulatory Environments of
        Global Marketing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    The Political Environment
          Sovereignty
          Political risk
          Taxes
          Dilution of Equity Control
          Expropriation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       The supreme and independent political
       Control the flow of goods across borders
           Stage of development
           The political and economical system
           Protectionism: Agriculture
       Privatization dilutes the command portion of a
        mixed economy
       Global market integration erodes national
        economic sovereignty. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Political Risk
       The risk of a change in government
        policy that would adversely impact a
        company’s ability to operate effectively
        and profitably.
       HK, Argentina, Venezuela, (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Diverse geographic activities of MNC
       Host country tax avoidance
       Bilateral tax treaties (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Dilution of Equity Control
       Control ownership of foreign-owned
       Equity percentage in local projects or
        joint ventures
       Become an insider (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Governmental action to dispossess a
        company or investor.
       Compensation
       Nationalization: Ownership of the
        property or assets in question is
        transferred to the host government.
       Confiscation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Creeping expropriation: limitations on
        repatriation of profits, dividends, royalties, or
        technical assistance fees from local
        investments or technology arrangements.
       Tariff and non-tariff barriers
       Intellectual property restrictions
       Remedies: buy insurance, follow the law (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    International Law
       Rules and principles that nation-states
        consider binding upon themselves.
       Public law, international commercial law
       Common law VS code law (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Which Law Applies?
       Be explicit in the contract
       The place of the domicile or principal
        place of business of one of the parties
       The place where the contract was
       The place of performance of the
        contract (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Intellectual Property
       Patents and Trademarks
       Registration
       Protection
       Counterfeiting: The unauthorized copying
        and product of a product.
       Imitation: Use of a product name that
        differs slightly from a well-known brand
       Piracy: The unauthorized publication or
        reproduction of copyrighted work. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Intellectual Property Protection
       The Paris Union: International
        Convention for the Protection of
        Industrial Property.
       The Patent Cooperation Treaty
       European Patent Convention
       TRIPs: Trade Related Intellectual
        Property Rights (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       To combat restrictive business practices
        and to encourage competition.
       Consten’s case, Grundig
       Ruling: “Territorial protection proved to
        be particularly damaging to the
        realization of the common market.”
       IBM and Microsoft in Europe (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
   Licensing is a contractual agreement in which a
    licensor allows a licensee to use patents,
    trademarks, trade secrets, technology, or other
    intangible assets in return for royalty payments or
    other forms of compensation.
   What assets? At what price? The right to “make”,
    “use”, or “sell”? Sublicense? “Exclusive or
   Creation of competitor. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Trade Secrets
       Confidential information or knowledge
        that has commercial value.
       TRIPs requires signatory countries to
        protect against acquisition, disclosure,
        or use of trade secrets in a manner
        contrary to honest commercial practices. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Bribery and Corruption

     - A World-wide problem (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Conflict resolution
       Litigation
       Differences in language, legal systems,
        currencies, traditional business customs
        and patterns, discovery procedure, and
       Complex, time consuming, costly (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       International Chamber of Commerce
       The New York Convention
       AAA and China Beijing’s Conciliation Center.
       Swedish Arbitration Institute
       International Council for Commercial
       UN Conference on International Trade Law (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    The Regulatory Environment
       Governmental and nongovernmental
       International Economic Organizations
       Price control, valuation of imports and
        exports, trade practices, labeling, food
        and drug regulations, employment
        conditions, collective bargaining,
        advertising content, competitive
        practices, etc. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Regional Economic Organizations
       WTO
       EU
       NAFTA
       …… (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
   Global Markets and Buyers (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Trends of Global Market
   Markets in almost every world region are
    expected growing.
   The fastest growing markets are the
    developing countries.
   The fastest growing regions in the
    developing world are East Asia
   The fastest growing country in East Asia is
    China. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     The Boom
Countries                    1974-1993   1994-2003
Developed Countries            2.9%        2.7%
Developing Countries           3.0%        4.8%
East Asia                      7.5%        7.6%
South Asia                     4.8%        5.3%
Latin America                  2.6%        3.4%
East Europe                    1.0%        2.7%
Sub-Saharan Africa             2.0%        3.9%
Middle East, North Africa      1.2% (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Economic Cooperation &
    Preferential Trade Arrangements
       International economic cooperation
       Free Trade Area (FTA)
       Customs Union
       Common Market
       Economic Union
       WTO and GATT (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Regional Trade Areas
      Chart 1: RTAs in force and under negotiation as of
                   July 2000, by type of RTA

              67                               FTAs in force
                                               CUs in force
                                               FTAs under negotiation
              24                               CUs under negotiation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
                         Chart 2: Geographical Distribution of RTAs, both in force and
                                             under negotiation


  Number of RTAs

                                                                                                                  FTAs under negotiation
                                                                                                                  CUs under negotiation
                                                                                                                  FTAs in force
                    40                                                                                            CUs in force


                         Americas   Asia Pacif ic   Eastern Europe    Euro-        Sub-Saharan   Cross Regional
                                                    & Central Asia Mediterranean

                                                              Region (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Free Trade Area (FTA)
       A group of countries that have
        agreed to abolish all internal
        barriers to trade among themselves.
       Certificates of origin (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Customs Union
       Member countries agree to the
        establishment of common external
       The Central American Common Market,
        Southern Cone Common Market
        (Mercosur), and the Andean Group (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Common Market
       Removal of internal barriers
       Establishment of external barriers
       Elimination of barriers to flow of factors
        (labor and capital) within the market
       Free markets not only for product, but
        also for services and capital. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Economic Union
       Creation of a unified central bank;
       Usage of a single currency-a struggle;
       Common policies on agriculture, social
        services and welfare, regional
        development, transportation, taxation,
        competition and mergers
       Political unity, a central government; (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    From GATT to WTO
       GATT: A treaty between 125 nations who
        agreed to promote trade among members.
       Trade-disputes settlement, no power of
       WTO: A forum for trade-related negotiations.
        A system to settle trade disputes
       Service industry: Market-entry barriers in
        banking, insurance, telecommunications, etc. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Regional Economic Organizations
    APEC: Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation
    North American Free Trade Agreement
    Central American Common Market
    Andean Group
    Southern Cone Common Market
    Caribbean Community and Common
     Market (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Regional Economic Organizations
       Association of Southeast Asian Nations
       The European Union
       Cooperation Council for the Arab States
        of the Gulf
       Economic community of West African
       South African Development
        Coordination Conference (海量营销管理培训资料下载) (海量营销管理培训资料下载) (海量营销管理培训资料下载) (海量营销管理培训资料下载) (海量营销管理培训资料下载) (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Marketing Information
       Systems and Research (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Acquire Global Information
       Superabundance in developed countries
       Scarcity in LDC and underdeveloped
       Where and how to get the right
       Scanning (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Marketing Information System
       MIS defined
       Gathering, analyzing, classifying, storing,
        retrieving, and reporting
       EDI: Electronic Data Interchange
       Beneton’s MIS
       Timely, cost-efficiently, actionable (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Subject Agenda for a Global MIS
       Markets
       Competition
       Foreign exchange
       Prescriptive information
       Resource information
       General conditions (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Demand estimates
       Consumer behavior
       Products
       Channels
       Communication media availability and
       Market responsiveness (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Corporate strategies
       Business strategies
       Functional strategies (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Foreign Exchange
       Balance of payments
       Interest rates
       Attractiveness of country currency
       Expectations of analysts (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Prescriptive Information
       Laws, regulations, rulings concerning
        taxes, earnings, dividends in both hose
        countries and home country (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Resource Information
       Availability of human, financial,
        information, and physical resources (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    General Conditions
       Overall review of sociocultural, political,
        technological environments (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Scanning Modes
       Surveillance
           Informal information gathering
           Viewing and monitoring
       Search
           Formal information gathering
           Investigation and Research (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Rule of Thumb
       Create an efficient and effective
        scanning system in both the home
        country and the host countries
       Create a MIS system
       Expanding information coverage to
        other regions of the world (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Sources of Marketing Information
      Human sources
          Overseas executives
          Friends, acquaintances, professional
           colleagues, consultants, and prospective
           new employees
          Personal relationship
      Direct perception
          Seeing, feeling, hearing, smelling, or tasting
          The design of Lexus (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Formal Marketing Research
       Project-specific, systematic gathering of
        data in the search scanning mode.
       Identify the research problem
       Develop a research plan
       Collect data
       Analyze data
       Interpret and report findings (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Step 1: Problem Definition
       A problem well defined is half solved.
       Assess the nature of the market
       Existing
       Potential (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Existing Market
       Market size, level of demand, rate of
        product consumption
       Self-evaluation: competitiveness,
        product appeal, price, distribution,
        promotional coverage and effectiveness (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Potential Market
       Latent market
           Undiscovered segment.
           Prime move advantage
           P&G in China
       Incipient market
           Market booms when a particular economic,
            technological, political, or sociocultural
            trend continues. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Step 2: Developing a Research Plan
       How much can I get from the
       How much do I have to spend for the
       Research objective, methodologies,
        budgets, time. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Step 3: Data Collection
            Primary data
                Observation
                Survey research
                Experiment
            Secondary data
                Internal, external (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Observation Method
              Counting
              Watching
              People meter
              Videotaping
              Virtual reality (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Survey Method
       Interviews and Questionnaires
           Telephone Interviews
           Focus Groups
           Mail Surveys
           Fax Surveys
           Online Surveys (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Telephone Interviews
       Spoken instead of visual
       Quick, inexpensive
       Results could be biased
       Random dialing
       Answering machines and caller ID (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Personal Interviews
       Face to face interaction
       Detailed information
       Sensitive question
       Slow
       Expensive
       Mall intercepts (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Focus Groups
       Information-gathering procedure in marketing
        research that typically brings together 8 to 12
        individuals to discuss a given subject.
       Quick and inexpensive
       Participants interaction
       Moderator
       Video taping, one-way mirror,
        videoconferencing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Mail Surveys
       Low-cost, Anonymity
       Low response rate, slow
       Not suitable complex questions
       Who filled out the questionnaire?
       Bias due to difference between
        respondents and nonrespondents (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Fax Surveys
       Similar to mail surveys (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Online Surveys
       Web Survey
       Email Survey
       Online focus group
       Speedy, higher response rates, cost reduction,
        truthful answers
       Probability sample?
       Groups underrepresented on the Internet,
        ownership of computers
       Authenticity of the respondent (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Experimental Method
       Scientific investigation in which a
        researcher manipulates a test group(s) and
        compares the results with those of a control
        group that did not receive the experimental
        controls or manipulations.
       Test marketing
       Experiment group VS Control group (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Probability sample
       Nonprobability sample
       Sample size
       Standard statistical test (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Step 4: Data Analysis
       Demand pattern analysis
       Income elasticity measurements
           Engels’ Law
       Market estimation by analogy
       Comparative analysis
           Intra-company cross-national comparison
       Cluster analysis (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Market Estimation by Analogy
       Cross-sectional analysis
       Xa/Ya=Xb/Yb
           Xa=demand for product X in country a
           Ya=factor that correlate with demand for
            product X in country a
           Xb=demand for product X in country b
           Yb=factor that correlate with demand for
            product X in country b. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Market Estimation by Analogy
     Displacing a time series
     Xa1/Ya1=Xb2/Yb2
         Xa1=demand for product X in country a during time
          period 1
         Ya1=factor associated with demand for X in country
          a during time period 1
         Xb2=demand for X in country b during time period 2
         Yb2=factor correlating with demand for X in country
          b during time period 2. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Step 5: Interpreting and Reporting
       Clear
       Concise
       Actionable
       Management oriented, no technical
        jargons (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Current Issues in Global MR
       Data availability
       Data deflation or inflation
       Comparability
       Response rate (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Does MR really work?
       It’s late.
       I don’t know what I want.
       Differentiation-Coke VS. Pepsi in Israel
       There is no market for fax. Really? (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Integrated MIS
       Systemize the collection and analysis of
        competitive intelligence to serve the
        needs of the organization as a whole.
       Are top executives well informed?
       Do middle managers fully understand
        the competitive situation?
       Do managers in different functional
        areas share intelligence regularly? (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Integrated MIS
       Does the company encounter marketing
        blunders due to lack of intelligence?
       Do we have an intranet where every
        employee can have access to online
       Overload of data or underload of
        analysis (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Segmentation, Targeting,
          and Positioning (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Segmentation & Targeting
       Segmentation
           Division of the total market into smaller, relatively
            homogeneous groups according to various
           Global Market Segmentation
       Targeting
           Evaluation the segments and focusing marketing efforts
            on a country, region, or group of people that has
            significant potential to respond. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Criteria for Effective Segmentation
       The market segment must present
        measurable purchasing power and size.
       Marketers must find a way to effectively
        promote to and serve the market segment.
       Marketers must identify segments sufficiently
        large to give them good profit potential.
       The firm must target a number of segments
        that match its marketing capabilities. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Types of Segmentation
       Geographical
       Demographical
       Psychographical
       Behavioral characteristics
       Product benefits (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Geographical Segmentation
       Dividing an overall market into homogeneous
        groups on the basis of population locations.
       Population distribution
       Wealth distribution
       Urbanization
       Climate
       Food preference
       Terrain (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Demographic Segmentation
       Dividing consumer groups according to
        characteristics such as sex, age, income,
        occupation, education, household size, and stage
        in the family life cycle.
       Income
       Gender
       Age: Cohort effect
       Education
       Family Life Cycle (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Psychographic Segmentation
       Dividing a population into homogeneous groups
        on the basis of psychological and lifestyle profiles.
       Lifestyle
           People’s decisions about how to live their daily lives,
            including family, job, social, and consumer activities.
       VALS: Values and Lifestyles
     (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Behavior Segmentation
       Usage rate: Light users, medium users,
        heavy users
       User status: Potential users, nonusers,
        ex-users, regulars, first-timers, users of
        competitors’ products
       80/20 rule
       Brand loyalty (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Targeting
       Evaluating, comparing, and select
       Criteria for Targeting
           Current segment size and anticipated
            growth potential
           Competition
           Compatibility and feasibility (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
        Global Target Market Strategy
   Standardized global marketing
       Create the same marketing mix for global operation.
        Extensive distribution in the maximum number of retail
   Concentrated global marketing
       Devise a marketing mix to reach a single segment of
        the global market.
   Differentiate global marketing
       Target two or more distinct market segments with
        different marketing mixes. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Product Positioning
       The location of your product in the
        mind of your customer.
       Global positioning
           Pierre Cardin
           Audi
           Ikea (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Sony: Unit sale: 1 million, Profit: 1
        billion RMB.
       Domestic brands combined: Market
        share of color TV: 80%, 90% for DVD;
        Profit: 0.54 billion.
       Changhong: unit sale 7,500,000
       Toshiba: unit sale 500,000
       Profit: equal (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    High Tech Positioning
       Based on technological features
       Computers, video and stereo
        equipments, automobiles
       Technical products
       Special-interest products
       Products that demonstrate well (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    High-Touch Positioning
       Less emphasis on specialized
        information, more on image
       Products that solve a common problem
       Global village products
           Global brands
       Products that use universal themes
           Materialism, heroism, recreation,
            procreation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Exporting and Importing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
        Export Selling or Export Marketing
   Export selling
       Does not involve tailoring the marketing mix to
        suit the requirements of global markets, only
        “place” is changed
   Export marketing
       Targets the customer in the context of the total
        market environment. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Export Marketing
       An understanding of the target market
       The use of marketing research and the
        identification of market potential
       Decisions concerning with every
        elements of the marketing mix (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Buy Chinese
       Nationalism
       Customer value
       Harley Davidson (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Roles of Global Marketing Strategy
       Configuration of marketing
       Coordination of marketing activities
        across countries
       Tapping opportunities in product
        development and R & D (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Sourcing Decision Criteria
       Factor costs and conditions
       Logistics
       Country infrastructure
       Political risk
       Market access
       Exchange rate, availability, and
        convertibility of local money (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Factor Costs
      Land, labor, material, and capital costs
      Can lower wage rates justify relocation?
          VW’s approach and SMH’s approach
      Availability and abundance
      Three tiers of manufacturing factor costs
      Drive direct labor costs down
      Migration of low factor costs (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Transportation cost
       RTAs cut down cost
       Value chain management
       Video (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Country Infrastructure
       Power, transportation, communication,
        service and component suppliers, labor
        pool, civil order, effective governance,
        foreign exchange (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Political Risk
       Changes in government policy (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Market Access
       Limited market access
       Buy local, product local, sell local (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Foreign Exchange
       Importance of exchange rate
       Volatility of exchange rate
       Alternative country options for
        supplying markets
       Video (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Export-Related Problems
       Logistics
           Arranging transportation
           Transport rate determination
           Handling documentation
           Obtaining financial information
           Distribution coordination
           Packaging
           Obtaining insurance (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Servicing Exports
       Providing   parts availability
       Providing   repair service
       Providing   technical advice
       Providing   warehousing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Legal Procedure
       Government policy
       Product liability
       Licensing
       Customers/Duty (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Sales Promotion
       Advertising
       Sales effort
       Marketing information (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Foreign Market Intelligence
       Locating markets
       Trade restrictions
       Competition overseas (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
             National Policies Governing
                Exports and Imports
    Schizophrenic
        Encouraging export
        Restricting imports
    Government programs supporting exports
    Tariffs
    Nontariff barriers (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
                 Government Programs
                   Supporting Export
       Tax incentives
           Tax exemption or lower tax rate on export
           Tax refund
       Subsidies
           Direct or indirect financial contributions
       Governmental assistance
           Information, trade fairs, trade missions (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
   Customs duties levied on imported goods
   Brussels Tariff Nomenclature (BTN), 1959
   The Harmonized Tariff System (HTS), 1989
   Export and import classification number (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Non-Tariff Barriers
   Any measure, other than a tariff, that is a
    deterrent or obstacle to the sale of products in a
    foreign market.
   Quotas and trade control
   Discriminatory procurement policies
   Restrictive customs procedures
   Selective monetary controls and discriminatory
    exchange rate policies
   Restrictive administrative and technical
    regulations (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Quotas and Trade Control
       Government imposed- limits or
        restrictions on the number of units or
        the total value of a particular product or
        product category (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Discriminatory Procurement Policies
       Government rules and administrative
        regulations, company policies that
        discriminate against foreign suppliers
       Buy American Act (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Restrictive Customs Procedures
       Classifying and valuing commodities as
        a basis for levying import duties (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
  Selective Monetary Controls and
  Discriminatory Exchange Rate Policies
       Discriminatory exchange rate policy
       Export deposit (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Restrictive Administrative &
    Technical Regulations
      Anti-dumping regulations, size
       regulations, and safety and health
      Japanese restrictive technical regulations
      Double standards (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Choosing Export Markets
       Create a product-market profile
       Potential market size
       Competitor activities
       Overall marketing mix
       Target one or more export markets (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Market Selection Criteria
       Market potential
       Market access
       Shipping cost
       Potential competition
       Product fit
       Service requirements (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Visiting the Potential Market
     Confirm or contradict assumptions
      regarding market potential
     Gather additional data
     Develop a marketing plan in cooperation
      with the local agent or distributor (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Market Access Considerations
       Tariff systems
       Preferential tariffs
       Duties (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Tariff Systems
    Single column tariff
        Tariff schedule in which the duty rate applies to
         imports from all countries on the same basis
    Two-column tariff
        The initial single column of duties is supplemented by
         a second column showing reduced rates as
         determined through tariff negotiations with other
         countries (MFN)
    Preferential tariff
        A reduced tariff rate applied to imports from certain
         countries (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Types of Duties
       Ad Valorem Duties
       Specific Duties
       Alternative Duties
       Compound or Mixed Duties
       Antidumping Duties
       Countervailing Duties (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Ad Valorem Duties
       Duty is expressed as a percentage of
        the value of goods
       HTS: Customs value is landed CIF cost
        at the port of entry (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Specific Duties
       Duties expressed as a specific amount
        of currency per unit of weight, volume,
        length, or number of other units of
        measurement. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Alternative Duties
       Both advalorem and specific duties are
        used to calculate the tariff, usually the
        one that yields the higher amount of
        duty is chosen (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Compound or Mixed Duties
       Duties provided for specific, plus ad
        valorem, rates to be levied on the same
        articles. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Antidumping Duties
    Dumping
        The sale of merchandise in export markets
         are unfair prices.
    Injury is caused to the domestic producers
    Special additional import charges equal to
     the dumping margin (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Countervailing Duties
       Additional duties levied to offset
        subsidies granted in the exporting
        country. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Other Import Charges
       Variable import levies
           When the prices of imported products would
            undercut those of domestic products
       Temporary import surcharges
           Provide additional protection for local industry in
            response to balance-of-payments deficits
       Compensatory import taxes
           Value-added tax (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Organizing For Exporting
       Organizing in the home country
       Organizing in the target market country (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Organizing in the Home Country
       In-house export organization
       External independent export
        organizations (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    In-House Export Organization
       The company’s appraisal of the
        opportunities in export marketing
       Its strategy for allocating resources to
        markets on a global basis (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    External Independent
    Export Organizations
       Export trading companies
       Market information gathering
       Communication with markets
       Setting prices
       Ensuring parts availability (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Organizing in the Market Country
       Direct market representation
           Control and communication
       Independent representation
           Small sales volume
           Find good local distributor
       Piggyback marketing
           Arrangement where by one manufacture obtains
            distribution of products through another’s
            distribution channels. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Export Financing/
     Methods of Payment
   Currency availability in the buyer’s country
   Creditworthiness of the buyer
   Seller’s relationship with the buyer
   Letter of Credit
   Documentary Collections (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Letter of Credit
       Assurance of being paid
       Payment obligation: buyer’s bank
        instead of the buyer
       The documents instead of the goods (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Documentary Collections
       Bill of exchange (draft)
       A negotiable instrument which is easily
        transferable from one party to another (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Counter Trade
     Alternative finance methods for
      international trade other than money
     Scarcity of hard currency
     Exchange control
     Inability to finance imports through bank
     Barter and mixed forms of counter trade (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Simple Barter
       Direct exchange of goods and services
        between two parties
       Exchange fluctuation, shadow price (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Each delivery in an exchange is paid for
        in cash
       Two separate contracts (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Compensating Trading
       Two contracts
           The supplier agrees to build a plant or
            provide plant equipment, patents or
           The supplier agrees to take payment in the
            form of the plant’s output equal to its
            investments (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Entry & Expansion (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Entry Decision Process
       Sourcing
       Marketing organization
       Distribution
       Marketing strategy
       Strategy implementation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Ownership & Control

              Licensing
              Joint ventures
              Investment/Ownership (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Contract
       Patent, trade secret, brand, trademark,
        company name, technical know-how
       Pros and cons
       Cross-technology exchange (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Joint Ventures
       Ownership partition
       Sharing of risk and competitive
       Pros and cons (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Foreign direct investment
       100% ownership; WFOE (wholly foreign
        owned enterprise)
       Acquisition VS. direct expansion (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Expansion Strategies
                     Concentration    Diversification

                          1                  2
 Concentration       Narrow Focus      Country Focus

                           3                 4
                        Country            Global
                     Diversification   Diversification (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Alternative Strategies
       Stages of development
           Domestic
           International
           Multinational
           Global
           Transnational (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
 Competitive Analysis & Strategy (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Forces Influencing Competition
                      Threats of
                     New Entrants

Bargaining Power      Rivalry Among       Bargaining Power
  Of Suppliers     Existing Competitors      Of Buyers

                   Threat of Substitute
                   Products or Services (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Threat of New Entrants
       Economies of scale
       Product differentiation
       Capital requirement
       Switching costs
       Access to distribution channels
       Government policy
       Cost advantages
       Expected competitor response (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Threat of Substitute Products
       Availability of substitute products
       Price (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Bargaining Power of Suppliers
       Size and number
       Input importance, differentiation,
        switching costs
       Availability of alternative products
       Supplier product or brandname (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Bargaining Power of Buyers
       Bulk purchase
       Undifferentiated supplier’s products
       Portion of cost
       Backward vertical integration (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Rivalry Among Competitors
       Mature industry, market share
       High fixed cost industry
       Lack of differentiation or absence of
        switching cost
       High strategic stakes in an industry (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    National Competitive Advantage
       Factor conditions
       Demand conditions
       Related and supporting industry
       Firm structure and rivalry (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Factor Conditions
       Human
       Physical
       Knowledge
       Capital
       Infrastructure (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Demand Conditions
     The composition of home demand
     The size and pattern of growth of home
     The means by which a nation’s home
      demand pulls the nation’s products and
      services into foreign markets (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Related & Supporting Industries
          Value chain
          Proximity (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry

                 Strategy
                 Structure
                 Domestic rivalry (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Other Forces
       Chance
       Government
       Non-market factors (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Competitive Advantage
       Customer value
       Competitive advantage
       Successful strategy (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Models of Competitive Strategy
          Generic
          Business intent (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
                    Generic Strategies
Competitive Scope

                    Broad       Cost
                    Target   Leadership   Differentiation

                    Narrow                   Focused
                    Target   Cost Focus   Differentiation
                             Lower Cost     Differentiation

                                 Competitive Advantage (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Low-cost producer
       Broadly-defined markets
       Experience curve and scale economy
       Low prices
       Barrier (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Unique value
       Broad market
       Premium price (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Focused Differentiation
       Narrow target market
       Unique products
       Premium price (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Cost Focus
       Narrow market
       Lower price (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Strategic Position
       Variety-based positioning
       Customer-needs-based positioning
       Customer-access-based positioning (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Strategic Intent
         Continuous improvement
         Continuous innovation
         Continuous acquisition of new
          competitive advantage (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Cooperative Strategies (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Cooperative or Competitive?
       Trade barriers down
       Markets globalized
       Consumer needs and wants converged
       Product life cycles shortened
       Business environment: dynamism,
        turbulence, unpredictability (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Strategic Partnerships
       Participants remain independent
       Share of benefits and control
       Ongoing contribution
       Mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     GSP Attributes
    Joint long-term strategy, global leadership
    Reciprocal relationship
    Global vision and efforts
    Horizontal alliance
    Vertical alliance
    Partners as well as competitors (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    GSP Success Factors
                 Mission
                 Strategy
                 Governance
                 Culture
                 Organization
                 Management (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Keiretsu In Japan
    Cooperative strategy in Japan
    Interbusiness alliance or enterprise group
    Bank-ownership of stocks
    Cross-ownership of stocks
    The “big six” (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Implications of Chinese Companies
       Launch GSA from home
       Developing core competitive advantage
       Know your partners
       Be long-term oriented (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
          Product Decisions (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Product Defined
       A bundle of physical, service, and
        symbolic attributes designed to enhance
        buyers’ want satisfaction
       Consumer-Business
       Durable-nondurable (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Products Based on Global Vision
       National product
       International product
       Global product
       R & D cost incentive (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Brands
       Guided by the same strategic principles
       Same name, similar image
       Similar positioning
       Marketing mix may vary (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Building Global Brand
     Strategic branding to long-term
     Increasing quality, low price,
      communication (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Global Product Positioning
     Serving a specific market segment by
      achieving a certain position in buyers’ minds.
     Attribute or benefit
     Quality/Price
     Use/User (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    High-Tech VS. High-Touch
       High-Tech Positioning
           Physical product features
           Technical information
       High-Touch Positioning
           More on image
           High-involvement (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Product Design Considerations
       Preferences
       Cost
       Laws and regulations
       Compatibility
       Country of origin (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
                Geographic Expansion
        Different 2. Product Extension, 4. Dual Adaptation

                       1. Dual Extension   3. Product Adaptation
                Same                          Extension

                         Same                       Different
                                       Product (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
          Pricing Decisions (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Price Boundary
       P=f (C, C, D)
       Price floor
       Price ceiling
       Optimum price (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    International Pricing Issues
       Discount and allowance
       Price elasticity
       Government perception
       Anti-dumping law
       Fluctuating exchange rates
       Transportation, channel cost
       Taxes (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Pricing Strategies
       Market Skimming
       Penetration Pricing
       Market Holding
       Cost plus/Price escalation
       Sourcing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Market Skimming
   Set a high or premium price relative to
    competitive offerings
   Introduction stage
   No or limited competition
   Distinguishing, segmentation based on price
   Revenue maximization
   Demand control (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Penetration Pricing
       Set a low entry price to secure market
       Entry into another industry
       Saturate the market
       Lure customers to new stores
       Highly elastic demand (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Cost Plus/Price Escalation
   Price=Unit Cost+shipping+Ancillary+Profit
   Transportation, duty, distributor margins
    and taxes
   Sourcing
   Local production and marketing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Sale of an imported product at a price
        lower than that normally charged in a
        domestic market or country of origin.
       Price, damage, causal effects
       Uruguay Round GATT
       Anti-Dumping Agreement (ADA) (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Similar Products
       Product definition
       Product differentiation
       Raw material (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Normal Price
       Market Economy
           Market price in domestic market
           Exporter’s price to a third country
           Structural price
       Non-market Economy
           Selling price in a substitute country
           Structural price
           Price of a third country (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Price Determination
       FOB or CIF?
       Domestic price
           Selling at loss
           Affiliation, Strategic Alliance
       Structural cost
           Direct inputs, indirect inputs, profits
       Export price to a third country
       Distributor dumping (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Damage Determination
       Amount of sales of the dumping product
       Selling price of the dumping product
       Related economic indicators
           Profit margin
           Price trend
           Market share
           Employment rate
           Usage of the productivity (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Causal Effect
       Voluntary price cut by domestic
       Dumping caused by other non-dumping
       Small market share
       Realistic damage VS. potential damage (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    China: The TARGET
       500 cases, 4000 products, $10 billion
       Export-oriented economy
       Competing over price
       Lack of organization
       Reluctance to respond and defend (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    India’s Case (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       India’s Case
  序      国家或地区     已经作出终   已经初裁尚未   已经立案尚   立案后被中   总计
  号                  裁       终裁      未初裁      止

   1         中国     39       9        1       2     51

   2         欧盟     12       5        3             20

   3         韩国     15       3                      18

   4         日本     13       4                      17

   5         美国     11       4                1     16

   6     中国台湾省      10       4        2             16

   7         新加坡     2       6        4       2     14

   8         俄罗斯    11                              11

   9         泰国      6       3                       9

  10     印度尼西亚       6       1                       7

        其他                                          81

        总计                                          260 (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    What Should We Do?
       What can the government do?
       What can companies do?
           Absence is no rescue! 375% duty on Chinese
            garlic, Chain effects
           Find a good attorney
           Work with local importers and distributors
           Stop fighting against each other!
           Tracking the market
           Product differentiation
           Foreign direct investment instead of exporting (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Currency Fluctuations
       A strong RMB
       Exchange rate clauses
           Exchange rate review period
           Comparison basis
           Fluctuation range (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Pricing Alternatives
       Extension/Ethnocentric
           Price be the same around the world
           Importers absorb freight and duties
       Adaptation/Polycentric
           Up to subsidiary managers
           Gray markets
       Invention/Geocentric (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
        Global Distribution (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Channel of Distribution
       An organized system of marketing
        institutions and their interrelationships that
        promotes the physical flow of goods and
        services, along with title that confers
        ownership, from producer to consumer or
        business user. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
        Physical flow
        Title flow
        Payment flow
        Information flow
        Promotion flow (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Channel Objectives
       Creation of utilities
       Place
       Time
       Form
       Information (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Global Distribution Barriers
    A new market, no direct presence
    Separation of production and markets
    Little knowledge of the local distribution
     system and distributors
    Government regulations
    Bargaining power of the local distributors (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Forms of Presence
       Direct involvement
           Company-owned or franchised sales force,
            retail stores, etc
           Sales office and sales branch
       Indirect involvement
           Independent agents, distributors,
            wholesalers or retailers
           Title and ownership of goods, commission (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Direct Selling
    Manufacturer selling direct to the end customer
    Door-to-door sales
    Mail order
    Telemarketing
    TV selling
    Internet selling
    Manufacture-owned stores (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Marketing Intermediaries
       A business firm, either wholesaler or retailer, that
        operates between producers and consumers or
        business users, also called a middleman.
       Wholesaling intermediary
           A comprehensive term that describes wholesalers as
            well as agents and brokers.
       Retailer
           A marketing intermediary selling goods and
            services to the ultimate consumer (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Wholesaling Intermediaries
       Manufacture-owned facilities
           Sales branch
           Sales office
       Independent wholesaling intermediaries
           Merchant wholesalers
           Agents and brokers (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Distribution Intensity
       The number of intermediaries through
        which a manufacturer distributes its goods.
       Intensive distribution
       Selective distribution
       Exclusive distribution (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Intensive Distribution
       A channel policy in which a manufacturer of a
        convenience product attempts to saturate the
       Place products or services in as many outlets
        as possible
       Cigarettes, snack foods, gums, candy, soft
        drinks, household chemicals
       Location convenience
       Coverage and sales (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Selective Distribution
       A channel policy in which a firm chooses
        only a limited number of retailers to handle
        its product line.
       Cost reduction
       Control over marketing programs
       Shopping products (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Exclusive Distribution
        A channel policy in which a firm grants exclusive
         rights to a single wholesaler or retailer to sell its
         products in a particular geographic area.
        Automobiles, fitness equipments, specialty
        Loss in coverage, gain in prestige
        Close cooperation between the producer and
         distributor, more control (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Closed Sales Territory
       An exclusive geographic selling region
        defined and enforced by a manufacturer for
        a distributor.
       Distributor competition (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Tying Agreements
       An arrangement that requires a marketing
        intermediary to carry a manufacturer’s full
        product line in exchange for an exclusive
        dealership. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Channel Design Decision
          Market
          Product
          Producer
          Middlemen
          Competition (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Customer Factors
        Number, geographic distribution,
         income, shopping habits, promotion
        Number of customers VS. Number of
         channel intermediaries
        Retailer selling volume or average
         order size (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Product Factors
       Degree of standardization
       Business or consumer
       Perishable or durable
       Size
       Service requirements
       Technology intensive or not?
       Unit value (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Producer Factors
       Resources
       Specialization
       Length of product line
       Channel control or channel power (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Middleman Factors
       Cherry picking
       Demand, selling cost, profit
        margin, commission
       Direct first, then through
       Subsidize the cost of
        distributor’s sales reps (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Competitive Factors
       Competition intensity
           HighShort channel
           LowLong channel
       Goal
           Market shareLong channel
           Market penetrationShort channel (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Long Channel
   Big single order size        Difficulty in market
   Easy account
    collection and dispatch      Blind market spot
   Easy to maintain due         Low profit margin
    to limited number of         Less information about
    accounts                      market and customers
   Close relationship           Too many stakes on
                                  wholesalers (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
        Short Channel
    Deep market penetration       Big number of orders
                                    adds to difficulty of
    More control over sales
                                    order processing and
     terminals and marketing
                                    payment collection
                                   Difficult to maintain
    High gross profit margin
                                    and help
    Fast market feedback
                                   Less distributor
    Less control by                loyalty due small
     distributors                   single order size (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Evaluating The Alternatives
   Direct distribution             Independent intermediary
   Manufactured owned              Well trained sales force
    sales force
   Finding, hiring, training,      Big Client base
    motivating sales force          No base salary, 5%
   Rent, utility, deco              commission
   Dedication                      Product knowledge
   Product knowledge               Competing products
   Base salary plus 1%             More knowledge and
    commission                       access to the market
   Less market access (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Economic criteria
       Control criteria
       Adaptability criteria (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
                      Economic Criteria
                                         Independent Intermediary
Selling Costs ($)

                                                  Direct Distribution


                             $30,000   $50,000   $75,000

                                  Level of Sales ($) (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Control Criteria
       Wholesaler
           Less control
           Less product technical knowledge
           Carrying competing brands
       Sales Office
           More control (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Adaptive Criteria
       Adaptability of the channel
       Flexibility to respond to market changes,
        consumer purchasing pattern changes (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Channel Management Process
    Marketing research on target market, competitors,
     available distributors, media
    Determining channel structure;
    Recruiting and training distributors;
    Evaluation, negotiation, and signing contracts;
    Terminal design and development;
    Promotion, sales assistance, terminal maintenance;
    Management, training, adjustment, reward, and
     improvement (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Home country’s trade department
       Home country’s embassy or consulate
        in the host country, Business Counselor
       Local chamber of commerce or local
        trade organizations
       Local distributor commitment (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Network resource; coverage, depth;
       Control over price, assortment
       Terminal and sales force management;
       Credibility; payment reliability;
       Service capability;
       Financial resources;
       Warehousing and transportation
       Commitment to the product is the key. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Terms and Responsibilities
       Price policy
           Price list, schedule of discounts, allowances
       Conditions of sales
           Payment terms, producer guarantees,
       Distributors’ territorial rights
       Performance and cancellation
       Mutual services and responsibilities (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Distributor Evaluation
       Sales volume
       Sales increase speed
       Percentage of product sales of the total
        distributor sales;
       Selling cost against sales
       Inventory level
       Number of product lines carried
       Terminal display and price execution
       Service provided to downstream distributors
        and customers (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Motivating Channel Members
               Coercive power
               Reward power
               Legitimate power
               Expert power
               Referent power (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Producer–Distributor Relationships

    Enemies                   Conflict
    Customers or clients      Competition
    Partners                  Cooperation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Trends In Global Distribution
       Flattened channel
           Involve as few intermediaries as possible
           Short channel preferred
       Channel power moving from producers to
       Booming of super-large retail chains and
        disappearance of small stores
       Application of high-tech in physical
        distribution of goods or services (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
         Global Promotion (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Function of informing, persuading, and
        influencing the consumer’s purchase
        decision. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Objectives of Promotion
       Provide information to consumers and others;
       Increase demand;
          Primary demand

          Selective demand

       Differentiate a product;
       Accentuate a product’s value;
       Build up brand equity (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    The Promotional Mix
       Blend of personal selling and nonpersonal selling
        designed to achieve promotional objectives.
       Personal selling:
           Interpersonal promotional process involving a seller’s
            person-to-person presentation to a prospective buyer.
           Sales presentation, sales meeting, samples, fairs and
       Nonpersonal selling:
           Advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and
            public relations (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
Integrated Marketing Communication (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Transmission from a sender to a receiver of a
     message dealing with the buyer-seller
    IMC: Integrated Marketing
        Coordination of all promotional activities-media
         advertising, direct mail, personal selling, sales
         promotion, and public relations-to produce a
         unified, customer-focused promotional message. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Why Integrated?
       Informational contradiction among
        different sources;
       Increase in media options creates
        information overload;
       Uncoordinated promotional efforts
        within the firm;
       In-house resources and outside vendors
       Cost (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    How to integrate?
       Global vision
       Customer oriented instead of product, brand
        or organization oriented;
       Intensive headquarter planning;
       Regular evaluation;
       Horizontal and vertical communication among
        subsidiaries, and between departments;
       Teamwork;
       Database marketing (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    The Communication Process

 Sender       Encoding       Channel   Decoding

   Feedback              Response      Receiver (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Encoding & Decoding
       Encoding: Putting thoughts, ideas, or
        information into a symbolic form to be
        understood by the receiver;
       Decoding: Transforming the sender’s
        message back into thought; (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Response, Feedback & Noise
       Response
           Receivers’ reaction to the message
       Feedback
           Response sent back to the sender
       Noise
           Disruptions or interference with the
            transmission of the message (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Designing the Message
       Content (what to say)
       How to say it logically (message structure)
       How to say it symbolically (message format)
       Who should say it (message source) (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Message Content
       Appeal (Rational, emotional, moral)
       Theme
       Idea
       USP (unique selling proposition) (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Message Structure
       Conclusion drawing
       One-sided presentation
       Two-sided arguments
       Order of presentation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Message Format
               Character
               Picture
               Sound
               Packaging
               Color (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Message Source
       Popularity
       Credibility
           Expertise
           Trustworthiness
           Likability
       Conflict between message and its
        source? (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Global Advertising (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Paid, non-personal communication through
        various media by a business firm, not-for-profit
        organization, or individual identified in the
        message with the hope of informing or persuading
        members of a particular audience.
       Informative, persuasive, reminder
       Effective, Economic, Efficiency
       Combination Consistency, Continuity, (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global Advertising
       Use of the same advertising appeals,
        messages, art, copy, photographs,
        stories, and video segments in multiple-
        country markets.
       A unified theme spurs short term-sales
        and long term product identity
       Product culture-global demographics
       Economies of scale in advertising (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Extension or Adaptation?
       Standardized
           Same media, theme, message across
           Cost effective, increased control, global
       Localized
           Different from countries
           Tailored to the culture, focused on the
            attributes local people love (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
          Advertising Planning
  Research Inputs
    Market Analysis
  Competitive Analysis
                           Tactical Execution
                            Advertising budget
 Strategic Decisions         Establish controls
                            Write and produce      Measuring      Evaluation &
   Setting objectives
     Target markets         Ads & commercials     Effectiveness   adjustments
Message & media strategy      Media choices
 Coordination with other    Pretest advertising
 Marketing mix elements

  Constraints and
Uncontrollable factors (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Types of Advertising
       Product advertising
       Institutional advertising
           Corporate advertising
       Celebrity testimonial
           Personality match
           Exclusive spokesperson
       Retail advertising
       Cooperative advertising (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Advertising Agency
       In-house department or outside agency?
       Global advertising agency: Young &
        Rubicam, Omnicom, Dentsu
       Global agency or local agency?
       Brand identity, product category, area
        coverage, buy perception (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Art Direction
       Visual presentation
       Pepsi’s theme: youth having fun
           Physical environment, key figures, music,
            different spokesperson
       Nudity (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       The written text of an ad.
       Language barrier, literacy rate
       Slogan or copy line translation
           Complete, partial, or none?
           KFC’s “Finger-licking good”, Pepsi’s “Come
            alive”, Citicorp’s “Citi never sleeps”
       Spokesperson (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Cultural Considerations
       Color, gender, etiquette
       Japan
           Indirect
           Little relationship between the ad content and the
            advertised product
           Brief dialogue
           Light humor
           Celebrity appear as common people
           Brand image rather than product attributes (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Global Media Considerations
   Media availability
   Legal restriction
       Daily time allowed for ad:Finland 12 minutes,
        Italy 80 minutes;
       France:12 minutes per hour per channel,
        Switzerland, Germany, Austria:20 minutes
       Germany: Ad time must be reserved and paid
        a year in advance (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Legal Restriction in Saudi Arabia
       Horoscope, fortune-telling
       Use of fear
       Use of news or official statement
       Use of comparative advertising
       Appearance of women (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
     Media Vehicles and Expenditures
    Per-capita advertising expenditure
    Availability of media vehicles in different
    Ownership of TV, radio, newpaper
    Target audience media preference (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Media Strategy
       Reach, frequency, and impact
       Selecting major media types
       Selecting specific media vehicles
       Media timing
       Geographical media allocation (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Reach, Frequency, Impact
       Reach (R)
           The number of different persons or households
            exposed to a particular media schedule at least
            once during a specified time period;
       Frequency (F)
           The number of times within the specified time
            period that an average person or household is
            exposed to the message;
       Impact (I)
           The qualitative value of an exposure through a
            given medium (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Choosing the Right Media
       Television
           Combines sound, sight, and motion, high
            attention, high reach, high media image
           High absolute cost, high clutter, fleeting
            exposure, less audience selectivity
       Radio
           High geographic and demographic
            selectivity, low cost, flexibility, mobility
           Audio only, lower attention, (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Choosing the Right Media
       Newspaper
           Flexibility, timeliness, local market coverage,
            broad acceptance, high believability
           Short life, poor reproduction quality, small pass-
            along audience, hasty reading
       Magazine
           High geographic and demographic selectivity,
            credibility, high quality reproduction, long life,
            good pass-along readership
           Lack of flexibility (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Choosing the Right Media
       Direct mail
           Audience selectivity, flexibility, no competing
            message, detailed, intense coverage
           “Junk Mail” image, low reach, mailing list quality
       Outdoor advertising
           Posters, billboards, street-light poster, neon lights,
           Repetition, local coverage, low cost
           Limited audience selectivity, brevity of message,
            low attention rate (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Choosing the Right Media
       Interactive advertising
           Flexibility, two-way communication, consumer-
            directed, high selectivity
           Difficult to measure effectiveness, limited
       Other Advertising Media
           Transit advertising
           Movie commercial
           Directory advertising: Yellow Pages, (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Public Relations
       Firm’s communications and relationships with its
        various publics.
           Press conference, speech, seminar, annual report,
            charitable donation, community relation, lobbying,
            publication, company magazine, home page;
       Publicity:
           Stimulation of demand for a good, service, place, idea,
            person, or organization by unpaid placement of
            commercially significant news or favorable media
            presentations. (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
      Global PR
     Bruno Magli: O.J. Simpson
     IBM: Kasparov VS. Deeper Blue
     Pepsi: PR in space
     McDonald’s: Abuse of animal and workers
     Firestone: a milestone (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Global PR
       Build media relations
       Build consensus and understanding
       Create trust and harmony
       Articulate and influence public opinion
       Anticipate conflicts and resolve disputes (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
    Sales Promotion
       Marketing activities other than personal
        selling, advertising, and publicity that
        stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer
        Displays, trade shows, coupons, premiums
        & gifts, contests, product demonstrations,
        discounts, sampling, trade-ins ; (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
       Sweep-stakes: prohibited in Denmark,
        and Luxembourg
       Money-off next purchase: prohibited in
        Denmark, Germany, Luxemburg
       Premium: prohibited in Luxemburg
       Cash-back: Prohibited in Italy,
       Coupon: Prohibited in Germany (海量营销管理培训资料下载)
                  Thank you!

     And it’s your turn next week! (海量营销管理培训资料下载)