Bell Ringer • What do you think the 1950’s were like? Think about music, fashion, where people lived… • What is your neighborhood like? • What are some things you cannot live without? Adjustments of the 1950’s Chapter 31 1950-1960 New Patterns of Living Develop Chapter 31 Section 1 New Suburbs Multiply • During the 1950s, a new trend developed. • Large numbers of people began moving out of large cities into suburbs, or residential districts on or near the outskirts of a city. • Census figures for central cities showed an increase of about 11 percent between 1950 and 1960. • In contrast, the figures for suburbs jumped almost 50 percent. Levittown • William Levitt was the Henry Ford of the housing industry. • Levitt pioneered the use of mass production in the building of private homes. • He did this just as Ford had, by standardization. • In 1949 his houses sold for less than $10,000. Levittown Levittown • Levitt answered the American dream of owning a single-family home with grass and some trees around it. • The dream included a safe play for children to play, good schools, and friendly neighbors. Suburban Sprawl • Suburban living made the automobile a necessity, not a luxury. • At the same time, the number of people using public transportation dropped. Similar Lifestyles • In housing developments, people’s life styles were about the same. • The emphasis was on friendliness and informality. • People were expected to keep up their property and to participate in community affairs. • 1. Little boxes on the hillside, Little boxes made of ticky-tacky, Little boxes, little boxes, Little boxes, all the same. There's a green one and a pink one And a blue one and a yellow one And they're all made out of ticky-tacky And they all look just the same. • 2. And the people in the houses All go to the university, And they all get put in boxes, Little boxes, all the same. And there's doctors and there's lawyers And business executives, And they're all made out of ticky-tacky And they all look just the same. • 3. And they all play on the golf-course, And drink their Martini dry, And they all have pretty children, And the children go to school. And the children go to summer camp And then to the university, And they all get put in boxes And they all come out the same. • 4. And the boys go into business, And marry, and raise a family, And they all get put in boxes, Little boxes, all the same. There's a green one and a pink one And a blue one and a yellow one And they're all made out of ticky-tacky And they all look just the same. The Baby Boom • A postwar population explosion known as the baby boom had taken place, and by the mid- 1950’s families with four and five children were common. Education for Success • Fitting into a corporate structure was particularly important. • One reason was that by 1956 the majority of workers were no longer blue-collar but white collar, a term for clerical or professional workers. Education for Success • As a result, the rising suburban middle class considered a good education an absolute necessity. • Children were expected to outdo their parents in income and social status. Rise of Consumerism • One of the outstanding characteristics of the fifties was the high standard of living that most Americans enjoyed. • The country was producing half of the world’s goods. • Most items were purchased on credit. • Instead of saving, Americans were spending, in full confidence that good times would continue indefinitely. The Beatniks • Critical of this American dream of prosperity and conformity was the Beat Generation. • The Beatniks, as they were called, wrote their own literature. • Their literary movement reached its peak when Jack Kerouac’s novel On the Road sold half a million copies. Exit Ticket Questions • How did suburbs fulfill the American dream of the people who moved there? • What factors contributed to the enormous demand for consumer goods? • How does the song ―Little Boxes‖ describe the 1950’s? Americans Enjoy New Forms of Entertainment Chapter 31 Section 2 Entertainment • Beyond a doubt, television was the entertainment marvel of the postwar era. TV • In the 1950’s TV are found in just about every home; sold for $200 ($1780 today) • Today homes have many TVs Info on TV and Violence • Children in developed countries spend more time watching TV than in school by age 18 • By age 75 you will have spend 9 years watching the tube • 2/3 of American homes have 3 or more TVs Info on TV and Violence • By the end of elementary school the average child will have witnessed 8,000 TV murders and 100,000 acts of violence • 6 out of 10 networks show violence regularly • 74% of violence on TV goes unpunished • 58% of TV programs do not show victim pain • 50% of violence is done by an ―attractive‖ perpetrator The Research Says… • There are relationships but no clear influence – Do violent people like violent programs? • Violence viewing and violent behavior are linked – Columbine (maybe not so much anymore) and Natural Born Killers • After viewing violence, people tend to be more aggressive – 5 times more aggressive in longitudinal studies The Little Screen • Real expansion in television was touched off after the war by the development of coaxial cable and microwave relays that could send television waves over the horizon. The Little Screen • By 1952 the Federal Communication Commission which in 1934 had been authorized to regulate interstate communication, had issued licenses for 400 stations to operate on the 12 VHF channels and two thousand stations on the seventy VHF channels. TV Programming • Occasionally a television-inspired fad came along. • In 1956 millions of boys and girls wore coonskin caps in imitation of Fess Parker, who portrayed Davy Crockett. Television Programming • Most programs were produced by one of three nationwide networks. • The reason was economic. • Shows had to be put together in a hurry. • As a result, much of the material tended to be commonplace. • Controversial issues were avoided. • FCC Chairman Newton Minow declared that television was ―a vast wasteland.‖ Videotape Arrives • An important engineering breakthrough of the late fifties was videotape. • It could be edited to eliminate mistakes. • With a few exceptions, live television was a thing of the past. Radio • Radio was radically changed but not financially hurt. • Stations became local institutions providing popular music, capsule news, and community services. • The change in the film industry was more dramatic. • People stayed home to watch the little screen. Motion Pictures Adjust • By 1960 only 27 percent of the population over five years of age was going to the movies each week, down from 70 percent in 1946. • Motion pictures were no longer a national unifying force. • Now the motion picture market was fragmented. • Films were made to appeal to special markets such as young children, teen-agers, and adults. Beat Goes On • Some musicians had turned to progressive jazz, which was no longer suitable for dancing. New Music • New records combined the musical styles of country-western, black rhythm and blues and black gospel singing. Rock and Roll • The powerful beat, simple lyrics, and deafening volume of the new music appealed to young people. • Disc jockey Allen Freed coined the term rock and roll to describe it. • Its star was former truck driver from Memphis, Tennessee, named Elvis Presley. Discussion Questions • What authority did the Federal Communications Commission have over the television industry? • Do you think the instant popularity of TV in the 1950’s has had a positive or negative effect on American culture? Explain. • Chapter 31 Section 2 Worksheet Bell Ringer Questions • What does the NAACP stand for? • What was their purpose? • What was the court case of Plessy v. Ferguson? What did the Supreme Court declare? • GET OUT YOUR HOMEWORK! Minorities Make Some Progress Chapter 31 Section 3 Americans Try to End Discrimination • Some progress in ending racial discrimination resulted from court action, and some from the political technique of civil disobedience, or the purposeful breaking of the law as part of an organized effort to get it changed. Brown v. Board of Education • The 1954 case of Brown v. Board of Education applied to the sensitive area of elementary and secondary education. • Linda Brown had been denied admission to an all- white elementary school. • Her attorney was Thurgood Marshall, who later became the first black Supreme Court Justice. Brown v. Board of Education • Decades of law and custom, as well as the tradition of states rights, stood on one side. • On the other side was the 14th Amendment, which guarantees everyone equal protection of the law. Brown v. Board of Education • In a unanimous decision, delivered by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Linda. • In other words, public schools should be integrated. Little Rock Nine • Faced with a virtual revolt around the Little Rock Crisis, President Eisenhower did not hesitate. • He ordered one thousand paratroopers to Little Rock to uphold the law. What is going on in these pictures? Rosa Parks • The leader of the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama was Martin Luther King, Jr. • He based his philosophy called Soul Force on the teachings of Henry David Thoreau, who believed that individuals should refuse to obey unjust law; Mohandas K. Ghandi, who used nonviolent resistance against the British, and A Philip Randolph, who urged blacks to organize mass demonstrations. Martin Luther King, Jr. • King organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which played a major role in civil rights in the 1960’s. Mexican Americans • Another minority that developed a stronger political awareness was the Mexican American, or Chicano. • Many came to the United States as migrant workers, while others came under a legal work contract as a result of the bracers program. • They all helped the economic growth of the Southwest. American Indians Struggle to Survive • In 1944 the National Congress of American Indians was established. • The Congress wanted Indians to have the same civil rights white Americans had, and it wanted those on reservations to be allowed to retain their own customs and values, even if they were different from those of everyone else. Reorganizing Indian Affairs • In 1953, Congress again changed its Indian policy. • The new approach was known as the termination policy. • The reservation system would be discontinued. • The Bureau of Indian Affairs began a relocation program to help Indians move to the cities and to find work. • The whole policy was a failure and, in 1963, it was abandoned. Homework Assignment • Do both sides of worksheet 31. One side is about the Developments of the Civil Rights Movement and the other is about a crisis we will talk about tomorrow. • TEST IS ON WEDNESDAY. START REVIEWING NOW…REVIEW 8am. Crises Threaten International Peace Chapter 31 Section 4 Bell Ringer • Get out your homework worksheet • I will be around to check it when the bell rings Dulles and Massive Retaliation • In line with his belief in a strong cabinet, Eisenhower gave most of the responsibility for foreign affairs to his Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, who proposed a new policy called massive retaliation. • Going to the brink of war with such threats became known as brinkmanship. Massive Retaliation • Application of the policy meant greater dependence on nuclear weapons and less on conventional ground forces. • In October 1956, a revolt broke out in Hungary. • However, Soviet forces smashed it with tanks and artillery. A U-2 is Shot Down • The United States began making secret high altitude flights over Soviet territory. • The plane used for these missions, the U-2, was designed to fly higher than Soviet fighter planes and beyond the reach of anticraft fire. U-2 is Shot Down • Yet on May 1, 1960, an American pilot named Francis Gary Powers was shot down. • The United States issued a false story. • But Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev had the evidence—the plane and the pilot. U-2 is Shot Down • President Eisenhower took full responsibility for the flight; but still, the summit conference broke up. Suez Canal Crisis • In 1955 Great Britain and the United States agreed to help finance construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile River. • Gamel Abdel Nasser, head of the Egyptian government, delayed. • However, when the offer was withdrawn, he seized the Suez Canal. • Also, Egyptians had been making terrorist raids into Israel. Suez Canal Crisis • Then, in October 1956, Great Britain, France, and Israel joined forces and attacked Egypt. • The United States asked the United Nations to order both a cease fire in Egypt and the withdrawal of foreign troops. Eisenhower Doctrine • As a warning to the Soviet Union, Eisenhower said that the United States would defend the Middle East against Soviet attack. • This became known as the Eisenhower Doctrine. New States • In 1959 President Eisenhower declared Alaska and Hawaii the forty-ninth and fiftieth states of the Union. Sputnik Starts the Space Race • In 1957 the Soviet announced that they had developed a rocket that was capable of firing over great distances. • It was a true ICBM. • Then, on October 4, they proved their claim. • They launched the first unarmed space satellite, called Sputnik. • The launching had an enormous effect on Americans. • It led to the space race that landed two men on the moon and several changes in education.