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					    The Power of Experience




Submitted To:                 TA No. 4379–BAN: Power Sector
Asian Development
Bank                          Development Program II
Power Cell
Power Division
                              Component C: Preparation of
Ministry of Power,            Investment Projects
Energy & Mineral              Volume 4: Social and
Resources
                              Resettlement Issues

                              Appendices




                              Submitted By:


                              In Association with:
                              Bangladesh
                              Engineering &
                              Technological Services

                              June 2006
Contents

Appendix A   Persons Met ..................................................................................................A-1
Appendix B   References.....................................................................................................B-1
Appendix C   Electrity Tariff 2003 ....................................................................................C-1
Appendix D   Synopsis Of BPDB’S Serajganj and Sylhet Prepayent Sites....................D-1
Appendix E   Summary Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy (SPRSS) ....................E-1
Appendix F   Involuntary Resettlement Categorization.................................................. F-1
Appendix G   Indigenous People’s Impact Categorization Form .................................. G-1
Appendix H   Investment Sub Projects Under Proposed Sector Loan .......................... H-1
Appendix I   Resettlement Framework (RF) as Described In OM F2/OP..................... I-1
Appendix J   Draft Resettlement Framework (RF)......................................................... J-1
Appendix K   Resettlement Policy and Legal Framework.............................................. K-1
Appendix L   Project Site and Row Photos and Descriptions .........................................L-1
Appendix M   Analysis of Subsidy to Domestic Consumers (Monthly Data) ................M-1
Appendix N   Proposed PSDP II Investment Sub Projects..............................................N-1
Appendix O   List of Communities/FGDs from Socioeconomic Survey ........................ O-1




                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                                          i
Appendix A                                                                            Persons Met

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB)
Pil-Bae Song
Head, Project Administration Unit
Principle Energy Specialist
Energy Division
South Asia Department
6 ADB Ave, Mandaluyong City
Tel 632 632 6947/6303 fax 632 636-2338
Psong@adb.org
Samsuddin Ahmed
Head, Energy
Bangladesh Resident Mission
Plot E-31, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka 1207
Bangladesh, GPO Box No. 2100
Tel 88 02 815 6000 to 6016. fax 88 02 815 6018/6019
sahmed@adb.org

POWER CELL, POWER DIVISION, MINISTRY OF POWER ENERGY & MINERAL
RESOURCES
Eng. BD Rahmatullah
Director General, Power Cell
Biddyut Bhaban, 10th Floor
1, Abdul Gant Road
Dhaka-1000

Md Mizanur Rahman
Deputy Director, Power Cell
Biddyut Bhaban, 10th Floor
1, Abdul Gant Road
Dhaka-1000

BANGLADESH POWER DEVELOPMENT BOARD (BPDB)
Md. Delwar Hossain
Director, System Planning Directorate, BPDB
WAPDA Bhawan (5th floor)
Room No. 501
Motijheel. Commercial Area
Dhaka-1000
Office Tel: 9560884
Residence Tel: 7200344
Email: syspdb@citecho.net

AK Mohmud
Deputy Director System Planning, BPDB


                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices            A-1
Appendix A                                                                             Persons Met



WAPDA Bhawan (5th floor)
Motijheel. Commercial Area
Dhaka-1000
Office Tel: 9560884
Residence Tel: 7200344
Email: syspdb@citecho.net

Sabita Mitra
Director (SE)
Directorate of Project Planning
WAPDA Bldg (5th Floor)
Motijheel Bldg
Office: Tel 9554820, 9551114
Residential Tel: 9661490
Email: sabitamitra@yahoo.com

Alauddin Khan
Director
Directorate of Design & Inspection-1, BPDB
9/B, Motijheel C/A
Dhaka-1000
Office Tel: 9550230 (Off)
Residence Tel: 7164483, 7116824
Mobile: 0189-237164

Tridib Kanti Chakma, Project Director
Prepayment Metering Pilot Project, BPDB
Rupali Sadan (1st Floor)
156-57, Motijheel C/A
Dhaka 1000
Office Tel: 880-2-7110460
Residence Tel: 880-2-9345375
Email: tridib@bdonline.com

POWER GRID COMPANY OF BANGLADESH (PGCB)
Md. Delwar Hossain
Managing Director
PGCB
BTMC Bhaban (8th Floor)
7-9 Kawran Bazar
Dhaka 1215
Office Tel 9116382, 9118345
Residence Tel: 8357783
Fax: 88-02-9118345
Mobile: 011-807509

Md. Amir Khasru
General Manager


                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices          A-2
Appendix A                                                                            Persons Met



Planning and Development
PGCB
Red Crescent Concord Tower, 17
Mohakhali C/A (13th Floor)
Dhaka 1212
Tel 9888970, 9888589
8850476, Ext 27
(Off). 9892788
Mob 0189-229832
Fax (880-2) 9888501
Email: pgcbtld@citch-bd.com
website pgcb.org

MD. Ruhul Amin
General Manager (Projects)
PGCB
Red Crescent Concord Tower, 17
Mohakhali C/A (13th Floor)
Dhaka 1212
Tel 9888970, 9888589
8850476
Mobile: 0173001568

ABM Harunar Rashid
Director (Technical)
PGCB
Red Crescent Concord Tower, 17
Mohakhali C/A (13th Floor)
Dhaka 1212
Tel 9888970, 9888589
8850476
Email: dir-tech@pgcb.org.bd
ceharpdb@bdonline.com

Feroz Ibne Saieed
Director, Finance
PGCB
BTMC Bhaban (8th Floor)
7-9 Kawran Bazar
Dhaka 1215
Office Tel 9116382
Residence Tel: 9006203
Email: feroz@accesstel.net

Kazi Matiur Rahman
Director, Technical
PGCB
BTMC Bhaban (8th Floor)


                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices          A-3
Appendix A                                                                            Persons Met



7-9 Kawran Bazar
Dhaka 1215
Office Tel 9116382
Residence Tel: 8620858

Arun Kumar Saha
Manager, System Planning, PGCB
Red Crescent Concord Tower (6th Floor)
17 Mohakhali C/A
Dhaka-1212
Office Tel: 9888589, 9888970/Ext- 51
Residence Tel: 9712269
Fax 880-2-9888501
Email: pgcb@citechco.net

Serazul Islam
Manager (Impl) Project-2, PGCB
House #6 (1st Floor)
Road #23/A, Gulshan-1
Dhaka-1212
Office Tel: 9888716
Mobile: 0171-432163
Fax 880-2-9862040

DHAKA ELECTRIC SUPPLY AUTHORITY (DESA)

Md. Amanul Haque
Director Corporate Planning & Design, DESA
Office Tel: 9567256, Residence Tel: 9346805

SM Manzoor-Ul-Eshan
Superintending Engineer
Planning Circle, DESA
1 Abdul Ghani Road
Dhaka-1000
Office Tel: 9566518
Mobile: 0173-039513

Saludan Jahangir
Project Director, DESA Corporatization
Execive Engineer, System Planning
DESA Corporatization Project
Office Tel: 9571800
Mobile: 0171540988

DHAKA ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANY LIMITED (DESCO)
Shah Alam, Deputy General Manager (P&D) &
Project Director, DESCO


                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices          A-4
Appendix A                                                                            Persons Met



House #3 Road #24
Block # K, Banani Model Town
Dhaka-1213
Office Tel: 8854648, 8859642, 8922566
Mobile: 011-867988
Email: mdesco@bdcom.com

Noor Mohammad
Deputy General Manager
Sales & Distribution Division-Uttara, DESCO
(Prepaid Meter Pilot Project)
20/21 Shahjalal Avenue, Sector $6, Dhaka 1230
Tel: 88-0208911260, 895146, Fax: 88-02-8959145
Email: mddesco@bdcom.com

Mohd. Raihan Habib
Deputy Manager
Sales & Distribution Division-Uttara, DESCO
(Prepaid Meter Pilot Project)
20/21 Shahjalal Avenue, Sector $6, Dhaka 1230
Tel: 88-0208911260, 895146, Fax: 88-02-8959145
Mobile: 011-822601




                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices          A-5
Appendix B                                                                            References

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ADB. 2004. Format and Scope of a Resettlement Framework. Manila. April 20.

ADB. 2004. Format and Scope of a Full Resettlement Plan. Manila. April 20.

ADB. 2004. Format and Scope of a Short Resettlement Plan. Manila. April 20.

ADB. 2004. Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluation of Resettlement and Rehabilitation.
Manila.

ADB. 2003. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors (RRP).
BAN 36205: On Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant to the People’s Republic of
Bangladesh for The Power Sector Development Program. Manila. November

ADB. 2003. Operation Manual (OM) Section F2. Involuntary Resettlement. Manila. October
29

ADB. 2003. Gender Checklist for Resettlement. Manila. February

ADB. 2002. Safeguard Policy Compliance Memorandum. BAN: Urban Governance &
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ADB. 2002. TA to India for Integrating Poverty Reduction in Programs and Projects.
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ADB. 2002. Technical Assistance to the People’s Republic of Bangladesh for the
Corporatization of the Dhaka Electric Supply Authority. Tar: Ban 34039. Manila. November.

ADB. 2000. Partnership Agreement on Poverty Reduction Between Government of the
People’s Republic of Bangladesh and Asian Development Bank. Manila. April 3.

ADB. 2001. Handbook on Poverty and Social Analysis: A Working Document. Manila.
December.

ADB. 2001. Handbook for Integrating Poverty Impact Assessment in the Economic Analysis
of Projects. Manila.

ADB. 2001. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors (RRP).
BAN 31296: On Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant to the People’s Republic of
Bangladesh for The West Zone Power System Development Project. Manila. November.



                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices           B-1
Appendix B                                                                             References



ADB. 1998. Handbook on Involuntary Resettlement: A Guide to Good Practice. Manila.

ADB. 1998. Policy on Indigenous Peoples. Manila. April.

ADB. 1995. Policy on Involuntary Resettlement. Manila. November.

ADB. 1994. Handbook for Incorporating Social Dimensions in Projects. Manila.

ADB (BRM). 1999. An Assessment of Poverty Reduction of ADB’s Operations in
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Ahmed, Faizuddin. 2004. Practices of Proverty Measurement and Poverty Profile of
Bangladesh. ERD Working Paper No. 54. Manila: Economics and Research Department,
ADB. August.

Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 2004. Bangladpedia (National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
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Australian Power and Water Pty Ltd. 2003. Resettlement Plan: Power Distribution and
Greater Mekong Subregion Transmission Project. For ADB TA-4078-CAM. Phnom Penh:
APW. October.

Azad Ruhul Amin 2002. An Overview of Resettlement Policy in Bangladesh. Regional
Workshop. ADB Headquarters. February18-20. [Secretary Ministry of Land]

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. n.d. Private Sector Power Generation Policy of Bangladesh.
Dhaka.

Bangladesh Enterprise Institute, 2003. Pilot Investment Climate Assessment Investment
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Bangladesh Institute of Economic Development (BIDS). 2001. Fighting Human Poverty:
Bangladesh Human Development Report 2000. Dhaka: BIDS and Planning Commission,
Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Observer, The. - Net Edition. 2005. Aminbazar power station opens: PM asks
officials to ensure supply of electricity to all. Wednesday, October 5.

Bangladesh Observer, The. 2005. DESCO introduces pre-paid meters. August 9.
http://www.bangladeshobserveronline.com/new/2005/09/08/front.htm

Bangladesh Road Highway Department (RHD). 2003. Resettlement Plan. TA No. 3755-BAN :
Road Network Improvement & Maintenance II. Dhaka. September.

Bangladesh Road Highway Department (RHD). 2002. Summary Resettlement Plan. BAN:
Road Network Improvement and Maintenance Project I. Dhaka. July




                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices         B-2
Appendix B                                                                             References



Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB), GOB. 2002. Summary Resettlement
Framework and Resettlement Plan. Jamuna-Meghna River Erosion Mitigation Project.
Dhaka.

Béasse, Kirk. 2005. The Power to Change: A Student View: Young man in front of his home
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Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). 2005. 2003 Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh.
Dhaka: Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, GOB. January.
BBS. 1998. Analysis of Basic Needs Dimension of Poverty, National Data Bank Map of
Bangladesh. Dhaka.

BBS. 1997. National Data Bank: Slum Report. Dhaka: Statistics Wing, Planning Division,
Ministry of Planning, GOB. www.bbsgov.org

Canadian Press. 2004. Ontario Premier Says Smart Meters Will Save Money. April.
http://www.electricityforum.com/news/apr04/smartmeter.html

Centre for Policy Dialogue. 2001. Draft Summary National Policy Forum. CPD Task Force
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[Organized by: Centre for Policy Dialogue, Prothom Alo, and The Daily Star]. www.cpd-
bangladesh.org

Chatham-Kent Hydro Inc. 2004. Chatham-Kent Hydro Inc. Submission to the Ontario Energy
Board RP-2004-0196. Implementation Plan for Smart Meters in Ontario. August 13.

Chittagong Correspondent. n.d. Pre-paid power meter in Ctg delayed by a year.
http://www.weeklyholiday.net/020104/count.html

Critton, David R.. 2003. Privatization of Urban Water and Sanitation Systems in Developing
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World. by M.S. Candidate, School of Forest Resources & Environmental Science Master’s
International Program, Michigan Technological University. April.
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DESCO. 2005. Detailed Buying Lead Description, Pre-Paid Meters. Dhaka. September.
http://list.bdlug.org/pipermail/bangla_ict/2005-September/001328.html

Economic Relations Division, GOB. 2003. A National Strategy for Economic Growth,
Poverty Reduction and Social Development (I-PRSP). Dhaka: Economic Relations Division,
Ministry of Finance, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. March.

EnergyMeter.
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Galatis, Keith. 2005. Synopsis of BPDB’s Serajganj and Sylhet Prepayment Sites. Fitchner
GmbH, Germany. June 1.



                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices         B-3
Appendix B                                                                              References



Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD). 2004. Institutional
Reforms and their Impact in Rural Electrification: South and Southeast Asia. Energy Access
theme results Sub regional technical report by Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. May
10.
http://www.gnesd.org/Downloadables/Energy_Access_I/Technical_report_AIT_ver_10_May
_2004.pdf

Government of Western Australia. 2002. Aboriginal and Remote Communities Power Supply
Project. http://www.energy.wa.gov.au/3/3022/64/indigenous_comm.pm

Gwatkin, Davidson R.; Shea Rustein; Kiersten Johnson; Rohini P. Pande; and Adam
Wagstaff. 2000. Socio-Economic Differences Health, Nutrition, and Population in
Bangladesh. Poverty Thematic Group. Washington, DC: The World Bank. May.

Hellen Keller International. 2002. Urban Poverty in Bangladesh: The Perspective of the
Nutritional Surveillance Project. Nutritional Surveillance Project Bulletin, No. 9. January.

Hindu, The. 2004. Haryana to Introduce Pre-Paid Power Meters. June 25.
http://www.hindu.com/2004/06/25/stories/2004062507670300.htm

Howells, Mark; David G. Victor; Trevor Gaunt; Rebecca J. Elias; and Thomas Alfstad. 2005.
Beyond Free Electricity: The Costs of Electric Cooking in Poor Households and a Market-
friendly Alternative.

Human Development Research Centre. 2002. Economic and Social Impact Evaluation Study:
Rural Electrification Program in Bangladesh. Dhaka. (RPPR Program 1: Rural
Electrification Board, USAID & NRECA International Ltd.). October.

ILO. 1999. Private Utilities, Public Concern: Privatization and Restructuring of Water, Gas
and Electricity Services Leads to Job Cuts. World of Work .No. 29. April/May.

IMF. 2004. Bangladesh: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Status Report. IMF Country
Report No. 04/279. August. Washington, DC

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International Energy Agency (IEA). 2005. The Developing World and the Electricity
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International Energy Initiative Inc. 2004. Special Issue of Energy for Sustainable
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Johannesburg News Agency. n.d. Who Runs The Electricity Supplies For Jo'burg? [url link]




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices          B-4
Appendix B                                                                            References



Livingston, Gillian. 2004. McGuinty Touting Smart Meters Use: Utility Reform, Regulation
& Consumer Protection - Consumer Protection In A New Electricity Market. The London
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Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), GOB. 2002. Resettlement Framework.
BAN: Rural Infrastructure Improvement Project. Dhaka. September.

Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), GOB. 2002. Short Resettlement Plan:
Jhalokati Bus Stand (Krishnakathi) – Balokdia Road Subproject. BAN: Rural Infrastructure
Improvement Project. Dhaka. September.

London Economics. 1997. Bangladesh Power Sector Reform, Final Report. Analysis of Long-
Run Marginal Costs and Tariff Recommendations. Vol. 3, Dhaka. April. (In association with
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Lovei, Lazlo and Alastair McKecbnei. 2000. The Costs of Corruption for the Poor, The
Energy Sector. Public Policy for the Private Sector. Note No. 207. Washington, DC: The
World Bank Group, Private Sector and Infrastructure Network. April.

Mahmood, Iqbal H.. 2002. Power Sector Reforms in Bangladesh.PowerPoint Presentation in
Shanghai, China by State Minister, Power Division, Ministry of Power, Energy & Mineral
Resources. GOB. May 8

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MBendi. 2001. Tanzania: Electrical Power - Overview. October 24.
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Malek, Brig. Gen. M. A.. 2001. Major Issues and Benefits of Regional Power Trade.
(Chairman Bangladesh Power Development Board) March 19.

Manzurul Mannan. 2005. Phulbari Coal Project EIA: Anthropology and Culture of Asia
Energy’s Phulbari Coal Project Area. Vol 4: Section 3 . Dhaka: Independent University,
Bangladesh for SMEC. June.

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onsumerandebt/pre-payment_meters-2

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Mujeri, Mustafa K. 2004. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Bangladesh. Dhaka.
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                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices         B-5
Appendix B                                                                            References



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Nexant. 2005. Inception Report: ADB TA No. 4370-BAN: Power Sector Development
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Companies in South Asia. November. USAID SARI/Energy Program. www.sari-energy.org

Nexant. 2003. Bangladesh: Economic Impact of Poor Power Quality on Industry. August.

Opok, Obok and G.O. Anderson (Botswana). 2005. Impact and Benefits of Prepaid
Electricity Service in Botswana. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.aspx?PaperID=20809

‘Pay-As-You-Use’ Metering Scheme (Joint Press Statement by Sp Services and the Energy
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Aminbazar 400 kV: Transmission Line. Dhaka: PGCB. September.

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PGCB. 2001. Resettlement Plan (RP). The West Zone Power System Development Project.
Dhaka: The Power Grid Company of Bangladesh Ltd. October.

PGCB. 2001. Resettlement Plan (RP). Khulna-Ishurdi 230 Kv Transmission Line Project
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Aminbazar 400 kV: Transmission Line. Dhaka. September.




                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices         B-6
Appendix B                                                                             References



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Study. Dhaka: The University Press Limited, Chapter 15.5.

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Shrestha, Ram M; S. Kumar, Sudhir Sharma; and Monaliza J. Todoc. n.d. Institutional
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Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry (DCCI) Seminar, World Bank Group. Dhaka. June
9.



                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices         B-7
Appendix B                                                                            References



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World Bank Dhaka Office. 2002c. Massive, Inequitable Energy Subsidies Hinder
Development. Dhaka. June 9. Internet News Release.

World Bank. 1999. Report No. PID7296: Bangladesh-Power Reform: Country and Sector
Background. Dhaka.




                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices         B-8
Appendix C                                                                  Electrity Tariff 2003

                     Bangladesh Electricity Tariff, Effective 1 Sept. 2003

SL. NO.   Customer Category                                                              Tk./kWh

1         Category A - Residential
            1. Tier 1 - Up to 100 kWh per month                                           2.50
            2. Tier 2 - 101 to 400 kWh per month                                          3.00
            3. Tier 3 - 401 and more kWh per month                                        5.00

2         Category B - Agricultural Pumps                                                 1.84

3         Category C - Small Industries
            1. Flat Rate (If peak/on-peak meter not available)                            3.83
            2. Off-Peak Period                                                            3.05
            3. Peak Period                                                                5.36

4         Category D - Institutional                                                      3.20

5         Category E - Commercial
            1. Flat Rate (If peak/on-peak meter not available)                            5.04
            2. Off-Peak Period                                                            3.62
            3. Peak Period (5:00 PM to 11:00 PM)                                          7.82

6         Category F - 11 kV, General Use
            1. Flat Rate (If peak/on-peak meter not available)                            3.62
            2. Off-Peak Period                                                            2.99
            3. Peak Period (5:00 PM to 11:00 PM)                                          6.41

7         Category G-1 - 132 kV, DESA                                                     2.12

8         Category G-2 - 132 kV, General Use
            1. 23:00 PM to 06:00 AM                                                       1.42
            2. 06:00 AM to 13:00 PM                                                       2.36
            3. 13:00 PM to 17:00 PM                                                       1.58
            5. 17:00 PM to 23:00 PM                                                       5.25
            6. Flat Rate (If peak/off-peak meter not available)                           2.68

9         Category H - 33 kV, General Use
            1. Flat Rate (If peak/on-peak meter not available)                            3.41
            2. Off-Peak Period                                                            2.89
            3. Peak Period (5:00 PM to 11:00 PM)                                          6.14

10        Category I - 33 kV, REB
            1. PDB to REB                                                                 2.05
            2. DESA to REB                                                                2.12

11        Category J - Street Lighting & Pumps                                            3.68



                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                C-1
Appendix D Synopsis Of BPDB’S Serajganj and Sylhet Prepayent Sites

Galatis, Keith. 2005. Synopsis of BPDB’s Serajganj and Sylhet Prepayment Sites.
Fitchner & SA. June 1.

1. Introduction

BPDB requested Fictner to visit and evaluate the prepayment projects in Serajganj and Sylhet
respectively. Both projects were awarded to Siemens Bangladesh. The scope of each project
is to supply, commission and install STS single-phase and three phase meters and the
SUPRIMA management software suite.

2. Siemens Scope of Work

Siemens Bangladesh in association with Landis + Gyr won contracts to provide a prepayment
service to BPDB in Sylhet and Serajganj. The scope of work included:

a. Refurbishment of vending centre comprising:

   •   A Vending Server
   •   CDUs (Vending Clients)
   •   An Administration Client
   •   A Safe
   •   Air-Conditioning Units
   •   Demonstration Kits
   •   Office Equipment

b. Overseas and local training of BPDB staff in all aspects of prepayment systems.

c. Supply of meters, vending equipment, service drop cables and consumables for the project.

d. Installation and commissioning of the vending system.

e. Installation and commissioning of prepayment connections including split concentric
service connections.

f. Provision of a proficient System Manger at each site for a period of 1 year to manage the
project.

2.1 Sylhet

The contract was signed in August 2003 and the system was commissioned in January 2005.
The contract value is 30.7 million Taka. A total of 2,400 single-phase meters and 20 three-
phase meters were procured for the Shahjalal feeder in Sylhet. An SMS server, an online
Administrator and 2 vending clients are included in the scope of work. To date 2,369
customers have been connected to the prepayment system. BPDB intends to procure an
additional 5, 500 single-phase meters, 80 three-phase meters and 3 vending clients to expand
the project to the Upashahar area in Sylhet.


                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices     D-1
Appendix D                                               Synopsis Of BPDB’S Serajganj & Sylhet Prepayent Sites




2.2 Serajganj

The contract was signed in May 2004 to the value of 45.4 million Taka and the system was
commissioned in April 2005. A total of 3,039 single phase and 72 three-phase meters were
procured for a feeder from the 33/11 kV substation of Sirajonj Town. An SMS server, an
online Administrator and 2 vending clients are included in the scope of work. In Serajganj,
the system was commissioned on April 16, 2005 and the first meter installed the next day.

About 450 customers have been connected to the prepayment system to date. BPDB intends
to expand the project to cover the whole of Sirajgonj Town.

3. Vending Operation

The vending offices in Sylhet and Serajganj were renovated by Siemens and are impressively
fitted out with office furniture, adequate security for the operators and a spacious reception
area for customers. Each vending office has a Customer Care desk where customers may see
a demonstration of how the meter works or ask the customer advisors questions. The Server
is well secured in an air-conditioned office. Both offices are neat and well organized.

The vending equipment is in a clean air-conditioned, dust free environment and each machine
is equipped with an UPS. The vending software used to issue tokens and manage the system
is called SUPRIMA.

SUPRIMA works with a modern SQL database as main storage for the data and uses the
graphical elements of the operating system to provide easy understanding of its operation.

The main SUPRIMA components are the Vending Module, the Administration Module, the
Engineering Module and the Configuration Module.

In both sites the SUPRIMA system comprises a vending server, which holds the database and
is protected by a UPS. The server is connected via a LAN to an Administration client to
register clients, generate reports and manage customer and meter details.

4. Meter Installation

About 20 meters per day are installed and the meters are generally professionally installed.
In some cases, meters were installed rather high on the wall. This makes it difficult to read
the display and to enter tokens. The Siemens representative and BPDB Executive Engineer
stressed that the customer is consulted an din some cases, asks for meters to be installed high
up and out of the way.

Initially some of the locally produced split concentric cables were damaged by water ingress.
The service drop installation technique was modified to prevent this problem from occurring
again.

The meters for customers’ in apartment buildings were installed together on the ground floor
in the same place that the old conventional meters were installed. Although easier to install


                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     D-2
Appendix D                                               Synopsis Of BPDB’S Serajganj & Sylhet Prepayent Sites



this way, it is not ideal since customers need to leave their apartments to check the remaining
credit and to insert additional tokens. Where meters are installed in public places, customers
could blame strangers for bypassing and/or vandalism of their meters.

A prepayment meter has the capacity to limit the power supplied to a customer’s load. The
factory default setting for each meter was 13kV. In cases where customers load was 1kW,
customers were initially given tokens to insert into the meter to lower the power limit. In
most cases customers entered these tokens. However, in some cases the tokens were not
entered and customers unfairly got the full 13kW capacity without having to pay for it. BPDP
had to audit suspicious accounts to check that this did not happen. To solve this problem in
the future, either the installation contractor should install the token or the meters should be
factory programmed to a lower power limit, say 1kW.

In some cases customers complained when their meters cut off the electricity supply if the
sanctioned load was exceeded. Most of these customers were prepared to pay the additional
once-off security deposit and increased fixed monthly charge to increase their power limit
accordingly, once the reason for the cut off was explained to them.

No meter failures have occurred in Serajganj during the first month of installation, while 11
meter failures have occurred in Sylhet in four months. These failures were keypad
manufacturing faults and the meter was vandalized by a customer, who paid 12,000 Taka for
a replacement meter.

5. Revenue Collection

Both Serajganj and Sylhet are managed in exactly the same way with regard to revenue
collection. The process is well controlled and the same process of daily collections for
BPDB’s conventional customers is followed – representatives from the local bank arrive at 4
pm each day and count the takings in the presence of the System Manger. Both parties sign a
slip and the amount is checked against the daily banking batch produced by the SUPRIMA
system. Prior to this, each operator checks the amount of cash against the vending client’s
system total. The Bank takes responsibility for transporting the cash to the bank and
depositing the money on the same day that collection takes place. This is a free service
provided by the Bank.

All free issues have to be issued by the System Manager, and the process of applying for a
higher sanctioned demand is for the customer to apply at the vending station, pay at the bank
and bring the receipt to the vending station before the System Manager issues the increased
power limit token for the customer’s specific meter. Generating the increased power limit
token automatically adjusts the fixed charge part of the tariff for that customer.

In Sylhet, BPDB are collecting data for a direct comparison of the collections for the prepaid
group of customers against the same group of customers before converting to prepayment.
To date, only figures for December 2004 (Conventional) and April 2005 Prepaid could be
compared directly. The figures are:

December 2004 (2,350 Customers)
Total Billed:    1,047,965 Taka          Total Collected:       778,331 Taka            Not       available


                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     D-3
Appendix D                                                Synopsis Of BPDB’S Serajganj & Sylhet Prepayent Sites



                                                                                         KWh

April 2005 (The Same 2,350 Customers)
Total Billed:     1,116,054 Taka Total Collected:                1,116,054 Taka          372,107.5 KWh


In Serajganj, the revenue has increased, but it is too early to calculate amounts since the sales
in the month do not necessarily equate to the consumption in the month, because customers
may have credit remaining in their meters at months end. In one month an additional 40,000
Taka was collected form 450 customers in increased sanctioned load and security deposits.

6. Customer Reaction

The customer reaction to prepayment has been overwhelmingly positive. All customers that
we spoke to were very positive. The System Mangers at each project vending office
confirmed this positive reaction.

Typical comments were:
    •   We can now budget for our electricity
    •   Why didn’t we get this system sooner?
    •   It is good to keep up with technology
    •   I trust this meter more than the meter readers and bills from before
    •   It’s so easy to use this system, my children buy electricity tokens and enter them in the
        meter
    •   The system is fairer than the old system

Initially there were many queries regarding the stepped tariff. It was apparent that customers
were not familiar with the stepped tariff that is used for conventional meters, and once this
was explained to them, the queries reduced substantially. (Prepaid tariffs are the same as
conventional tariffs with two exceptions: no minimum charges, and energy rates are 2%
lower than conventional rates.)

A number of questions relating to the average consumption figure printed on the token were
asked, and staff members at the vending station were unable to provide accurate answers.

Most customers purchase thee or four times per month and many purchase two separate
tokens at a time.

One meter has been vandalized by a customer in Sylhet. He was heavily fined. Another
customer opened the meter terminal cover and was surprised that the meter stopped working.
The customer was shown the tamper message, which was cleared using an engineering token
after the customer paid a fine, and the meter then started working.

Some customers are more aware of electricity consumption, and it seems that electricity
consumption is reduced slightly for prepayment customers.

7. Comments and Recommendations



                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     D-4
Appendix D                                                Synopsis Of BPDB’S Serajganj & Sylhet Prepayent Sites



The vending offices are well refurbished and professionally maintained. Staff members are
courteous, seem well trained and are enthusiastic. The atmosphere in the vending offices is
welcoming to customers, and this is translated to strong support for the system by customers.

Customers seem proud of their new prepayment meters, and customer acceptance is very
high.

There is, however, a lack of understanding of how the stepped tariff works in the vending
system, and the vending system tools to assist staff in explaining the tariffs are lacking.

The systems and procedures are well defined, and system maintenance and backups are
performed on a daily basis. Administration of the system is well designed and implemented
in a practical and controllable manner. There is sufficient management capacity and
technical system capacity to extend the projects as intended by BPDB. Only additional
CDUs (or vending clients) will be required to maintain the higher levels of customer service.
It is recommended that if the system is expanded that online vending clients are utilized.
These are more cost effective and more secure than an offline client, which requires a full
database and a secure module (or encryption card) to vend tokens to customers. (Refer to
Cashpower Prepayment System Diagram below).

Some system reports on SUPRIMA are not optimal and could be tailored for BPDB use.
Since the reports are designed and generated using Crystal Report Writer, it is a trivial task to
design custom reports. Siemens Bangladesh should be approached to customize reports at the
request of BPDB.

The customer registration process has been logically thought out and is operating well. The
conventional reading is transferred to the billing system and a final bill is sent ot each
prepayment customer by BPDB. A facility to collect the outstanding bills and arrears is
available on the SUPRIMA vending system, but it is not used at present. BPDB should
consider using this system in the future.

The meter installations are high quality, but some meters are installed in inaccessible places.

The initial average for customers was set to 1,000 kWh for all customers. This is too high,
as it puts all customers in the highest slab, and it is recommended that the initial average be
set to a maximum of 400 kWh. It is further recommended that the calculated average be left
off the printed token as it may confuse some customers. Additional reports to show details
regarding the averages for each customer should be designed by Landis + Gyr. Finally, in
future the meter supplier should be instructed to set the factory default power limit to 1kW,
so that customers can insert tokens themselves to increase power limits once they hae paid
the required monies.

Early indicators are that the prepayment subsystems in Sylhet and Serajganj have increased
the revenue collection by 30% per unit. These figures need to be confirmed by comparing
the revenue collected and system losses over a longer period of time. For Sylhet the average
collection rate for Sales and Distribution Division 2 customers is 2.09 Taka per kWh,
excluding taxes. For prepayment it is 2.89 Taka per unit, excluding taxes. This is an increase




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     D-5
Appendix D                                               Synopsis Of BPDB’S Serajganj & Sylhet Prepayent Sites



of 38%, despite tariffs being 2% lower than conventional tariffs. About 98% of prepayment
customers are domestic customers.

Early indicators are that both projects are a resounding success, with minor issues, most of
which have been resolved.

Cashpower Prepayment System:




                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     D-6
Appendix E            Summary Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy (SPRSS)

SUMMARY POVERTY REDUCTION AND SOCIAL STRATEGY (SPRSS)
A.       Linkages to the Country Poverty Analysis


Is the sector identified as a       X   Yes            Is the sector identified as a              X   Yes
national priority in country                           national priority in country
poverty analysis?                       No             poverty partnership agreement?                 No

Contribution of the sector or subsector to reduce poverty in Bangladesh:

Increased efficiency in the Energy Sector is an essential component for economic growth in Bangladesh. The
Partnership Agreement on Poverty Reduction between GOB and the ADB (2000) emphasized the need to
increase electricity to expand rural non-farm employment, especially in less developed rural areas. The
Government committed to lay greater emphasis enhancement of delivery of power and gas, on improvement of
the road network, and development of communications and other infrastructure. Increasing the availability of
electricity was to be given the highest priority, both to provide power for agricultural operations, and also to
facilitate private investment in rural areas. To facilitate poverty reduction through the growth of non-farm
employment, the agreed ADB Country Action Plan (CAP) focused on Energy and Power projects, road, and rail,
in partnership with the Private Sector wherever feasible, in the less developed areas of the country which have a
high incidence of poverty.

According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) 2000, national access to Power is about 31%,
considered to be small and insufficient even by standards of low-income countries. In 2000, nationally, 12% of
the poorest households had electricity connections, 3% in rural and 46% in urban areas. People who have
access to electricity receive poor, unreliable services with regular power outages and low voltage. Improved
energy services are essential for the country’s economic growth and other social services. Efficient power supply
is essential for the manufacturing and service industry, particularly the micro and small industries including the
garment sector which employs several million poor, particularly poor women. Agricultural production is also
dependent on energy, especially electricity. Energy efficiency beyond Dhaka is necessary if GOB is to meet its
objectives to decentralize development away from Dhaka to secondary towns as well as develop rural
infrastructure. Bangladesh has one of the highest paces of urbanization among developing countries. The rural-
urban pull is resulting in increased migration into Dhaka city. Urbanization has contributed to the reduction in
national poverty. For instance, during the period 1983/84 and 1991/92 there was a 5% reduction in the national
head-count index. Dhaka City however cannot be the sole hub that attracts rural migrants. Electricity has been
instrumental in creating employment opportunities for the poor in the rural and urban areas The ongoing multi-
donor support to GOB’s Power Sector Reform is an indication of the importance GOB places on the sector’s
contribution to national development.



B.       Poverty Analysis                                               Poverty Classification: Other
The first block of domestic power consumption of 100 kilowatt-hour per month is subsidized in Bangladesh. In
the financial year 2002 the highest electricity consumption was in the residential category. The envisaged
investment and policy programs, which follow the 2003 PSDP (RRP for BAN 36205, Nov), can be expected
to have indirect benefits on the lives of poor people who use small amounts of electricity and women who
engage in micro-level production activities.

While the policy and investment components are not specifically designed to have poverty impacts, they are
likely to result in indirect positive impacts on the poor in terms of income and employment, and public
services such as health, education, and municipal services.

On the policy side, improved governance which includes streamlining financial operations, billing
arrangements and corporatizing BPDB will result in better service to the public. The establishment of an
independent regulator will result in transparent and consultative procedures for issuing tariff rulings and
distribution services. Possible reduction in costs of products can be expected from price rationalization and



                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                        E-1
Appendix E                                                     Summary Poverty Reduction And Social Strategy (SPRSS)



efficiency gains. Employees will benefit from a new management structure and skills training. In the past,
energy enterprises' losses have put huge pressures on the national budget, with adverse implications for
macroeconomic stability, and resource allocation for social spending, particularly for the Poor. Capital
expenditures, in 2002 amounting to Tk. 20 billion annually or 15 percent of the Annual Development Program
(ADP), are equivalent to 90 percent of total public spending on health and 40 percent of public education
spending.

By power utilities achieving self sufficiency and being taken off the ADP, their financial viability will encourage
private financing in the Power Sector, which is seen as essential for economic growth, which will in turn
benefit the Poor provided social spending on their behalf is increased; ADP monies for the required social
and poverty alleviation spending will be available to the extent current Government subsidies to the Power
Sector are eliminated, thus increasing Bangladesh’s social capital which will in turn stimulate economic
growth; and economic growth will generate more Government revenue with which to fund social and poverty
alleviation spending, which in turn will allow economic development to take place while at the same time
pursuing the goal of poverty alleviation. As long as the current subsidies are in place, the Government is
hampered in providing adequate resources to these important programs that will make economic growth
possible without increasing the current poverty gap between Bangladesh’ rich and poor. In adopting the
suggested reforms, Bangladesh will abandon the current inefficient and inequitable energy pricing policies,
which result in millions being deprived of commercial energy while those who do have access continue to be
subsidized but poorly served. By commercializing the Energy Sector, inviting private investment, doing away
with most if not all of the eminently unfair subsidies, and, most importantly from the standpoint of poverty
alleviation, devoting its scarce Government resources to the high priority Sectors such as Education, Health
and Rural Development.

On the investment side, improvement and expansion to the distribution network in the four main beneficiary
towns of Joypurhat, Panchagaon, Chuadanga and Magura in the Northwest and West Regions will bring
considerable benefits in efficiency improvements to all consumers, as will expansion of existing substations in
Thakurgaon, Naogaon, and Jhenaidaha towns. These are District Towns, and the lead local government
institution is the Municipality. Public Sector institutions such as schools, colleges, and hospitals are operating
in all the towns and will benefit from improved electricity supplies. Other improvements are expected in the
following areas: All consumers will receive reliable and improved quality power supply; production of
commercial and industrial operations will be smooth; low voltage problems will improve, and estimated
incremental Energy supply from the three new 132 kV Lines is about 7,000 million kWh annually. The new
peak power generation unit to be established at Khulna will also provide regular and improved energy supply
to the Khulna Metropolitan Area. Considerable environment benefits, cost savings on stand by generators
and improved efficiency in the manufacturing business, including garments, pharmaceuticals and electronics
will result from the new plant. Dhaka Municipality will benefit from: (1) the 400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar
Transmission Line & Improvements around Dhaka; (2) 132 kV Improvements around Ullon; (3) System
Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area; and (4) DESA and DESCO Distribution Projects. The 400 kV
Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission Line will initially operate at 230 kV for several years until additional
Generating units are installed at Meghnaghat and will facilitate transmission of 1,500 million kWh annually
while operating at 230 kV. Although many of the benefits of this proposed Sector Loan will go to Dhaka, as
was the case with the West Zone Power System Development Project of 2001, the successful Dhaka model
will also furthered in North and West Bangladesh, a relatively poor area of the country, with a view to the
correct existing imbalance of physical infrastructure, electrification rate, and overall social and economic
development of Bangladesh.

Unstable power supply and peak period power cuts have effects on peoples’ lives in various ways. Poor and
particularly women who work as front line workers on a piece basis are severely affected by power loss. Low
income, long working hours and sometimes bringing in children to make up lost hours is the result of unstable
power supply. Many electrical items brought into repair shops are damaged due to power interruption. Small
business units such as photo studios, cyber cafes, beauty parlors, photocopy shops all complain of disruption
to business and loss of income during the peak time. Health clinics and diagnostic services are also seriously
disrupted as many units become non-operational due to low voltage or have a shorter service life because of
constant power outage. Patients are inconvenienced by having to wait long hours or have to return due to
disruption of services. Municipal water supply, streetlights are also of poor quality due to power disruption.
Children and students will benefit from longer study hours, information technology-based learning, and



                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                             E-2
Appendix E                                                   Summary Poverty Reduction And Social Strategy (SPRSS)



communications opportunities. Improved recreational facilities and better municipal services are expected,
resulting from improved power supply. The proposed subprojects will reduce waiting times due to power
outages, equipment loss through low voltage, and the constant potential for impairment of emergency
services through load shedding. Preventative public health also includes provision of adequate water for
domestic use, including for sanitation facilities. With improved electricity provision, electric pumps will be
longer lasting and operate on a more reliable basis.

The concept documents for the proposed investment projects under this Sector Loan point out that the supply
of electricity is imperative for Bangladesh’s industrialization, with residential as well as commercial and
industrial units directly depend on the supply of electricity. When the proposed subprojects are implemented,
the dependability of electricity supply will increase in Northwest and West Bangladesh as well as in the
Dhaka Metropolitan Area. Irrigation and the establishment of new industrial and commercial units will be
encouraged, and production of industry and agriculture will rise. The benefits will be in employment; income;
better supply of essential services such as water, street lights, and diagnostic and health services; and cost
saving for energy and maintenance of equipment with better supply of power. All categories of workers and
particularly those in the ready-made garment industries will benefit from better working environments and
reduced hours of work. Rural communities within the broader municipalities will receive a positive impact
through improved power supply through the Rural Electric Cooperatives, or PBSs. Intensity of land use
under electrically operated irrigation equipment will increase, leading to additional employment opportunities.
The operational cost for all equipment and lights will be lower than those operated by diesel and kerosene. It
is envisaged that the power distribution subproject for the seven towns in the Northwest and West, will have a
positive impact not only in the towns but also in the adjoining rural areas. The same can be said for rural
enclaves within the Dhaka Municipal Area.

Beneficiaries expressed the need for regular and expanded power supply. Perceived benefits from an
improved system include, increase in income and employment through stable production activities in existing
and new units. Costs, time saving and production losses could be minimized by way of reducing damage to
household and production equipment. Basic municipal and other services would be improved.


C.       Participation Process

Is there a stakeholder analysis?                 X   Yes     No


Is there a participation Strategy?               X   Yes     No


D.       Gender Development

Strategy to maximize impacts on women:

The Executing Agency and implementing agencies will ensure that women and men are given equal
opportunities for employment on the investment project. Contractors will be required to ensure equal payment
for equal work.



 Has an output been prepared?              Yes   X   No




                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                         E-3
Appendix E                                                  Summary Poverty Reduction And Social Strategy (SPRSS)



E.      Social Safeguards and other Social Risks

Item              Significant/               Strategy to Address Issues                     Plan
                  Not Significant/                                                          Required
                  None


                                             775 APs Total for 5 Transmission Line          [ X ] Full RF/No
                                             Subprojects. But impact from Transmission      Core RP, as no
Resettlement                                                                                Subproject  past
                  [ X ] Significant          Tower pods minimal on individual APs.
                                             Damage expected during construction.           Concept    Paper
                                             Structure relocation provided for in RF but    Stage
                                             voluntary.


                       Not significant                                                            Short

                       None                                                                       None

                       Significant                                                                Full

Affordability          Not significant                                                            Short



                   X     None                Electricity is already subsidized.               X     None


                       Significant                                                                Full

Labor                  Not significant                                                            Short



                   X     None                Voluntary transfers only                         X     None


                       Significant                                                                Full

Indigenous             Not significant                                                            Short
Peoples
                                             IPs not found during SES, but will be
                   X     None                vulnerable APs in RP if found during             X     None
                                             DMS

                       Significant                                                                Full

Other    Risks
and/or                 Not significant                                                            Short
Vulnerabilities
                                             Not required
                   X     None                                                                 X     None




                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                    E-4
Appendix F                                                     Involuntary Resettlement Categorization

INVOLUNTARY RESETTLEMENT CATEGORIZATION

A. Introduction

Projects 1 are assigned an involuntary resettlement category depending on the significance of the probable
involuntary resettlement impacts. “Significant” means 200 or more people will experience major impacts. Major
impacts are(i) being physically displaced from housing, or (ii) losing 10% or more of productive assets or both.

Initial screening for involuntary resettlement is to be conducted as early as possible in the project cycle, at the
project concept stage where feasible, and no later than project or program preparatory technical assistance,
project preparatory note fact-finding, or due diligence.

B. Instructions

(i)   The checklist and categorization form is to be completed by the Project Team Leader (PTL) with the
assistance of a Resettlement Specialist or Social Development Specialist in the Operations Department. This
form, endorsed by the Sector Division Director, is then submitted by the PTL to the Environment and Social
Safeguard Division (RSES) for endorsement by RSES Director, and for approval by the Chief Compliance
Officer (CCO) of the Regional and Sustainable Development Department (RSDD).

(ii) The involuntary resettlement categorization of a project is a continuing process. If there is a change in a
project that may result in category change, the Sector Division should resubmit a categorization form for
endorsement by RSES Director and approval by the CCO. The previous checklist should be attached to the
revised checklist for reference.

C. Project Data                                                                  Project No. XXXXX-XX

Country/Project Title:            _____By ADB___________Date: ____ By ADB _____

Department/ Division: ______ By ADB ________ Processing Stage:______ By ADB ______

Lending Modality: [ ] Project Loan                    [ ] Hybrid Loan 2              [ ] Financial Intermediation

                        [ ]       Program Loan 3 [ ] Emergency Loan                          Loan or Equity Investment

                          [ X ] Sector Loan               [ ] SDP Loan

Other Project Types : [ ] Grant                ___JFPR ___GEF ____ Other Sources:_____________

Coverage:                  [ X ] Country                 [ ] Regional             [ ] Inter-regional

Project :                 [ ] Detailed Design                           [ ] Detailed Design Completed

                               Before Loan Negotiations                        During Implementation

Processing Events (Tentative Schedule) and dates                            : By ADB

    PPTA Fact Finding : ___________                             Due Diligence before PSCCM 4 __________


1 ADB projects include (i) public sector project loans, program loans, sector loans, sector development program loans, financial
    intermediation loans, private sector loans or equity investments, and guarantees for funding of specific projects or subprojects; (ii) all
    project components regardless of the source of financing.
2 “Hybrid loans” have features of a regular project loan and a sector loan, such that some subprojects, components, or investments are

    selected and prepared only after loan approval.
3 Applies to program loans with investment components.




                              Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                                             F-1
   Appenidx F                                                                                  Involuntary Resettlement Categorization



         Loan Fact Finding : ____________                       PSCCM :__________________________

         MRM : ______________________                           Due Diligence after PSCCM (if anticipated):

         Appraisal : __________________                         __________________________________



   D. Screening Questions for Resettlement Categorization

  Probable       Involuntary      Resettlement Yes No  Not  Possible F.1.1 Remarks
  Effects*                                            Known
Will     the project include any physical X                          5 Transmission Lines Subprojects,
construction work?                                                   New & Upgraded Substations
Does the project include upgrading or X                              Substations
rehabilitation of existing physical facilities?
Are any project effects likely lead to loss of X                     House relocation from T/L ROW
housing, other assets, resource use or                               Voluntary, budget provision made
incomes/livelihoods?                                                 in    RF.     Small    impact     of
                                                                     Transmission Tower pods and
                                                                     during construction, mitigated in
                                                                     RF
Is land acquisition likely to be necessary?     X                    For T/L Tower Pods. Substations
                                                                     willing seller/buyer basis, through
                                                                     Advertisement.
Is the site for land acquisition known?                 X            No Subproject yet past Concept
                                                                     Stage of Planning. Site/Location
                                                                     surveys not yet done.
Is the ownership status and current usage of       X                 Needs to be determined after
the land known?                                                      Site/Location Surveys completed.
Will easements be utilized within an existing X
Right of Way?
Are there any non-titled people who live or             X            Will     be     determined     after
earn their livelihood at the site or within the                      Site/Location Surveys.
Right of Way?
Will there be loss of housing?                  X                    Voluntary relocation from T/L
                                                                     ROW, budgeted for in RF
Will there be loss of agricultural plots?       X                    Minimial, for T/L Tower Pods
Will there be losses of crops, trees, and X                          Minimal, for T/L Tower Pods and
fixed assets?                                                        during     construction,    to   be
                                                                     compensated.
Will there be loss of businesses or                     X            Will     be     determined     after
enterprises?                                                         Site/Location Surveys. Likely to be
                                                                     minimal, if at all.
Will there be loss of incomes and                       X            Ditto
livelihoods?
Will people lose access to facilities,                  X            Ditto
services, or natural resources?
Will any social or economic activities be               X            Ditto
affected by land use-related changes?
If involuntary resettlement impacts are
expected:
Are local laws and regulations compatible X
with ADB’s Involuntary Resettlement policy?

   4   Due diligence should be conducted and reported in the RRP for Private Sector Credit Committee Meeting (PSCCM ) submission.


                                 Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                                  F-2
    Appenidx F                                                                       Involuntary Resettlement Categorization



Will coordination between government X
agencies be required to deal with land
acquisition?
Are there sufficient skilled staff in the X
Executing Agency for resettlement planning
and implementation?
Are     training    and     capacity-building     X
interventions required prior to resettlement
planning and implementation?
                  *Whenever possible, consider also any future subprojects or investments.

                                          Information on Affected Persons:
               Any estimate of the likely number of households that will be affected by the Project?
                           [ ] No [ X ] Yes If yes, approximately how many? 775 APs

                Are any of them poor, female-heads of households, or vulnerable to poverty risks?
  [ ] No [ X ] Yes If yes, please briefly describe their situation. Unknown until Site/Location Surveys of ROWs


                            Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for All Five T/L Subprojects*

 Affected Person (AP) Type                      3 T/L Subprojects              Dhaka Area                      Total
                                                                               Subprojects
 Land Owning HH                                        160                         130                         255
 Tenant Cultivator HHs                                  30                          25                          55
 Structure Impacted HHs (Owners and                    185                         245                         430
 Renters)
 Total APs                                             375                         400                         775


*Based on SES along approximate T/L ROWs, prior to Site/ROW Surveys, all Subprojects at Concept Paper Stage.


_______________________________________________________________________________________
                                                   ______
 Are any APs from indigenous or ethnic minority groups? If yes, please explain? Possibly a few, but unknown
                                   until Site/Location Surveys of ROWs.

                           Additional Information Requirements for Private Sector projects:
   [ ] Resettlement and land acquisition completed               [ ] PSOD is lending to a Financial Intermediariy
       [ X] Resettlement to be completed                                [ ] The project is an Equity Investment
    [ ] Project entails risk by association (e.g associated       [ ] The project is a Partial Credit /Political Risk
                                                       Guarantee
    facilities are part of the project but not funded    [ ] Others, please describe______________________
                                                   by the proponent)


    E. Involuntary Resettlement Category [ X ] New [ ] Recategorization
    After reviewing the answers above, the Project Team Leader and Social Development/ Resettlement
    Specialist agree subject to confirmation, that the project:

    1. Project Categorization and Resettlement Planning Requirements
      [ ] Category A, Significant IR impact, a full Resettlement Plan is required.
      [ ] Category B, Nonsignificant IR impact, a short Resettlement Plan is required.



                             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                         F-3
Appenidx F                                                                Involuntary Resettlement Categorization



  [ ]   Category C, No IR impact, no resettlement report is required.
  [ ]   Additional information is needed for categorization and is to be gathered by the Project Team
        Leader. In the interim, the project is classified as:
        [ ]     Category A/B
        [ ]     Category B/C

        [ ] Social Development/ Resettlement Specialist to participate in Fact Finding
        [ ] Consultant support is required to prepare Resettlement Plan/Resettlement Framework
             (RP/RF), therefore the TOR for a Social Development/ Resettlement Specialist should
             be included in TA Report

2. Additional Requirements for Sector, Sector Development Program/Project Loans,
Emergency Loans and Hybrid Loans
      [ X ] Resettlement Framework
      [ ] Core Subproject Resettlement Plans (Not Possible as Yet, as No Subprojects past
      Concept Paper Stage. Site/ROW Surveys required)

Note:
A draft RP/RF disclosed to APs and endorsed by the Executing Agency is required before
Management Review Meeting (MRM).
A summary RP/RF should be included as a core appendix in the draft RRP for MRM.
A satisfactory RF/RP is required before Appraisal.

Proposed by:

___________________        ___________             _______________________ ___________
Project Team Leader             Date                  RD Resettlement/       Date
                                                      Social Dev’tSpecialist

Checked by:                                        Endorsed by:

___________________        ___________            _______________________ ___________
RSES Social Dev’t                Date            Director, RSES  Date
Safeguard Specialist

Approved by:

__________________________                         _______________________
Chief Compliance Officer                                     Date




                     Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                      F-4
Appendix G                                   Indigenous People’s Impact Categorization Form

Indigenous Peoples Impact Categorization Form
A. Project Data

Country/ Project Title:                 By ADB

Department/ Division:                   By ADB                     Processing Stage:              By ADB

Lending                  Project Loan                      Financial Intermediation Loan or Equity Investment
Modality:
                         Program Loan 5                    Emergency Loan
                   X Sector Loan                           SDP Loan

Categorization Status:                  New        X Re-classification               Previous Category


B.           Identification of indigenous peoples in project area

Impact on indigenous peoples (IPs)/                              Not     Yes    No    Remarks or identified
ethnic minority (EM)                                            known                 problems, if any

Are there IPs or EM groups present in project                             X
locations?

Do they maintain distinctive customs or                                   X
economic activities that may make them
vulnerable to hardship?

Will the project restrict their economic and                                    X
social activity and make them particularly
vulnerable in the context of project?

Will the project change their socioeconomic                                     X     Linear T/L Project, with
and cultural integrity?                                                               minimal     impacts    by
                                                                                      Tower      Pods       and
                                                                                      construction to any APs
Will the project disrupt their community life?                                  X

Will the project positively affect their health,                                X
education, livelihood or social security
status?

Will the project negatively affect their health,                                X
education, livelihood or social security
status?

Will the project alter or undermine the                                         X
recognition of their knowledge, preclude
customary     behaviors  or    undermine
customary institutions?



5   Applies to program loans with investment components.


                              Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                   G-1
Appendix G                                                        Indigenous People’s Impact Categorization Form



In case no disruption of indigenous
community life as a whole, will there be loss        X                       Possibly a few IPs
of housing, strip of land, crops, trees and                                  impacted, but unknown
other fixed assets owned or controlled by                                    until        Site/Location
individual indigenous households?                                            Surveys of ROWs. Will
                                                                             be provided Vulnerable
                                                                             AP status in RF/RPs.

C. Anticipated project impacts on indigenous peoples

Project activity and output       Anticipated positive effect         Anticipated negative effect
1. NA                             NA                                  NA

2.

3.

4.

5.



D.      Decision on Categorization

After reviewing the answer above, the Mission Leader and Social Development Specialist agree that
the project:

    Should be categorized as an A project, an Indigenous Peoples Development Plan (IPDP) is
    required or, for sector/FI projects, an Indigenous Peoples Development Framework (IPDF) is
required

     Should be categorized as a B project, a specific action favorable to indigenous peoples/ethnic
X    minority is required and addressed through a specific provision in RRP and in related plans such
     as a Resettlement Action Plan, a Gender Action Plan or a general Community Participatory Plan

     Should be categorized as a C project, no IPDP/IPDF or specific action required


Project Team Comments:



RSES Comments:




Proposed by:                                             Reviewed by:


Project Team Leader, Division                            Social Development Specialist, RSES
Date:                                                    Date:

                                                         Endorsed by:
RD Social Development Specialist



                     Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     G-2
Appendix G                                                        Indigenous People’s Impact Categorization Form



Date:                                                    Director, RSES
                                                         Date:

Endorsed by:                                             Approved by:


Director, Division                                       Chief Compliance Officer
Date:                                                    Date




                     Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     G-3
Appendix G                                                                                   Indigenous People’s Impact Categorization Form



Explanation of IP Impact Categorization

A.            Summary of Categorization

The IP categorization depends on the nature and magnitude of the project’s potential positive and negative
impact on indigenous peoples, which may result from its location, the type and scale of the project, and sensitivity
of indigenous peoples’ issues.

Category A -   Indigenous Peoples Development Plan (IPDP) and/or Indigenous Peoples Development
Framework (IPDF) is required
Category B -   Specific action is required, but not within the framework of an IPDP
Category C -   No impact

B.            Definition of Categories

Category A
A proposed project is classified as Category A if it is likely to have significant positive or negative impacts on
indigenous peoples. An Indigenous Peoples Development Plan (IPDP) and/or Indigenous Peoples Development
Framework (IPDF) is required for Category A Project to avoid negative impacts and ensure appropriate benefits.
The circumstances where an intervention is considered having a significant impact on indigenous peoples
include:

positive or negative effects on their customary rights of use and access to land and natural resources;
positive or negative effects on their socioeconomic and cultural integrity;
positive or negative effect on their health, education, livelihood, and social security status;
impacts that may alter or undermine indigenous knowledge, preclude customary behaviors or undermine
customary institutions;
project will be located in, or pass through, areas of significant indigenous peoples’ settlement and/or use; and
project proposes to specifically target indigenous peoples in one or more of its main activities; or is anticipated to
have significant negative effects on indigenous peoples (Appendix 7 6 ).

In terms of community impacts, the impact area may be considerably broader than the immediate area physically
affected by a project. Category A applies to project and its impact area where indigenous peoples maintain
distinctive customs or economic activities that may make them particularly vulnerable to hardship. It also applies
to project that is likely to adversely affect or disrupt community life. A full-blown IPDP should include specific
deliverables, budget and schedules.

An IPDF is required for a project if it is financed under sector investment loans, financial intermediary loans, or a
credit line or equity investment to a third party, and other ADB-assisted project with multiple sub-projects, which
are anticipated to have either positive or negative significant impacts on indigenous peoples but where the nature
of the impacts cannot be determined until the sub-projects are prepared or until after the detailed
technical/engineering design is completed, or following a process of community consultation.

Other projects that require an IPDF include program, sector development program, and sector loans that are
likely to cover an area where indigenous peoples live. An IPDF sets out the indigenous peoples policy together
with the screening and planning procedures, which apply to subprojects, components, or investments that are to
be approved during loan implementation. An IPDF provides a strategy to ensure that the requirements of the
Policy on Indigenous Peoples are met.

Category B
A proposed project is classified as Category B if it will have limited impacts on indigenous peoples or when there
is a risk that the project may not bring the intended benefits to the affected indigenous peoples within a specific
plan. Specific action in favor of indigenous peoples is required in order to ensure appropriate benefits and
mitigate adverse impact, which action is not necessarily within the framework of a full-blown Indigenous Peoples
Development Plan. The favorable action does not require specific deliverables, budget and schedules since it can
be embedded in project components or dealt with through the Resettlement Action Plan, the general Community
Participatory Plan, or any other appropriate means.

Category C


6   An appendix of the Handbook for Poverty and Social Analysis (ADB. 2001. Handbook on Poverty and Social Analysis. Manila).




                                 Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                                    G-4
Appendix G                                                           Indigenous People’s Impact Categorization Form



A project is classified as Category C if it is likely to have very minimal or no adverse or significant impact on
indigenous peoples. For this category of project, no IPDP or specific action is required although impact on
indigenous peoples still needs to be properly reviewed.




                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                      G-5
Appendix H                  Investment Sub Projects Under Proposed Sector Loan

 STATE OF PREPARATION AND POTENTIAL RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS OF INVESTMENT SUB
                 PROJECTS UNDER THE PROPOSED SECTOR LOAN

                 EA              PROJECT PREPARATION                              RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS
A.   BPDB GENERATION PROJECTS
1.   100 MW Peaking Plant in BPDB. 2005. Development Project              BPDB says the Plant will be on existing site.
     Khulna (Western Zone)   Proposal (DPP): Construction of              However, DPP indicates land acquisition for
                             Khulna 100 MW Peaking Power                  residential area (equal to Plant Area) will be
                             Plant. Dhaka: MPEMR (Power                   needed, location not yet decided. DPP
                             Division). September                         budget shows no allocation for land
                                                                          acquisition.
B.   PGCB TRANSMISSION PROJECTS
1.   400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission Line & Improvements Around Dhaka
a)   400 kV, 50 Km Overhead         PGCB. 2005. In House Study for    No Right-Of-Way (ROW) Study Exists.
     (O/H) Line from Meghnaghat     Meghnaghat-Aminbazar 400 kV:      In House Study recommends Route Survey
     to Aminbazar                   Transmission Line. September.     is performed as soon as possible after
                                                                      approval of Project.
b)   Two 230 kV bay extensions at Same as Above                       Bay extensions will be within existing fenced
     Aminbazar and two at                                             areas. No Land Acquisition.
     Meghnaghat
2.   132 kV Improvements Around Ullon
a)   132 kV, 3 Km Line              No Documentation Available.       No Land Acquisition.
     Underground (U/G) Cable from
     Ullon to Rampura
b)   Renovation of 132/33 kV        Same as Above                     Renovations are said to be within the
     Substations (SS) at Ullon and                                    Substation Area. No Land Acquisition.
     Hasnabad
3.   System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area
a)   230 kV, 10 km Double Circuit No Documentation Available.         No ROW Study Exists. 4 km O/H will go from
     (4 O/H, 6 U/G) Anminbazar to                                     Aminbazar SS to pass by but not connect
     Old Airport                                                      with another existing SS. From near that SS
                                                                      it will be 6 km U/G and run along Mirpur
                                                                      Road to new SS at Old Airport.
b)   230/132 kV 2x300 MVA SS at Same as Above                         Exact Location Not Decided. Will be new SS
     Old Airport                                                      adjacent to also New 132 kV SS, both in Old
                                                                      Airport Area owned by GOB and Empty. No
                                                                      Land Acquisition.
c)   132 kV, 7 Km U/G Double        Same as Above                     No ROW Study Exists. From New 132 kV SS
     Circuit for Connecting New SS                                    at Old Airport to New Dhaka University SS.
                                                                      No Land Acquisition..
d)   Two 132/33 kV, 2x80/120 SS     Same as Above                     Exact Location Not Decided. Old Airport Area
     at Old Airport and Dhaka                                         owned by GOB and Empty. For Dhaka
     University                                                       University, need to buy from University. No
                                                                      Land Acquisition.
4.   132 kV Transmission Lines and SS in Western and Northern Regions
a)   73 Km O/H Line from            PGCB. 2003. Project Concept       No ROW Study Exists. Route is Not Decided.
     Chuadanga to Jhenaida to       Paper (PCC): Three Transmission   Line will not use, but may parallel, existing 33
     Magura                         Line Project (132 kV). February   kV ROW.

                                                                          PCC indicates 23 Acres Total for the Three
                                                                          Transmission Lines Project is expected to be



                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                            H-1
Appendix H                                                     Investment Sub Projects Under Proposed Sector Loan



                 EA                    PROJECT PREPARATION                     RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS
                                                                       acquired. PCC Budgets: (i) Feasibility Study:
                                                                       40 Lac Taka; (ii) Route Survey and Soil
                                                                       Testing: 53.72 Lac Taka; (iii) Right of Way
                                                                       Compensation for Crop Loss: 79.00 Lac
                                                                       Taka.
b)   40 Km O/H Line from Naogaon    Same as Above                      Same as Above
     to Jaipurhat
c)   45 Km O/H Line from            Same as Above                      Same as Above
     Thakurgaon to Panchagarh
d)   Three 132/33 kV, 2x25/41       Same as Above                      Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates
     MVA SS; One Each at                                               land acquisition at 6 Acres Magura and
     Magura, Chuadanga, and                                            Chaudanga each and 5 Acres at Joypurha,
     Joypurhat                                                         Total of 17 Acres.
d)   One 132/33 kV 15/20 MVA SS     Same as Above                      Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates
     at Panchagarh                                                     6 Acres land acquisition. (Note PCC includes
                                                                       expansion of Existing SS at Jhenaida,
                                                                       Naogaon, and Thakurgaon. Need to confirm
                                                                       these are not in this Loan.)
     C. DESA DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
1.   Emergency Rehabilitation of Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.          No New SS in this Project. No Land
     Ten 33/11 kV SS: Khilgaon,  DESA Development Project              Acquisition.
     Satmasjid, Jigatala,        Proposal (DPP): Reinforcement,
     Dhanmandi, Tejgaon, Kazla,  Renovation & Augmentation of          (Note DPP says Land is required for
     Postagola, Fatulla, Demra,  33/11 kV Substations under DESA       construction of substation, but there is no
     and Lalbag                  Project. July                         budget for Land Acquisition. Probably
                                                                       erroneous, needs to be confirmed)
2.   New SS to Meet Existing And    Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.       Project Involves New SS and New 132 and
     New Demand Including Two       Development Project Proposal       33 kV U/G Cables and O/H Lines.
     132/33 kV SS, Five 33/11 kV    (DPP): Emergency Reinforcement
     SS, and 132 and 33 kV O/H      & Augmentation of DESA Grid        Two 132/33 kV SS will go next to existing
     Lines and U/G Cables           System Project. July.              33/11 kV SSs on already owned land
                                                                       Exact locations for Five 33 kV SS will have to
                                                                       be determined and land purchased
                                                                       141.5 km of 132 kV O/H line and 120.5 km of
                                                                       33 kV O/H lines will be required
                                                                       (Km of U/G Cables?)

                                                                       DPP allocates Budget for Acquisition &
                                                                       Purchase of Land and Landed Properties of
                                                                       Assets: GOB: 170.000 Lac Taka, Percent of
                                                                       Total Project Cost = 0.022
3.   Upgrade Transformers at       Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.        Involves SS work only. These are existing
     Shyampur, Maghbazar, and      Development Project Proposal        SS. No New SS in this Project. No new lines
     Maniknagar 132/33 kV SS to    (DPP): Procurement & Installation   will be needed. No Land Acquisition.
     50/75 MVA                     of 132/33 kV 50/75 MVA
                                   Transformer Project.. July
4.   Upgrade Shyampur 11 kV        Planning Circle, DESA. 2005         Involves SS work only. This is an existing
     switching station to 33/11 kV Development Project Proposal        switching station, to be converted to 33/11 kV
     SS                            (DPP): Up-gradation of Shyampur     SS. No new SS in this project. No new lines
                                   BSCIC 11kV Switching Station to a   will be needed. No Land Acquisition.
                                   regular 33/11kV Substation
                                   Project.
                                   July
     D. DESCO DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS



                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                         H-2
Appendix H                                                        Investment Sub Projects Under Proposed Sector Loan



                   EA                    PROJECT PREPARATION                     RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS
1.   Gulshan Distribution System Upgrade
a)   Four (4) New 33/11 kV SS at     DESCO. 2004. Project Concept        According to PCC, No Feasibility Study
     Badda, Basundhara, DOHS         Paper (PCC) Planning & Upgrading    Done. Sites Not Identified as Yet.
     Mahakhali, and Zia Intl Airport of Power Feeding & Distribution
                                     System under DESCO Area.            PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’
                                                                         Substation 200.00 Lac Taka. Unspecified
                                                                         Area.
b)   Rehab of Three (3) Existing      Same as Above                      Same as Above
     33/11 kV SS at Kafrul, Uttara,
     and ADA
c)   33 & 11 kV Underground           Same as Above                      Same as Above
     Cables, 11 kV Switchgears, 11
     & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors &
     O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
     Distribution Trans-Formers,
     Voltage Regulators, Etc
2.   Mirpur Distribution System Upgrade
a)   Two (2) New 33/11 kV SS at       DESCO. 2004. Recast Project        According to PCC, No Feasibility Study
     Baunia and Mirpur                Concept Paper (PCC)                Done. Sites Not Identified as Yet.
                                      Strengthening DESCO’s Electric
                                      Distribution Network               PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’
                                                                         Substation 100.00 Lac Taka For 0.25 Acres.
b)   Rehab of Existing Mirpur 33/11   Same as Above                      Same as Above
     kV SS
c)   33 & 11 kV Underground           Same as Above                      Same as Above
     Cables, 11 kV Switchgears, 11
     & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors &
     O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
     Distribution Trans-Formers,
     Voltage Regulators, Etc.




                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                         H-3
Appendix I           Resettlement Framework (RF) as Described In OM F2/OP

The Resettlement Framework (RF) is described in OM F2/OP under Section E
Resettlement Planning Documents, viz, Chapter 3. Resettlement Framework:

Para 28. For ADB equity investments, loans, and/or guarantees, including through financial
intermediaries with investments, subprojects, or components that have not been selected or
prepared before appraisal and that may involve involuntary resettlement, a resettlement
framework must be submitted before the first management review meeting (MRM) or private
sector credit committee meeting (PSCCM), unless they are expected to have no resettlement
effects….A resettlement framework sets out the broad magnitude of the scope, together with
the policy, procedures, and capacity-building requirements for preparing future subprojects,
components, or investments.

Para. 29. The resettlement framework sets out the resettlement policy and screening and
planning procedures that will apply to subprojects, components, or investments that are
prepared and approved during loan implementation to ensure that they conform to ADB’s
involuntary resettlement policy. The resettlement framework contains the arrangements for
preparing full or short resettlement plans during implementation of the loan’s subprojects,
depending on the significance of the involuntary resettlement impacts. The resettlement
framework includes (i) loan or investment description, with the likely scope, extent, and
magnitude of the resettlement effects; (ii) screening procedures for pipeline investments or
components; (iii) resettlement policy principles and eligibility criteria that are consistent with
the policy and cover all investments, subprojects, and components under the loan; (iv)
resettlement entitlements; (v) resettlement design criteria; and (vi) administrative, resourcing,
and financing arrangements for preparation, approval, implementation, monitoring, and
evaluation of full or short resettlement plans. It also sets out provisions for strengthening the
capacity of the relevant executing agency, project sponsor, or financial intermediary if
required to address resettlement issues. The resettlement framework may stand alone or may
accompany a resettlement plan or plans for a known site, investment or core subproject that is
prepared before the first MRM or PSCCM.




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices          I-1
Appendix J                                     Draft Resettlement Framework (RF)




             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices   J-1
Contents

Section                                                                                                                       Page

Executive Summary .................................................................................................................1
Section 1      Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement............................................ 1-1
  1.1     Introduction............................................................................................................ 1-1
  1.2     Proposed Investment PSDP II Subprojects............................................................ 1-1
  1.3     Subproject Background........................................................................................ 1-14
  1.4     Resettlement Framework ..................................................................................... 1-16
  1.5     Indigenous Peoples .............................................................................................. 1-21
  1.6     Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement...................................................... 1-23
Section 2      Socioeconomic Information......................................................................... 2-1
  2.1     Field Socioeconomic Survey (SES) Conducted November-December, 2005....... 2-1
  2.2     General and 2005 Field survey Socioeconomic Information ................................ 2-6
  2.3     Indigenous Peoples .............................................................................................. 2-45
Section 3      Goals & Objectives, Policy Framework, and Entitlements...................... 3-1
  3.1     The Resettlement Framework Goals and Objectives............................................. 3-1
  3.2     Resettlement Framework (RF) POLICY framework............................................. 3-2
  3.3     Resettlement Framework Entitlements .................................................................. 3-3
  3.4     Compensation Processes........................................................................................ 3-7
  3.5     bangladesh Land Acquisition Laws/Decrees ......................................................... 3-8
Section 4      Consultation and Participation and Grievance Redress Mechanisms.... 4-1
  4.1     Public Consultation and Participation.................................................................... 4-1
  4.2     Grievance Redress Mechanisms ............................................................................ 4-2
Section 5      Relocation and Income Restoration ........................................................... 5-1
  5.1     Relocation of Housing and Settlements................................................................. 5-1
  5.2     Income Restoration ................................................................................................ 5-1
Section 6      Institutional Framework ............................................................................. 6-1
Section 7      Resettlement Budget and Financing........................................................... 7-1
Section 8      Implementation Schedule............................................................................ 8-1
Section 9      Monitoring and Evaluation......................................................................... 9-1
  9.1     Monitoring & Evaluation of Resettlement Operations .......................................... 9-1
  9.2     Internal Monitoring................................................................................................ 9-2
  9.3     External Monitoring............................................................................................... 9-2
  9.4     Time Frame & Reporting Requirements................................................................ 9-3
Attachments …………………………………………………………………………...ATT-1
  Attachment 1: Resettlement Framework (RF) As Described In ADB’s OM F2/OP....ATT-1
  Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework ................................................................ATT-2
  Attachment 3: Draft Terms of Reference (TOR) for Implementing NGO .................ATT-22
  Attachment 4: 2005 Socioeconomic Field Study Results, Combined Tables ............ATT-32




                            Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                        i
Contents



Table                                                                                                                                   Page

Investment Subprojects under the Proposed Sector Loan..........................................................1
Investment Subprojects under Proposed Sector Loan Having Potential Resettlement Effects 2
Proposed Monitoring Procedure and Indicators ......................................................................30
Table 1: Investment Subprojects under the Proposed Sector Loan ....................................... 1-1
Table 2: Investment Subprojects under Proposed Sector Loan Having Potential Resettlement
     Effects .......................................................................................................................... 1-14
Table 3: Outline of a Resettlement Framework (RF) .......................................................... 1-17
Table 4: Outline of a Short Resettlement Plan (RP) ............................................................ 1-18
Table 5: Outline of a Full Resettlement Plan (RP) .............................................................. 1-20
Table 6: Tribal Households and Population, by Tribes, 1991 ............................................. 1-23
Table 7: Estimated Land Acquisition, Resettlement Impacts for T/L Subprojects ............. 1-24
Table 8: Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for All Five T/L Subprojects.......................... 1-25
Table 9: Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for 3 T/L Subprojects ..................................... 1-25
Table 10: Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for Dhaka T/L Subprojects........................... 1-25
Table 11: Estimated Total Land Acquisition Impacts for 3 T/L Subprojects...................... 1-26
Table 12: Estimated Land Acquisition Impacts for Each of the 3 T/L Subprojects ............ 1-26
Table 13: Estimated Land Acquisition Impacts for Dhaka T/L Subprojects....................... 1-26
Table 14: PGCP’s 132 kV Transmission Lines and SS in Western and Northern Regions
     Subproject ...................................................................................................................... 2-1
Table 15: Project Components for the Field Survey.............................................................. 2-5
Table 16: Sample Size for Questionnaires/FGD Checklists .................................................. 2-6
Table 17: Khulna Town & Municipal Area: Area, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq
     Km) ................................................................................................................................ 2-7
Table 18: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Municipalities & Villages .............................. 2-7
Table 19: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Religious Affiliation by Percent .................... 2-7
Table 20: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Main Occupations .......................................... 2-9
Table 21: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Manufacturing................................................ 2-9
Table 22: Khulna Town & Metropolitan Area, Literacy Rates ............................................. 2-9
Table 23: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions ..
     ...................................................................................................................................... 2-10
Table 24: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Medical Institutions...................................... 2-10
Table 25: Beneficiary Towns Area, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq Km) ......... 2-11
Table 26: Municipal Areas, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq Km) ...................... 2-11
Table 27: Municipal Areas, Municipalities & Villages ....................................................... 2-12
Table 28: Municipal Areas, Religious Affiliation by Percent ............................................. 2-12
Table 29: Metropolitan Areas, Main Occupations............................................................... 2-13
Table 30: Metropolitan Areas, Manufacturing .................................................................... 2-13
Table 31: Towns & Metropolitan Areas, Literacy Rates..................................................... 2-21
Table 32: Municipal Areas, Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions....................... 2-21
Table 33: Municipal Areas, Medical Institutions ................................................................ 2-22
Table 34: Population in Sample 3 T/L Subproject Communities/Villages.......................... 2-23
Table 35: Population in Sample 3 T/L Subproject Households (HHs), by Gender, HH Size,
     Sex Ratio...................................................................................................................... 2-23
Table 36: Marital Status of the Sample Respondents and Family Members, All Subprojects
     .................................................................................................................................... ..2-24
Table 37: Summary Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject
     Households (HHs)........................................................................................................ 2-24


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Table 38: Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject Households
    (HHs)............................................................................................................................ 2-25
Table 39: Literacy and Education Levels of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject
    Households (HHs)........................................................................................................ 2-36
Table 40: Religion in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population 2-36
Table 41: Ethnicity in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population 2-36
Table 42: Social Strata in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population
    ...................................................................................................................................... 2-37
Table 43: Number of Earning Members in 3 T/L Subproject Community HHs, by Percent of
    Sampled Population ..................................................................................................... 2-37
Table 44: Monthly Income Groups, Sample Subproject 3 T/L Communities, by Numbers and
    Percent of Sampled Households .................................................................................. 2-38
Table 45: Principle Sources of HH Income in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by % of
    Sampled Population ..................................................................................................... 2-38
Table 46: Average HH Expenditure in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
    Population .................................................................................................................... 2-39
Table 47: Land Tenure Patterns in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
    Population .................................................................................................................... 2-39
Table 48: Services Available in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Community and
    Percentage of Communities Available/Not Available................................................. 2-40
Table 49: NGO Activities Found In 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities..................... 2-42
Table 50: Status of Electric Connection in Subproject Sampled Communities and Supplying
    Agency ......................................................................................................................... 2-42
Table 51: Status of Electricity Use, 3 T/L Subproject 111 Sample Households having Electric
    Connection ................................................................................................................... 2-43
Table 52: Irrigation Facilities, 3 T/L Subproject Sample Households All Subprojects ...... 2-43
Table 53: 3 T/L Subproject Sample Households Knowledge about Proposed Transmission
    Line Subproject............................................................................................................ 2-44
Table 54: Recent Land Transaction (Buying & Selling) Rate in 3 T/L Sample Subproject
    Communities, Average Price (Tk) per Decimal .......................................................... 2-44
Table 55: Average Cost (Tk) Per Square Foot, for Construction in 3 T/L Sample Subproject
    Communities ................................................................................................................ 2-44
Table 56: Dhaka City & Municipal Area: Area, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq
    Km) .............................................................................................................................. 2-45
Table 57: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Municipalities & Villages ............................. 2-46
Table 58: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Religious Affiliation by Percent.................... 2-47
Table 59: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Main Occupations.......................................... 2-48
Table 60: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Manufacturing ............................................... 2-48
Table 61: Dhaka Town & Metropolitan Area, Literacy Rates............................................. 2-50
Table 62: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions . 2-
    51
Table 63: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Medical Institutions....................................... 2-52
Table 64: Population in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities/Villages ........................ 2-53
Table 65: Population in Dhaka Sample Subproject Households (HHs), by Gender, HH Size,
    Sex Ratio...................................................................................................................... 2-53
Table 66: Marital Status of the Sample Respondents and Family Members, All Subprojects
    .................................................................................................................................... ..2-53
Table 67: Summary Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Dhaka Sample Subproject
    Households (HHs)........................................................................................................ 2-54


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Table 68: Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Dhaka Sample Subproject Households
    (HHs)............................................................................................................................ 2-54
Table 69: Literacy and Education Levels of the Population of Dhaka Sample Subproject
    Households (HHs)........................................................................................................ 2-36
Table 70: Religion in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled
    Population .................................................................................................................... 2-36
Table 71: Ethnicity in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled
    Population .................................................................................................................... 2-36
Table 72: Social Strata in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled
    Population .................................................................................................................... 2-37
Table 73: Number of Earning Members in Dhaka Subproject Community HHs, by Percent of
    Sampled Population ..................................................................................................... 2-37
Table 74: Monthly Income Groups, Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Numbers
    and Percent of Sampled Households............................................................................ 2-38
Table 75: Principle Sources of HH Income in Dhaka Subproject Communities, by % of
    Sampled Population ..................................................................................................... 2-38
Table 76: Average HH Expenditure in Dhaka Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
    Population .................................................................................................................... 2-39
Table 77: Land Tenure Patterns in Dhaka Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
    Population .................................................................................................................... 2-40
Table 78: Services Available in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Community and
    Percentage of Communities Available/Not Available................................................. 2-40
Table 79: NGO Activities Found In Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities ................... 2-42
Table 80: Status of Electric Connection in Dhaka Subproject Sampled Communities and
    Supplying Agency........................................................................................................ 2-43
Table 81: Status of Electricity Use, Dhaka Subproject Sample Households....................... 2-43
Table 82: Irrigation Facilities, Dhaka Subproject Sample Households............................... 2-44
Table 83: Sample Households Knowledge about Proposed Transmission Line Dhaka
    Subprojects................................................................................................................... 2-44
Table 84: Recent Land Transaction (Buying & Selling) Rate in Dhaka Sample Subproject
    Communities, Average Price (Tk) per Decimal .......................................................... 2-44
Table 85: Average Cost (Tk) Per Square Foot, Housing Construction in Dhaka Sample
    Subproject Communities.............................................................................................. 2-45
Table 86: Tribal Households and Their Population in Bangladesh, BBS 1991................... 2-36
Table 87: Ethnicity in Sample Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population 2-
    35
Table 88: Entitlement Matrix................................................................................................. 3-4
Table 89: Total RP Budget for Subprojects, in Taka and US$.............................................. 7-2
Table 90: Resettlement and Land Acquistion Budget of APs for 3 T/L Subprojects, Taka and
    US$ ................................................................................................................................ 7-3
Table 91: Budget for Land Acquisition and Resettlement & Rehabilitation of APs for Each of
    the 3 T/L Subprojects..................................................................................................... 7-5
Table 92: Resettlement and Land Acquistion Budget of APs for Dhaka Region T/L
    Subprojects, Taka and US$............................................................................................ 7-8
Table 93: Proposed Monitoring Procedure and Indicators .................................................... 9-1
Table 94: Resettlement Monitoring of Monthly Progress Report ......................................... 9-3




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Figure                                                                                                                            Page

Estimated Land Acquisition, Resettlement Impacts for T/L Subprojects..................................5
Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for All Five T/L Subprojects ..............................................5
Project Components for the Field Survey..................................................................................6
Entitlement Matrix ...................................................................................................................18
Total RP Budget for Subprojects, in Taka and US$ ................................................................28
Figure 1: Overall Orientation Map for PSDP II Investment Projects, Bangladesh ............... 1-3
Figure 2: Khulna City 100 MW Peaking Plant at Existing Power Plant Site ........................ 1-5
Figure 3: Khulna City 100 MW Peaking Plant Draft Layout Drawing ................................. 1-6
Figure 4: Chuadanga to Jhenaidaha to Magura 73 Km 132 kV Transmission Line (T/L),
     Khulna Division ............................................................................................................. 1-9
Figure 5: Naogaon to Joypurhat 40 Km 132 kV Transmission Line, Rajshahi Division .... 1-10
Figure 6: Thakurgaon-Panchagarh Proposed 45 Km 132 kV Transmission Line, Rajshahi
     Division ....................................................................................................................... 1-11
Figure 7: Aminbazar-Meghnaghat 400 kV Transmission Line ........................................... 1-12
Figure 8: Dhaka City Investment Projects ........................................................................... 1-13
Figure 9: Khulna City and District......................................................................................... 2-8
Figure 10: Chuadanga Sadar Upazila (Sub District)........................................................... 2-14
Figure 11: Jhenaidaha Sadar Upazila (Sub District) ........................................................... 2-15
Figure 12: Magura Sadar Upazila (Sub District) ................................................................. 2-16
Figure 13: Naogoan Sadar Upazila (Sub District) .............................................................. 2-17
Figure 14: Joypurhat Sadar Upazila (Sub District) ............................................................. 2-18
Figure 15: Thakurgaon Sadar Upazila (Sub District).......................................................... 2-19
Figure 16: Panchagarh Sadar Upazila (Sub District)........................................................... 2-20
Figure 17: Dhaka City and District...................................................................................... 2-49
Figure 18: Map of Tribal Group Distribution in Bangladesh, Showing Thakurgaon-
     Panchagarh T/L and Meghnaghat-Aminbazar T/L Subproject Areas ......................... 2-47




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Acronyms and Abbreviations

AB             Acquiring Body
ADB            Asian Development Bank
ADP            Annual Development Program
AES            AES Corporation (www.aes.com)
AG             Additional Grant
AP             Affected Person
APSC           Ashuganj Power Station Company Limited
BBS            Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
BDT            Bangladesh Taka
BERC           Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission
BETS           Bangladesh Engineering & Technological Services
BOGMC          Bangladesh Oil, Gas and Mineral Company
BPC            Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation
BPDB           Bangladesh Power Development Board
BPI            British Power International, Ltd
BUET           Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
CAP            Country Assistance Plan [ADB]
CCL            Cash Compensation Under Law
CEO            Chief Executive Officer
CRO            Chief Resettlement Officer
Danida          Danish Development Assistance
DESA           Dhaka Electric Supply Authority
DESCO          Dhaka Electric Supply Company Limited
DP             Development Partner
DPP            Development Project Proposal
EA             Executing Agency
EGCB           Electricity Generation Company of Bangladesh
EIA            Environmental Impact Assessment
EP             Entitled Person
EPZ            Export Processing Zone
ERC            Energy Regulatory Commission
FGD            Focus Group Discussion
GDP            Gross Domestic Product
GoB            Government of Bangladesh
GRC            Grievance Redress Committee
HRD            Human Resources Development
HSD            High-Sulfur Diesel
IA             Implementing Agency
IDC            Interest During Construction
IGP            Income Generation Program
IP             Indigenous People
IPP            Independent Power Producer
IR             Involuntary Resettlement
ISO            International Organization for Standardization



             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J   vi
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JIBIC        Japan Bank for International Cooperation
JVT          Joint Verification Team
KfW          Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau
LAA          Land Acquisition Act
LAP          Land Acquisition Proposal
LPG          Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LRMC         Long-Run Marginal Costs
MFI          Micro-financing Institution
MDG          Government’s Millennium Development Goal
MPEMR        Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources
MRM          Management Review Meeting
 NCB         Nationalized Commercial Bank
 NDF         Nordic Development Fund
 NLDC        National Load Dispatch Center
 OM          Operational Manual
 OSD         Occupational Skill Development
 OTCG        One Time Cash Grant
 PBS         Palli Biddut Samity (Rural Electric Cooperative)
 PCC         Public Consultative Committee
PCP          Project Concept Paper
PGCB         Power Grid Company of Bangladesh Limited
PMO          Project Management Office
PMU          Project Management Unit
PP           Project Pro-forma
PPA          Power Purchase Agreement
PPTA         Project (or Program) Preparatory Technical Assistance
PSA          Poverty and Social Assessment
PSC          Production Sharing Contract
PSCCM        Private Sector Credit Committee Meeting
PSDP         Power Sector Development Program
PSMP         Power System Master Plan (1994)
PSRB         Power Sector Reforms in Bangladesh (1994)
PTA          Performance Target Achievement
PVAT         Property Valuation Advisory Team
QC           Quality Control
RB           Requiring Body
RC           Resettlement Coordinator
REB          Rural Electrification Board
RG           Reconstruction Grant
RMP          Replacement Market Price
RPC          Rural Power Company
RRC          Reimbursement of Registration Cost
RRP          Report and Recommendation to the President [ADB]
SBU          Strategic Business Unit
SES          Socioeconomic Survey
SIDA         Swedish International Development Agency
SMA          Statistical Metropolitan Area
SMS          Short Message Service



           Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J   vii
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SPRSS        Summary Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy
SQL          Structured Query Language
TA           Technical Assistance
T&D          Transmission and Distribution
TG           Transfer Grant
Tk           Taka (1 US$ = 65 Tk)
T/L          Transmission Line
TNO          Thana Nirbahi Officer
TOR          Terms of Reference
TQM          Total Quality Management
UPS          Uninterruptible Power Supply
 US          United States
 VO          Village Organization
 WZPDC       West Zone Power Distribution Company Limited




           Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J   viii
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Weights and Measures

Acre                                                                  0.404686 Hectare
Bhiga                                                                 0.135 Hectare
Crore (Bangla)                                                        10,000,000
Kilometer                                                             0.6213712 Mile
Lakh/Lac (Bangla)                                                     100,000
Maund (Bangla)                                                        82.29 lb = 37.3241 kg
V (volt)                                                              Unit of Voltage
kV (kilovolt)                                                         1,000 Volts
VA (volt ampere)                                                       Unit of Power
MVA (mega volt ampere)                                                1,000,000 VA
w (watt)                                                               Unit of Active Power
kW (kilowatt)                                                         1,000 W
mW (megawatt)                                                         1,000,000 W
Wh (watt hour)                                                         Unit Of Energy
KWh (kilowatt hour)                                                    1,000 Wh
mcf                                                                    Million Cubic Feet
MWh (megawatt hour)                                                   1,000,000 Wh
GWh (gigawatt hour)                                                   1,000,000,000 Wh
Taka (Tk)                                                             1 US$ = 65 Tk




Glossary

Affected Person (AP)         The term affected person includes any people, households, firms, or private institutions who,
                             on account of changes that result from the project will have their (i) standard of living
                             adversely affected; (ii) right, title, or interest in any house, land (including residential,
                             commercial, agricultural, forest, and/or grazing land), water resources, or any other
                             moveable or fixed assets acquired, possessed, restricted, or otherwise adversely affected, in
                             full or in part, permanently or temporarily; and/or (iii) business, occupation, place of work or
                             residence, or habitat adversely affected, with or without displacement. See para. 4(viii) on the
                             meaning of “eligibility cut-off date.” (ADB, OMF2/BP)
CCL                          Cash Compensation Under Law. Legally sanctioned land acquisition compensation under
                             Bangladesh law, in particular: the Acquisition and Requisition of Immovable Property
                             Ordinance (1982) and its Amendments in 1993 and 1994, and the East Bengal State
                             Acquisition and Tenancy Act (1951, Revised in 1994)
Crore (Bangla)               10,000,000
Head Count Index             The percentage of the population living in households with a per capita consumption below
                             the Poverty Line.
Indigenous People (IP)       The ADB uses the term Indigenous Peoples to encompass a generic concept not easily
                             reflected in a single term. Other terms relating to the concept of indigenous peoples include
                             cultural minorities, ethnic minorities, indigenous cultural communities, tribals, scheduled tribes,
                             natives, and aboriginals. Accepted or preferred terms and definitions vary country by country,
                             by academic discipline, and even by the usage of groups concerned. indigenous peoples are
                             regarded in ADB policy as those with a social or cultural identity distinct from the dominant or
                             mainstream society, which makes them vulnerable to being disadvantaged in the processes of
                             development.


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Lakh/Lac (Bangla)             100,000
Load Shedding                 Cutting off the electric current on certain lines when the demand becomes greater than the
                              supply
Mauja, or Mauza               Revenue Village. Lowest Unit of land administration. The Mauja Map consists of plots that
                              any individual or group may posses. There can be more than one village under a Mauja. For
                              land acquisition, the Area Plan drawn on Mauja Map needs to be submitted to District
                              Commissioner.
Resettlement Effects          Loss of physical and non-physical assets, including homes, communities, productive land,
                              income-earning assets and sources, subsistence, resources, cultural sites, social structures,
                              networks and ties, cultural identity, and mutual help mechanisms (ADB Handbook on
                              Resettlement, 1998).
Paurashava                    Municipal Town
Sadar Upazila (Bangla)        Sub District
Significance (Resettlement)   Resettlement is "significant" where 200 or more people experience major impacts. Major
                              impacts are defined as when the affected people are physically displaced from housing
                              and/or more than 10% of their productive assets (income generating) are lost. (ADB
                              Handbook on Resettlement, 1998).
Sundarbands                   The largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world, located in the
                              southern part of Bangladesh. It lies on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta at the point where it
                              merges with the Bay of Bengal. The forest lies a little south to the Tropic of Cancer between
                              the latitudes 21º30´N and 22º30´N, and longitudes 89º00´E and 89º55´E. With its array of
                              trees and wildlife the forest is a showpiece of natural history. It is also a centre of economic
                              activities, such as extraction of timber, fishing and collection of honey. The forest consists of
                              about 200 islands, separated by about 400 interconnected tidal rivers, creeks and canals
Thana/Upazila                 Thana = unit of police administration. Upazila = sub-district. The principal functionary is the
                              Thana Nirbahi Officer (TNO), overseeing the main centre of development activities with most
                              of the development departments of the provincial government having their own functionaries
                              at this level. There are now 496 thanas in the country including those in metropolitan police
                              jurisdictions.




                         Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                    x
Executive Summary

PROPOSED INVESTMENT PSDP II SUBPROJECTS
Location of the Investment Projects
The proposed PSDP II Investment Subprojects are:
        A BPDB 100 MW Peaking Plant in Khulna;
        Under PGCB, a 400 kV Aminbazar-Meghnaghat Transmission Line (T/L) with
        System improvements in Dhaka and three 132 kV Transmission Lines serving
        towns in Bangladesh’s NW Area, with associated Substations;
        For DESA, seven new 132 and 33 kV Substations and associated overhead and
        cable Transmission Lines, as well as rehabilitation of ten existing Substations; and
        For DESCO, Distribution System upgrades in Dhaka, including six new 132 and
        33 kV Substations with associated 33 & 11 kV Transmission Lines and
        rehabilitation of four existing Substations.

                      Investment Subprojects under the Proposed Sector Loan

A    BPDB GENERATION PROJECTS
     1. 100 MW Peaking Plant in Khulna (Western Zone)
B.   PGCB TRANSMISSION PROJECTS
     1. 400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar T/L & Improvements Around Dhaka
         400 kV, 50 Km Overhead (O/H) Line from Meghnaghat to Aminbazar
         Two 230 kV bay extensions at Aminbazar and two at Meghnaghat
     2. 132 kV Improvements Around Ullon
         132 kV, 3 Km Line Underground (U/G) Cable from Ullon to Rampura
         Renovation of 132/33 kV Substations (SS) at Ullon and Hasnabad
     3. System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area
         230 kV, 10 km Double Circuit (4 O/H, 6 U/G) Anminbazar to Old Airport
         230/132 kV 2x300 MVA SS at Old Airport
         132 kV, 7 Km U/G Double Circuit for Connecting New SS
         Two 132/33 kV, 2x80/120 SS at Old Airport and Dhaka University
     4. 132 kV T/Ls and SS in Western and Northern Regions
         73 Km O/H Line from Chuadanga to Jhenaidaha to Magura
         40 Km O/H Line from Naogaon to Joypurhat
         45 Km O/H Line from Thakurgaon to Panchagarh
         Three 132/33 kV, 2x25/41 MVA SS; One Each at Magura, Chuadanga, and Joypurhat
         One 132/33 kV 15/20 MVA SS at Panchagarh
C.   DESA DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
     1. Emergency Rehabilitation of Ten 33/11 kV Substations at Khilgaon, Satmasjid, Jigatala, Dhanmandi, Tejgaon,
         Kazla, Postagola, Fatulla, Demra, and Lalbag
     2. Seven (7) New Substation to Meet Existing and New Demand including Two (2) 132/33 kV Substation, Five (5)
         33/11 kV Substations, and 132 and 33 kV O/H Lines and U/G Cables.
     3. Upgrade Transformers at Shyampur, Maghbazar, and Maniknagar 132/33 kV Substations to 50/75 MVA
     4. Upgrade Shyampur 11 kV Switching Station to 33/11 kV Substations



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Executive Summary



D.   DESCO DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
     1. Gulshan Distribution System Upgrade
         Four (4) New 33/11 kV SS at Badda, Basundhara, DOHS Mahakhali, and Zia Intl Airport
         Rehabilitation of Three (3) Existing 33/11 kV SS at Kafrul, Uttara, and ADA
         33 & 11 kV Underground Cables, 11 kV Switchgears, 11 & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors & O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
         Distribution Trans-Formers, Voltage Regulators, Etc
     2. Mirpur Distribution System Upgrade
         Two (2) New 33/11 kV SS at Baunia and Mirpur
         Rehabilitation of Existing Mirpur 33/11 kV SS
         33 & 11 kV Underground Cables, 11 kV Switchgears, 11 & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors & O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
         Distribution Trans-Formers, Voltage Regulators, Etc.

These are shown above in more detail in the Table below, which indicates the level of Project
development to date (all are at Concept Paper stage) and which ones have potential
Resettlement Effects.

Subproject Background
Because it’s a Sector Loan, this is a complex Project. The Power Cell, Power Division,
Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) is the Executing Agency (EA).
However, there are four Implementing Agencies (IAs) for ten Subprojects, in three Divisions
(Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshani) in ten Districts in the Central, Northwestern and Western Zones of
Bangladesh. The institutional and implementation implications of this require a Resettlement
Framework (RF) be developed. With this, [probably] the Aminbazar-Meghnaghat T/L may
be developed as a Short RP to serve as a model for the other RPs that will be approved by
ADB for commencement of subproject beyond the detailed design phase.

Table 2 below shows the Investment Subprojects under the proposed Loan that have been
identified as having potential resettlement effects.

                         Investment Subprojects under Proposed Sector Loan
                                Having Potential Resettlement Effects

                 IA               Project Preparation                    Potential Resettlement Effects
A.   BPDB GENERATION PROJECTS
1.   100 MW Peaking Plant    BPDB. 2005. Development        BPDB says the Plant will be on existing site. However,
     in Khulna (Western      Project Proposal (DPP):        DPP indicates land acquisition for residential area
     Zone)                   Construction of Khulna 100 MW (equal to Plant Area) will be needed, location not yet
                             Peaking Power Plant. Dhaka:    decided. DPP budget shows no allocation for land
                             MPEMR (Power Division).        acquisition.
                             September
B.   PGCB TRANSMISSION PROJECTS
1.   400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission Line & Improvements Around Dhaka
a)   400 kV, 50 Km           PGCB. 2005. In House Study     No Right-Of-Way (ROW) Study Exists.
     Overhead (O/H) Line     for Meghnaghat-Aminbazar 400 In House Study recommends Route Survey is
     from Meghnaghat to      kV: Transmission Line.         performed as soon as possible after approval of
     Aminbazar               September.                     Project.
3.   System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area
a)   230 kV, 10 km Double    No Documentation Available.    No ROW Study Exists. 4 km O/H will go from
     Circuit (4 O/H, 6 U/G)                                 Aminbazar SS to pass by but not connect with another
     Anminbazar to Old                                      existing SS. From near that SS it will be 6 km U/G and



                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                             2
Executive Summary



                     IA                     Project Preparation                Potential Resettlement Effects
         Airport                                                   run along Mirpur Road to new SS at Old Airport.
4.       132 kV Transmission Lines and SS in Western and Northern Regions
a)       73 Km O/H Line from        PGCB. 2003. Project Concept    No ROW Study Exists. Route is Not Decided. Line will
         Chuadanga to Jhenaida Paper (PCC): Three                  not use, but may parallel, existing 33 kV ROW.
         to Magura                  Transmission Line Project (132 PCC indicates 23 Acres Total for the Three
                                    kV). February                  Transmission Lines Project is expected to be acquired.
                                                                   PCC Budgets: (i) Feasibility Study: 40 Lac Taka; (ii)
                                                                   Route Survey and Soil Testing: 53.72 Lac Taka; (iii)
                                                                   Right of Way Compensation for Crop Loss: 79.00 Lac
                                                                   Taka.
b)       40 Km O/H Line from        Same as Above                  Same as Above
         Naogaon to Jaipurhat
c)       45 Km O/H Line from        Same as Above                  Same as Above
         Thakurgaon to
         Panchagarh
d)       Three 132/33 kV,           Same as Above                  Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates land
         2x25/41 MVA SS; One                                       acquisition at 6 Acres Magura and Chaudanga each
         Each at Magura,                                           and 5 Acres at Joypurha, Total of 17 Acres.
         Chuadanga, and
         Joypurhat
d)       One 132/33 kV 15/20        Same as Above                  Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates 6 Acres
         MVA SS at Panchagarh                                      land acquisition. (Note PCC includes expansion of
                                                                   Existing SS at Jhenaida, Naogaon, and Thakurgaon.
                                                                   Need to confirm these are not in this Loan.)
         C. DESA DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
2.       Emergency Reinforcement & Augmentation of DESA Grid System Project. 1
a)       Two New 132/33 kV SS Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.         Project Involves New SS and New 132 and 33 kV U/G
         to Meet Existing And       Development Project Proposal   Cables and O/H Lines.
         New Demand                 (DPP): Emergency               Two 132/33 kV SS will go next to existing 33/11 kV
                                    Reinforcement & Augmentation SSs on already owned land. No Land Acquisition.
                                    of DESA Grid System Project.
                                    July.
b)       Five New 33/11 kV SS       Same as Above                  Exact locations for Five 33 kV SS will have to be
                                                                   determined and land purchased.
                                                                   DPP allocates Budget for Acquisition & Purchase of
                                                                   Land and Landed Properties of Assets: GOB: 170.000
                                                                   Lac Taka, Percent of Total Project Cost = 0.022
c)       132 and 33 kV O/H          Same as Above                  141.5 km of 132 kV O/H line and 120.5 km of 33 kV
         Lines and U/G Cables                                      O/H lines will be required
                                                                   (Km of U/G Cables?)
         D. DESCO DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
1.       Gulshan Distribution System Upgrade
a)       Four (4) New 33/11 kV      DESCO. 2004. Project           According to PCC, No Feasibility Study Done. Sites
         SS at Badda,               Concept Paper (PCC) Planning Not Identified as Yet.
         Basundhara, DOHS           & Upgrading of Power Feeding PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’
         Mahakhali, and Zia Intl    & Distribution System under    Substation 200.00 Lac Taka. Unspecified Area.
         Airport                    DESCO Area.
2.       Mirpur Distribution System Upgrade
a)       Two (2) New 33/11 kV       DESCO. 2004. Recast Project According to PCC, No Feasibility Study Done. Sites
         SS at Baunia and           Concept Paper (PCC)            Not Identified as Yet.
         Mirpur                     Strengthening DESCO’s          PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’

1   The second of four DESA Infrastructure Projects included in the proposed Sector Loan.


                               Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                        3
Executive Summary



              IA                Project Preparation                  Potential Resettlement Effects
                          Electric Distribution Network   Substation 100.00 Lac Taka For 0.25 Acres.



None of these Investment Subprojects has advanced in project preparation past the Concept
Paper stage. None have had feasibility studies performed nor have any had routing surveys
done or determined the final siting. This is another reason for preparing an RF for this Sector
Loan. Underground cable will be laid entirely on Government land and will not have
resettlement effects.

Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement
As indicated in the Table above, none of the proposed investment Subprojects has advanced
in project preparation past the Concept Paper stage. None have had feasibility studies
performed nor have any had routing surveys done or determined the final siting. This is
another reason for preparing an RF for this Sector Loan.

Underground cable will be laid entirely on Government land and will not have resettlement
effects. According to the DPPs for substatnions, their locations will have to be determined at
a later date and land purchased. As noted above, in the Power Sector Development Program
(PSDP) (Nov 2003) RRP, no RP was required as the land required for constructing 33/11 kV
substations in 10 towns was not to involve any compulsory land acquisition. BPDB provided
written confirmation ‘that government land, free of encumbrances, will be used, and that, if
needed, private land will be purchased through tender or direct negotiation.’

The EA and IAs have indicated that similarly this Sector Loan will purchase land for
substations on a willing seller willing buyer basis. In cases where this is not the case, as
perhaps in the 3 T/L subproject towns, where rural locations may be available, this RF’s
entitlement matrix will apply. However, it is too early in the planning stage for the field
survey to have visited actual sites and made a determination of resettlement effects.
Likewise, although feasibility studies have not as yet been carried out, the Khulna Peaking
Plant is expected to be located on at the existing power plant site, and no resettlement effects
are expected.

Consequent to the above, the November-December 2005 Soceioeconomic (SES) Field
Survey focused on the Transmission Line (T/L) subprojects. The expected resettlement
effects are documented in the following tables, although it needs to be streesed that without
any ROW or siting studies, these figures are only approximate. They will be updated through
detailed design studies and RPs prepared accordingly.

As shown in Table 7 below, it is estimated from field studies of the T/L subprojects that in
total some 290 HHs will be affected by loss of agricultural land, primarily for tower pods,
owning some 35.3 acres along all five transmission line routes. Some 20.95 (59 percent) of
the total land affected land is agricultural and will be eligible for compensation for loss of
crops. There will also be an estimated 55 Tenant Cultivator HHs on 6.77 acres farm land that
may be affected by the T/L subprojects.

In addition, some 430 structures, owned by a similar number of HHs, with a total floor space
of 169,770 Sqft, will be located within the proposed transmission line ROWs. Some 98 HHs
may be renting these structures.


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Executive Summary




               Estimated Land Acquisition, Resettlement Impacts for T/L Subprojects

                                                                      All Five T/L Subprojects
          Type of Resettlement Effect                    Number                             Quantity
Land                                               290 HHs                  35.3 Acres Owned (100%)
o      Agriculture                                                          20.95 Acres (59%)
o      Homestead                                                            2.08 Acres (6%)
o      Commercial                                                           2.31 Acres (7%)
o      Low Land/Water Bodies                                                9.96 Acres (28%)
2. Structure                                       430 Structures           169,770 Sqft Floor Area
3. Crops for Compensation                          20.9 Acres
4. Tenant Cultivators                              55 HHs                  6.77 Acres Cultivated
5. Renters                                         (98 HHs)
6. (Female Headed Households)                      (29 HHs)


As shown in the Table below, the estimation of Affected Persons (APs), then, may be 290
Land Owner HHs, 55 Tenant Cultivator HHs; and 430 Structure Owner and Renter HHs, for
a total of 775 for all five T/L subprojects. Of these, some 98 HHs may be female headed and
therefore considered vulnerable. Again, it needs to be stressed that this is a highly speculative
number, given the early state of project planning for all of the Sector Loan subprojects
potentially having resettlement effects.

                    Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for All Five T/L Subprojects

            Affected Person (AP) Type             3 T/L Subprojects     Dhaka Area Subprojects         Total
Land Owning HH                                           160                     130                    255
Tenant Cultivator HHs                                     30                      25                     55
Structure Impacted HHs (Owners and Renters)              185                     245                    430
Total APs                                                375                     400                    775



The proposed ROW for the Transmission Lines will be prepared after siting and ROW
surveys. The Subprojects will not cause any displacement of people from their homestead,
and relocation at a separate site will not be necessary. As such the T/L Subprojects will have
insignificant resettlement affects.

The alignment of transmission line routes will be selected in a way so that they pass through
open fields. They in most cases are almost parallel to existing 132 kV lines. No permanent
acquisition of land will be recquired for line construction.

Damage to crops and trees will only occur during construction of the transmission lines.
Thached/tin-roofed and other homesteads identified that falling on the transmission line
routes can be over-passed by extension towers. Therefore there will be no displacement of
people due to line construction activity. These APs can continue to live under or close to the
transmission line or may choose to shift some other place. Provision will be made if such



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Executive Summary



option is indicated by any APs, and budget provisions are thus made for this in the RF. A
strip of 50 m wide corridor will come under use for the entire length of the T/Ls during
construction. Proper compensation packages and the entitlement matrix below has been
prepared for the RF and will apply to RPs prepared when project planning studies have
progressed through the siting and row study phase.

SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION
Field Socioeconomic Survey (SES) Conducted November-December, 2005
In November 2005 a Field Socioeconomic Survey (SES, or the ‘Field Survey’) proposal for
preparation of Investment Subprojects under the proposed Loan TA No. 4379-BAN: Power
Sector Development Program II was prepared and subsequently approved by the ADB and
the IAs to carry out a field survey, census and inventory of assets lost and to prepare a Full or
Short Resettlement Plan (RP) as determined by the significance 2 of the determined
Resettlement Effects, 3 as well as a Poverty Impact Assessment, and, if necessary, an
appropriate Indigenous Peoples Plan.

The Survey followed the standard method used for an impact assessment study. The survey
areas were scattered all around some of the Northern, Southwestern and Central parts of
Bangladesh. There were six proposed subprojects spread over ten Districts in the three
Divisions of Dhaka, Khulna and Rajshahi, covered in the Field Survey. The Specific location
and name of the subprojects with some preliminary information were as follows:

                                            Project Components for the Field Survey

    Sl                                                                                      Length of the RoW               Implementing
    No.            Name of Projects                       Location/Districts                       (Km)                       Agency
     1       Peaking Power Plant in Khulna            Khulna                               (Area Undetermined) 4               BPDB
    2        Chuadanga- Jhenaida-Magura          Chuadanga, Jhenaida and                            73                          PGCB
             overhead T/L                        Magura
    3        Naogaon-Joypurhat overhead          Naogaon and Joypurhat                                40                        PGCB
             T/L
    4        Thakurgaon-Panchagar                Thakurgaon and Panchagar                             45                        PGCB
             overhead T/L
    5        Meghnaghat–Aminbazar                Dhaka and Narayangonj                                50                        PGCB
             Overhead T/L
    6        Aminbazar-Old Airport first 3 km    Dhaka City                                            3                        PGCB
             OH line
             Total Length of Transmission Lines:                                                   211 Km




2       Resettlement is "significant" where 200 or more people experience major impacts. Major impacts are defined as when the affected
        people are physically displaced from housing and/or more than 10% of their productive assets (income generating) are lost.
3       Loss of physical and non-physical assets, including homes, communities, productive land, income-earning assets and sources,
        subsistence, resources, cultural sites, social structures, networks and ties, cultural identity, and mutual help mechanisms (ADB
        Handbook on Resettlement, 1998).
4       In the end, no SES was carried out of of Khulna Peaking Power Plant. The SES Team made a reconnaissance visit to Khulna area in
        December 2005 to collect information about the Peaking Plant. Discussions with concerned Officials indicated that land is available on
        the existing site for the proposed project and that land acquisition for the proposed residential facilities will not be required if the
        existing residential area is developed through demolishing old buildings and constructing multistoried buildings for housing and other
        support infrastructure.


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Executive Summary



No SES was carried out of of Khulna Peaking Power Plant. The SES Team made a
reconnaissance visit to Khulna area to collect information about the Peaking Plant.
Discussions with concerned Officials indicated that land is available on the existing site for
the proposed project and that land acquisition for the proposed residential facilities will not
be required if the existing residential area is developed through demolishing old buildings
and constructing multistoried buildings for housing and other support infrastructure.

Population in Sample Subproject Communities
The 2005 SES sampled a population along the Three Transmission Lines in N and NW
Bangladesh of about 144,300, in 33 communities/villages, with an average village size of
4,340. For all the Transmission Lines, the sample was approximately one village every five
kilometers. The largest sampled population, of 63,500, was along the Thakurgaon to
Panchagarh T/L, in 11 villages. These also had the largest average size, of 5,770.

The Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L has the most number of surveyed villages, at 14, and
second largest sampled population of 53,200. The average village size was the second
largest, at 3,800.

The Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L had only 8 sampled villages, with a population of 27,600 and
the smallest average village size of 3,450.

The 2005 SES sampled a population along the Dhaka Area Transmission Lines of about
78,500, in 16 communities/villages, with an average village size of 4,270. For both the
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar and the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L Subprojects, the sample was
approximately one village every five kilometers. The largest sampled population, of 66,500,
was along the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L, in 12 villages. These also had the largest
average size, of 5,540.

Household Population
The sex ratio of all the 3 T/L Subproject households sampled shows a remarkable skew
towards a preponderance of males, on average 105.7 males to 100 females. This is also
shown at older ages (Table 36), which would not be found in an industrialized country.
Average HH size varies from 4.3 (Naogaon-Joypurhat) to 5.2 (Thakurgaon-Phanchghar),
with an average HH size of 4.8.

The sex ratio of all the Dhaka Subproject households sampled also shows this remarkable
skew towards a preponderance of males, on average 112.1 males to 100 females. This is also
shown at older ages, which would not be found in an industrialized country. Average HH size
is 5.2, varying from 6.1 in Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L to only 4.2 in the more urbanized
Aminbazar to Old Ariport T/L.

Marital Status
There is a preponderance of married couples in the sampled households, for all Subprojects,
with only 3 percent unmarried and no widowed or divorced sampled population.

Age Structure, by Gender
Some 48-53 percent of the sampled population in the 3 T/L Subprojects are below 25 years,
with only 6-7 percent 60 years or above. Likewise, some 48 parecent of the sampled


                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J             7
Executive Summary



population in the Dhaka T/L area is under 25 years of age, wheras only 6 percent is 60 years
or over.

Interestingly enough, some 67 percent of those over 60 years of age in the 3 T/L area were
males. This level of male preponderance seems to hold true in general as the population ages,
indicated perhaps the difficult life of women in Bangladesh. As in the 3 T/L Subproject area,
there is the same skewing of figures towards male predominance, including in the older age
cohorts in the Dhaka T/L area. For instance, of those 60 years or older, 53 percent are male
and only 47 percent female.

Literacy and Educational Status
Overall some 65 percent of the sampled population in the 3 T/L Subproject area was reported
to have either a primary or secondary education, somewhat higher than 59 percent reported in
the Dhaka region (below), and this percentage generally applied for both genders. On the
other hand, only 17 percent of the sampled population was reported to be illiterate.

Overall some 59 percent of the sampled population was reported to have either a primary or
secondary education in the Dhaka region, and this percentage generally applied for both
genders. On the other hand, only 15 percent of the sampled population was reported to be
illiterate.

Religion
An average of 84 percent of the SES respondants on the Three T/L Subprojects reported their
religion is Islam, i.e., were Muslim. The highest percentage was 92 percent on the
Chaudanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L, with the lowest being 72 percent on the Thakurgaon-
Panchagarh T/L. In the seven Municipal Areas affected by these Transmission Line
Subprojects nearly 86 percent are Muslim, compared with a national figure of 88.3 percent.

The Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L had the only sample of Indigenous Peoples (IPs) found in
the Three Transmission Line Subproject, and this appears to correspond well with the lowest
percentage of Muslim population.

An average of 12 percent of the sampled population identified themselves as Hindu,
compared with about 13 percent for the affected Municipal Areas and a national figure of
10.5 percent. Only the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L reported a Christian population,
some 1 percent of the sampled population, compared with a national figure of 0.03 percent.
Christians were subsumed within the ‘Other’ category for the affected Municipal Areas,
which was less than 1 percent. No Buddhists were reported (0.03 percent of the national
population).

An average of 90 percent of the SES respondants on the Dhaka Area T/L Subprojects
reported their religion is Islam, i.e., were Muslim. As many as 96 percent of respondents on
the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L, which is largely within the Dhaka Municipality, are
Muslim. On the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject, 84 percent are Muslim,
compared with the national figure of 88.3 percent. In the Dhaka Municipal Area nearly
92.72 percent are Muslim.




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J          8
Executive Summary



An average of 8 percent of the sampled population identified themselves as Hindu, compared
with about 13 percent for the affected Municipal Areas and a national figure of 10.5 percent.
Only the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L reported a Christian population, some 1 percent
of the sampled population, compared with a national figure of 0.03 percent. Christians were
subsumed within the ‘Other’ category for the affected Municipal Areas, which was less than
1 percent. No Buddhists were reported (0.03 percent of the national population).

Ethnicity
The overall sampled population along the proposed Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L ROW
was about 63, 500, so the SES indicates some 635 Santals and 315 Mahili, for a potential of
some 950 IPs settled in communities along the ROW. Table 39, which shows IP populations
in Bangladesh and is based on Bureau of Statistics (BBS) statistics, indicates some 188,359
Santal and 3,534 Munda in Rajshahi Division, where the Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L
ROW is located. There are 202,744 in all of Bangladesh, whereas all of the Munda are
located in Rajshahi Division.

The Badhi, or Bedey (alternative spelling), referred to in Bangladesh literature as ‘gypsies,’
where were some 2 percent of the surveyed community population of 66,500 along the
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L just south of Dhaka. Since these IPs traditionally live on
boats, their presence would seem to be natural in this area of low lying, frequently submerged
river lands. Their population may be at around 1,300 or so. They are not listed among the
IPs found in the BBS statistics shown in Table 70, and it is not clear what their total
population in Bangladesh is. A more detailed description of the Badhi, or Bede, is also given
below in the section on Indigenous Peoples.

The potential for at least some IPs, which in Bangladesh would be termed ‘Tribes,’ in the
subproject areas may be inferred from national BBS statistics that show IPs in the three
Divisions (Dhaka, Khulna, and Rajshahi) where the subprojects are located. They are also
identified in the Phulbari Coal Project’s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), 5 which
covers an important part of the Rajshahi Division. Figure 18 below shows IP distribution
across Bangladesh and the two subproject areas where the 2005 SES indicated IP
populations.

The 2005 SES found some 0.74 percent of IPs among the community populations surveyed,
or about 1,650 possible IPs in a population of some 222,800 surveyed along the five
Transmission Line Subproject ROWs.

Social Strata
Some 16.8 percent of the sampled population for the Three T/L Subprojects was described as
Very Poor, and altogether nearly 45 percent either Poor or Very Poor. The Chuadanga-
Jhenaidah-Magura T/L had the highest percentage of Poor or Very Poor, at 49.4 percent,
nearly half the sampled population. This is in line with national estimates of social
stratification, especially for rural areas.

The average Medium population was 12.4 percent, and the Rich were on average 12.4
percent. The Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L was exceptional not only for having the

5   Manzurul Mannan. 2005. Phulbari Coal Project EIA: Anthropology and Culture of Asia Energy’s Phulbari Coal Project Area. Vol 4:
    Section 3. Dhaka: Independent University, Bangladesh for SMEC. June.


                            Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                        9
Executive Summary



highest percentage of Poor or Very Poor but also the smallest percentage of those described
as Medium.

Some 20.4 percent of the sampled population for the Dhaka Area T/L Subprojects was
described as Very Poor, and altogether nearly 48.6 percent either Poor or Very Poor. The
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L had the highest percentage of Poor or Very Poor, at 51.1
percent, more than half the sampled population. This is a somewhat higher proportion of
Poor/Very Poor than national estimates of social stratification, especially for rural areas. The
average Medium population was 37.2 percent, and the Rich were on average 14.2 percent.

Livelihood
Some 57 percent of sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject areas have only one earning
member working outside the household, 21 percent two earning members, 16 percent three
earning members, and only 6 percent four or more earning members.

Some 49 percent of sampled HHs in the Dhaka Subproject areas have only one earning
member working outside the household, 19 percent two earning members, 18 percent three
earning members, and 15 percent four or more earning members. This shows a higher
number of HHs with more than one earning member than was found in the 3 T/L Subproject
area.

The Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L shows a very high proportion of 23 percent HHs with
four or more earning members, probably reflecting a high rate of labor migration into Dhaka
and its surrounding industrial region.

Monthly Income
The highest percentage of sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject area, 27-32 percent, earn
between Tk 3,501 – 5,000 monthly. Roughly 80 percent of all sampled HHs earn between
Tk 2,501-10,000 monthly. Only 13-16 percent earn more than Tk 10,000 monthly.

The highest percentage of sampled HHs in the Dhaka Subproject area, 80 percent, earn
between Tk 7,001 – 25,000 monthly, compared to the 3 T/L area where roughly 80 percent of
all sampled HHs earn between Tk 2,501-10,000 monthly. This reflects the relative
industrialization of the Dhaka area compared to the 3 T/L Subproject areas. Only 9 percent
earn more than Tk 25,000 monthly.

Principle Sources of Household Income
On average, some 58.4 percent of the sampled population in the Three T/L Subproejcts
depends primarily on Agriculture for their household income. At 66.9 percent, the Naogaon-
Joypurhat T/L Subproject sampled population has the highest reliance on Agriculture, while
the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L Subproject sampled population has the lowest, with
only 45.8 percent reporting main reliance on Agriculture for household income. On average,
14.4 percent of the sampled population relies primarily on Business for household income.
At 10.3 percent, the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject has the lowest reliance on
Business.

Some 39.8 percent of the sampled population in the Dhaka Area T/L Subprojects depends
primarily on Agriculture for their household income, considerably less than the 58.4 percent


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Executive Summary



average for the the Three T/L Subproject sampled population in NW/W Bangladesh. Some
19.2 percent of the sampled population relies primarily on Business for household income
and 11.3 percent on Service, for a total of 30.5 percent. The category ‘Other’ averages a
large 23 percent overall.

Household Expenditure
Average HH expenditure for all sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject area was roughly 8,000
Tk/Month. On average, Food (33 percent) is the highest expenditure of the 3 T/L Subproject
HHs sampled during the field survey. Investment/Savings is the next highest expenditure, at
an average of 19 percent for all sampled HHs. Social and Festival Obligations (Other
Expenditures) were the third highest expenditure, at around 11 percent of all the sampled
HHs.

Education (9 percent), Clothing (8 percent), Fuel/Power (6 percent), Transport (6 percent),
Medical (5 percent), and Housing (3 percent) were the next ranking expenditures. Out of
some 175 HH respondents, only some 12 HHs reported expenditure on housing (7 percent of
respondents), reflecting the minority of HHs that rent.

Average HH expenditure for all sampled HHs in Dhaka Subproject area was roughly Tk
17,886, compared to only 8,000 Tk/Month in the 3 T/L Subproject area. On average, Food
(34 percent) is the highest expenditure of the Dhaka Subproject area HHs sampled during the
field survey, about the same percentage as for the 3 T/L area. Investment/Savings is the next
highest expenditure, at an average of 19 percent for all sampled HHs.

Whereas Social and Festival Obligations (Other Expenditures) were the third highest
expenditure in the 3 T/L Area, at around 11 percent of all the sampled HHs, this category is
much further down the list in the Dhaka area. Instead, Education is the third highest
expenditure, at 9 percent..

Housing (8 percent) is a greater proportion of HHs expenditure in Dhaka compared to the 3
T/L aread (3 percent), reflecting the more urbanized nature of the area. Some 13 (17 percent)
of the 75 respondents reported Housing expenditure, compared to only 7 percent in the 3 T/L
area.

Clothing (8 percent) and Transport (6 percent) are next on the HH expenditure list. Social
Expenditures (6 percent) ranks much lower than in the 3 T/L area, where this category was 11
percent of sampled HH income and the third largest expenditure.

Interestingly, Fuel/Power and Medical expenditures (5 percent) are the lowest of
expenditures. The percentage of HH expenditure is similar to the 3 T/L area, except that they
rank higher than Housing, which is only 3 percent of 3 T/L HH expenditure.

Land Tenure Patterns
On average, 51.6 percent of the Three T/L Subproject sampled population is primarily Owner
Cultivators, some 28.1 percent are Owners who also are Tenants. Tenants are 16.9 percent,
and Absentee Owners are 3.4 Percent. The Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L Subproject has the
highest percentage of Owner Culivators, at 62.3 percent. The Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L
Subproject sampled population has the highest percentage of Tenants, at 18.7 percent.



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Executive Summary



On average, 38.8 percent of the Dhaka Area T/L Subproject sampled population is primarily
Owner Cultivators, some 19.2 percent are Owners who also are Tenants. This is considerably
lower than the 51.6 and 28.1 percent respectively for these two categories in the Three T/L
Subproject in NW/W Bangladesh. Tenants are 15.2 percent, and Absentee Owners are 6.9
Percent, much higher than the 3.4 percent of the sampled population in the Three T/L
Subproject in NW/W Bangladesh.

Services Available in Subproject Communities
The sampled Three T/L Subproject communities reported a similar percent having electricity
available, between 73 to 79 percent. Some 38 percent of the sampled Naogaon-Joypurhat
T/L Subprojects had telephone service, compared with only 14 and 18 percent in Chuadanga-
Jhenaidah-Magura T/L and Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled communities
respectively. Note that this takes into account only land lines, not cell phone access.

Hospitals or Community Health Centers were found in one half the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-
Magura T/L and Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L Subproject sampled communities but in only 36
percent of the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L ones. Likewise, schools were found in 86 and 88
percent of the former two communities but only in 73 percent of the latter community.

On the other hand, 82 percent of the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled
communities had the traditional Islamic madrassah schools compared to 64 and 38 percent
respectively for the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L and Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L
Subproject communities. And as many as 45 percent of the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L
Subproject samled communities had a College, compared to only 29 percent for the
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L and 38 percent for the Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L sampled
communities.

The sampled Dhaka Area T/L Subproject communities have between 92-100 percent reported
having electricity available. Only 17 percent of the sampled Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L
Subprojects had telephone service, wheras 100 percent of the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L
Subproject, which is inside Dhaka City proper, had telephone access. Note that this takes into
account only land lines, not cell phone access.

Hospitals or Community Health Centers were found in roughtly one half the Dhaka Area T/L
Subproject communities, with a somewhat smaller percentage (42%) in the Meghnaghat to
Aminbazar T/L Subproject communities having these health care facilities. Schools were
found in all of the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled Subproject communities but only
in 67 percent of the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject sampled communities.

Whereas 50 percent of the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled Subproject communities
had the traditional Islamic madrassah schools, only 30 percent of the Meghnaghat to
Aminbazar T/L Subproject sampled communities had madrassahs. Some 25 percent of the
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled Subproject communities had a college, whereas only
8 percent of the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject sampled communities had one.

NGO Activities in 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities
Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) run a remarkable number of target-oriented
programmes and projects in Bangladesh to improve the socio-economic conditions of small


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and marginal farmers, assetless poor and distressed women. Notable among these
programmes are the group-based Micro Credit programs of Grameen Bank, BRAC, ASA,
Proshika and other local and foreign NGOs, the government initiated programs such as the
Swanirvar Bangladesh and Small Farmers Credit Project and donor funded special projects
such as Rural Finance Experimental Project, Bangladesh Swiss Agricultural Project and
NORAD projects for small entrepreneurship development (Banglapedia 2004).

The sampled communities on the Three T/L Subprojects had in total between five and eight
NGOs accounted for during the SES. All of them offer Micro Credit programs. Microcredit
is a term now broadly used to mean very small-sized supervised loans without any collateral.
Amounts of microcredit in Bangladesh vary from Tk 1000 to Tk 10,000 per beneficiary and
are provided mainly by micro-finance institutions/programmes and also banks and
conventional financial institutions to poor people with less than half an acre of land to
undertake employment and income generating activities. Micro-Finance Institutions (MFIs)
develop various tools to provide the poor with access to financial services so that they can
increase their income and productivity. Microcredit programmes aimed at poverty alleviation
cover a large number of borrowers with the objective of substantially removing socio-
economic imbalances, especially in rural areas (Banglapedia, 2004).

Only the two major NGOs, BRAC and ASA, offer other programs in addition to micro-
financing. BRAC also delivers a Library program to the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L
Subproject sampled communities; Water, Health and Sanitation and Education programs to
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L Subproject Communities; and Family Planning/ Maternal and Child
Health, Education, and Development programs to the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L
Subproject sampled communities, which are in a more remote area of Bangladesh than the
other subprojects included in this Sector Loan. ASAalso offers Family Planning/ Maternal
and Child Health to the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled communities. The
other NGOs might be considered dedicated MFIs, in the context of North West and West
Bangladesh.

Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) run a remarkable number of target-oriented
programmes and projects in Bangladesh to improve the socio-economic conditions of small
and marginal farmers, assetless poor and distressed women. Notable among these
programmes are the group-based Micro Credit programs of Grameen Bank, BRAC, ASA,
Proshika and other local and foreign NGOs, the government initiated programs such as the
Swanirvar Bangladesh and Small Farmers Credit Project and donor funded special projects
such as Rural Finance Experimental Project, Bangladesh Swiss Agricultural Project and
NORAD projects for small entrepreneurship development (Banglapedia 2004).

The sampled communities on the Three T/L Subprojects had in total between six and seven
NGOs accounted for during the SES. All of them offer Micro Credit programs. 6 Whereas in

6   Microcredit is a term now broadly used to mean very small-sized supervised loans without any collateral. Amounts of microcredit in
    Bangladesh vary from Tk 1000 to Tk 10,000 per beneficiary and are provided mainly by micro-finance institutions/programmes and
    also banks and conventional financial institutions to poor people with less than half an acre of land to undertake employment and
    income generating activities. Micro-Finance Institutions (MFIs) develop various tools to provide the poor with access to financial
    services so that they can increase their income and productivity. Microcredit programmes aimed at poverty alleviation cover a large
    number of borrowers with the objective of substantially removing socio-economic imbalances, especially in rural areas. Because the
    rural poor have long been excessively dependent on informal sources of finance, the microcredit program was pioneered in
    Bangladesh through a Grameen Bank project as an alternative. Microcredit-financing started as a program of group-based and
    intensively supervised loans to poor people, especially poor women. Grameen Bank initiated it in 1976 as a pilot project. The success


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the Three T/L Subprojects in NW/W Bangladesh only the two major NGOs, BRAC and
ASA, offer other programs in addition to micro-financing, in the Dhaka Area the several
NGOs offer a broader range of programs.

BRAC also delivers an Education program to Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L subproject
communities, although it doesn’t appear to be present in any of the sampled Meghnaghat to
Aminbazar T/L Subproject communities. This is strange, given BRAC’s wide coverage in
Bangladesh, unequalled by any other NGO.

Unlike in NW/W Bangladesh where ASA also offers Family Planning/ Maternal and Child
Health to the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled communities, in the Dhaka
area it only offers a Microcredit program.

On the other hand, the other NGOs present offer a variety of programs in addition to
Microcredit. Grameen Bank offers Water, Health & Sanitation in the Meghnaghat to
Aminbazar T/L subproject communities, though only Microcredit in the Aminbazar to Old
Airport T/L communities. DABI and ASOD also offer Water, Health & Sanitation in the
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L subproject communities, though they have no operations in
the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled communities. EFAD offers Family
Planning/Maternal & Child Health programs in the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L subproject
communities and have no presence in the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled
communities. Weave offers an Education program in addition to Microcredit in the
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled communities but has no presence in the Meghnaghat
to Aminbazar T/L subproject communities. Likewise, Sreejani offers, in addition to
Microcredit, Water, Health & Sanitation to the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled
communities. Proshika, one of the prominent NGOs in Bangladesh, has only Microcredit
programs in the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject communities.

Popular offers the widest range of programs, in the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L subproject
communities, they offer: Water, Health & Sanitation; Microcredit; Education; and
Development programs. In the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled communities, they
offer an Education project in addition to Microcredit.

Electricity Connections
On average, some 63 percent of sampled HHs had an electricity connection, with the highest
percent being 75 percent of Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L Subproject sampled HHs. REB
provided most of the electricity, for some of the sampled 63 HHs, with 37 percent being
supplied by PDB. More than 80 percent of the Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L sampled HHs
received their electricity from the REB, whereas for the other two Subprojects somewhat over
half the HHs (54-57 percent) received their electricity from REB.

On average, some 97 of sampled HHs in the Dhaka area had electricity connection compared
to only 63 percent of sampled HHs in the 3 T/L area. REB provided most (89 percent) of the
electricity to the sampled HHs, although in the more urbanized Aminbazar-Old Airport T/L
area, as much of 43 percent of electric connections were with PDB.

  of the group-based microcredit financing scheme of Grameen Bank and a host of other Micro-financing Institutions (MFIs) operating
  on the Grameen model has been greatly appreciated worldwide and replicated in more than 45 countries, including the United States.
  The number of borrowers of such credit throughout the world stood around 9 million in 2000. Of them, more than 5 million are from
  Bangladesh (Banglapedia 2004).


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Electricty Use
Of the 175 HHs sampled in the 3 T/L Subproject area, of the 111 HHs (63 percent) having
electric connections, all of them indicated use of electricity for lighting, whereas only about 2
percent of the 111 HHs with electricity reported using electricity for cooking and 5 percent
for irrigation. Of all 175 sampled HHs, only 63 percent, or all of those with electricity
connections, used electricity for lighting; only 1 percent of all sampled HHs had use of
electricity for cooking and 4 percent for irrigation.

Of the 75 HHs sampled in the Dhaka Subproject area, of the 73 HHs (97 percent) having
electric connections, all of them indicated use of electricity for lighting, whereas only about 3
percent of the 73 HHs with electricity reported using electricity for cooking and 5 percent for
irrigation.

Power Source for Irrigation
Some 75 percent of the 175 sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject area reported having
irrigation facilities. Of 157 multiple responses to the question of the power source used for
irrigation, 70 percent responses reported using Diesel, 17 percent Electricity, and 13 percent
Traditional (gravity, draft power) sources of power.

Some 44 percent of the 75 sampled HHs in the Dhaka Subproject area reported having
irrigation facilities, compared to 75 percent of HHs in the 3 T/L area, reflecting the greater
rural nature of the latter area. Of 33 multiple responses to the question of the power source
used for irrigation, 42 percent responses reported using Diesel (compared to 70 percent in the
T/L area), 36 percent Electricity (17 percent in the 3 T/L area), and 21 percent Traditional
(gravity, draft power) sources of power (13 percent in the 3 T/L area).

Knowledge of T/L Subproject
Overall, of respondents in the 3 T/L Subprojects area nearly half (47 percent) reported
knowing of the T/L planned for their area. Some 90 percent of the Naogoan to Joypurhat T/L
respondents knew and 75 percent of Thakurgaon to Panchagarh respondents knew. A
deficiency of knowledge existed in the Chaudanga-Jhenaidah-Magur T/L area, however, with
only 8 percent of respondents reporting any knowledge of the proposed project.

Overall, of respondents in the Dhaka Subprojects area nearly half (47 percent) reported
knowing of the T/L planned for their area. Some 67 percent of the Aminbazar to Old Airport
T/L respondents knew and only 42 percent of Megnaghat to Aminbazar T/L respondents
knew.

Land and Structure Prices
The SES determined land and structure prices for agricultural and commercial lands in the
sampled communities along the Three T/L and Dhaka Area T/L ROWs. The rounded
average will be used to arrive at an estimated resettlement budget for these subprojects.

THE RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The RF will have the following Goals:
        To ensure fair compensation for all Affected Persons (APs), whether directly or
        indirectly affected, and


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       To evolve a modus-operendi to implement Resettlement and Rehabilitation
       activities in an effective and efficient manner.

The RF will have the following Objectives:
       Developing a Policy Framework by clearly defining various categories of APs and
       specifying their entitlement to compensation as admissible under the law and
       project conditionality
       Assessing the socio-economic status of the APs prior to project intervention to
       serve as a benchmark and find out about the APs’ own views on resettlement
       Determining the quantities of compensation in cash and kind that is payable to
       each AP under the adopted Policy Framework; and
       Formulating an implementation strategy and organizational structure to carry out
       resettlement and rehabilitation of the APs.

Achieving the RF Goals and Objectives
To achieve the goals and objectives and to conform to the Bank’s Involuntary Resettlement
Policy, the following will be taken into account:
       Land Acquisition and Resettlement Issues will be considered early during
       Subproject design;
       Consultation meetings with APs and other stakeholders, including local
       Government. and other concerned officials, will be required for including local
       input into Subproject design, and this process will continue throughout the
       planning and implementation stage;
       All potential APs will be identified along with their land, structure and assets
       likely to be affected through conducting necessary surveys to assess impacts and
       propose necessary mitigation;
       APs will be paid cash compensation for land at Replacement Market Value and
       also cash compensation for structures, crops, trees, and perennials at Current
       Market Price;
       APs without land title, e.g., renters, illegal occupants and squatters will receive
       Relocation and Income Restoration Grants;
       The RPs developed for Subprojects will include provisions for other forms of
       assistance, such as shifting costs, house reconstruction grants, and income
       restoration allowances; and
       For implementation of the Subproject RPs, the Implementing Agency (IA) will
       engage an Implementing Non-Governmental Organization (Implementing NGO)
       experienced in resettlement.

Resettlement Framework (RF) Policy Framework
Land acquisition and resettlement policies for the Project are derived from two sources. The
first includes The Acquisition and Requisition of Immovable Property Ordinance, Bangladesh
(1982 Ordinance) and its subsequent amendments in 1993 and 1994. The 1982 Ordinance
governs all cases of acquisition and requisition by the Government of immovable property


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(i.e., land, built structures etc.) for any public purpose or in public interest. In accordance
with the 1982 Ordinance, the legal process is initiated by application of the requiring agency
or department to the Deputy Commissioner (DC) of the concerned District with a detailed
map of the area and a Land Acquisition Plan.

The DC is empowered to permanently acquire and/or temporarily require the property in
question and the owners affected by such acquisition are eligible to compensation for losses.
In assessing the amount of compensation and value of the acquired property, the DC Office
takes into consideration as number of factors such as review of land transaction in the locality
over the past twelve months, and present market rate. The Ordinance was amended in 1993 to
increase the amount of the premium for compulsory acquisition from 25 to 50 percent on the
assessed value of the property and to match the Market or Replacement Value. The 1994
Amendment made provisions for payment of crop compensation to tenant cultivators also.
The 1982 Ordinance, however, only recognizes the Titled Owner(s) of the property and the
Non-Titled Users (for example, renters, illegal occupants/squatters) are not eligible to get any
compensation.

The Resettlement Policy Framework for the Project will be built upon the laws of the
Government of Bangladesh and ADB’s Policy on Involuntary Resettlement (1995). This
Project will be bound by the principles and conditions stated in this RF as approved by ADB,
and the Government. Provisions and principles adopted in this RF will supersede the
provisions of relevant decrees currently in force in Bangladesh wherever a gap exists. The
ADB’s Policy on Involuntary Resettlement requires that displaced persons be:
       Compensated for their losses at replacement costs
       Assisted with the move and during the transition period at the relocation site
       Enabled to reconstruct a land-based productive existence, and
       Assisted in their efforts to improve their former level of living standards, income
       earning capacity, and productive levels, or at least to restore them

The absence of legal title to land will not be a bar to compensation. In other words, all
Affected Persons (APs) will benefit from the Project, irrespective of their legal status as
landowners or users of Project acquired land. The Bank’s Policy also requires that population
displacement be avoided or minimized as much as possible and that the APs and host
populations be involved in resettlement planning and implementation. Further, in planning
for relocation, women’s needs and constraints will be addressed and preferences considered.

The RF will ensure that APs are not disadvantaged and can regain their lost income and
livelihoods in a short period of time. Thus, the policies and approach require to be adopted
for this Project will meet the requirements of the Bank’s Policy on Involuntary Resettlement.

Resettlement Framework Entitlements
Land Acquisition and Compensation Policy Matrix
The Entitlement Matrix presented below outlines the various losses, methods of identification
of Entitled Persons (EPs), compensation benefits and the results of actions in terms of
restoration of income and livelihood of the APs in the Sector Loan’s Subprojects, where
applicable. It will be applied to the RPs developed for each of the Sector Loan Subprojects.


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                                                                                  Entitlement Matrix

Type Of Loss           Compensation Entitlements                    Entitled Persons                   Implementation Guidelines                             Agencies Responsibilities
1. Loss Of             a) Cash Compensation under the Law           a) Legal owner(s) of land as       a) The Deputy Commissioner (DC) will identify the     a) The DC will pay
Agricultural Land,     (CCL) including 50% Premium ;                determined by DC;                  Entitled Person (EP) and determine CCL including      CCL+Premium
Low Land, Shrimp       b) Additional Grant (AG) to cover            b) Legal owner(s) of land as       50% Premium ;                                         b) IA will pay AG through
Gher (pond), Etc.      replacement market value of land (if         determined by DC;                  b) The replacement market price will be determined    NGO.
                       higher than CCL including premium);          c) Legal owner purchased           by Property Valuation Advisory Team (PVAT);           c) IA will refund
                       c) Reimbursement of Registration Cost        replacement land during            c) The RRC will be @22% of the deed value not         Registration Cost through
                       (RRC) for purchase of replacement land       Resettlement Plan (RP)             exceeding replacement market value of land            NGO.
                                                                    implementation                     determined by the PVAT.
2. Loss Of Access To   a) One Time Cash Grant (OTCG) for loss       a) Renter/user of the land         a) OTCG will be @ Tk 5000/- per family or Tk. 200/-   a) IA will pay the OTCG
Land By Tenant/        of income.                                   identified by Implementing         per decimal of concerned land, whichever is lower.    directly to the APs through
Sharecroppers                                                       Agency (IA)/Nongovernmental                                                              NGO.
                                                                    Agency (NGO).
3. Loss Of Crops       a) CCL for Standing Crops;                   a) Legal owners as determined by   a) DC will determine compensation for standing        a) DC will pay CCL
                       b) Differential between CCL and OTCG         DC;                                crops;                                                including 50% premium for
                       for loss of crops by owners                  b) Legal owners as determined by   b) Differential of CCL including premium and OTCG     standing crops;

                       c) Harvest of Crops free of cost, if any.    DC;                                @0.6 Kg per Sq.m. x Tk 10/- per Kg, if higher;        b) IA will pay Grant through
                                                                    c) Legal owners                    c) The EPs may harvest the standing crops before      NGO
                                                                                                       taking over land by IA                                c) NGO will motivate EPs to
                                                                                                                                                             vacate land.
4. Loss Of             a) CCL including 50% Premium for land;       a) Legal owners as determined by   a) The DC will identify the EP and determine CCL      a) The DC will pay CCL +
Homestead,             b) AG to cover replacement market price      DC;                                including 50% Premium through legal procedures;       Premium;
Commercial             of land (if higher than CCL including        b) Legal owner(s) of land as       b) The Replacement Market Price (RMP) will be         b) IA will pay AG through
Industries             premium);                                    determined by DC;                  determined by PVAT;                                   NGO;
                       c) RRC for purchase of replacement           c) Legal owner or purchased        c) The RRC will be @ 22% of the Deed Value not        c) IA will refund
                       land.                                        replacement land during RP         exceeding RMP of land determined by the PVAT.         Registration Cost through
                                                                    implementation.                                                                          NGO.




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Type Of Loss            Compensation Entitlements                    Entitled Persons                    Implementation Guidelines                          Agencies Responsibilities
5. Loss Of Structure    a) CCL including 50% Premium for land.       a) Legal owner(s) of structure as   a) The DC will identify the legal owner and        a) The DC will pay CCL +
Residential             b) AG to cover replacement market price      determined by DC;                   determine CCL including 50% Premium;               Premium;
Commercial/Industrial   of structure (if higher than CCL including   b) Legal and socially recognised    b) The RMP will be determined by PVAT;             b) IA will pay AG through
/ Shops, Etc.           premium);                                    owner(s) of structure;                                                                 NGO;
                                                                                                         c) The TG will be @ 10% of the assessed value of
                        c) Transfer Grant (TG) for shifting of       c) Legal and socially recognised    the structure by DC or Tk. 2000/- per household    c) IA will pay AG through
                        structure;                                   owner(s) of structure.              whichever is higher.                               NGO.
                        d) Reconstruction Grant (RG) for             d) Legal owner(s) of shifttable     d) The RG will be @10% of the assessed             d) IA will pay RG




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Bangladesh Land Acquisition Laws/Decrees
Implementation of development projects often involves acquisition of large tracts of land
necessitating displacement of considerable number of people. It can cause great hardship to
the displaced people economically, socially and environmentally. In most cases, the APs are
not the direct beneficiaries of the development project. Without the additional provision for
resettlement and rehabilitation being associated with land acquisition measures, as provided
above, the laws for acquisition of property may be inadequate to fully mitigate the impacts.

The following outlines the legal framework in Bangladesh for acquisition of property. The
first land acquisition law was enacted in 1824 and, amended a number of times, remained in
place until the partition of British India in 1947. Based on this law, the Acquisition and
Requisition of Immovable Properties Ordinance of 1982 (with a few amendments) is the final
version of the relevant legal framework for acquisition of land in Bangladesh.

The salient features of the ordinance are that, one, when the Government decides to acquire a
piece of land for public purpose the 1982 Ordinance is applied. Notice is served to person/s
interested in the land. Matters to be considered or not to be considered for determining
compensation are dealt with under this law.

After the rate of compensation is determined, the Government then tenders payment notice.
In case the Entitled Person/s (EPs) do not consent to receive or there is no EP/s to receive, or
there is any dispute as to the title to receive, the rule says that the compensation shall be
deemed to have been paid and the land shall stand acquired.

As regards disputes on the rate of compensation, there are provisions to go for Arbitration
and subsequently to an Arbitration Appellate Tribunal where the compensation earlier
decided can be revised up to 10 percent in each stage.

Under the 1982 Ordinance, APs have limited scope to negotiate with the Government about
the price of land, but have no right to refuse acquisition. The law guarantees payment of
compensation before land is taken over; however, in practice this does not happen in many
cases, and in some projects a good number of people have had to vacate their land before they
were paid compensation.

The Deputy Commissioner (DC) is the only institution on behalf of the Government to
acquire land for any public reason. Under the 1982 Act, the procedure of identifying the
person/s interested and determining the rate of compensation serves the purpose of both the
government and the acquiring body.

The Government is obliged to pay the compensation only for the assets under acquisition and
then hand it over to the Requiring Body (RB). Under the 1982 Ordinance the Government has
no obligation to resettle the APs or to mitigate any adverse impact of the project So
application of the 1982 Act neither helps to resettle the affected per person nor takes care to
restore their lost income.

The compensation (official registration value of land of the proceeding year), is not enough
either to buy equal area of land from the open market or to build a house in a new place. To
resettle a person it is required to pay replacement value of the acquired property which is
always higher than the compensation.


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CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION AND GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISMS
Public Consultation and Participation
But identifying the indirectly affected APs, such as the share croppers, tenant farmers,
squatters, or farm laborers is done through a Socio-economic Survey (SES). The land owners
are asked to name their farm laborers and share croppers. So the identification starts with the
directly affected APs by which many of the indirectly affected APs are identified.

The first and most important step in the process of resettlement is to identify the primary and
secondary APs. After the APs are identified, they will be consulted about the resettlement
policy and if necessary the policy may be modified to make it more project and area specific.
Then the APs will be brought for participation in the process of resettlement. This approach
will help to:
             Better understand the likely impacts of the Subproject
             Obtain pertinent social and environment data
             Assess alternative formulation of Subproject works
             Determine community and individual preference
             Design appropriate and mutually acceptable Compensation Plan
             Contribute to more successful Resettlement and Rehabilitation

The IAs will appoint an Implementing NGO with experience, knowledge of, and contacts
with APs to assist in:
             Preparing the List of APs
             Monitoring the Compensation Payments
             Gathering and sharing information and avoiding potential problems

Each RP will be prepared and implemented in close consultation with the Stakeholders and
will involve Focus Group discussions and meetings, particularly with the APs. The
Resettlement Policy Framework, as presented in the RF, will be made available in the Bangla
language during Focus Group meetings at the village level. Copies of draft RPs will be
distributed among community groups prior to finalization of the Detailed Design for local
inputs, after the SES has been carried out to avoid fraudulent claims.

A Public Consultative Committee (PCC) at the Thana (Upzila) 7 level will be formed to
supervise the Compensation Payment to APs. The PCC will include representative of the
District Deputy Commissioner, the Thana Nirbahi Officer, Public Representatives, concerned
Union Chairmen, representative of the IA, and representative of selected NGOs having good
reputation in the area. Formation of the PCC will be functionally equivalent to Resettlement
Coordination Committee enunciated in the ADB's Policy on Involuntary Resettlement. Such
committees will also be vital for ensuring that project monitoring and implementation take
place effectively, and that monitoring will provide feedback into Project implementation.




7   Subdistrict


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Grievance Redress Mechanisms
All formal arbitration appeal to redress the complaints from the APs shall be addressed under
the existing laws of the country. The detailed land acquisition procedure required under the
law will be followed, salient features of which are briefly described below:

The legal process starts with a formal letter from the RB to the acquiring body to the DC.

Following the procedural formalities for permission through different Gob agencies, the DC
serves preliminary notice for acquisition of the land under Section 3 of the 1982 Ordinance.

Any person having interest in such property may object to the proposed acquisition to the DC
in writing within 15 days (Sec. 4.1). The DC will prepare a report and refer the case to higher
authorities for decision (Sec.4.2). However, if no objections are raised within the 15 days
time-limit the final decision may be made by the DC in case of properties of up to 50
standard Bighas of land, otherwise the Commissioner (Sec. 4.3 and Sec. 5) will take the
decision in case of such dispute.

After a decision of acquisition of a property has been made, the DC issues a Second Public
Notice, again to be published at convenient places or near such property. It shall invite all
persons with interests in the property to appear in person or by an agent before the DC, within
15 days, after the publication of the Notice to state the nature of their interest in the property
and submit claims to compensation (Sec. 6).

Payments of compensation must be made before the authorities take possession of the
property (Sec. 10-1).

After compensation has been paid or deposited in the Public Account of the Republic, the
property shall stand acquired and vested absolutely with the Government free from all
encumbrances. The DC can take possession of the property after a declaration has been made
in the Official Gazette (Sec. II).

Compensation must be paid or deposited within a period of sixty days from the date of
receiving the estimate from the acquiring body (Sec. 7/4). In default all proceedings shall
stand abated on the expiry of that period.

The 1982 Ordinance also covers the case of temporary requisition of property for a public
purpose or in the public interest (Part III). With prior approval of the Government, the DC
can decide on the requisition of any property for a period two years. No prior approval will,
however, be required in case of emergency requisition (Sec. 1 8). But with prior approval of
the GOB, requisition period may extend more than two years.

The DC may take possession of the requisition after serving the Requisition Order. If a
person is not satisfied with the amount of compensation or there is a dispute over ownership,
the DC may deposit the money in the Public Account.

A person not accepting the award made by the DC may submit an application to the
Arbitrator for revision of the award within 45 days from the date of notice of the award (Sec.
28). The Arbitrator is a Government appointed Judicial Officer, not below the rank of
Subordinate Judge. If compensation determined by the Arbitrator is higher than that decided


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by the DC, an additional compensation for delay at the rate of 10 percent per annum may be
paid (Sec. 32). As per amendment of 1994, the Arbitrator can not differ with the
compensation amount by more than 10% of the DC’s Award (Sec. 31).

An appeal against the decision by the Arbitrator can be made to an Arbitration Appellate
Tribunal, which consists of a member appointed by the Government from among persons
who are or have been District Judges. A decision of the said Tribunal shall be final (Sec. 34).

There is a general popular feeling that obtaining fair compensation from GoB agencies may
be difficult. In this respect ADB Policy is that the APs will receive fair compensation through
IA assistance. The APs will be fully informed and closely consulted by the Implementing
NGO on their resettlement and compensation options. The process of consultation to be
established at the initial stage of the Subproject implementation will continue throughout the
Subproject implementation period. The IAs will have the administrative support from the
Implementing NGO, to be hired by the Subproject Management, to ensure payment of fair
compensation and transparency in the disbursement of compensation to the APs.

Complaints and Grievance Procedures will be outlined in each RP and Grievance Redress
Committees (GRCs) will be established for each Subproject with representatives from the
IAs, APs, women and vulnerable groups, local government, and NGOs. The Chief
Resettlement Officer (CRO) or authorized person nominated by the CRO, will chair the
GRC. Other than disputes relating to ownership rights under the court of law, the Committee
will review grievances involving all resettlement benefits, relocation and other assistance.
Grievances will be redressed within two to four weeks from the date of lodging the
complaints. The functions of the GRCs will be to:
       Receive applications and hold hearings on AP grievances concerning the Project,
       in particular regarding resettlement issues.
       Refer APs to the concerned authority/Deputy Commissioner if the grievance can
       be dealt through conventional law or by arbitration.
       Make decisions to resolve AP grievances following RP policy if outside
       conventional law and if the grievance does not lend itself to arbitration.
       Prepare recommendations according to the procedure described by the GRC in
       resolving AP complaints.

The GRCs will receive AP grievances and resolve them in the following manner:
       The written AP grievance will be lodged with the GRC within a month of the
       receipt of ID Card or from when the AP is informed of their entitlement.
       The GRC will meet to resolve the AP grievance within 10 days of its receipt and
       will preserve the records and procedure of the meeting. The GRC will mention
       the basis of its resolutions in the written record of its meetings.
       The GRC will publicize its decisions regarding AP grievances through local
       community meetings and through the distribution of leaflets to the public.
       All the GRC activities will take place in the office of the GRC chairperson.




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The Implementing NGOs will form Resettlement Advisory Committees (RACs) to involve
the local communities and APs in the implementation process. The RACs will be formed by
the Implementing NGOs after their field presence is established and will consist of
representatives from the APs, women/vulnerable groups and Local Government Institutions
(LGIs). The local Upazila Chairmen/Member will chair the RAC and a representative of the
Implementing NGO will act as the member secretary.

RELOCATION AND INCOME RESTORATION
Relocation of Housing and Settlements
The RP is a time-bound action plan with budget setting out resettlement strategy, objectives,
entitlement, actions, responsibilities, monitoring and evaluation. The RP will address each
category of potential losses as per ADB guidelines and the existing laws of the country.

The project activities do not involve displacement of people from their present homesteads. It
has only a limited impact on the income and livelihood of the APs. So a Short Resettlement
Plan will be prepared to take care of the affected populations and all losses that might be
incurred, through appropriate mitigative measures. Exact number of APs due to transmission
line is identified and they will be compensated for the loss of crops, trees etc during the
process of actual physical construction of the Transmission Lines. However, for lands for
substation/switchyard, number of APs will be identified during land acquisition process.

The SES date shows that none in the acquired land for the Subprojects will affect household
structures. A separate settlement area relocation household will not be necessary. The SES
did not indicate any plot of agricultural land will be converted for household in future. So
there is no long term effect either. However it has been stated that houses on the ROW of
Transmission Line will be discouraged as the high voltage electric line will overpass those
houses. An option for such household has been kept if these APs would like to relocate the
house and convert the house plot for any other purpose including garden or agriculture. The
necessary compensation package and budget will be available and is included in the detailed
budget (below).

Income Restoration
In any resettlement program it may be unrealistic to assume that all APs can be economically
rehabilitated without assistance, in a sustainable manner. In a rural context where a majority
of the APs are likely to be illiterate and job opportunities are limited, the Subproject planners
will be required to develop an alternative source of income in the form of Income Generation
Programs (IGP). The main features should be:

Human Resources Development (HRD) and

Occupational Skill Development (OSD)

Considering the vulnerability in the community, particular attention will be given to women
APs. Because the poorest in rural Bangladesh are inevitable women, they become more
vulnerable than male APs. Some 80 percent of the APs selected for IGP will be women
whether head of household or a dependent. The HRD and OSD options will be chosen by the
AP, and for the necessary training will be given by selected training organizations or NGOs.
On completion of training on HRD and OSD, bank loan facilities will be extended in easy


                     Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J         24
Executive Summary



terms so that the APs can start income generation programs. To make it sustainable, the
program will be well designed and systematically monitored and evaluated.

The Subprojects will displace a number of people from agricultural activities. Many of the
APs may have to switch their agriculture activity to small trading or may go down to be a day
labor. The compensation package will be sufficient for those marginal farmer to switch to a
trading/business provided they have training or guidance from the NGOs appointed for the
implementation of RP.

The Implementing NGOs will also liaise with IAs and the Contractors to assist the APs,
especially women and other vulnerable persons to, as feasible, obtain employment during the
construction period. The IAs will make provision in the Contractor contracts for preferential
employment of qualified APs, including affected women in Subproject works.

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
The Power Cell, as Executing Agency (EA) will have overall coordination, planning,
implementation and financing responsibilities. Power Cell fully recognizes the importance
and complexity of the resettlement programs in the Sector Loan. The Project Director (PD) of
the Sector Loan’s Project Management Office (PMO), Dhaka will monitor the RP
implementation through the Chief Resettlement Officer (CRO), a senior Power Cell staff
(preferably a social scientist) with a rank of Executive Engineer. The CRO will also
coordinate preparation of Subproject RPs and liaise with the ADB and the Implementing
Agencies (IAs), viz., BPDB, PGCB, DESCO, and DESA to assure the RF is carried out as
agreed between the GoB and ADB. The CRO will ensure that the RF guides the preparation
of Subproject RPs, so appropriate entitlements and mitigation measures are established in the
RPs.

A Land Acquisition and Resettlement Support Team will be established within the each IA’s
Project Implementing Unit (PIU), consisting of a domestic Social Development Specialist
and a Chief Resettlement Officer (CRO). The Team’s responsibility will include preparation,
implementation, and monitoring of the RP; stakeholder participation; information
dissemination, and liaison with other government agencies, in particular with the CRO
appointed by Power Cell.

Internally, the IA’s PIU will conduct monthly internal monitoring of the progress of the
planned land acquisition and resettlement activities. The Land Acquisition Officer (LAO), in
the Office of the Deputy Commissioner will assist the PIU for monitoring of the progress of
land acquisition. An External Monitoring and Evaluation Agency will be commissioned for
annual, mid-term and end-term monitoring and evaluation of these activities.

The IAs will appoint an Implementing NGO with experience, knowledge of, and contacts
with APs to assist the PIU in:
       Preparing the List of APs
       Monitoring the Compensation Payments
       Gathering and sharing information and avoiding potential problems




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The Implementing NGOs will assist the IA to deliver supplementary direct and indirect
payments to reach replacement cost, and other assistance such as one-time Cash Grant to
vulnerable groups as well as provision of training and credit for business start-up.

The Implementing NGO will open, as required, field offices in affected districts and will
involve APs, including women, in the implementation process. The Implementing NGOs will
also liaise with IAs and the Contractors to assist the APs, especially women and other
vulnerable persons to, as feasible, obtain employment during the construction period. The IAs
will make provision in the Contractor contracts for preferential employment of qualified APs,
including affected women in Subproject works.

The relevant DCs will be responsible for acquisition of land for the Subprojects. The RC will
ensure co-ordination between various relevant offices, particularly DC at the District level,
and the Implementing NGO. The DC, with IA and AP representatives, will conduct a Joint
Verification Survey of properties on the affected land based on the Land Acquisition Plan
that will be submitted by the IA’s PIU to the DC. Construction activities will not commence
and land will not be possessed until the people affected have been properly compensated.

A Public Consultative Committee (PCC) at the Thana (Upzila) level will be formed to
supervise the Compensation Payment to APs. The PCC will include representative of the
District Deputy Commissioner, the Thana Nirbahi Officer, Public Representatives, concerned
Union Chairmen, representatives of the IAs, and representative of selected NGOs having a
good reputation in the area. To ensure that APs receive full compensation, the PCC will
supervise payments of compensation to the APs. The PCC will visit points geographically
close to the AP for payments, including whatever cash options the APs prefer. Such
committees will also be vital for ensuring that project monitoring and implementation take
place effectively, and that monitoring will provide feedback into Project implementation.

MPEMR, through a gazette notification, will form various committees/teams for
implementation of the RP at the field level. Joint Verification Teams (JVTs) will be formed
to carry out the physical verification. The Implementing NGOs will computerize losses of
physical assets and their owners identified by the JVTs. Property Valuation Advisory Teams
(PVATs) will be formed to review the assessment of the implementing NGO on the market
price of land and other property affected by the Subproject at their replacement cost. The
Resettlement Coordinator (RC) at the Subproject Office (SMO) level will chair the
JVT/PVAT as convener and representative of the implementing NGO will act as the member
secretary. Grievances Redress Committees (GRCs) will be formed for resolving any
grievances involving Resettlement Benefits, relocation, and other assistance. The scope and
responsibility of these committees/teams will clearly be defined in the gazette.

RESETTLEMENT BUDGET AND FINANCING
The cost of land acquisition and resettlement for the five T/L Subprojects is estimated at
$2.721 million, including physical contingencies. The Government will provide the entire
fund for land acquisition and resettlement. The fund will be released through Deputy
Commissioner’s offices for acquired properties, whereas all other additional benefits will be
paid directly by the IAs through the Implementing NGOs.

The IA will further ensure that resettlement budgets are delivered on time to the DC’s Office
and the Implementing NGO, for timely RP implementation.


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The total land to be acquired the T/L Subprojects is 35 acres. Based on the SES and a series
of Public Consultations on the proposed compensation package, a Compensation Matrix has
been prepared (Table 88). The budgeted provision will be made in the Project Proforma (PP),
which will be present budget estimated based on the Nov-Dec SES Field Survey.

In addition to the budget provisions, the Project Proforma (PP) will be adjusted to take into
account urban lands to be bought on a willing seller/willing buyer basis but which could not
be assessed at this time due to the early stage of the planning process and lack of siting
studies for these. The same will hold true for the Khulna Peaking Power Plant, as concept
level studies are updated to design level.

The payment schedule will be in two stages. The compensation for land acquisition involve
the transfer of money to Deputy Commissioner on his requisition as per the Land Acquisition
Act (LAA). The other entitlement for the APs will be directly paid by the IA & the NGO
appointed for implementation of the RP. The second stage of payment of compensation
package will carried unit during the construction of the Subprojects. Whereas the
construction of the Transmission Lines does not usually involve much land acquisition, but
instead temporary use of land involving damage to the standing crop (20.9 acres) and other
temporary structures on the ROW, the budget has included cost for acquiring land under the
transmission pole pods as well as the compensation of standing crops and any structures that
the owners may wish to move out of the ROW, as will be determined through consultation by
the Implementing NGO during construction.




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                                                              Total RP Budget for Subprojects, in Taka and US$

                                                                                                      3 T/L Subprojects         Dhaka T/L Subprojects         Total RP Budget
Compensation Items                                                                               Million Tk    Million US$) 8   Million Tk Million US$   Million Tk Million US$
1. Land: (Ccl Plus 50% Premium For All Categories Of Total Land)                                  33.863            0.521        45.644       0.702       79.507         1.223

I. Agriculture                                                                                    13.138            0.20         22.675        0.35       35.813        0.55
II. Homestead                                                                                     3.450             0.05         2.933         0.05       6.383         0.98
III. Commercial                                                                                   4.618             0.07         2.933         0.05       7.551         0.12
IV. Low Land/Water Bodies                                                                         1.369             0.02         1.888         0.03       3.257         0.05
V. 50% Premium On CCL For All Categories Of Land                                                  11.288            0.17         15.215        0.23       29.503        0.45

2. Structure All Types (Average Price):                                                            7.056           0.109         13.475       0.702       20.531       0.811

3. Compensation To Crops (@ Tk. 12/KGX 2025/Acre).                                                  391            0.006          0.117       0.002                    0.008
A. Sub Total: Sl 1-3 (Paid By DC Office)                                                          41.310           0.636         59.236       0.911      100.546       1.547
4 Relocation Grants (10% Of The Structure Value)                                                   0.706            0.01         1.348        0.02        2.054        0.03
5. House Construction Grants (10% Of The Structure Value)                                         0.706            0.01          1.348        0.02        2.054        0.03
6. Compensation For Loss Of Access Land By Tenant Cultivators @ Tk 200/Decimal                     0.097           0.001          0.039       0.001       0.136        0.002
7.Relocation Grants For Rental And Other Households @ Tk.3000/Household                            0.120           0.002          0.174       0.003       0.294        0.005
8.Additional Cash Grant To Match Market Value Of Land (Subject To Purchase Of Replacement          4.600            0.07           6.15        0.10       10.75         0.17
Land)
9 Stamp Duty For Land Registration (22% Of Deed Value)                                             7.452            0.12         11.83         0.18       19.282        0.30
10 Loss Of Income Of Households During Relocation And Transition Period. @ Tk. 125 Daily X For     1.800            0.03         5.029          0.8       6.829         0.11
90 Days Each
11 Additional Assistance To Female Headed Households @ Tk. 3000/ Household                         0.048           0.001         0.039        0.001       0.087        0.001
12. Administrative Cost Of Ea’s Resettlement Unit (Lump Sum)                                       5.000           0.08           5.0         0.08        10.00        0.15


8   1 US$ = 65 Tk




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                                                                                                  3 T/L Subprojects         Dhaka T/L Subprojects         Total RP Budget
Compensation Items                                                                           Million Tk    Million US$) 8   Million Tk Million US$   Million Tk Million US$
13. Hiring Of NGO For Resettlement Implementation (Lump Sum)                                   7.500             0.12           7.5        0.12         15.00         0.23
B. Sub Total: Sl 4-13 (To Be Paid By The EA)                                                  28.029            0.431        32.193       0.495        60.222        0.926
Total (A&B)                                                                                   69.339            1.067         91.429      1.406       160.768        2.473
15. Contingency@10% Of Total Costs (A&B)                                                       6.934            0.107          9.143      0.141        16.077        0.248
Grand Total                                                                                   76.273            1.174        100.572      1.547       176.845        2.721




                                                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                     29
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IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE
All resettlement activities will be coordinated with the civil works. Land acquisition activity
will be determined after Detailed Design SES is carried out.

MONITORING AND EVALUATION
Resettlement monitoring means the collection, analysis, reporting and use of information
about the progress of resettlement, based on the RP. Monitoring focuses on physical and
financial targets and delivery of entitlements to people affected. The IAs, and Implementing
NGOs to be appointed by the IAs will jointly monitor the disbursement of funds. The
following matrix outlines the major inputs and outputs, as well as the indicators that would be
used for monitoring progress in the RP implementation process and shown below:

                               Proposed Monitoring Procedure and Indicators

Input                                     Output                                  Indicator
Organizational
PCC formed                                IA forms PCC and provides Terms of      Minutes of first meeting and issues
                                          Reference                               discussed
Implementing NGO appointed by IA          Implementing NGO reports                Contract Document and TOR
                                          mobilization of staff. Information
                                          dissemination and consultation starts
Land acquisition and compensation
payment
Notice under Section 3 issued             APs knows about acquisition             % of APs responded to the notice
                                                                                  Copy of notice collected by PCC &
                                                                                  reported to PGCB
CCL processing started                    Valuation of assets started             % of legal owners identified by DC
Notice under Section 6 issued             APs learn about legal documents         % of APs with required documents
NGO’s assist APs to record the names                                              % of APs have disputed ownership
of rightful ownership
Compensation estimate finalized by DC     Funds placed with DC                    Bank Receipt/ Acknowledgement
Implementing NGOs start consultation      Additional resettlement assistance if   Final list of APs
and undertake Census of APs and           required estimated                      Legal owners receive ID if
estimates fair compensation by land                                               necessary
parcel
Notice under Section 7 issued and CCL     APs learn about amount of               % of APs receive CCL
Payment started                           compensation                            % of APs goes for appeal
IAs pay additional resettlement           IAs pay and NGO supervises              Bank Receipt/ Acknowledgement
assistance if required
Implementing NGO monitors                 APs receive additional assistance, if   Documentation supported by PCC
disbursement of additional resettlement   required
assistance

Monitoring & Evaluation of Resettlement Operations
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) are the critical activities in resettlement operations.
Resettlement monitoring is a continuous process of data collection; analysis and reporting
about the progress of work against set objectives or expectations. The implementation of the
RP will be monitored both internally & externally to provide feedback to the IA and to assess
the effectiveness of resettlement policy and implementation.


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Internal Monitoring
The internal monitoring by the IA will deal with all aspects of Land Acquisition and
Resettlement at the Subproject as well as field levels. The Project Management, particularly
the Projector Director or IA’s CRO will be responsible for monitoring the progress of
resettlement activities at the Subproject level, which includes:
       Information Campaign and Consultation with the APs;
       Status of Land Acquisition and Compensation Payments;
       Compensation for Lost Structures and Assets;
       Relocation of APs; and
       Payment of Income Restoration Assistance.

The benchmark for Subproject level monitoring will come from land acquisition and the
census.

The Implementing NGO will conduct field level monitoring and assess the daily operation of
land acquisition and resettlement activities. The mechanisms to be used in the field level
monitoring include:
       Review of AP Files ;
       Informal Sample Survey of APs ;
       Key Informant Interviews ;
       In-Depth Case Studies ; and
       Community/Public Meetings.

External Monitoring
The External Monitoring will be conducted through the Donors’ review mission by an
International Resettlement Specialist on an intermittent basis during the implementation of
the Project. External monitoring involves review of resettlement implementation, verification
of the results of internal monitoring in the field, and consultation with APs, officials, and
community leaders for preparing review reports.

The specific tasks and methodology for external monitoring shall include:
       Review of pre-project baseline data on APs ;
       Identification & selection of an appropriate set of indicators for gathering and
       analyzing information on resettlement impacts ;
       Use of various formal and informal surveys for impact analysis ; and
       Assessment of the resettlement efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability,
       drawing lessons as a guide to future resettlement policy making and planning.
The external monitoring will commence in the first quarter of the project implementation &
shall continue through the implementation of the Project.




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Section 1                                     Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement

1.1       INTRODUCTION
1.2       PROPOSED INVESTMENT PSDP II SUBPROJECTS
1.2.1     Location of the Investment Projects
The proposed PSDP II Investment Subprojects are:
          A BPDB 100 MW Peaking Plant in Khulna;
          Under PGCB, a 400 kV Aminbazar-Meghnaghat Transmission Line (T/L) with
          System improvements in Dhaka and three 132 kV Transmission Lines serving
          towns in Bangladesh’s NW Area, with associated Substations;
          For DESA, seven new 132 and 33 kV Substations and associated overhead and
          cable Transmission Lines, as well as rehabilitation of ten existing Substations; and
          For DESCO, Distribution System upgrades in Dhaka, including six new 132 and
          33 kV Substations with associated 33 & 11 kV Transmission Lines and
          rehabilitation of four existing Substations.

                    Table 1: Investment Subprojects under the Proposed Sector Loan

A       BPDB GENERATION PROJECTS
        1.  100 MW Peaking Plant in Khulna (Western Zone)
B.      PGCB TRANSMISSION PROJECTS
        1.  400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar T/L & Improvements Around Dhaka
            400 kV, 50 Km Overhead (O/H) Line from Meghnaghat to Aminbazar
            Two 230 kV bay extensions at Aminbazar and two at Meghnaghat
        2.  132 kV Improvements Around Ullon
            132 kV, 3 Km Line Underground (U/G) Cable from Ullon to Rampura
            Renovation of 132/33 kV Substations (SS) at Ullon and Hasnabad
        3.  System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area
            230 kV, 10 km Double Circuit (4 O/H, 6 U/G) Anminbazar to Old Airport
            230/132 kV 2x300 MVA SS at Old Airport
            132 kV, 7 Km U/G Double Circuit for Connecting New SS
            Two 132/33 kV, 2x80/120 SS at Old Airport and Dhaka University
        4.  132 kV T/Ls and SS in Western and Northern Regions
            73 Km O/H Line from Chuadanga to Jhenaidaha to Magura
            40 Km O/H Line from Naogaon to Joypurhat
            45 Km O/H Line from Thakurgaon to Panchagarh
            Three 132/33 kV, 2x25/41 MVA SS; One Each at Magura, Chuadanga, and Joypurhat
            One 132/33 kV 15/20 MVA SS at Panchagarh
C.      DESA DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
        1.  Emergency Rehabilitation of Ten 33/11 kV Substations at Khilgaon, Satmasjid, Jigatala, Dhanmandi, Tejgaon,
            Kazla, Postagola, Fatulla, Demra, and Lalbag
        2.  Seven (7) New Substation to Meet Existing and New Demand including Two (2) 132/33 kV Substation, Five (5)
            33/11 kV Substations, and 132 and 33 kV O/H Lines and U/G Cables.
        3.  Upgrade Transformers at Shyampur, Maghbazar, and Maniknagar 132/33 kV Substations to 50/75 MVA
        4.  Upgrade Shyampur 11 kV Switching Station to 33/11 kV Substations
D.      DESCO DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS


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      1.    Gulshan Distribution System Upgrade
            Four (4) New 33/11 kV SS at Badda, Basundhara, DOHS Mahakhali, and Zia Intl Airport
            Rehabilitation of Three (3) Existing 33/11 kV SS at Kafrul, Uttara, and ADA
            33 & 11 kV Underground Cables, 11 kV Switchgears, 11 & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors & O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
            Distribution Trans-Formers, Voltage Regulators, Etc
      2.    Mirpur Distribution System Upgrade
            Two (2) New 33/11 kV SS at Baunia and Mirpur
            Rehabilitation of Existing Mirpur 33/11 kV SS
            33 & 11 kV Underground Cables, 11 kV Switchgears, 11 & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors & O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
            Distribution Trans-Formers, Voltage Regulators, Etc.

These are shown above in more detail in Table 2 below, which indicates the level of Project
development to date (all are at Concept Paper stage) and which ones have potential
Resettlement Effects.

The Sector Loan Subprojects are shown in Tables 1 and 2 in the order of their Implementing
Agencies (IAs). However, the discussion and presentation of orientation figures below is in
the order the geographical areas in which the Subprojects are found, i.e., Khulna, the
Northwest, and the Dhaka areas of Bangladesh. This simplifies discussion of socioeconomic
context of the projects and their poverty and socioeconomic impacts on their surrounding
regions.

Figure 1 below is an Orientation Map for the proposed PSDP II Investment Projects, showing
the 100 MW Peaking Power Plant at Khulna in the West, the three Transmission Lines
(Chaudanga-Jhenaidaha-Magura, 73 km; Naogon-Joypurhat, 40 km; Thakurgaon-Pahchgarh,
45 km) in the NW for a total 158 km and the Dhaka area, where the 50 km Aminbazar-
Meghnaghat 400 kV T/L can be seen. The Projects are found in ten Districts from the North
and South Western and Central parts of Bangladesh.




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Section 1                                                                Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




             Figure 1: Overall Orientation Map for PSDP II Investment Projects, Bangladesh 9




9   BETS (2005)


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Section 1                                                                                   Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




1.2.1.1       100 MW Peaking Power Plant at Khulna
BPDP prepared a Development Project Proposal (DPP) in September 2005. 10 The DPP has
presented a rationale for the Subproject, based on the demand for Electricity increasing ‘day
by day.’ The present Install Capacity in the BPDB’s System is 4,995 MW, with dependable
Generation Capacity of 4,144 MW. According to the DPP, it is necessary to take steps to
increase the Generation capability to meet the increasing demand in relation to supply. As per
the Power System Master Plan’s (PSMP) Reference Forecast, Bangladesh’s maximum
Electricity demand will be 5,801 MW in 2007-2008. To meet this increasing demand, as per
recommendation of the PSMP, various new power plants will need to be set up across the
country.

The current demand for Power in the Western Zone mainly depends on the Generation of the
Eastern Zone. The demand for Power in Peak Hours in the Western Zone is nearly about
1,508 MW. But the present Generation Capacity is only 672 MW.

Khulna is Bangladesh’s third largest Load Center and Industrial Area, but it is in a Power
shortage region. The Electricity demand of Greater Khulna is presently 400 MW. The
present demand has been only partially met by Khulna’s existing plants. At the site for the
proposed site on the Bhairab River for the new 100 MW Peaking Power Plant are a 60 MW
and a 110 MW Oil (HSFO)-based Steam Thermal unit as well as two 28 MW barge mounted
SCGT units. In addition there is a 110 MW plant (60 MW Barge Mounted Units No. 1 & 2) 11
set up by Khulna Power Company Ltd. (KPCL), an Independent Power Producer (IPP) which
both produces power and imports it through the National Grid System. 12

Figures 2 below shows the Plant location within Khulna City, and Figure 3 shows an early
planning layout of the Plant site.




10   Power Division, BPDB. 2005. Development Project Proposal (DPP): Construction of Khulna 100 MW Peaking Power Plant. Dhaka:
     Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources. September.
11   BPDB has also planned to install a 210 MW oil fired Steam Thermal power plant at the site for which adequate space is available.
     The existing 60 and 110 MW units are scheduled to be retired by 2009 and 2019 respectively. In this space, a 450 MW Combined
     Cycle plant may be installed after gas is available at the site. There is no space at the site for further expansion. A new site on the
     bank of the Rupsa River may also be developed for installation of about 2000 MW gas based Combined Cycle plant. It is expected
     that gas supply would be available by 2010. Nexant. 2005. Draft Interim Report: Component B: Power Sector Master Plan Update.
     ADB TA No. 4370-BAN: Power Sector Development Program Update. Dhaka. August 15.
12   The 110-MW Khulna Barge Mounted Power Plant was set up as the country’s first IPP plant in 1997. KPCL is a joint venture of El
     Paso International USA. Summit Industrial & Mercantile Corporation (Pvt.) Limited, United Enterprises & Co. Ltd. and Wartsila NSD
     Corporation, Finland. Summit was founded in 1972 and has since established holdings in the storage, process and transportation
     industries. United was founded in 1978 and has worked closely with Summit on a number of projects, including Bangladesh Tanks
     Terminal, Bangladesh’s largest private liquid product bulk storage terminal located in Chittagong. Summit and United are the local
     partners of Coastal Corporation and Wartsila in the Khulna Power Project. Wartsila Bangladesh Ltd are the operators of KPCL. The
     power barge Tiger I and Tiger III consist of 19 Wartsila diesel engines capable of producing 114 MW of electricity. Each barge is 91.5
     meter long and 24 meter wide. http://www.summit-centre.com/co/p_kpcl.html and
     http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/southasia.nsf/Content/SelectedProject?OpenDocument&UNID=71FA8D78099639EA8525688E00710F1F


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                 Figure 2: Khulna City 100 MW Peaking Plant at Existing Power Plant Site13




13   Based on: Mainuddin, ADM. 2005 Jahan Atlas. Dhaka: AKM Mainuddin, Publisher.


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                   Figure 3: Khulna City 100 MW Peaking Plant Draft Layout Drawing 14




14 Power Division, BPDB. 2005. Development Project Proposal (DPP): Construction of Khulna 100 MW Peaking Power Plant. Dhaka:
   Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources. September.


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1.2.1.2       Three Transmission Lines in W and NW Bangladesh
PGCB prepared a Project Concept Paper (PCP) for this project in February 2003. 15 The PCP
has outlined the rationale for the three Transmission Lines proposed as Investment Projects
under PSDP II and their associated Substations.

There are 230 and 132 kV Transmission Line Networks throughout Bangladesh, which have
connected the Center (Dhaka) through all of the Electricity Generation Centers. On the other
hand, the Electricity is being distributed through several main Load Centers. The Generation
centers located in the Eastern Bangladesh produce Electricity at a lower cost, because they
use Natural Gas/Steam Turbine and Hydroelectricity. The East-West Inter-Connector has a
230 kV Transmission Line. This Eastern Electricity is being sent to the Western Grid. The
three Transmission Lines being proposed and their associated Substations are below, with
their rationale (primarily to reduce voltage loss and leakage to supply stable Electricity in the
beneficiary areas) as presented in the PCP:

73 Km O/H Line from Chuadanga to Jhenaidaha to Magura. At present Electricity is being
supplied to Chuadanga 16 from a 132 kV Substation at Jhenaidaha and through a 45 km long
33 kV Jhenaidaha to Chaudanga T/L, which at the present demand of about 22 MW, is
overloaded. The demand will reach just over 35 MW by 2007, which will be impossible to
serve through the existing 33 kV Lines. As such, PGCP makes the case that a new 132 kV
line from Jhenaidaha to Chuadanga and construction of a Substation 132 kV at Chuadanga is
essential. Presently Magura and the adjoining areas are being supplied from the Jhenaidaha
by a 132 kV Grid Substation through a Jhenaidaha to Magura 33 kV T/L. The present load of
Magura area is 12.5 MW, and by 2007 the demand will go up to 20 MW. Therefore, PGCP
is also proposing a new 28 km 132 kV Transmission Line and a 132/33 kV Substation at
Magura.

40 Km O/H Line from Naogaon to Joypurhat. The Joypurhat Area is being supplied by the
Electricity produced at Naogaon. 17 At Naogaon, there is a 132 kV Substation supplied
through 33 kV Lines. The distance from Naogaon to Joypurhat is 50 Km, and the demand at
Joypurhat area is 14 MW. This demand will rise to 23 MW by 2007. But the 33 kV Line
cannot cope with the increasing load of the area, and there has been frequent Load Shedding
because of the inadequacies of the Lines. So to meet the increasing demand of Joypurhat
area and the improvement of the present Line, a 132 kV Line construction and a 132/33 kV
Substation is essential at Joypurhat.

45 Km O/H Line from Thakurgaon to Panchagarh. At present there is a 132 kV Transmission
Line to Thakurgaon from the Western Grid. From this 132 kV Line from the Western Grid to
Thakurgaon, a 45 km long 33 kV line supplies Electricity from Thakurgaon to Panchagarh
area. Presently the 33 kV Substation at Panchagarh supplies a demand of 12 MW. The
demand of Electricity in Panchagarh is estimated to increase to 20 MW by 2007, which the
existing 33 kV Line and Substation cannot support. As such, PGCP argues that the


15   PGCB. 2003. Project Concept Paper (PCP): Three Transmission Line Project (132 kV). Dhaka: The Power Grid Company of
     Bangladesh Ltd. February. No feasibility for this proposed project had been done, but the PGCB engineers surveyed the area, and all
     three 132 kV proposed lines and decided through the PCP to complete the work by 2006/07 financial year, because the capacity of
     the existing transmission lines to these areas had already become exhausted.
16   And also to Meherpur and Dharashana.
17   Instead of Naogaon, the PCP refers to Palasbar here. This is possibly a mistake, though it needs to be cross checked.


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Section 1                                                                       Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement



Thakurgaon-Panchagarh 132 kV Line construction and construction of a 132/33 kV
Substation at Panchagarh has become essential.

The following is a summary of the major components of the proposed Project:

Lines:
1 Chuadanga-Jhenaidaha-              73 km long 132 kV dual circuit steel tower (conductor-Gross Beak 636 MCM. SESR).
    Magura:                          Transmission Line
2 Naogaon- Joypurhat:                40 km long 132 kV dual circuit steel tower (conductor-Gross Beak 636 MCM. SESR).
                                     Transmission Line
3      Thakurgaon-Panchagarh:        45 km long 132 kV dual circuit steel tower (conductor-Gross Beak 636 MCM. SESR).
                                     Transmission Line
New Substations:
1 Chuadanga:                   2x25/41 MVA Transformer Installations, New 132/33 Kv Substation
2 Magura:                      2x25/41 MVA Transformer Installations, New 132/33 Kv Substation
3 Joypurhat:                   2x25/41 MVA Transformer Installations, New 132/33 Kv Substation
4 Panchagarh:                  2x25/41 MVA Transformer Installations, New 132/33 Kv Substation
Expansion of Existing Substations:18
1 Jhenaidaha:                  Expansion of the Existing 132 kV Substation: Bay for 4 lines
2 Naogaon:                     Expansion of the Existing 132 kV Substation: Bay for 2 lines
3 Thakurgaon:                  Expansion of the Existing 132 kV Substation: Bay for 2 lines



Figure 4 below shows the Chuadanga to Jhenaidaha to Magura 73 Km 132 kV Transmission
Line in Khulna Division. Figure 5 shows Naogaon to Joypurhat 40 Km 132 kV Transmission
Line in Rajshahi Division. And Figure 6 shows the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh Proposed 45 Km
132 kV Transmission Line in Rajshahi Division.




18   Necessary equipment included.


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     Figure 4: Chuadanga to Jhenaidaha to Magura 73 Km 132 kV Transmission Line (T/L), Khulna
                                            Division 19




19   Based on Banglapedia (2004)


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Section 1                                                                     Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




          Figure 5: Naogaon to Joypurhat 40 Km 132 kV Transmission Line, Rajshahi Division 20




20   Based on Banglapedia (2004)


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Section 1                                                                     Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




        Figure 6: Thakurgaon-Panchagarh Proposed 45 Km 132 kV Transmission Line, Rajshahi
                                           Division 21




21   Based on Banglapedia (2004)


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Section 1                                                             Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement



Dhaka Municipality will benefit from (1) the 400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission
Line & Improvements around Dhaka; (2) 132 kV Improvements around Ullon; (3) System
Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area; and (4) DESA and DESCO Distribution
Projects. The Consultants estimate that the 400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar T/L will initially
operate at 230 kV for several years until additional Generating units are installed at
Meghnaghat and will facilitate transmission of 1,500 million kWh annually while operating
at 230 kV.

Figure 7 below shows the Aminbazar-Meghnaghat 400 kV T/L, which is expected to run
parallel to an existing 230 kV line from Aminbazar Substation (just to the West of Dhaka,
across the Buriganga River) for about 20 km to just before Hasnabad Substation (which lies
just south of the Buriganga River across the China Bridge) and then runs southeastward about
30 km to Meghnaghat Powerplant, which will provide the electricity for the line.
Figure 8 below shows the proposed DESA and DESCO Projects in the Dhaka Municipality,
totaling some thirteen new Substations, rehabilitation of fourteen Substations and associated
equipment, overhead Lines, and underground cables.
                   Figure 7: Aminbazar-Meghnaghat 400 kV Transmission Line 22




22   BETS (2005)


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Section 1                                                            Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




                           Figure 8: Dhaka City Investment Projects 23




23   BETS (2005).


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Section 1                                                                    Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




1.3         SUBPROJECT BACKGROUND
Because it’s a Sector Loan, this is a complex Project. The Power Cell, Power Division,
Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) is the Executing Agency (EA).
However, there are four Implementing Agencies (IAs) for ten Subprojects, in three Divisions
(Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshani) in ten Districts in the Central, Northwestern and Western Zones of
Bangladesh. The institutional and implementation implications of this require a Resettlement
Framework (RF) be developed. With this, [probably] the Aminbazar-Meghnaghat T/L may
be developed as a Short RP to serve as a model for the other RPs that will be approved by
ADB for commencement of subproject beyond the detailed design phase.

Table 2 below shows the Investment Subprojects under the proposed Loan that have been
identified as having potential resettlement effects.
                     Table 2: Investment Subprojects under Proposed Sector Loan
                                 Having Potential Resettlement Effects

                  IA                    Project Preparation                   Potential Resettlement Effects
A.    BPDB GENERATION PROJECTS
1.    100 MW Peaking Plant     BPDB. 2005. Development Project      BPDB says the Plant will be on existing site.
      in Khulna (Western       Proposal (DPP): Construction of      However, DPP indicates land acquisition for
      Zone)                    Khulna 100 MW Peaking Power          residential area (equal to Plant Area) will be
                               Plant. Dhaka: MPEMR (Power           needed, location not yet decided. DPP budget
                               Division). September                 shows no allocation for land acquisition.
B.    PGCB TRANSMISSION PROJECTS
1.    400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission Line & Improvements Around Dhaka
a)    400 kV, 50 Km            PGCB. 2005. In House Study for       No Right-Of-Way (ROW) Study Exists.
      Overhead (O/H) Line      Meghnaghat-Aminbazar 400 kV:         In House Study recommends Route Survey is
      from Meghnaghat to       Transmission Line. September.        performed as soon as possible after approval of
      Aminbazar                                                     Project.
3.    System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area
a)    230 kV, 10 km Double     No Documentation Available.          No ROW Study Exists. 4 km O/H will go from
      Circuit (4 O/H, 6 U/G)                                        Aminbazar SS to pass by but not connect with
      Anminbazar to Old                                             another existing SS. From near that SS it will be 6
      Airport                                                       km U/G and run along Mirpur Road to new SS at
                                                                    Old Airport.
4.    132 kV Transmission Lines and SS in Western and Northern Regions
a)    73 Km O/H Line from      PGCB. 2003. Project Concept Paper No ROW Study Exists. Route is Not Decided. Line
      Chuadanga to Jhenaida (PCC): Three Transmission Line          will not use, but may parallel, existing 33 kV ROW.
      to Magura                Project (132 kV). February
                                                                      PCC indicates 23 Acres Total for the Three
                                                                      Transmission Lines Project is expected to be
                                                                      acquired. PCC Budgets: (i) Feasibility Study: 40
                                                                      Lac Taka; (ii) Route Survey and Soil Testing:
                                                                      53.72 Lac Taka; (iii) Right of Way Compensation
                                                                      for Crop Loss: 79.00 Lac Taka.
b)    40 Km O/H Line from       Same as Above                         Same as Above
      Naogaon to Jaipurhat
c)    45 Km O/H Line from       Same as Above                         Same as Above
      Thakurgaon to
      Panchagarh
d)    Three 132/33 kV,          Same as Above                         Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates land
      2x25/41 MVA SS; One                                             acquisition at 6 Acres Magura and Chaudanga



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                 IA                            Project Preparation                         Potential Resettlement Effects
       Each at Magura,                                                             each and 5 Acres at Joypurha, Total of 17 Acres.
       Chuadanga, and
       Joypurhat
d)     One 132/33 kV 15/20            Same as Above                                Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates 6
       MVA SS at Panchagarh                                                        Acres land acquisition. (Note PCC includes
                                                                                   expansion of Existing SS at Jhenaida, Naogaon,
                                                                                   and Thakurgaon. Need to confirm these are not in
                                                                                   this Loan.)
       C. DESA DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
2.     Emergency Reinforcement & Augmentation of DESA Grid System Project. 24
a)     Two New 132/33 kV SS Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.           Project Involves New SS and New 132 and 33 kV
       to Meet Existing And    Development Project Proposal        U/G Cables and O/H Lines.
       New Demand              (DPP): Emergency Reinforcement &
                               Augmentation of DESA Grid System Two 132/33 kV SS will go next to existing 33/11
                               Project. July.                      kV SSs on already owned land. No Land
                                                                                   Acquisition.
b)     Five New 33/11 kV SS           Same as Above                                Exact locations for Five 33 kV SS will have to be
                                                                                   determined and land purchased.

                                                                                   DPP allocates Budget for Acquisition & Purchase
                                                                                   of Land and Landed Properties of Assets: GOB:
                                                                                   170.000 Lac Taka, Percent of Total Project Cost =
                                                                                   0.022
c)     132 and 33 kV O/H              Same as Above                                141.5 km of 132 kV O/H line and 120.5 km of 33
       Lines and U/G Cables                                                        kV O/H lines will be required
                                                                                   (Km of U/G Cables?)
       D. DESCO DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
1.     Gulshan Distribution System Upgrade
a)     Four (4) New 33/11 kV     DESCO. 2004. Project Concept                      According to PCC, No Feasibility Study Done.
       SS at Badda,              Paper (PCC) Planning & Upgrading                  Sites Not Identified as Yet.
       Basundhara, DOHS          of Power Feeding & Distribution
       Mahakhali, and Zia Intl   System under DESCO Area.                          PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’
       Airport                                                                     Substation 200.00 Lac Taka. Unspecified Area.
2.     Mirpur Distribution System Upgrade
a)     Two (2) New 33/11 kV       DESCO. 2004. Recast Project                      According to PCC, No Feasibility Study Done.
       SS at Baunia and           Concept Paper (PCC) Strengthening                Sites Not Identified as Yet.
       Mirpur                     DESCO’s Electric Distribution
                                  Network                                          PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’
                                                                                   Substation 100.00 Lac Taka For 0.25 Acres.

None of these Investment Subprojects has advanced in project preparation past the Concept
Paper stage. None have had feasibility studies performed nor have any had routing surveys
done or determined the final siting. This is another reason for preparing an RF for this Sector
Loan. 25


24   The second of four DESA Infrastructure Projects included in the proposed Sector Loan.
25   Note that although several subprojects were processed by theADB and it had two IAs, the 2003 PSDP had no outstanding
     resettlement issues, so no RF or RP was required. ‘Resettlement. 77. The [National Load Dispatch Center] NLDC at Rampura and
     the new peak power generation plant at Siddhirganj do not require land acquisition. Both will be set up on existing sites already owned
     and managed by BPDB and PGCB. 78. Part C of the Project requires a total of 4.5 acres distributed over 10 towns with the maximum
     land requirement at any site not to exceed 0.5 acre. The land is required for construction of 33/11 kV substations. BPDB explored


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Underground cable will be laid entirely on Government land and will not have resettlement
effects. See Appendix 1. Resettlement Policy and Legal Framework for the provisions of the
Electricity Act, 1910, under which municipal approval and license will be obtained for laying
underground cable in the distribution subprojects.

1.4         RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK
1.4.1       Format and Scope of a Resettlement Framework (RF)
The Resettlement Framework sets out the resettlement policy, together with screening and
planning procedures that will apply to subprojects, components or investments that are
prepared and approved during loan implementation to ensure that they conform to ADB’s
Involuntary Resettlement (IR) Policy. The RF contains the arrangements for preparing full or
short RPs during implementation of the loan’s subprojects depending on the severity of the
involuntary resettlement impacts. The RF includes:
            Loan or investment description, including the likely scope, extent and magnitude
            of the resettlement effects;
            Screening procedures for pipeline investments or components;
            Resettlement policy principles and eligibility criteria that are consistent with the
            Policy and cover all investments, subprojects, and components under the loan;
            Resettlement entitlements;
            Resettlement design criteria; and
            Administrative, resourcing, and financing arrangements for preparation, approval,
            implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of full or short RPs.

It also sets out provisions for strengthening the Capacity of the relevant EA, Project Sponsor,
or Financial Intermediary if required to address resettlement issues. The following is a
guideline, which may be adapted to individual subprojects.




   possibilities to minimize land acquisition and four towns lowered their original land requirements from one acre to half an acre. BPDB
   has provided written confirmation that government land, free of encumbrances, will be used, and that, if needed, private land will be
   purchased through tender or direct negotiation. There will be no compulsory land acquisition. ADB will review land procurement
   procedures during loan review missions.’ ADB. 2003. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors (RRP).
   BAN 36205: On Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant to the People’s Republic of Bangladesh for The Power Sector
   Development Program. Manila. November.


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                                  Table 3: Outline of a Resettlement Framework (RF)

                       Topic                                                                 Contents
                                                      Overall likely scope of land acquisition and resettlement
                                                      Eligibility criteria for defining various categories of displaced persons
Objectives, Policy Framework, And                     A review of the borrower’s policy and legal framework for resettlement with
Entitlements                                          any gaps in this framework as compared to ADB policy
                                                      Measures proposed to bridge the gap between ADB‘s and borrower’s
                                                      policies
Socioeconomic Information 26                          Methods to be employed for preparing a population record, conducting socio-
                                                      economic survey (SES), collection of gender disaggregated socio-economic
                                                      data, asset inventory and valuation and land assessment 27
Consultation and Participation 28                     Measures proposed to ensure the
                                                      Identification of project stakeholders.
                                                      Disclosure of information about the project
                                                      Consultations for determining principles are conducted
                                                      Mechanisms for stakeholder participation in planning, management,
                                                      monitoring, and evaluation
                                                      Disclosure of RP to affected people
                                                      Involvement of local institutions or organizations to support people affected
                                                      such as non-government organizations (NGOs), women’s groups and
                                                      community-based organizations (CBOs).
Grievance Redress Mechanisms                          Mechanisms for resolution of conflicts and appeals procedures
Compensation, Relocation, and Income                  Methods proposed for valuing affected assets, and any necessary measures
Restoration                                           required to ensure replacement costs for asset and income compensation;
                                                      Measures proposed for income restoration and relocation, as required
Resettlement Budget and Financing                     Measures for proposed planning and budgeting for resettlement
                                                      Arrangements for approval for resettlement cost estimates
                                                      Flow of funds to reach people affected
                                                      Contingency arrangements
Implementation Schedule                               Timeframe and key steps to prepare implementation schedule for sub-
                                                      projects
Monitoring and Evaluation                              Steps to establish internal and independent monitoring and evaluation
Implementation Arrangements                           Assessment of the institutional capacity, resource capability and procedures
                                                      of each public or Private Sector sponsor, financial intermediary to conduct
                                                      resettlement related work.
                                                      Description of relative responsibilities of the public, private and financial
                                                      intermediary for projects involving Private Sector intermediaries.
                                                      Provision of sufficient resources for resettlement screening, RP preparation
                                                      and implementation, during the course of the loan implementation.
Formal Agreement By The EA
Covenant In RRP And Loan Agreements
Disclosure Of Full RP On ADB Website Upon Project Approval




26   The Resettlement Framework will, wherever feasible, identify the likely overall effects and costs of land acquisition and resettlement
     effects, but it does not need to include a detailed population record, land and asset data specific to a particular affected group.
27   Includes Gender Impact and Mitigative Measures to ensure that socio-economic condition, needs, and priorities of women are
     identified Measures to ensure that process of land acquisition and resettlement does not disadvantage women and that land/house
     titles should be in the name of both spouses.
28   Information Dissemination, Consultation, Participatory Approaches and Disclosure Requirements


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1.4.2       Format and Scope of Short and Full Resettlement Plans (RPs)
Resettlement is Significant where 200 or more people experience major impacts. Major
impacts are defined as when the affected people are physically displaced from housing and/or
more than 10% of their productive assets (income generating) are lost. (ADB Handbook on
Resettlement. 1998). If a RF is prepared, then a Full RP for one of the subprojects having
significant resettlement effects will be submitted along with the RF as the prototype for
preparing RPs for the other subprojects as they approach the detailed design stage. If the
Socioeconomic Survey (SES) finds none of the subprojects likely to have significant
Resettlement Effects, a Short RP may be prepared as such a prototype and submitted along
with the RF.

Appendix E is a Summary Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy (SPRSS) Form that will be
filled out in accordance with the SES findings, in late December 2005 or early January 2006,
and the appropriate resettlement document(s) will be finalized. Whether or not an RF and/or
an RP will be required, and whether a Short or Full RP will be indicated in the SPRSS Form
and the Resettlement Categorization Form, presented in Appendix F.

Assuming that, since this is a Sector Loan, an RF will be prepared, Appendix I provides a
very preliminary draft of an RF for this TA Project. The RF and/or an RP will be finalized
based on the final results of the SES, which will indicate potential Resettlement Effects of the
several subprojects, provide a socioeconomic profile of the affected communities and
Affected Persons (APs), and lay out a time frame for implementation and a budget to assure
that adequate resources are allocated in the Sector Loan for addressing Resettlement Effects.

                                Table 4: Outline of a Short Resettlement Plan (RP)

               Topic                                                                 Contents
Executive Summary
Scope of Land Acquisition and                Alternative options, if any, considered minimizing land acquisition and its effects,
Resettlement                                 and why the remaining effects are unavoidable.
                                             Summary of key effects in terms of land acquired, assets lost, numbers of people
                                             affected, and socio-economic data 29
Objectives, Policy Framework, And            Borrower’s policy and legal framework for resettlement, with any gaps in this
Entitlements                                 framework as compared to ADB policy 30
                                             Measures proposed to bridge the gap between ADBs and borrower’s policies
                                             Eligibility policy and entitlement matrix for all categories of loss, including
                                             compensation rates at replacement costs.




29 Includes Gender Impact and Mitigative Measures to ensure that socio-economic condition, needs, and priorities of women are identified
Measures to ensure that process of land acquisition and resettlement does not disadvantage women and that land/house titles should be
in the name of both spouses.
30 ADB. 1995. Policy on Involuntary Resettlement. Manila. November. Also ADB. 1998. Handbook on Involuntary Resettlement: A Guide

to Good Practice. Manila and ADB. 2003. Operation Manual (OM) Section F2. Involuntary Resettlement. Manila. October 29




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                 Topic                                                       Contents
Consultation, Grievance Redress, and Identification of project stakeholders.
Participation 31                     Disclosure of project Information
                                     Consultations for determining principles
                                     Mechanisms for stakeholder participation in planning, management, monitoring,
                                     and evaluation
                                     Disclosure of RP to affected people
                                     Local institutions or organizations to support people affected. Potential role of non-
                                     government organizations (NGOs), women’s groups and community-based
                                     organizations (CBOs).
                                     Mechanisms for resolution of conflicts and appeals procedures
Compensation, Relocation, and Income Arrangements for valuing and disbursing compensation.
Restoration                          Arrangements for housing relocation, including transfer, re-establishment and
                                     integration with host populations
                                     Income restoration measures
                                     Environmental risks identification and arrangements for environmental
                                     management and monitoring.
Institutional Framework              Main tasks and responsibilities in planning, managing and monitoring land
                                     acquisition and resettlement.
                                     Ensure that (i) women’s groups are involved in resettlement planning,
                                     management and operations, job creation and income generation; and (ii) female
                                     staff should be hired by the resettlement agency to work with and assist women in
                                     all aspects of resettlement activities.
Resettlement Budget and Financing    Land acquisition and resettlement costs and funding sources including
                                     arrangements for timely disbursement to APs.
Implementation Schedule                        Time bound actions for projected activities to ensure that people affected are
                                               compensated and assisted before award of civil works contracts..
Monitoring and Evaluation             Arrangements for M&E.
                                      Impact on women monitored and evaluated separately
Arrangements For Reviewing RP At Detailed Technical/Engineering Design If This Is Not Yet Complete
Formal Agreement By The EA
Covenant In RRP And Loan Agreements
Disclosure Of Full RP On ADB Website Upon Project Approval




31   Information Dissemination, Consultation, Participatory Approaches and Disclosure Requirements


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                                   Table 5: Outline of a Full Resettlement Plan (RP)

          Topic                                                                 Contents
Executive Summary
Scope of Land Acquisition
and Resettlement                Scope of and rationale for land acquisition
                                Alternative options, if any, considered to minimize land acquisition and its effects, and justification
                                for remaining effects
                                Key effects in terms of land acquired, assets lost, and number of people affected.
                                Primary responsibilities for land acquisition and resettlement.

Socioeconomic Information       Population record of people affected
                                Data on existing economic and social conditions of affected people, including SES. Gender
                                disaggregated socio-economic data is necessary.
                                Asset inventory, land assessment and assessment of other losses resulting from land acquisition,
                                taking into account social, cultural, and economic impact on people affected.
                                Details on common property resources, if any.
                                Project impact on the poor, indigenous people, ethnic minorities, and other vulnerable groups,
                                including women,
                                Special measures needed to enhance economic and social base of vulnerable groups. 32
Objectives, Policy              Purpose and objectives of land acquisition and resettlement.
Framework, and                  Borrower’s policy and legal framework for resettlement, with any gaps in this framework as
Entitlements                    compared to ADB policy
                                Measures proposed to bridge the gap between ADB and borrower’s policies
                                Principles, legal and policy commitments from executing agency for different categories of project
                                impacts.
                                Eligibility policy and entitlement matrix for all categories of loss, including compensation rates at
                                replacement costs.
                                Principles for determining valuation and compensation for assets, incomes and livelihoods
Consultation and                Identification of project stakeholders.
Participation 33                Disclosure of project information
                                Consultations for determining principles
                                Mechanisms for stakeholder participation in planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation
                                Disclosure of RP to affected people
                                Local institutions or organizations to support people affected. Potential role of non-government
                                organizations (NGOs), women’s groups and community-based organizations (CBOs).
Grievance Redress
                                Mechanisms for resolution of conflicts and appeals procedures
Mechanisms
Relocation of Housing and       Options for relocation of housing and other structures, including replacement housing,
Settlements                     replacement cash compensation, and/or self selection.
                                Measures to assist with transfer and establishment at new sites.
                                Options for developing relocation sites, if required, in terms of location, quality of site, and
                                development needs.
                                Plan for layout, design, and social infrastructure and services for each site.
                                Measures for planned integration with host communities
                                Special measures for addressing gender issues and those related to vulnerable groups.
                                Environmental risks identification and arrangements for environmental management and

 32   Includes Gender Impact and Mitigative Measures to ensure that socio-economic condition, needs, and priorities of women are
      identified Measures to ensure that process of land acquisition and resettlement does not disadvantage women and that land/house
      titles should be in the name of both spouses.
 33   Information Dissemination, Consultation, Participatory Approaches and Disclosure Requirements


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            Topic                                                       Contents
                           monitoring.
Income Restoration         Identification of livelihoods at risk.
Strategy                   Income restoration strategy with options to restore all types of livelihoods.
                           Job creation plan, including provisions for income substitution, retraining, self-employment and
                           pensions, where required.
                           Business relocation and restoration plan, including income substitution, where required.
                           Environmental risks identification and arrangements for environmental management and
                           monitoring.
Institutional Framework    Main tasks and responsibilities in planning, negotiating, consulting, approving, coordinating,
                           implementing, financing, monitoring and evaluating land acquisition and resettlement.
                           Review of mandate of the land acquisition and resettlement agencies and their capacity to plan
                           and manage these tasks.
                           Provision for capacity building, including technical assistance, if required.
                           Role of NGOs, if involved, and organizations of APs in resettlement planning and management.
                           Involvement of women’s groups in resettlement planning, management and operations, job
                           creation and income generation
                           Female staff should be hired by the resettlement agency to work with and assist women in all
                           aspects of resettlement activities, including planning and implementation of income restoration
                           programs.
Resettlement Budget And    Cost estimates, budgets and cash flows for meeting the objectives of the RP according to
Financing                  established schedules
                           Land acquisition and resettlement costs.
                           Annual budget and timing for release of funds.
                           Sources of funding for all land acquisition and resettlement activities.
Implementation Schedule    Time schedule showing start and finish dates for major resettlement tasks.
                           Time bound actions for projected activities to ensure that people affected are compensated and
                           assisted before award of civil works contracts or similar milestone, ensuring as a minimum that
                           affected people will be provided with entitlements, such as land and asset compensation and
                           transfer allowances, prior to their displacement
Monitoring And Evaluation Plan for internal monitoring of resettlement targets, specifying key indicators of progress,
                           mechanisms for reporting, resource requirements and database maintenance.
                           Plan for external and independent M&E
                           Participation of affected people in M&E
                           Impacts on women
Arrangements For Reviewing RP At Detailed Technical/ Engineering Design If This
       Is Not Yet Complete
Covenant In RRP And Loan Agreements
Disclosure Of Full RP On ADB Website Upon Project Approval


 1.5         INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
 Included in the SES is an assessment of resettlement impacts, if any, on Indigenous Peoples
 (IPs), as required by ADB’s Policy on Indigenous Peoples and the International Social and
 Resettlement Specialist Consultant’s TOR. Based on the SES results, the Indigenous Peoples
 (IP) Screening and Categorization Form presented in Appendix G will determine whether of
 not an Indigenous Peoples Development Program (IPDP) will be required as per ADB
 policy 34 or, alternatively, whether any issues requiring to be addressed may be dealt with
 within the RF and/or RP document. It is expected that, given the linear nature of the

 34   ADB. 1998. Policy on Indigenous Peoples. Manila. April.


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Section 1                                                                               Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement



transmission lines and the small size of substation and the peaking plant sites, the latter will
be the most appropriate for mitigating any potential resettlement impacts on indigenous
communities found in the subproject areas.

The ADB uses the term Indigenous Peoples to encompass a generic concept not easily reflected
in a single term. Other terms relating to the concept of IPs include cultural minorities, ethnic
minorities, indigenous cultural communities, tribals, scheduled tribes, natives, and aboriginals.
Accepted or preferred terms and definitions vary country by country, by academic discipline,
and even by the usage of groups concerned. IPs are regarded in ADB policy as those with a
social or cultural identity distinct from the dominant or mainstream society, which makes them
vulnerable to being disadvantaged in the processes of development.

ADB financed projects are assigned an IP Category depending on the significance of the
probable impacts on IP. The IP Categorization depends on the nature and magnitude of the
project’s potential positive and negative impact on IPs, which may result from its location,
the type and scale of the project, sensitivity of indigenous peoples’ issues, and vulnerability
of the IPs. A more detailed explanation of IP Impact Categorization is provided on the last
page of the ADB’s IP Categorization Form. Initial Screening for IPs is conducted as early as
possible in the ADB’s Project Cycle, at the Project Concept Stage where feasible, and no
later than Project or Program Preparatory Technical Assistance (PPTA), Project Preparatory
Note Fact-Finding, and Or Due Diligence.

The potential for at least some IPs, which in Bangladesh would be termed ‘Tribes,’ in the
subproject areas may be inferred from national BBS statistics that show IPs in the three
Divisions (Dhaka, Khulna, and Rajshahi) where the subprojects are located. They are also
identified in the Phulbari Coal Project’s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), 35 which
covers an important part of the Rajshahi Division.




35   Manzurul Mannan. 2005. Phulbari Coal Project EIA: Anthropology and Culture of Asia Energy’s Phulbari Coal Project Area. Vol 4:
     Section 3. Dhaka: Independent University, Bangladesh for SMEC. June.


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Section 1                                                                                  Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




                           Table 6: Tribal Households and Population, by Tribes, 199136

                                                                Division
                                       Dhaka                    Khulna                   Rajshahi                     Bangladesh
       Tribal Group               HH          Pop           HH         Pop           HH          Pop              HH            Pop
1     Bangshi                     419        2,112           --          --           --          --              419          2,112
2     Buna                         --          --            --         --          2,822      13,914            2,822        13,914
3     Chakma                      564       2,999           119        614            1            3            46,637       252,986
4     Coach                      2,541      12,631           --          --           --          --             2,541        12,631
5     Garo                      12,505     60,221                                    227        1,130           14,042        68,210
6     Harjon                       --          --            12           63          --          --               12            63
7     Khasia                       --          --            --           --         214        1,132            2,506        13,412
8     Mahat/Mahatoo                --          --            --           --         668       3,534              668          3,534
9     Marma                       410       2,159            22          107          2            8            30,004       154,216
10 Munda/Mundia                    --          --           392        2,101          2           11              394          2,112
11 Muro/MO                         --          --            --           --         602       3,085              620          3,211
12 Pahari                          --          --            --           --         357       1,853              357          1,853
13 Rajbhangsi                      --          --           476        2,474         609        2,970            1,085         5,444
14 Saontal                        157         833           575         3,172       38,241    188,359           40,950       202,744
15 Tipra                           90         480            --           --          --          --              228          1,242
16 Tripura                        380       2,061            --           --          --          --            15,860        79,772
17 Urang                           --          --           38           195        1,471       7,171            2,285        11,298
18 Uruo/Urua/Uria                  --          --            --           --         506       2,481              506          2,481
National Total                  24,994     123,258         7,723       40,558       63,253    314,337           233,417     1,205,978



1.6          SCOPE OF LAND ACQUISITION AND RESETTLEMENT
1.6.1        Overall Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement
As indicated in Table 2 above, none of the proposed investment Subprojects has advanced in
project preparation past the Concept Paper stage. None have had feasibility studies
performed nor have any had routing surveys done or determined the final siting. This is
another reason for preparing an RF for this Sector Loan.

Underground cable will be laid entirely on Government land and will not have resettlement
effects. See Appendix 1. Resettlement Policy and Legal Framework for the provisions of the
Electricity Act, 1910, under which municipal approval and license will be obtained for laying
underground cable in the distribution subprojects.

According to the DPPs for substatnions, their locations will have to be determined at a later
date and land purchased. As noted above, in the Power Sector Development Program (PSDP)
(Nov 2003) RRP, no RP was required as the land required for constructing 33/11 kV
substations in 10 towns was not to involve any compulsory land acquisition. BPDB provided
written confirmation ‘that government land, free of encumbrances, will be used, and that, if
needed, private land will be purchased through tender or direct negotiation.’ 37 The EA and

36   Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2005. 2003 Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Planning Division, Ministry of Planning,
      GOB. January.




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Section 1                                                                 Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement



IAs have indicated that similarly this Sector Loan will purchase land for substations on a
willing seller willing buyer basis. In cases where this is not the case, as perhaps in the 3 T/L
subproject towns, where rural locations may be available, this RF’s entitlement matrix will
apply. However, it is too early in the planning stage for the field survey to have visited actual
sites and made a determination of resettlement effects. Likewise, although feasibility studies
have not as yet been carried out, the Khulna Peaking Plant is expected to be located on at the
existing power plant site, and no resettlement effects are expected.

Consequent to the above, the November-December 2005 Field Survey focused on the
Transmission Line (T/L) subprojects. The expected resettlement effects are documented in
the following tables, although it needs to be streesed that without any ROW or siting studies,
these figures are only approximate. They will be updated through detailed design studies and
RPs prepared accordingly.

As shown in Table 7 below, it is estimated from field studies of the T/L subprojects that in
total some 290 HHs will be affected by loss of agricultural land, primarily for tower pods,
owning some 35.3 acres along all five transmission line routes. Some 20.95 (59 percent) of
the total land affected land is agricultural and will be eligible for compensation for loss of
crops. There will also be an estimated 55 Tenant Cultivator HHs on 6.77 acres farm land that
may be affected by the T/L subprojects.

In addition, some 430 structures, owned by a similar number of HHs, with a total floor space
of 169,770 Sqft, will be located within the proposed transmission line ROWs. Some 98 HHs
may be renting these structures.

            Table 7: Estimated Land Acquisition, Resettlement Impacts for T/L Subprojects

                                                                       All Five T/L Subprojects
            Type of Resettlement Effect                   Number                             Quantity
Land                                                290 HHs                  35.3 Acres Owned (100%)
o      Agriculture                                                           20.95 Acres (59%)
o      Homestead                                                             2.08 Acres (6%)
o      Commercial                                                            2.31 Acres (7%)
o      Low Land/Water Bodies                                                 9.96 Acres (28%)
2. Structure                                        430 Structures           169,770 Sqft Floor Area
3. Crops for Compensation                           20.9 Acres
4. Tenant Cultivators                               55 HHs                  6.77 Acres Cultivated
5. Renters                                          (98 HHs)
6. (Female Headed Households)                       (29 HHs)


As shown in Table 8 below, the estimation of Affected Persons (APs), then, may be 290 Land
Owner HHs, 55 Tenant Cultivator HHs; and 430 Structure Owner and Renter HHs, for a total
of 775 for all five T/L subprojects. Of these, some 98 HHs may be female headed and
therefore considered vulnerable. Again, it needs to be stressed that this is a highly speculative
number, given the early state of project planning for all of the Sector Loan subprojects
potentially having resettlement effects.




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Section 1                                                                                 Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




                   Table 8: Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for All Five T/L Subprojects

Affected Person (AP) Type                       3 T/L Subprojects              2 Dhaka Area                   Total
                                                                               Subprojects
Land Owning HH                                  160                            130                            255
Tenant Cultivator HHs                           30                             25                             55
Structure Impacted HHs (Owners and              185                            245                            430
Renters)
Total APs                                       375                            400                            775
Tables 9 and 10 present the numbers of APs for each of the considered Subprojects. In all the
Sector Loan itself may be considered a Category A Loan based on its estimated involuntary
resettlement ‘significance,’ as having an 775 APs, including an estimated 430 in structures
that could be relocated outside the ROW. 38 However, these will be supported to relocate if
they wish to, not required, and an RP budget will be provided for this. No individual
Subproject has more than an estimated 200 structures impacted, albeit based on estimated
ROWs without as yet any ROW studies being done. As impact of Transmission Tower pods
on any individual AP will be mimimal, it is likely that all of the Subprojects may require
Short RPs, with the exception of the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L, which may possibly
require a Full RP.

                       Table 9: Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for 3 T/L Subprojects

                                         Chuadanga-
                                      Jheniadah-Magura             Noagoan-                 Thakurgoan-                      Total
 Affected Person (AP) Type                   T/L                  Joypuhat T/L             Panchagar T/L              3 T/L Subprojects
Land Owning HH                               75                       40                        45                            160
Tenant Cultivator HHs                        14                        7                         9                            30
Structure Impacted HHs                       92                       48                        45                            185
(Owners and Renters)
Total APs                                      181                       95                        99                        375

                   Table 10: Estimated Affected Persons (APs) for Dhaka T/L Subprojects

                                                                                                                          Total
                                                      Meghnaghat to                Aminbazar to Old                   2 Dhaka Area
      Affected Person (AP) Type                       Aminbazar T/L                  Airport T/L                      Subprojects
Land Owning HH                                             95                            35                                130
Tenant Cultivator HHs                                      25                            0                                 25
Structure Impacted HHs (Owners and                        170                            75                                245
Renters)
Total APs                                                   290                            110                            400




38   ADB OM Section F2/OP (29 Oct 2003), Para 19 For an Involuntary Resettlement Category A Project: “Significant” means 200 or more
     people will experience major impacts, which are defined as (i) being physically displaced from housing, or (ii) losing 10% or more of
     their productive assets (income generating). Categories A projects require a full resettlement plan. Some of these projects may
     require a resettlement framework prior to the full resettlement plan.


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Section 1                                                                                    Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement



Tables 11-13 indicate the above broken down into the 3 T/L Subprojects and the 2 T/L
Subprojects located in the Dhaka area.

                 Table 11: Estimated Total Land Acquisition Impacts for 3 T/L Subprojects

                                Number                                                   Quantity
1. Land:                        160 HHs                                                  23.0 Acres Owned (100%) 39
Agriculture                                                                              16.1 Acres (70%)
Homestead                                                                                1.38 Acres (6%)
Commercial                                                                               1.61 Acres (7%)
Low Land/Water Bodies                                                                    3.91 Acres (17%)

2. Structures                   185 Structures                                           67,850 Sft Floor Area

3. Crops                        16.1 Acres
4. Tenant Cultivators           30 HHs                                                   4.83 Acres Cultivated
5. Renters                      40 HHs
6. (Female Headed               (16 HHs)
Households)




39   The Field Survey found 12.8 acres of land the N/SW for the 3 Transmission Line Subprojects will be required, which has been
     calculated as per requirement of land for each tower multiplied by the total number of towers but PGCB indicated for 23.0 acres, it
     may require for construction of different establishment/facilities. So in this budget estimation has been done for 23.0 acres of land.




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Section 1                                                                                                                              Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




                                   Table 12: Estimated Land Acquisition Impacts for Each of the 3 T/L Subprojects

Estimated Impacts             Chuadanga-Jheniadah-Magura T/L      Noagoan-Joypuhat T/L                  Thakurgoan- Panchagar T/L            Total (3 Subprojects)
                              Number/Quantity                     Number/Quantity                       Number/Quantity                      Number/Quantity
1. Land:                      75 HHs owning 10.6 acres            40 HHs owning 5.8 acres               45 HHs owning 6.6 acres              160 HHs owning 23.0 acres
I. Agriculture                 8.0 acres                          4.0 acres                             4.2 acres                              16.2 acres
II. Homestead                  0.5 acres                          0.3 acres                             0.5 acres                              1.3 acres
III. Commercial                0.5 acres                          0.3 acres                             0.7 acres                              1.5 acres
IV. Low Land/Water Bodies      1.6 acres                          1.2 acres                             1.2 acres                               4.0 acres

2. Structures                 92 Structures With 29,708 Sqft      48 Structures With19, 720 Sft Floor   45 Structures With 18422 Sft Floor   185 Structure With Sft 67,850
                              Floor Area                          Area                                  Area
3. Crops                      8.0 acres                           4.0 acres                             4.2 acres                            16.2 acres
4. Tenant Cultivators         14 HHs, Cultivating 2.4 acres       7 HHs, Cultivating 1.2 acres          9 HHs, Cultivating 1.3 acres         30 HHs cultivating 4.9 acres
5. Rental Households
6. Female Headed Households   7 HHs                               5 HHs                                 4 HHs                                16 HHs




                                              Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                              1-26
Section 1                                                                Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




               Table 13: Estimated Land Acquisition Impacts for Dhaka T/L Subprojects

                            Meghnaghat to Aminbazar
                                     T/L                  Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L        Total Dhaka T/L
                            Number         Quantity        Number         Quantity          Number     Quantity
Land                       95 HHs         12.0 Acres      35 HHs         0.30 Acres         130 HHs    12.30 Acres
                                          Owned                          Owned                         Owned
o Agriculture                             4.8 Acres                      0.05 Acres                    4.85 Acres
                                          (40%)                          (17%)                         (39%)
o Homestead
                                          0.6 Acres                      0.10 Acres                    0.7 Acres
o Commercial                              (5%)                           (33%)                         (6%)
o Low Land/Water                          0.6 Acres                      0.10 Acres
Bodies                                                                                                 0.7 Acres
                                          (5%)                           (33%)
                                                                                                       6.05 Acres
                                          6.0 Acres                      0.05 Acres
                                                                                                       (49%)
                                          (50%)                          (17%)
2. Structure               170            84,585 Sft      75             17,415 Sft         245        102,000
                           Structures     Floor Area      Structures     Floor Area                    Sqft Floor
                                                                                                       Area
3. Crops                                  4.80 Acres      0.0 Acres                         4.8
                                                                                            Acres
4. Tenant Cultivators      25 HHs         1.94 Acres      0 HHs          0.00 Acres         25 HHs     1.94 Acres
                                          Cultivated                     Cultivated                    Cultivated
5. Renters                 38 HHs                         20 HHs                            58 HHs
5. (Female Headed          (8 HHs)                        (5 HHs)                           (13 HHs)
Households)


The proposed ROW for the Transmission Lines will be prepared after siting and ROW
surveys. The Subprojects will not cause any displacement of people from their homestead,
and relocation at a separate site will not be necessary. As such the T/L Subprojects will have
insignificant resettlement affects.

The alignment of transmission line routes will be selected in a way so that they pass through
open fields. They in most cases are almost parallel to existing 132 kV lines. No permanent
acquisition of land will be recquired for line construction.

Damage to crops and trees will only occur during construction of the transmission lines.
Thached/tin-roofed and other homesteads identified that falling on the transmission line
routes can be over-passed by extension towers. Therefore there will be no displacement of
people due to line construction activity. These APs can continue to live under or close to the
transmission line or may choose to shift some other place. Provision will be made if such
option is indicated by any APs, and budget provisions are thus made for this in the RF. A
strip of 50 m wide corridor will come under use for the entire length of the T/Ls during
construction. Proper compensation packages and the entitlement matrix below has been
prepared for the RF and will apply to RPs prepared when project planning studies have
progressed through the siting and row study phase.

1.6.1.1     Assessment of Different Loss Categories
The Project Compensation Policy and Entitlement Matrix (below) are designed to cover
compensation for loss of land and restore or enhance the livelihoods of all categories (direct,


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Section 1                                                                              Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement



indirect, title holders and non title-holders) of Affected People (APs), following ADB
guidelines. The Project will not cause displacement of people from their homestead and will
not displace any person permanently from their income sources. So no relocation of APs to a
new area will apply for the Project. The APs will receive cash compensation equivalent to
replacement value of land and other assets. Various compensation entitlement packages for
beneficiary compensation are found in the Entitlement Matrix presented in Table 86 below.
The assessment was be made in the following manner.

Loss of Land Due to Acquisition
All kinds of land (including homestead and commercial plots) acquired will be compensated
in kind (i.e. replacement land) or cash (i.e., average sales value plus 50 percent due to
Compulsory Acquisition) by District Commissioner's (DC’s) office.

Additional Cash Grant (from the Subproject) based on Market Value of the land.

Loss of Standing Crops, Trees and Perennials
Cash compensation for trees based on age and value of fruit

Standing crops are valued at market prices

Loss of Living Quarters (leased/rented)/Temporary Commercial or Other Structures on the ROW
Cash Compensation Under Law (CCL) by Deputy Commissioner (DC) of the District for loss
of structure

50% premium

One-time cash grant for alternative shelters at replacement

Income Restoration

Shifting or Moving Allowance
Shifting or moving allowance to affected households

Additional assistance for female-headed households to hire help for relocation

1.6.1.2       Resettlement Problems
No homestead is likely to be affected by the Transmission Line ROWs. However, should any
homestead become affected, public consultation will be conducted to find out how the APs
want to be compensated. 40 So, no relocation for displacement of persons is required. Only
payment of compensation for property will be needed, for which adequate budget provision
exists.




40   In the PGCB 2001 RP for the Khulna-Ishurdi 230 Kv Transmission Line Project (162 Km) and Ashuganj-Jamuna Bangabandhu
     Bridge-Serajganj 230 Kv Transmission Line Project (160 Km), the transmission line was found in the IEE to overpass all the
     homesteads. Note that No IEE has been done for any of the Subprojects on this Sector Loan.


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Section 1                                                                Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement




1.6.2       Minimizing Resettlement
PGCB acknowledges the need for minimum displacement or resettlement of people due to
the aerial transmission line construction work. This will be achieved by careful routing of the
ROW. PGCB will consider various options to decide on the most economical and effective
alternative that requires minimum resettlement. PGCB will more than once physically
examine the possibilities, and share knowledge and experience with local communities for
minimizing impact.

Impact Minimization
To minimize impact, the following guidelines for tower spotting will be observed:

The alignment will avoid, without exception, religious structures, and educational
institutions.

As far as may be practicable, the alignment has avoided house (permanent or temporary). In
particular, special care was taken to avoid human settlement cluster. Where unavoidable, the
ground clearance will be increased to at least 10 meters so that no resettlement is
necessitated.

At all road and river crossing, prescribed vertical and horizontal clearance requirements will
be strictly adhered to.

The proposed alignment are under submission to (at least) the following, authorities for
review-Archaeological Survey, Wildlife Conservation Agency, Inland Water Transport
Authority, Roads & Highway Department can Railway Department.

Compensation in terms of country and Bank norms will be paid to owners of all property,
including crops, orchards, trees, homesteads, water sources, etc. as per prescribed procedures.
An implementing NGO will be engaged to implement the process.

1.6.3       Targeted Support to Vulnerable Persons and Groups
Through detailed SES and other related studies, the PGCB will identify those among the
affected population who may be considered "vulnerable" or at risk, or who are likely to be
excluded from the normal benefits of growth and development in the Project area. For the
purposes of this Project, vulnerable persons and groups are defined as:
            Poor People (including hawkers, roadside vendors and rickshaw pullers)
            Women-Headed Households, particularly poor women-headed households
            Elderly People, particularly poor elderly persons
            Physically impaired or disabled people and children
            Indigenous Peoples as found on the RoW




                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                    1-28
Section 2                                                                           Socioeconomic Information

2.1        FIELD SOCIOECONOMIC SURVEY (SES) CONDUCTED NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 2005
In November 2005 a Field Socioeconomic Survey (SES, or the ‘Field Survey’) proposal for
preparation of Investment Subprojects under the proposed Loan TA No. 4379-BAN: Power
Sector Development Program II was prepared and subsequently approved by the ADB and
the IAs to carry out a field survey, census and inventory of assets lost and to prepare a Full or
Short Resettlement Plan (RP) as determined by the significance 41 of the determined
Resettlement Effects, 42 as well as a Poverty Impact Assessment, and, if necessary, an
appropriate Indigenous Peoples Plan.

2.1.1      Field Survey 43
The Field Survey covered the Investment Subprojects identified as having potential
resettlement effects. Each of these has its own issues, and these were taken into account to
determine the level or requirement of the survey to be carried out and whether or not a
comprehensive RP for the entire Sector Loan could be prepared at this time without the need
for an RF. From the discussion below, concerning the several Investment Subprojects having
potential Resettlement Effects, it can be seen that there is potential for preparing an RP for
the entire Sector Loan, depending on circumstances to be investigated during the Field
Survey itself.

The most appropriate Investment Subproject to be the main focus of the proposed SES was
PGCP’s 132 kV Transmission Lines and SS in Western and Northern Regions Project. As
with the other Subprojects, the planning has only gotten to Concept Stage, and no ROW Study
as yet exists for the Subproject components. But even though the routes, according to the
PCC, have not been decided, the ROW for the 132 kV Transmission Lines will likely run
parallel to the existing 33 kV ROWs. Therefore, it is possible for the Field Survey Team,
with local assistance from PGCP’s staff, to make a reasonable field determination of an
approximately 50 m ROW line-of-site along the most likely route for the three proposed 132
kV Transmission Lines, which total a length of 158 Km. 44 Also with assistance from the
PGCP staff, it is likely that the three proposed Substation sites can be identified in the field.
The following Table 14 summarizes this Investment Subproject’s components.

        Table 14: PGCP’s 132 kV Transmission Lines and SS in Western and Northern Regions
                                           Subproject

         Name of Subproject Components                                 Location (Districts and Towns)                       Unit
Chuadanga to Jhenaida to Magura Overhead                          Chuadanga, Jhenaida and Magura                        73 Km
Transmission Line
Naogaon to Joypurhat Overhead T/L                                 Naogaon and Joypurhat                                 40 Km


41   Resettlement is "significant" where 200 or more people experience major impacts. Major impacts are defined as when the affected
     people are physically displaced from housing and/or more than 10% of their productive assets (income generating) are lost.
42   Loss of physical and non-physical assets, including homes, communities, productive land, income-earning assets and sources,
     subsistence, resources, cultural sites, social structures, networks and ties, cultural identity, and mutual help mechanisms (ADB
     Handbook on Resettlement, 1998).
43   Based on Alternative B in the original November 1st Proposal.
44   The preliminary ROW as determined by the field survey team, with EA assistance, would follow the existing 33 kV lines but as much
     as possible. avoid structures and settlements.


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Section2                                                                                            Socioeconomic Information



Thakurgaon to Panchagar Overhead T/L                           Thakurgaon and Panchagar                       45 Km.
Total                                                                                                         158 Km
Three 132/33 kV, 2x25/41 MVA Substations                       One Each at Magura, Chuadanga, and             17 Acres 45
                                                               Joypurhat Towns



2.1.2      Khulna 100 MW Peaking Plant
BPDB has said, for instance, that the 100 MW Peaking Plant in Khulna (Western Zone)
Subproject will be on an existing site and therefore have no Resettlement Effects. However,
the DPP indicates land acquisition for a residential area equal to the proposed plant area will
have to be carried out. Also, more recently, BPDB has speculated that a new site for the
Power Plant itself might be located near a PGCB Substation located at Khulna. This was
despite the DPP budget allocation having no money set aside for land acquisition. According
to the DPP, these approximately 16,000 square meters of land for establishing a ‘colony’
would be needed for housing and support infrastructure, such as schools, a mosque, etc,

It was originally unclear as to where this Colony would be located – onsite, adjacent or
elsewhere. On the other hand, BPDB has verbally indicated that development of such
Residential Land Colonies will not be done in large urban areas such as Khulna in the future,
since these are capable of effectively integrating a new plant’s staff. In the end, no SES was
carried out of of Khulna Peaking Power Plant. The SES Team made a reconnaissance visit to
Khulna area in December 2005 to collect information about the Peaking Plant. Discussions
with concerned Officials indicated that land is available on the existing site for the proposed
project and that land acquisition for the proposed residential facilities will not be required if
the existing residential area is developed through demolishing old buildings and constructing
multistoried buildings for housing and other support infrastructure.

2.1.3      400 kV, 50 Km Overhead Line from Meghnaghat to Aminbazar
The Study Team made a Reconnaissance Field Visit to the 400 kV, 50 Km Overhead Line
from Meghnaghat to Aminbazar on October 22nd and obtained some idea of the line’s route
and general situation, which will form the basis of a Field Survey there. According to the In
House Study carried out by PGCB (2005), no ROW Study has as yet been done. From the
Aminbazar Substation, however, the future ROW will likely follow a recently build 230 kV
line that extends to the Hasnabad Substation, just south of Dhaka City on the opposite shore
of the Buriganga River about 30 Km distance from the Aminbazar Substation. A line-of-site
survey may be done along this portion of the proposed Transmission Line, staying just south
of the existing 230 kV transmission line.

Most of the area along the existing Line from Aminbazar to Hasnabad is riverine or lower
land, under water most of the year. There are settlements also in some chars (islands) or on
raised or filled up lands, on which houses have been built. The area contains a part of
Buriganga and Turag Rivers, and most of the area through which the Line passes is low lying.
This makes access difficult this time of year, although it may be possible to use a boat to
obtain access to communities or households along this portion of the proposed ROW.




45   PCC estimates land acquisition at 6 Acres Magura and Chaudanga each and 5 Acres at Joypurha.


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The proposed Line does not go through Hasnabad Substation, and just prior to this point it
extends away from the existing Transmission Line ROW, and the proposed route will be
more difficult to identify without any ROW Study having been done along this 30 Km stretch
to Meghnaghat Substation. Generally, though, the area appears to be without human
settlement. Most of it is covered by the Bouriganga, Dhaleswari and Megna Rivers, with
some char areas of these rivers existing. These char areas are mostly either crop land and/or a
very few settlements. For the most part, the lands support only one crop per year, and that is
also only if the weather is favorable. The settlements are in many cases thought to be
temporary or semi-temporary, remaining annually at least 6 months under water. Because the
potential ROW will not be easily identifiable the entire distance between Meghnaghat and
Aminbazar, it may be more problematic to carry out a valid AP Census and SES. However,
this will be determined in the field, and in any case a valuable socioeconomic profile may be
obtained through the proposed Field Survey.

2.1.4      PGCB System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area
This is a proposed 230 kV, 10 km Double Circuit (4 Km Overhead & 6 Km Underground
Cable) Transmission Line from Anminbazar to a new Old Airport Substation, which his also
under the proposed Sector Loan. The new Substation at the Old Airport will not have any
Resettlement Effects, as the entire area is walled off and kept clear of settlements, as
confirmed in an Oct 22nd reconnaissance survey made by the Study Team. The underground
cable elements of transmission projects will also be confined largely to Government ROWs
through Dhaka City and cause only temporary disturbance, without Resettlement Effects.
The 4 Km Overhead Transmission Line, however, passes by an existing Substation south of
Mirpur Road on what will be a new ROW. From near this Substation, at the intersection of
Mazar and Mirpur Roads, the Overhead line becomes underground cable below Mirpur Road
to the Old Airport. The Study Team has not been able to discover any documentation for this
Investment Subproject even at the Concept Paper stage. As no ROW Study exists, the Field
Study effort to determine the probable resettlement impacts along the 4 Km of Overhead
Transmission line will depend largely on PGCB’s ability in the field to show the Study Team
the likely ROW.

2.1.5      Emergency Reinforcement & Augmentation of DESA Grid System Project: Five New
           DESA 33/11 kV Substations
This is the second of four DESA distribution subprojects included in the Sector Loan and the
only one with potential Resettlement Effects. According to the DPP, the exact locations for
Five 33 kV SS will have to be determined at a later date and land purchased. The DPP
allocates a Budget for ‘Acquisition & Purchase of Land and Landed Properties of Assets’ of
Government of Bangladesh (GOB): 170.000 Lac Taka. 46 We note that in the Power Sector
Development Program (PSDP) (Nov 2003) RRP, no RP was required as the land required
(some 4.5 acres total) for constructing 33/11 kV substations in 10 towns was not to involve
any compulsory land acquisition. BPDB provided written confirmation ‘that government
land, free of encumbrances, will be used, and that, if needed, private land will be purchased
through tender or direct negotiation.’ 47



46   The DPP indicates a Percent of Total Project Cost for Acquisition and Purchase of Land = 0.02.
47   ADB. 2003. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors (RRP). BAN 36205: On Proposed Loans and
     Technical Assistance Grant to the People’s Republic of Bangladesh for The Power Sector Development Program. November.


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It is understood through discussions with the EAs that for Substations in Dhaka, because of
very high urban land prices, the effort to follow through with land acquisition procedures
tends to be more cumbersome that advertising in the newspapers to obtain land for sale on a
willing-seller-willing-buyer basis, and that therefore there may be little likelihood of
Resettlement Effects. It is also quite difficult to in many cases to know in advance which
sites will be purchased, as this may not be know until willing sellers respond to the published
tender announcements. If provided written confirmation, as was done for the PSDP Loan,
that ‘only government land, free of encumbrances will be used, and that, if needed, private
land will be purchased through tender or direct negotiation,’ there should be no requirement
to carry out detailed resettlement surveys for this and the other substations planned within
Dhaka City. Further discussions with the EAs and field visits will be required to confirm
this.

2.1.6      The Two DESCO Distribution Projects (Gulshan &. Mirpur Distribution System
           Upgrades)
Four (4) New 33/11 kV SS at Badda, Basundhara, DOHS Mahakhali, and Zia International
Airport under the Gulshan Distribution Upgrade. According to the PCC prepared in 2004, No
Feasibility Study has been done as yet, and the sites are therefore not identified. The PCC
contains a budget provision for 200 Lac Taka for a so far unspecified amount of land. For
the Mirpur Distribution System Upgrade, two (2) New 33/11 kV Substations are planned at
Baunia and Mirpur. While the PCC (2004) confirms no Feasibility Study as yet, the budget
provides for 100 Lac Taka for 0.25 acres. Conversations with DESCO officials confirmed
that such land is generally unencumbered Government Land or, if private, purchased on
willing-seller-willing-buyer basis through newspaper tender. Therefore, it is highly likely that
no Resettlement Effects will be associated with these two Investment Subprojects. It will be
prudent for the Study Team to verify this as much as possible in the field and to obtain
written confirmation.

From the above discussion of the several Investment Subprojects identified as having
potential Resettlement Effects, it appears that a unified RP for the Sector Loan may be
feasible if: (a) the Khulna 100 MW Peaking Plant has no associated Colony and can be
constructed within the existing plant site; (b) if the several Substations in Dhaka City are
either on unencumbered Government land or private land is purchased through a tendering
process; and if the 50 Km 400 kV Overhead Line from Meghnaghat to Aminbazar and the 4
Km line from Aminbazar Substation to the Mirpur Road 48 ROW can be determined
sufficiently well and if field conditions allow a resettlement survey of these two transmission
lines. These circumstances are being determined during the course of the Field Survey, and
the resettlement documentation will be prepared accordingly, either by an RF and one Core
Subproject or a unified RP for the proposed Sector Loan.

2.1.7      Survey Methodology, Manpower Requirements & Schedule, and Budget
The Survey followed the standard method used for an impact assessment study. The survey
areas were scattered all around some of the Northern, Southwestern and Central parts of
Bangladesh. There were six proposed subprojects spread over ten Districts in the three
Divisions of Dhaka, Khulna and Rajshahi, covered in the Field Survey.


48   Under PGCB’s System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area Project.


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The Specific location and name of the subprojects with some preliminary information were as
follows:

                                  Table 15: Project Components for the Field Survey

  Sl                                                                                    Length of the RoW                Implementing
 No.            Name of Projects                       Location/Districts                      (Km)                        Agency
1         Peaking Power Plant in Khulna            Khulna                              (Area Undetermined) 49               BPDB
2         Chuadanga- Jhenaida-Magura          Chuadanga, Jhenaida and                           73                           PGCB
          overhead T/L                        Magura
3         Naogaon-Joypurhat overhead          Naogaon and Joypurhat                                40                        PGCB
          T/L
4         Thakurgaon-Panchagar                Thakurgaon and Panchagar                             45                        PGCB
          overhead T/L
5         Meghnaghat–Aminbazar                Dhaka and Narayangonj                                50                        PGCB
          Overhead T/L
6         Aminbazar-Old Airport first 3 km    Dhaka City                                            3                        PGCB
          OH line
          Total Length of Transmission Lines:                                                   211 Km

All the above (Sl. 1-5) areas will also build new Substations with higher grid power. The
Khulna Peaking Power Plant may be dropped from the Survey if it can be confirmed in
writing that no area outside the existing Power Plant is required, i.e., that no Colony will be
built to support the new Plant. But it will be kept if a new site for Peaking Plant itself is
required.

The sample size of the respondents was drawn on systematic sampling at all the areas
covered under the proposed Power subprojects as mentioned above. About 300 respondents
in all the areas are being interviewed under the Field Survey. The number of respondents is
determined roughly at the rate of 5 persons at every 5 kilometers distance of the Transmission
Line area. The Field Survey is being carried out by interviews of respondents through
questionnaires, which will cover socioeconomic, settlement, and poverty related aspects of
each area.

Interviews for collecting community level information is determined roughly one in every 5
Km distance near by the RoW of the Transmission Line Subprojects. The number of such a
community level interviews is roughly about 55 in all areas, which is around 20 percent of
the total number of respondents. Besides these, up to 20 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs)
are being held on the attitudes towards the project(s) and social and poverty impacts of
improved electricity. The distribution of respondents, community level interviews, and FGDs
in each area will be as follows, with a total of about 345 questionnaires/FGD checklists.




49   In the end, no SES was carried out of of Khulna Peaking Power Plant. The SES Team made a reconnaissance visit to Khulna area in
     December 2005 to collect information about the Peaking Plant. Discussions with concerned Officials indicated that land is available on
     the existing site for the proposed project and that land acquisition for the proposed residential facilities will not be required if the
     existing residential area is developed through demolishing old buildings and constructing multistoried buildings for housing and other
     support infrastructure.


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                             Table 16: Sample Size for Questionnaires/FGD Checklists

                                                                                                        Size of Sample
  Sl                                                                                  Household         Community      Focus Group
 No.                  Name of Project                        Length of RoW              Level              Level       Discussions
1       Peaking Plant in Khulna 50                                                       50                 10
2       Chuadanga-Jhenaida- Magura                       73Km.                             75                 15
        overhead T/L
3       Naogaon-Joypurhat overhead T/L                   40Km.                             40                  8
4       Thakurgaon-Panchagar overhead T/L                45Km.                             45                 10
5       Meghnaghat–Aminbazar overhead                    50Km.                             50                 10
        T/L
6       Aminbazar-Old Airport first 3 km OH              3Km.                              10                 2
        line
7       Focus Group Discussions at Dhaka,                6 Beneficiary Areas/2-                                                   20
        Khulna, Johypurhat, Panchagar,                   3 Focus Group
        Jhenaida, and Magura                             Interviews Each
Total Respondents                                                                          270                55                  20

The field interview was conducted on all the Transmission Line Subprojects and substation
sites through deploying fifteen Field Investigators and three Survey Coordinators. This
Survey Team was be divided into three groups consisting of five Investigators headed by one
Coordinator in a group. Each Survey group was deployed in three separate regions with the
task to carry out required Survey works in field. The Survey Teams had the help of an
Official (Engineer/Surveyor) of the concerned EAs to accompany the Teams with a map of
the subproject locations for identification of the approximate RoW of the Transmission Line
Subprojects.

The time frame of the Survey was 45 days from on or around Nov. 10 to Dec 25, 2005. This
included preparation of the Field Survey, the activities connected with actual Field Survey,
data tabulation, editing, and analysis and drafting of report. In addition to the Survey data and
information from the Stakeholders; other secondary data was used in preparation of the
Survey Report.

2.2         GENERAL AND 2005 FIELD SURVEY SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION
2.2.1       Khulna 100 MW Peaking Power Plant
2.2.1.1       Khulna 100 MW Peaking Power Plant General Socioeconomic Information
Table 17 indicates a Khulna beneficiary population, in the Town proper of 773,216 where,
according to the Banglapedia (2004), there is a very high population density of 37,535
persons per sq km. The larger Municipal Area (from District data) compromises a population
of 2,334,285 persons, with a population density of 531 persons per sq km, a low density



50   In the end, no SES was carried out of of Khulna Peaking Power Plant. The SES Team made a reconnaissance visit to Khulna area in
     December 2005 to collect information about the Peaking Plant. Discussions with concerned Officials indicated that land is available on
     the existing site for the proposed project and that land acquisition for the proposed residential facilities will not be required if the
     existing residential area is developed through demolishing old buildings and constructing multistoried buildings for housing and other
     support infrastructure.


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which reflects much of the District in the south, constituting the largely uninhabited
mangrove forested Sundarbands. 51

 Table 17: Khulna Town & Municipal Area: Area, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq Km) 52

                                        Area (sq km)                   Population                       Population Density
Town                                       20.60                         773,216                             37,535
Municipal Area 53                         4,394.46                      2,334,285                              531



Men are 53.26 percent of the Town population, against 51.87 percent of the Metropolitan
Area population. Women are respectively 46.74 percent of the town population and 48.13
percent of the Greater Khulna Area, taken here to be synonymous with Khulna District. The
Town shows a higher ratio of men to women than the surrounding more rural areas, probably
reflecting male labor migration into the urban center.

Khulna District has two municipalities and 1,106 villages. These are for the most part in the
northern part of the District in the vicinity of Khulna Town, where the proposed Peaking
Power Plant will be located (Figure 4).

                     Table 18: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Municipalities & Villages 54

                      Municipal Area (Sadar Upazilla)                                          Municipality                      Villages
Khulna                                                                                              2                             1,106



Table 19 shows the Khulna Municipal Area (District) with a 73.49 percent Muslim
population, considerably less than the national 92.60 percent and 25.74 percent Hindus, much
higher than the nation wide 6.49 percent. Christians are 0.67 percent of the Khulna
population, somewhat less than Bangladesh’s 0.71 percent; Buddhists are respectively 0.04
percent of the Khulna population and 0.25 percent of Bangladesh’s.

                Table 19: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Religious Affiliation by Percent 55

                                   Muslim              Hindu             Christian              Buddhist              Others            Total
Khulna                              73.49              25.74               0.67                   0.04                 0.06              100
Bangladesh                          92.60               6.49               0.71                   0.25                 0.07              100




51   The Sundarbands are the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world, located in the southern part of
     Bangladesh. It lies on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta at the point where it merges with the Bay of Bengal. The forest lies a little south
     to the Tropic of Cancer between the latitudes 21º30´N and 22º30´N, and longitudes 89º00´E and 89º55´E. With its array of trees and
     wildlife the forest is a showpiece of natural history. It is also a centre of economic activities, such as extraction of timber, fishing and
     collection of honey. The forest consists of about 200 islands, separated by about 400 interconnected tidal rivers, creeks and canals.
     Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 2004. Bangladpedia (National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh Multimedia CD, 1st Edition. Dhaka: ASB.
     February. http://www.banglapedia.org/
52   Bangladpedia (2004)
53   Based on Khulna District Data. Banglapedia (2004)
54   Based on Sadar Upazila (Sub District) Data. Banglapedia (2004).
55   Based on Sadar Upazila (Sub District) Data. Banglapedia (2004)


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                                      Figure 9: Khulna City and District 56




56   Banglapedia (2004)


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Table 20, from Banglapedia (2004), indicates a relatively small 36.41 percent of occupations
found in agriculture, with 63.59 percent in what can be taken to be urban occupations,
including 16.38 percent in industry, 18.93 percent in service, and 7.15 percent wage laborers,
more than agricultural occupations, at 42.46 percent.

                        Table 20: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Main Occupations 57

                         Agricultural                                                       Wage
     Agriculture          Laborer            Industry      Service        Transport        Laborer         Others 58      Total
       25.11                11.3               16.38        18.93            4.09            7.15           17.04          100

Table 21 indicates the manufacturing enterprises found in Khulna that will directly benefit
from an improvement in the supply of Electricity. A wide variety of factories and mills, as
well as a shipyard and the Khulna Newsprint Mills, a long standing Public Sector company,
are found in Khulna.

                           Table 21: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Manufacturing 59

Manufacturing in Khulna Municipal Area (Sadar Upazila)
Manufactories: Ice and match factories, shipyard, Paper, hard board, textile, steel, cable, rice, flour, saw, and press mills. An
example is the Khulna Newsprint Mills (KNM) a prime newsprint paper producing industrial unit of Bangladesh in the Public
Sector. The Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation established it in 1959 on the bank of the Bhairab River at
Khalishpur in Khulna District. KNM was set up at a cost of Rs 120 million to produce newsprint by using Gewa (exocecaris
agallocha) wood of the Sundarbans as raw materials. It is the first newsprint mill in Bangladesh and is the lone Public Sector
enterprise of its kind.



Table 22 below shows the literacy rate of 59.1 percent for Khulna Town, compared to an
overall rate of 43.9 percent for the District, taken here as representative of the wider
municipal area, 52.1 percent for males and 34.6 percent for females. The average for
Bangladesh as a whole is 32.4 percent, 38.9 percent for men and 25.5 percent for women, so
the Khulna Town and wider municipality have a considerably higher than average literacy for
all categories. 60

                          Table 22: Khulna Town & Metropolitan Area, Literacy Rates 61

        Khulna Town                                               Municipal Area (District)
          Literacy                        Male                      Female                                 Literacy
            59.1                          52.2                        34.6                                   43.9



Table 23 indicates the wide variety of educational and cultural institutions, newspapers and
periodicals and religious institutions that will benefit directly from an improved supply of
Electricity in Khulna’s wider Municipal Area.

57    Based on Khulna District Data. Banglapedia (2004)
58    Includes Commerce and Fishing.
59    Banglapedia (2004)
60    BBS (2005)
61    Banglapedia (2004).


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     Table 23: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions 62

Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions in Khulna Municipal Area (District)
Educational Institutions: University 1, University College 1, Medical College 1, Bangladesh Institute Of Technology 1,
Teacher's Training College 1, Regional Public Administration Training Institute 1, Polytechnic Institute 1, Vocational Institute
1, Homeopathic College 1, Social Welfare Training Centre 1, Madrasas 205, Government Colleges 5, Non-Government
Colleges 42, Government. Secondary Schools 9, Non-Government Secondary Schools 248, Lower Secondary Schools 107,
Government Primary Schools 625, Non-Government Primary Schools 79, Community Primary Schools 34, Satellite Primary
Schools 63, NGO Operated Schools 199, Primary Teacher's Institution 1. Cultural Institutions: Public Libraries 5, Museum 1
(Khulna Divisional Archaeological Museum), Drama Stages 5, Cinema Halls 21, Theatre Groups 100, Magic Organizations
3, Literary Societies 15. Newspapers and Periodicals: Dailies: Tribiun, Janmobhumi, Anirban, Probaho, Purbanchal,
Janabarta, Tatthya, Rajpather Davi, Satya Khabar, Hizbullah, Pathaker Kagoz, Juger Sathi, Kalantor, Viswabarta, Mail;
Weeklies: Khulna, Rupsa, Padoddhoni, Chhayapath, Ganobani; Periodicals: Purushottomadyuti, Shikar, Padatik. Extinct
Periodicals: Agami, Ityadi, Deshkal. Religious Institutions Mosques 1,500, Tombs 4, Temples 646, Churches 22, Places Of
Pilgrimage 3, Monastery 1. Khulna town itself has Public Halls 2, Community Centres 26, Slums 55, Bazars 24, Automatic
Traffic Signals 16.

Table 24 shows the variety of medical institutions that are found in the Khulna Metropolitan
(District) Area.

                        Table 24: Khulna Municipal Area (District), Medical Institutions 63

Medical Institutions in Khulna Municipal Area (Sadar Upazila)
Health Centres Medical College Hospital 1, District Sadar Hospital 1, Upazila Health Complexes 9, TB Hospital 1, Infectious
Disease Hospital 1, Christian Missionary Hospital 1, Salvation Army (NGO) Hospital 1, Chest Disease Niramoy Centre 1,
Railway Hospital At Kopilmuni 1, Jail Hospital 1, Police Hospital 1



2.2.1.2       Khulna 100 MW Peaking Power Plant 2005 Field Survey Socioeconomic Information
No SES was carried out of of Khulna Peaking Power Plant. The SES Team made a
reconnaissance visit to Khulna area to collect information about the Peaking Plant.
Discussions with concerned Officials indicated that land is available on the existing site for
the proposed project and that land acquisition for the proposed residential facilities will not
be required if the existing residential area is developed through demolishing old buildings
and constructing multistoried buildings for housing and other support infrastructure.

2.2.2      Three Transmission Lines in W and NW Bangladesh
2.2.2.1       Three Transmission Lines in W and NW Bangladesh General Socioeconomic
              Information
According to PGCP, implementation of the Project will ensure the supply of electricity in
Northwest and West Bangladesh, firstly in the four towns Joypurhat, Panchagaon, Chuadanga
and Magura, which will be getting the main project benefits through new 132 kV networks
totaling 158 km and new substations upgrading their electric supply. 64 The three towns of
Thakurgaon, Naogaon, and Jhenaidaha will also benefit from the project through expansion



62   Banglapedia (2004).
63   Banglapedia (2004).
64   As estimated by the Consultant, the three 230 kV lines combined will facilitate transmission of about 7,000 million kWh annually.


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of existing substations, which will improve distribution. 65 The population of the seven
beneficiary towns is 502,242, with an average population density of 2,840 persons per sq km
(Table 25).

           Table 25: Beneficiary Towns Area, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq Km) 66

        Town                         Area (sq km)                     Population                       Population Density
Chuadanga                                36.12                          72,081                               1,996
Jhenaidaha                               39.63                          86,635                               2,186
Magura                                  22.95                           85,216                               3,713
Naogaon                                  37.03                         123,101                               3,324
Joypurhat                                18.53                          56,323                               3,040
Thakurgaon                              10.70                           40,336                               3,770
Panchagaon                               11.36                          38,550                               3,393
Total                                   176.32                         502,242                               2,849



The Sub Districts (Sadar Upazila) of which the Town is the main entity for a wider
Metropolitan Area that will benefit from the improvements in supply of Electricity. For the
seven towns in question, these wider areas total a population of 2,012,193, with a somewhat
lower population density averaging 743 persons per sq km (Table 26). Men are some 51.55
percent and women 48.45 percent of the population, overall figures that reflect the gender
balance in each individual Municipal Area as well.

                Table 26: Municipal Areas, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq Km) 67

      Municipal Area (Sadar Upazilla)                     Area (sq km)              Population              Population Density
Chuadanga                                                    289.59                   223,247                      771
Jhenaidaha                                                   467.75                   333,192                      712
Magura                                                       406.50                   286,925                      706
Naogaon                                                      275.73                   327,632                     1,188
Joypurhat                                                    238.54                   225,271                      944
Thakurgaon                                                   683.45                   422,728                      619
Panchagaon                                                   347.08                   193,198                      557
Total                                                       2,708.64                 2,012,193                     743



As can be seen in Table 25, the wider Municipal Areas for the seven beneficiary towns
contain, besides the Municipality itself, some 1,457 villages in total. It is common in
Bangladesh for the boundaries between truly urban, rural and peri-urban communities to be
blurred. This means that the benefits will also be felt by rural communities within the wider
Municipal Areas.

65   When the Barapukheria Coal Plant is operational, the generation of 250/300 MW from that plant will also stabilize the transmission
     lines of the above areas. PGCB. 2003. Project Concept Paper (PCP): Three Transmission Line Project (132 kV). Dhaka: The Power
     Grid Company of Bangladesh Ltd. February.
66   Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 2004. Bangladpedia (National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh Multimedia CD, 1st Edition. Dhaka: ASB.
     February. http://www.banglapedia.org/
67   Based on Sadar Upazila (Sub District) Data. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 2004. Bangladpedia (National Encyclopedia of
     Bangladesh Multimedia CD, 1st Edition. Dhaka: ASB. February. http://www.banglapedia.org/.


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                               Table 27: Municipal Areas, Municipalities & Villages 68

                   Municipal Area (Sadar Upazilla)                                   Municipality                     Villages
Chuadanga                                                                                1                              129
Jhenaidaha                                                                               1                              283
Magura                                                                                   1                              252
Naogaon                                                                                  1                              214
Joypurhat                                                                                1                              192
Thakurgaon                                                                               1                              204
Panchagaon                                                                               1                              183
Total                                                                                    7                             1,457
In the seven Municipal Areas, Table 26 shows that nearly 86 percent are Muslim, about 13
percent are Hindus, and less than one percent is others, which includes Christians and Ethnic
Minority Tribal Groups. This is compared to national figures of 88.30 percent for Muslims,
10.51 percent for Hindus, 0.06 percent Buddhists, 0.03 percent Christians and 0.026 percent
Others. 69
With regards to Ethnic Minority Groups, the Banglapedia shows the Jhenaidaha Municipal
Area with some 955 Buno and Bagdi tribal families; Naogaon has about 4,000 Oraon, Santal,
Munda, Mahali, Ansphor and Kurmi families; Panchagarh 693 Santal families; and Joypurhat
has an unspecified number, subsumed under the almost 2 percent Others category.

                          Table 28: Municipal Areas, Religious Affiliation by Percent 70

               Town                       Muslim               Hindu               Christian                Others           Total
     Chuadanga                             95.60                4.20                 0.10                    0.10             100
     Jhenaidaha                            86.29               13.65                 0.00                    0.06             100
     Magura                                78.54               21.28                 0.00                    0.18             100
     Naogaon                               90.00                9.13                 0.00                    0.87             100
     Joypurhat                             86.06               11.97                 0.29                    1.68             100
     Thakurgaon                            72.34               26.67                 0.00                    0.99             100
     Panchagaon                            93.08                6.78                 0.00                    0.14             100
     Total                                 85.99               13.38                 0.06                    0.57             100



Table 29 indicates the main occupations in the beneficiary Metropolitan Areas, with on
average 66.12 percent of the occupations in the agricultural Sector, whether as farmers
(46.06%) or agricultural laborers (26.94%). Commerce (11.93%) accounts for almost 12
percent of occupations, followed by service occupations (7.64%), with transport (2.38%) and
wage laborers (3.51%) together making up almost 6 percent. Others (10.30%) include
Industry, Construction, Hawkers, and Fishing.




68   Based on Sadar Upazila (Sub District) Data. Banglapedia (2004).
69   Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2005. 2003 Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Planning Division, Ministry of Planning,
     GOB. January.
70   Based on Sadar Upazila (Sub District) Data. Banglapedia (2004)


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                                   Table 29: Metropolitan Areas, Main Occupations 71

                                          Agricultural                                                           Wage
    Town              Agriculture          Laborer            Commerce           Service       Transport        Laborer         Others 72      Total
Chuadanga               33.49                26.94              14.18             8.35            3.54           3.35            10.15          100
Jhenaidaha              46.42                19.52              12.55             6.61            2.65            3.91            8.34          100
Magura                  46.06                18.06              11.37             7.84            3.57            3.29            9.81          100
Naogaon                 35.36                17.32              15.77             8.84            2.54           3.83            16.34          100
Joypurhat               48.71                20.00              11.38             7.21            2.15            1.76            8.79          100
Thakurgaon              48.23                22.10              8.92              7.19            0.00           3.96             9.6           100
Panchagaon              40.38                27.13               9.33             7.42            2.22           4.45             9.07          100
Total                   42.66                21.58              11.93             7.64            2.38           3.51            10.30          100

Due to the construction of the Bangabandhu Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge opened in June
1998, 73 the patterns of the economy in Northwest and West Bangladesh are changing fast. In
most of the towns, a gradual expansion of manufacturing and services operations is apparent.
These operations are generally small, such as light engineering units, flower and rice mills,
poultry feeders, bakeries, weaving and twisting mills. Cold storage is also gradually
increasing. Table 30 contains some of the representative existing manufacturing entities
identified in the Banglapedia (2004) within the seven beneficiary wider Municipal Areas
(Sadar Upazilla).

                                      Table 30: Metropolitan Areas, Manufacturing 74

   Town                                           Manufacturing in Municipal Area (Sadar Upazila)
Chuadanga          Cotton mills, sugar mill, bread and biscuit factory, spinning mills, textile mills, aluminum factory,
                   pharmaceuticals, rice mill, chira mill, oil mill, flour mill, ice factory, saw mill and welding. Notable
                   manufactories include Automatic Bangaj Bread and Biscuit Co, Tallu Spinning Mills Ltd, Asia Biscuit Ltd,
                   Juyoti Biscuit Factory Ltd, Faisal Textile Mills, Madina Aluminum Factory, and Azad Pharmaceuticals.
Jhenaidaha         Total numbers of manufactories 186, including dal mills, ice factories, oil mills, rice mills, flour mills.
Magura             Textile mill, ball pen industry, plastic pipe factory, soap factory, ice factory, rice mill, bidi factory, lathe factory
                   and welding
Naogaon            Automatic rice mill 1, cold storage 5
Joypurhat          Sugar mills, limestone and cement factories, coal factories, textile mills, pharmaceutical industry, rice mills,
                   flour mills
Thakurgaon         Husking mills 270, sugar mill 1, textile mills 2, silk mill 1, rice mills 20, flour mills 3, chira mills 20, ice
                   factories 8, PVC pipe factories 5, oil mills 3, cold storages 3, chemical and pharmaceutical industry 20,
                   welding 11
Panchagaon         Sugar Mill 1, Electric Pole Manufacturing Industry 1, Distillery 1, Husking Mill 55, Saw Mill 20, Homeo
                   Laboratory 1

71   Based on Sadar Upazila (Sub District) Data. Banglapedia (2004)
72   Includes Industry and Construction, Hawkers, Fishing.
73   This is the longest bridge in Bangladesh as well as in South Asia, and the 11th longest bridge in the world. It was constructed over the
     river Jamuna, mightiest of the three major rivers of Bangladesh, and fifth largest in the world in terms of volumetric discharge. The
     bridge established a strategic link between the eastern and western parts of Bangladesh. It generates multifarious benefits for the
     people and especially, promotes inter-regional trade in the country. Apart from quick movement of goods and passenger traffic by
     road and rail, it facilitated transmission of electricity and natural gas, and integration of telecommunication links. The bridge, stretching
     from Tangail to Sirajganj is located on the Asian Highway and the Trans-Asian Railway which, when fully developed, will provide
     uninterrupted international road and railway links from South-east Asia to North-west Europe. The bridge was constructed at a cost of
     $962 million. The cost of construction was shared by IDA, ADB, OECF of Japan, and the government of Bangladesh. Of the total, IDA,
     ADB and OECF supplied 22% each, and the remaining 34% was borne by Bangladesh. Banglapedia (2004)
74   Banglapedia (2004)


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                           Figure 10: Chuadanga Sadar Upazila (Sub District) 75




75   Banglapedia (2004)


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                           Figure 11: Jhenaidaha Sadar Upazila (Sub District) 76




76   Banglapedia (2004)


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                              Figure 12: Magura Sadar Upazila (Sub District) 77




77   Banglapedia (2004)


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                            Figure 13: Naogoan Sadar Upazila (Sub District) 78




78   Banglapedia (2004)


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                            Figure 14: Joypurhat Sadar Upazila (Sub District) 79




79   Banglapedia (2004)


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                           Figure 15: Thakurgaon Sadar Upazila (Sub District) 80




80   Banglapedia (2004)


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Section2                                                                                          Socioeconomic Information




                            Figure 16: Panchagarh Sadar Upazila (Sub District) 81




Women work as the front line workers in many of the units in all the beneficary Towns. The
Power supply situation in all seven towns is similar. The inadequacy in distribution capacity
causes frequent Power disruptions, particularly in the summer. All the Towns face low
voltage problems. The Subproject aims to enhance the Power distribution capacity in the
seven Towns by renovation of existing Network as well as installing new facilities. 82

Improvement and expansion to the Distribution Network in the four main beneficiary Towns
of Joypurhat, Panchagaon, Chuadanga and Magura in the Northwest and West Regions will
bring considerable benefits in efficiency improvements to all consumers, as will expansion of
existing Substations in Thakurgaon, Naogaon, and Jhenaidaha. These are District Towns, and
the lead local government institution is the Municipality. Public Sector institutions such as
schools, colleges, and hospitals are operating in all the Towns. Some have a university,
medical college, mental hospital.

Table 31 shows the literacy rates for the Town and for the wider Metropolitan Area of the
seven beneficiary Towns. The town areas have significantly higher literacy rates, at an

81  Banglapedia (2004)
82Asian Development Bank. 2003. RRP: Ban 36205. Report And Recommendation Of The President To The Board Of Directors On
Proposed Loans To The People’s Republic Of Bangladesh For The Power Sector Development Program November


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average of almost 51 percent, than the wider Municipality Area, where the average literacy
rate is just over 31 percent, for men it’s 39.5 percent and for women 22.6 percent. The
Municipal Area average is lower than the 32.4 percent average for Bangladesh as a whole,
38.9 percent for men and 25.5 percent for women. 83

                           Table 31: Towns & Metropolitan Areas, Literacy Rates 84

                                         Town                             Municipal Area (Sadar Upazila)
Town                                    Literacy              Male               Female                  Literacy
Chuadanga                                 48.0                34.4                 22.6                    28.7
Jhenaidaha                                48.9                34.8                 19.8                    27.5
Magura                                    47.6                41.6                 19.4                    30.5
Naogaon                                   48.5                42.3                 26.2                    34.5
Joypurhat                                 51.4                40.2                 25.2                    33.1
Thakurgaon                                58.5                39.2                 20.2                    30.1
Panchagaon                                52.8                43.8                 25.0                    34.7
Average                                   50.8                39.5                 22.6                    31.3



Table 30 indicates the broad array of educational, cultural, and religious institutions found in
the seven Municipal Areas that will benefit from the proposed Subproject, including
educational institutions, cultural organizations such as public libraries and cinema halls,
locally published newspapers and periodicals, and religious institutions.

               Table 32: Municipal Areas, Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions 85

    Town                       Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions in Municipal Area (Sadar Upazilla)
Chuadanga           Educational Institutions: Colleges 4, High Schools 17, Primary Schools 104, Primary Training Institute 1,
                    Vocational Training Institute 1, Nursing Institute 1. Cultural Organizations: Clubs 35, Public Libraries 2,
                    Cinema Halls 3, Theatre Groups 11, Theatre Stages 2, Women's Organizations 2, Literary Society 1,
                    Press Club 1. Locally Published Newspapers & Periodicals: Dainik Pratham Rajdhani, Weekly
                    Chaudanga Darpan, Weekly Chaudanga Samachar And Weekly Din Badaler Kagaj. Religious
                    Institutions: Mosque 218, Temple 3, Tomb 10, Church 1
Jhenaidaha          Educational Institutions: College 7, Cadet College 1, High School 36, Girl's High School 1, Junior High
                    School 3, Madrasa 89, Government Primary School 98, Non-Government Primary School 87, and
                    Technical Training Institute 1. Cultural Organizations: Clubs 30, Public Libraries 2, Cinema Halls 5,
                    Theatre Stage 1, Theatre Groups 7, Women's Societies 41. Locally Published Newspapers &
                    Periodicals: Daily Jhenaidahaha, Daily Adhibeshan, Daily Jhenaidahaha Bani, Weekly Aunirvan & Bir
                    Darpan. Religious Institutions: Mosques 435, Temples 3, & Church 1.
Magura              Educational Institutions: College 5, High School 32, Madrasa 2, Government Primary School 105, Non-
                    Government Primary School 42, Technical Institute 1. Cultural Organizations: Clubs 80, Public Libraries
                    3, Cinema Halls 2, Theatre Groups 4, Opera Parties 2, Literary Society 2, Women's Organizations 3.
                    Locally Published Newspapers & Periodicals: Daily: Khedmat; Weeklies: Magura Barta, Grameen
                    Bangla, Ganasangbad And Angikar; Monthly: Nabaganga. Religious Institutions: Mosques 250, Temples
                    55, Church 1, Tomb 1, & Places of Pilgrimage 3.
Naogaon             Educational Institutions: College 7, Secondary School 47, Madrasa 19, Vocational School 1, Technical
                    College 1 And Training School 1. Cultural Organizations: Press Club 1, Tennis Club 1, Public Library 1,


83 BBS (2005)
84 Banglapedia (2004).
85 Banglapedia (2004).




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        Town                     Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions in Municipal Area (Sadar Upazilla)
                      Rural Libraries 21, Rural Clubs 55, Cinema Halls 3, Theatre Stages 3, Theatre Groups 5, Music Groups
                      7, Stadium 1, Playgrounds 82, Women's Organizations 2. Newspapers & Periodicals Weekly: Nabajug,
                      Nabadiganta, Saptahik Bangabani, Bakachand, Nababarta, Banglar Kantha, Little Magazine, Sangkalon,
                      Tolpar, Protichhabi, Kalbela. Religious Institutions: Mosques 312, Temples 92, Churches 2
Joypurhat             Educational Institutions: College 7, Law College 1, Secondary School 26, Lower Secondary School 5,
                      Primary School 99, Madrasa 45. Cultural Organizations: Clubs 102, Press Clubs 2, Public Libraries 4,
                      Drama Groups 2, Cinema Halls 5, Literary Society 1, Silpakala Academy 1, Women's Organizations 2,
                      Shishu Academy 1 And Auditorium 1. Locally Published Newspaper & Periodicals: Extinct: Weekly
                      Abhijan, Weekly Joypurhat Barta, Weekly Bangadharani And Daily Nabanna. Religious Institutions:
                      Mosques 425, Temples 46, Churches 8 & Holy Place 1.
Thakurgaon            Educational Institutions: College 9, High School 98, Junior High School 14, Madrasa 38, Government
                      Primary Schools 189, Non-Government Primary Schools 148, Teachers' Training Institute 1, Vocational
                      Training Institute 1, Vocational Textile Institute 1. Cultural Organizations: Clubx 68, Public Library 1,
                      Cinema Hallx 10, Theatre Groupx 7, Theatre Stage 1, Cooperative Societies 126, Playgroundz 43, TV
                      Relay Centre 1, Radio Station 1 & Shilpakala Academy 1. Locally Published Newspapers & Periodicals
                      Extinct Dailies: Thakurgaon Darpan, Sangrami Bangla, Gram Bangla, Dainik Bangladesh, Janarab;
                      Periodicals Aso Cheye Dekhi Prithibi, Usashi, Chalachitra. Religious Institutions: Mosquez 655, Templez
                      120, Churches 19.
Panchagaon            Educational Institutions: Colleges (Government) 2, (Non-Government) 3, High Schools (Government) 2,
                      High Schools (Non-Government) 48, Junior High Schools 13, Madrasas 57, Primary Schools
                      (Government) 77, (Non-Government) 376, Satellite Schools 3. Cultural Organizations: Public Libraries
                      2, Clubs 3, Cinema Halls 4, Art Institute 1, Auditorium 1, Circuit House 1, Stadium 1. Newspapers &
                      Periodicals Pancharupa, Panchagarh Barta (Weekly) (Extinct), Ei Samay (Fortnightly). Religious
                      Institutions: Mosques 44, Temples 8.



Table 33 indicates the broad array of medical institutions found in the seven beneficiary
Municipal Areas.

                                  Table 33: Municipal Areas, Medical Institutions 86

    Town                                       Medical Institutions in Municipal Area (Sadar Upazila)
Chuadanga             District Sadar Hospital 1, Upazila Health Complex 1, Family Planning Centers 7, Satellite Clinics 2, TB
                      Hospital 1, Diabetic Hospital 1, Eye Hospital 1, Maternity & Child Care Center 1, Infectious Diseases
                      Hospital 1
Jhenaidaha            Zila Sadar Hospital 1, Upazila Health Complex 1, Eye Hospital 1, Family Welfare Centre 1, Diabetic
                      Hospital 1, Child Hospital, Maternity Centre 1, & Satellite Clinic 1
Magura                Hospital 1, Upazila Health Complex 1, Child Hospital 1, Eye Hospital 1, Diabetic Hospital 1, Maternity
                      Hospital 1, Family Welfare Centers 13, & Satellite Clinics 7
Naogaon               Hospital 1, Maternity & Child Welfare Center 1, Union Health & Family Planning Centers 13
Joypurhat             Zila Hospital 1, Union Health Centers 6, & Satellite Health Center 1.
Thakurgaon            Zila Sadar Hospital 1, Upazila Health Complex 1, Union Health Centre 7, Family Welfare Centre 19,
                      Maternity Centre 1, Diabetic Hospital 1
Panchagaon            Sadar Hospital 1, Upazila Health Complex 1, Satellite Clinic 3, Family Planning Centers 8, Diabetic
                      Hospital 1, Leprosy Hospital 1.




86   Banglapedia (2004).


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2.2.2.2    Three Transmission Lines (3 T/L) in W and NW Bangladesh 2005 Field Survey
           Socioeconomic Information for Sample 3 T/L Subproject Communities
Population in Sample 3 T/L Subproject Communities
The 2005 SES sampled a population along the Three Transmission Lines in N and NW
Bangladesh of about 144,300, in 33 communities/villages, with an average village size of
4,340. For all the Transmission Lines, the sample was approximately one village every five
kilometers. The largest sampled population, of 63,500, was along the Thakurgaon to
Panchagarh T/L, in 11 villages. These also had the largest average size, of 5,770.

The Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L has the most number of surveyed villages, at 14, and
second largest sampled population of 53,200. The average village size was the second
largest, at 3,800.

The Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L had only 8 sampled villages, with a population of 27,600 and
the smallest average village size of 3,450.

              Table 34: Population in Sample 3 T/L Subproject Communities/Villages

                                           No of Sampled                           Average Community
             Subproject                    Communities           Population            Population
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                   14                53,200                3,800
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                             8                27,600                3,450
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                        11                63,500                5,770
Total                                            33               144,303                4,340

Household Population
The sex ratio of all the 3 T/L Subproject households sampled shows a remarkable skew
towards a preponderance of males, on average 105.7 males to 100 females. This is also
shown at older ages (Table 35), which would not be found in an industrialized country.
Average HH size varies from 4.3 (Naogaon-Joypurhat) to 5.2 (Thakurgaon-Phanchghar),
with an average HH size of 4.8.

  Table 35: Population in Sample 3 T/L Subproject Households (HHs), by Gender, HH Size, Sex
                                            Ratio

                                  No of Sampled                                     Household         Sex Ratio
           Subproject                  HHs            Male      Female     Total      Size            (M/F)*100
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L          80            204        199        403         5               102.5
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                   40             88         85        173        4.3              103.5
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L               55            152        135        287        5.2              112.6
Total                                  175            444        419        863        4.8              105.7



Marital Status
Table 36 shows a preponderance of married couples in the sampled households, for all
Subprojects, with only 3 percent unmarried and no widowed or divorced sampled population.



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     Table 36: Marital Status of the Sample Respondents and Family Members, All Subprojects

      Marital Status            Respondents                     %                   Total population                      %
Married                             243                        97                          711                            55
Unmarried                            7                          3                          573                            44
Widow/Widower                        0                          0                           16                             1
Divorced                             0                          0                           2                              0
Total                               250                        100                        1,302                          100


Age Structure, by Gender
Some 48-53 percent of the sampled population in the 3 T/L Subprojects are below 25 years,
with only 6-7 percent 60 years or above.

       Table 37: Summary Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject
                                       Households (HHs)

                                                     Northern Region                                Southwestern Region
      Broad Age Group                         Total (M+F)           Share %                      Total (M+F)         Share %
From 0-24 years                                   219                 48                             212                53
From 25-59 years                                  209                 45                             167                41
60+ years                                          32                  7                              24                 6
Total                                             460                 100                            403               100

Interestingly enough (Table 38) some 67 percent of those over 60 years of age were males.
This level of male preponderance seems to hold true in general as the population ages,
indicated perhaps the difficult life of women in Bangladesh.

Literacy and Educational Status of 3 T/L Subproject Sampled HHs
Overall some 65 percent of the sampled population in the 3 T/L Subproject area was
reportedto have either a primary or secondary education, somewhat higher than 59 percent
reported in the Dhaka region (below), and this percentage generally applied for both genders.
On the other hand, only 17 percent of the sampled population was reported to be illiterate.

Religion in Sample 3 T/L Subproject Communities
An average of 84 percent of the SES respondants on the Three T/L Subprojects reported their
religion is Islam, i.e., were Muslim. The highest percentage was 92 percent on the
Chaudanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L, with the lowest being 72 percent on the Thakurgaon-
Panchagarh T/L. In the seven Municipal Areas affected by these Transmission Line
Subprojects nearly 86 percent are Muslim (Table 37), compared with a national figure 87 of
88.3 percent.


87   Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2005. 2003 Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Planning Division, Ministry of Planning,
     GOB. January.




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                          Table 38: Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject Households (HHs)

Age Group (Years)         Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L              Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                         Total
                    M        %     F      %         T       %      M     %     F     %     T      %      M        %     F      %     T      %      M     %     F      %     T     %
0-4                  9       4     21     11       30       7      3     3     9    11     12     7       7       5     12     9     19     7      9     4     21     11    30    7
                            (30)         (70)             (100)         (25)        (75)         (100)           (37)         (63)         (100)        (30)         (70)        (100)
5-9                 20       10    19     10       39       10     9     10    4     5     13     8      14       9     7      5     21     7      20   10     19     9     39    10
                            (51)         (49)             (100)         (69)        (31)         (100)           (67)         (33)         (100)        (51)         (49)        (100)
10-14               15       7     28     14       43       11     6     7     9    11     15     9      16      10     20    15     36     12     15    7     28     14    43    11
                            (35)         (65)             (100)         (40)        (60)         (100)           (44)         (56)         (100)        (35)         (65)        (100)
15 - 24             53       26    47     23       100      25     11    13    21   24     32     17     34      22     37    27     71     25     53   26     47     24 100      25
                            (53)         (47)             (100)         (34)        (66)         (100)           (48)         (52)         (100)        (53)         (47)        (100)
25 - 34             29       14    26     13       55       14     25    28    16   18     41     24     32      22     25    19     57     20     29   14     26     13    55    14
                            (53)         (47)             (100)         (61)        (39)         (100)           (56)         (44)         (100)        (53)         (47)        (100)
35 - 44             28       14    30     15       58       14     14    16    9    11     23     13     18      12     11     8     29     10     28   14     30     15    58    14
                            (48)         (52)             (100)         (61)        (39)         (100)           (62)         (38)         (100)        (48)         (52)        (100)
45 - 59             34       17    20     10       54       13     12    14    10   12     22     13     18      12     19    14     37     13     34   17     20     10    54    13
                            (63)         (37)             (100)         (55)        (45)         (100)           (49)         (51)         (100)        (63)         (37)        (100)
60+                 16       8      8     4        24       6      8     9     7     8     15     9      13       8      4     3     17     6      16    8     8      4     24    6
                            (67)         (33)             (100)         (53)        (47)         (100)           (76)         (47)         (100)        (67)         (33)        (100)
Total               204     100    199   100       403     100     88 100 85 100           173   100     152     100    135   100    287   100     204 100 199 100 403 100
                            (51)         (49)             (100)         (51)        (49)         (100)           (53)         (47)         (100)        (51)         (49)        (100)




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                             Table 39: Literacy and Education Levels of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject Households (HHs)

                               Chuadanga to Jhenaidah to Magura
                                             T/L                       Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L           Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                    Total
          Literacy Level        M    %     F     %     T    %       M    %    F      %    T     %        M    %     F     %    T     %     M    %        F    %      T     %
 Illiterate                      28    15    32    18    60    17    7    9   11    15    18    12      20    15   19     16   39    15   28    15      32    19    60    17
 Can read only                   8     4     8     5     16     5    5    6    9    12    14     9       8     6   16     13   24     9    8     4       8     5     16     5
 Primary (Class I to V)          64    35    64    38   128    36   17   21   15    21    32    20      15    11   21     18   36    15   64    36      64    37    128    36
 Secondary (Class VI to X)       52    28    50    30   102    29   21   26   26    36    47    31      40    28   40     34   80    31   52    28      50    30    102    29
 SSC                             13     8     6     4    19     5   11   14    4     5    15    10       19   14   11      9   30    12    13    7       6     4     19     5
 HSC                             11     6     3     2    14     4   10   12    5     7    15    10       19   14   10      8   29    11    11    6       3     2     14     4
 Graduation & above              8     4     5     3     13     4   10   12    3     4    13     8       16   12    2      2   18     7     8    4       5     3     13     4
 All                            184   100   168   100   352   100   81 100 73 100 154 100               137 100 119 100 256 100           184   100     168   100   352   100




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Note below in the discussion of ethnicity, the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L only sample of
Indigenous Peoples (IPs) found in the Three Transmission Line Subproject, and this appears
to correspond well with the lowest percentage of Muslim population.

An average of 12 percent of the sampled population identified themselves as Hindu,
compared with about 13 percent for the affected Municipal Areas and a national figure of
10.5 percent. Only the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L reported a Christian population,
some 1 percent of the sampled population, compared with a national figure of 0.03 percent.
Christians were subsumed within the ‘Other’ category for the affected Municipal Areas,
which was less than 1 percent. No Buddhists were reported (0.03 percent of the national
population).

       Table 40: Religion in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population

                Subproject                           Muslim      Hindu      Christian       Buddhist     Other     Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                         92           7           1              0           0        100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                                  87          10           0              0           3        100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                              72          20           0              0           8        100
Average                                                84          12           0              0           4        100
Bangladesh88                                          88.3        10.5        0.3             0.6         0.3       100

Ethnicity in 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities
The overall sampled population along the proposed Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L ROW
was about 63, 500, so the SES indicates some 635 Santals and 315 Mahili, for a potential of
some 950 IPs settled in communities along the ROW. Table 39, which shows IP populations
in Bangladesh and is based on Bureau of Statistics (BBS) statistics, indicates some 188,359
Santal and 3,534 Munda in Rajshahi Division, where the Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L
ROW is located. There are 202,744 in all of Bangladesh, whereas all of the Munda are
located in Rajshahi Division. Some description of these groups is given below in the section
on Indigenous Peoples.

       Table 41: Ethnicity in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population

                        Subproject                                    Bengali           Santal       Mahili       Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                                         100                --           --          100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                                                  100                --           --          100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                                              98.5              1.0          0.5          100
Total                                                                  99.5              0.33         0.17         100

Social Strata in 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities
Some 16.8 percent of the sampled population for the Three T/L Subprojects was described as
Very Poor, and altogether nearly 45 percent either Poor or Very Poor. The Chuadanga-
Jhenaidah-Magura T/L had the highest percentage of Poor or Very Poor, at 49.4 percent,




88   http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3452.htm


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nearly half the sampled population. This is in line with national estimates of social
stratification, especially for rural areas. 89

The average Medium population was 12.4 percent, and the Rich were on average 12.4
percent. The Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L was exceptional not only for having the
highest percentage of Poor or Very Poor but also the smallest percentage of those described
as Medium.

      Table 42: Social Strata in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population

Subproject                                                                 Rich     Medium          Poor       Very Poor            Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                                             13.6     37.0            30.2       19.2                 100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                                                      10.5     46.0            26.4       17.1                 100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                                                  13.2     45.0            27.8       14.0                 100
Total                                                                      12.4     42.7            28.1       16.8                 100

Livelihood in 3 T/L Subproject Sampled HHs
Some 57 percent of sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject areas have only one earning
member working outside the household, 21 percent two earning members, 16 percent three
earning members, and only 6 percent four or more earning members.

                 Table 43: Number of Earning Members in 3 T/L Subproject Community HHs,
                                     by Percent of Sampled Population

                                                                                   Number of HH Earning Members
                                                                  1                2          3       4 and above                 Total
                Subproject                                  No        %       No     % No       %     No       %               No       %
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                              50        63      16     20 11      13     3       4               80     100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                                    26        65       4     10   7     17     3       8               40     100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                                24        44      19     35   9     16     3       5               55     100
Average                                                     101       57      41     21 30      16     9       6               175 100

Monthly Income in the 3 T/L Subproject Sampled HHs
The highest percentage of sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject area, 27-32 percent, earn
between Tk 3,501 – 5,000 monthly. Roughly 80 percent of all sampled HHs earn between Tk
2,501-10,000 monthly. Only 13-16 percent earn more than Tk 10,000 monthly.




89   In the 1990s, millions of people faced the dehumanising effects of acute material scarcity because of inconsistent distribution and
       under-utilisation of land, lack of command of the poor over land and non-land resources, technological backwardness, disparity in
       income distribution and political upheaval. With a per capita income of approximately $386 (1999-2000), Bangladesh remains one of
       the poorest, most densely populated, and least developed nations especially characterised by pervasive poverty in both rural and
       urban areas. Nearly half of the country's population lives below the poverty line. Majority of its people lives in rural areas where
       problems of inequality and unemployment are growing rapidly. Gini ratios in rural and urban areas in constant 1963/64 prices were
       0.340 and 0.375 respectively in 1973/74, 0.362 and 0.365 in 1985/86, and 0.384 and 0.444 in 1995/96 (Banglapedia 2004).


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             Table 44: Monthly Income Groups, Sample Subproject 3 T/L Communities,
                         by Numbers and Percent of Sampled Households

                                                     Monthly Income (Tk)
                  Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-       Naogaon to Joypurhat        Thakurgaon to
Income Group           Magura T/L         %          T/L           %     Panchagarh T/L             % Total %
<1500                      0              0           0            0           0                    0   0   0
1501 – 2,500               1              1           0            0           4                    7   5   3
2,501 – 3,500             12             15            5           12          9                    16 26 15
3,501 – 5,000             29             36           11           28         15                    27 55 32
5,001 – 7,000              9             11           10           25          8                    15 27 15
7,001 – 10,000            14             18            8           20         12                    22 34 19
10,001 – 15,000            8             10            5           12          2                     4 15 9
15,001 – 25,000            7              9           1            3           3                    5 11 6
>25,001                    0              0           0            0           2                    4   2   1
All                       80             100          40          100         55                   100 175 100

Principle Sources of Household Income in 3 T/L Subproject Communities
On average, some 58.4 percent of the sampled population in the Three T/L Subproejcts
depends primarily on Agriculture for their household income. At 66.9 percent, the Naogaon-
Joypurhat T/L Subproject sampled population has the highest reliance on Agriculture, while
the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L Subproject sampled population has the lowest, with
only 45.8 percent reporting main reliance on Agriculture for household income.

On average, 14.4 percent of the sampled population relies primarily on Business for
household income. At 10.3 percent, the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject has the
lowest reliance on Business.

             Table 45: Principle Sources of HH Income in 3 T/L Subproject Communities,
                                     by % of Sampled Population

Subproject                               Agriculture   Business    Service    Remittance        Other      All
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L               45.8        16.6         5.8          2.6            28.9       100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                        66.9        16.4         7.6          3.2             5.8       100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                    62.5        10.3        15.0          3.4            9.0        100
Total                                        58.4        14.4         9.5          3.1            14.6       100

Household Expenditure
Average HH expenditure for all sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject area was roughly 8,000
Tk/Month. On average, Food (33 percent) is the highest expenditure of the 3 T/L Subproject
HHs sampled during the field survey. Investment/Savings is the next highest expenditure, at
an average of 19 percent for all sampled HHs. Social and Festival Obligations (Other
Expenditures) were the third highest expenditure, at around 11 percent of all the sampled
HHs.




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Education (9 percent), Clothing (8 percent), Fuel/Power (6 percent), Transport (6 percent),
Medical (5 percent), and Housing (3 percent) were the next ranking expenditures. Out of
some 175 HH respondents, only some 12 HHs reported expenditure on housing (7 percent of
respondents), reflecting the minority of HHs that rent.

                  Table 46: Average HH Expenditure in 3 T/L Subproject Communities,
                                     by % of Sampled Population

                                                        Monthly Expenditure (Tk)
                              Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-    Naogaon to         Thakurgaon to
                                   Magura T/L        Joypurhat T/L      Panchagarh T/L         Total
                                  Avg. Amount            Avg.             Avg. Amount          Avg.
           Category           No.     (Tk)     % No. Amount (Tk) % No.        (Tk)     % No. Amount (Tk) %
Food                          80     2,880     37 40     2,313     29 55     2,733     32 175  2,642 33
Investment/savings                                                                                                  19
                               73      1,321      17 38        1,659    21 44      1,533        18 155     1,504
                                                                                                                    11
Others (Social & Festival
Obligations Etc)
                               80       760       10 40        858      11 54      1,067        13 174      895
Education                      62       700        9   17      624      8 36        842         10 115      722     9

Clothing                       80       686        9   39      740      9 53        617          7 172      681     8

Fuel/Power                     75       322        4   31      460      6 43        446          5 149      409     6
Transport                      73       474        6   38      528      7 51        562          7 162      521     6
Medical                        80       532        7   38      421      5 53        379          5 171      444     5
Housing                        1        100        1 5          300     4 6         255          3 12       218     3
All                            80      7,775      100 40       7,903   100 55      8,434        100 175    8,037    100



Land Tenure Patterns in 3 T/L Subproject Communities
On average, 51.6 percent of the Three T/L Subproject sampled population is primarily Owner
Cultivators, some 28.1 percent are Owners who also are Tenants. Tenants are 16.9 percent,
and Absentee Owners are 3.4 Percent. The Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L Subproject has the
highest percentage of Owner Culivators, at 62.3 percent. The Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L
Subproject sampled population has the highest percentage of Tenants, at 18.7 percent.

 Table 47: Land Tenure Patterns in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled Population

                                           Owner            Owner Cum Tenant     Purely Tenant        Absentee
             Subproject                                                                                             All
                                          Cultivator           Cultivation        Cultivation          Owners
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L              42.4                  38.9               16.7               2.0         100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                       62.3                  18.3               15.5               3.8         100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                   50.0                  27.0               18.7               4.3         100
Total                                       51.6                  28.1               16.9               3.4         100




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Services Available in 3 T/L Subproject Communities
The sampled Three T/L Subproject communities reported a similar percent having electricity
available, between 73 to 79 percent. Some 38 percent of the sampled Naogaon-Joypurhat
T/L Subprojects had telephone service, compared with only 14 and 18 percent in Chuadanga-
Jhenaidah-Magura T/L and Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled communities
respectively. Note that this takes into account only land lines, not cell phone access.

Hospitals or Community Health Centers were found in one half the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-
Magura T/L and Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L Subproject sampled communities but in only 36
percent of the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L ones. Likewise, schools were found in 86 and 88
percent of the former two communities but only in 73 percent of the latter community.

On the other hand, 82 percent of the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled
communities had the traditional Islamic madrassah schools compared to 64 and 38 percent
respectively for the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L and Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L
Subproject communities. And as many as 45 percent of the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L
Subproject samled communities had a College, compared to only 29 percent for the
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L and 38 percent for the Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L sampled
communities.

Table 48: Services Available in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by Community and Percentage of
                              Communities Available/Not Available

                                             Chuadanga-
                                          Jhenaidah-Magura       Naogaon-Joypurhat               Thakurgaon-
               Services                          T/L                   T/L                     Panchagarh T/L
   Availability:                           Yes         No         Yes         No              Yes          No
   Electricity                              11          3           6          2                8           3
   Percent                                 (79)       (21)        (75)       (25)             (73)        (27)
   Telephone                                2          12          3          5                2            9
   Percent                                 (14)       (86)        (38)       (62)             (18)        (82)
   Hospital/Union or Community
                                            7           7           4           4              4             7
   Health Center
   Percent                                 (50)        (50)        (50)        (50)           (36)         (64)
   School                                   12           2           7           1              8            3
   Percent                                 (86)        (14)        (88)        (13)           (73)         (27)
   Madrasa                                  9           5           3           5              9            2
   Percent                                 (64)        (36)        (38)        (62)           (82)         (18)
   College                                  4           10           3           5              5            6
   Percent                                 (29)        (71)        (38)        (62)           (45)         (55)

NGO Activities in 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities
Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) run a remarkable number of target-oriented
programmes and projects in Bangladesh to improve the socio-economic conditions of small
and marginal farmers, assetless poor and distressed women. Notable among these
programmes are the group-based Micro Credit programs of Grameen Bank, BRAC, ASA,
Proshika and other local and foreign NGOs, the government initiated programs such as the
Swanirvar Bangladesh and Small Farmers Credit Project and donor funded special projects


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such as Rural Finance Experimental Project, Bangladesh Swiss Agricultural Project and
NORAD projects for small entrepreneurship development (Banglapedia 2004).

The sampled communities on the Three T/L Subprojects had in total between five and eight
NGOs accounted for during the SES. All of them offer Micro Credit programs. 90 Microcredit
is a term now broadly used to mean very small-sized supervised loans without any collateral.
Amounts of microcredit in Bangladesh vary from Tk 1000 to Tk 10,000 per beneficiary and
are provided mainly by micro-finance institutions/programmes and also banks and
conventional financial institutions to poor people with less than half an acre of land to
undertake employment and income generating activities. Micro-Finance Institutions (MFIs)
develop various tools to provide the poor with access to financial services so that they can
increase their income and productivity. Microcredit programmes aimed at poverty alleviation
cover a large number of borrowers with the objective of substantially removing socio-
economic imbalances, especially in rural areas (Banglapedia, 2004).

Only the two major NGOs, BRAC and ASA, offer other programs in addition to micro-
financing. BRAC 91 also delivers a Library program to the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L
Subproject sampled communities; Water, Health and Sanitation and Education programs to
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L Subproject Communities; and Family Planning/ Maternal and Child
Health, Education, and Development programs to the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L
Subproject sampled communities, which are in a more remote area of Bangladesh than the
other subprojects included in this Sector Loan. ASA 92 also offers Family Planning/ Maternal
and Child Health to the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled communities. The
other NGOs might be considered dedicated MFIs, in the context of North West and West
Bangladesh.




90   Because the rural poor have long been excessively dependent on informal sources of finance, the microcredit program was pioneered
     in Bangladesh through a Grameen Bank project as an alternative. Microcredit-financing started as a program of group-based and
     intensively supervised loans to poor people, especially poor women. Grameen Bank initiated it in 1976 as a pilot project. The success
     of the group-based microcredit financing scheme of Grameen Bank and a host of other Micro-financing Institutions (MFIs) operating
     on the Grameen model has been greatly appreciated worldwide and replicated in more than 45 countries, including the United States.
     The number of borrowers of such credit throughout the world stood around 9 million in 2000. Of them, more than 5 million are from
     Bangladesh (Banglapedia 2004).
91   BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) an NGO set up in 1972 by its founder executive director Fazle Hasan Abed in
     Habiganj District. BRAC initially provided relief and rehabilitation assistance to refugees returning from India after the War of
     Liberation. Later, BRAC turned its focus on the long-term issue of poverty alleviation and empowerment of the poor in rural areas of
     the country. At present, BRAC promotes income generation for the poor, mostly landless rural people through microcredit and
     programs on healthcare, literacy, and education and training. BRAC is now a multi-faceted organisation with over 27,000 regular staff
     and 34,000 part-time teachers working in 60,000 villages in all 64 districts of Bangladesh. The BRAC Development Programme has
     so far (2003) organised over 3.85 million landless poor, mostly women, into 113,756 Village Organisations (VOs), each having 35-40
     members (Banglapedia 2004).
92   ASA (Association for Social Advancement) formed as an NGO in early 1978 by a few development workers led by Shafiqul Haque
     Choudhury, the founder Managing Director. The formation of ASA was the outcome of efforts to create an alternative type of
     organisation for the benefit of the poor in the belief that the existing top-down development approach was not benefiting those who
     really needed development. The activities of ASA now cover all 64 districts and the programmes are implemented in 26,400 villages of
     4,700 unions of 404 upazilas. It operates through 953 braches and plans to form 97 new branches by December 2001. Up to April
     2001, ASA had 1.3 million members and 1.2 million borrowers (Banglapedia 2004).


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                Table 49: NGO Activities Found In 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities

                                                                     Family
                                                                    Planning/
                                               Water,               Maternal &
                                              Health &    Micro       Child
           Project           NGOs            Sanitation   Credit     Health Education Development Library
                      Shwanirvar
                      Founder
                      Zagoroni
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah- Weave
Magura T/L            Grameen Bank
                      Sreejani
                      ASA
                      BRAC
                      EFAD
                      DABI
                      TMSS
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L
                      Grameen Bank
                      BRAC
                      ASA
                      Manobik
                      RDRS
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh
                      Grameen Bank
T/L
                      BRAC
                      ASA

Electricity Connections
On average, some 63 percent of sampled HHs had an electricity connection, with the highest
percent being 75 percent of Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L Subproject sampled HHs. REB
provided most of the electricity, for some of the sampled 63 HHs, with 37 percent being
supplied by PDB. More than 80 percent of the Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L sampled HHs
received their electricity from the REB, whereas for the other two Subprojects somewhat over
half the HHs (54-57 percent) received their electricity from REB.

  Table 50: Status of Electric Connection in Subproject Sampled Communities and Supplying
                                             Agency

                                             Electrric Connection                       Supplier Agency
                                                                                                                Total
               Project               Yes    %     No      %    Total    %    PDB   %      REB     %     Total     %
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L       46     58    34      43    80     100    20   43      26     57     46      100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L             30     75    10      25    40     100     5   17      25     83      30     100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L         35     64    20      36    55     100    16   46      19     54     35      100
Total                                111    63    64      37    175    100    41   37      70     63     111     100




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Electricty Use
Of the 175 HHs sampled in the 3 T/L Subproject area, of the 111 HHs (63 percent) having
electric connections, all of them indicated use of electricity for lighting, whereas only about 2
percent of the 111 HHs with electricity reported using electricity for cooking and 5 percent
for irrigation. Of all 175 sampled HHs, only 63 percent, or all of those with electricity
connections, used electricity for lighting; only 1 percent of all sampled HHs had use of
electricity for cooking and 4 percent for irrigation.

  Table 51: Status of Electricity Use, 3 T/L Subproject 111 Sample Households having Electric
                                            Connection

                                                               Type of Electricity Use (Multiple Response)
                                                                                                                 Total
                     District                       Lighting     %     Cooking        %   Irrigation        % Sampled HHs
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                         46        58       0           0        2            3      80
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                               30        75       0           0        4            10     40
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                           35        64       2           4        0            0      55
Total                                                 111        63       2           1        6            4     175

Power Source for Irrigation
Some 75 percent of the 175 sampled HHs in the 3 T/L Subproject area reported having
irrigation facilities. Of 157 multiple responses to the question of the power source used for
irrigation, 70 percent responses reported using Diesel, 17 percent Electricity, and 13 percent
Traditional (gravity, draft power) sources of power.

           Table 52: Irrigation Facilities, 3 T/L Subproject Sample Households All Subprojects

                                                               Facilities (Multiple Response)
                                                                                                    Tradi
                                                                        Dies          Elect         tiona           Total
               Project             Yes    %    No     % Total %          el      %     ric    %        l     % Total %
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L     47     59   33     41 80 100          42      89     5     11      5      11 52 100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L           36     90    4     10 40 100          28      78     7     19      9      25 44 100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L       48     87    7     13 55 100          41      85    14     29      6      13 61 100
Total                              131    75   44     25 175 100        111      70    26     17      20     13 157 100

Knowledge of T/L Subproject
Overall, of respondents in the 3 T/L Subprojects area nearly half (47 percent) reported
knowing of the T/L planned for their area. Some 90 percent of the Naogoan to Joypurhat T/L
respondents knew and 75 percent of Thakurgaon to Panchagarh respondents knew. A
deficiency of knowledge existed in the Chaudanga-Jhenaidah-Magur T/L area, however, with
only 8 percent of respondents reporting any knowledge of the proposed project.




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 Table 53: 3 T/L Subproject Sample Households Knowledge about Proposed Transmission Line
                                        Subproject

                                                                          Response
               Project                    Yes           %            No              %          Total       Total %
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L             6            8            74              93          80           100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                  36            90            4              10           40          100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L              41            75           14              25          55           100
Total                                     83            47           92              53          175          100

Land Prices in 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities
The following are SES determined land prices for agricultural and commercial lands in the
sampled communities along the Three T/L Subproject ROWs. The rounded average will be
used to arrive at an estimated resettlement budget for these subprojects.

                       Table 54: Recent Land Transaction (Buying & Selling) Rate
               in 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities, Average Price (Tk) per Decimal

                            Chuadanga-
                         Jhenaidah-Magura       Naogaon-Joypurhat           Thakurgaon-
    Land Types                  T/L                   T/L                  Panchagarh T/L         Rounded Average
Agricultural Land
High                            7,077                  4,280                    5,500                    5,620
Medium                          7,585                 12,727                   11,800                   10,700
Low                            4,590                  4,500                    3,250                     4,115
Fallow                            --                  3,000                     2,600                    2,800
Commercial                     50,000                 26,333                    9,714                   28,680
Other                          23,769                    --                       --                    23,770

Structure Prices
The following are SES determined land prices for residential and commercial construction in
the sampled communities along the Three T/L Subproject ROWs. The rounded average will
be used to arrive at an estimated resettlement budget for these subprojects.

                               Table 55: Average Cost (Tk) Per Square Foot,
                         for Construction in 3 T/L Sample Subproject Communities

                             Chuadanga-
                          Jhenaidah-Magura      Naogaon-Joypurhat           Thakurgaon-
Construction Types               T/L                  T/L                  Panchagarh T/L          Rounded Average
Residential
Pucca                           160.8                   285.2                   356.5                     270
Semi-Pucca                      58.5                    85.3                    44.9                      65
Tin Roof                        22.1                    47.8                    19.7                      30
Straw (Thatch) Hut              35.5                    10.3                     4.9                       17
Commercial
Pucca                           195.3                   397.0                   393.9                     330


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                               Chuadanga-
                            Jhenaidah-Magura            Naogaon-Joypurhat    Thakurgaon-
Construction Types                 T/L                        T/L           Panchagarh T/L           Rounded Average
Semi-Pucca                        22.9                        82.4               44.8                      50
Tin Roof                          12.0                        13.6               21.2                      16
Straw (Thatch) Hut                  0                          5.8                5.4                       4


New Projects and Upgrades in Dhaka
2.2.2.3       New Projects and Upgrades in Dhaka General Socioeconomic Information
Dhaka Municipality will benefit from (1) the 400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission
Line & Improvements around Dhaka; (2) 132 kV Improvements around Ullon; (3) System
Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area; and (4) DESA and DESCO Distribution
Projects. The Consultants estimate that the 400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission
Line will initially operate at 230 kV for several years until additional Generating units are
installed at Meghnaghat and will facilitate transmission of 1,500 million kWh annually while
operating at 230 kV.

Dhaka stands on the bank of the Buriganga River. It consists of seven principal thanas,
Dhanmondi, Kotwali, Motijheel, Ramna, Mohammadpur, Sutrapur and Tejgaon and 13
auxiliary thanas, Gulshan, Lalbagh, Mirpur, Pallabi Sabujbagh, Cantonment, Demra,
Hazaribagh, Shyampur, Badda, Kafrul, Kamrangir Char and Khilgaon.

Dhaka Municipality was established in 1864 and was turned into a Town Committee in 1960.
The name of the Town Committee was changed to Dhaka Municipality in 1972. It was turned
into a Municipal Corporation in 1983. Finally it was elevated to City Corporation in 1991.
Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh.

Dhaka has an area of 304 sq km and a population of 5,378,000 (Table 53), constituting a
population density of 17,691 persons per sq km as of 2000. The male population is 56.62
percent and the female 43.38 percent for the city, and male 55.15 percent, female 44.85
percent for the wider Metropolitan Area (District).

     Table 56: Dhaka City & Municipal Area: Area, Population & Population Density (Per/Sq Km) 93

                                   Area (sq km)                Population            Population Density
Town                                   304                      5,378,000                 17,691
Municipal Area 94                     1,464                     7,996,000                  5,462


The most important development that has taken place in the City's recent history is the
overwhelming growth of its population, chiefly through migration. In 1872, at the time of the
first census, Dhaka had a population of 69,212; in 1881, 79,076; in 1911, 125,000; and in
1941, 239,000. After the Partition of 1947 the increase in population showed a steady rise
with the arrival of migrants from India and in 1951 the population jumped to 336,000.
According to the census of 1961, the city had a population of 556,000, a growth of some

93   Bangladpedia (2004)
94   Based on Dhaka District Data. Banglapedia (2004)


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44.63 percent during a decade. This growth rose dramatically after 1971. By 1974, the
population increased to 1,680,000; in 1981 it reached 3,440,000; and in 1991, 6,150,000.
The unprecedented growth of the City and the lure of jobs and opportunities, real or
imaginary, led enormous numbers of rural migrants from all over the country to come to
Dhaka. The legal and administrative boundaries of the City nowadays have however been
extended to a great extent to include, for example, Narayanganj and Savar, so that, despite the
figure in Table 26, the City's present population can be estimated to be more than nine
million.
Within this boundary there are, however, many patches of rural areas as well as wastelands.
Even in Dhaka, the lines between urban, rural and peri-urban are considerably blurred, and in
the wider area (District) especially there are many villages interspersed with urban
communities. As shown below in Table 54, there are 1,863 villages in the Dhaka Area, many
if not most of which will be potential beneficiaries from the augmented Electricity supply for
the city.

                     Table 57: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Municipalities & Villages 95

                          Municipal Area (District)                                           Municipality                     Villages
Dhaka                                                                                              3                            1,863



This enormous growth in population has had its impact upon the City's housing and various
Service Sectors as well as upon its social and economic life, especially upon its environment.
Large parts of the City have developed as slums where poor migrants live in shanties in
inhuman conditions. 96

The enormous growth of the City and the unprecedented increase of population, have made
the old-time transports, housing and civic services totally inadequate and unsuitable.
Nineteenth-century transports such as palki, 97 ponies, elephants and hackney-carriages
disappeared by the middle of the Twentieth Century with the rapid extension of the City and
have been replaced by a variety of vehicles including the ubiquitous rickshaws, buses and
cars. Towards the end of the 1990s, privately owned luxurious buses and taxis have also been
introduced, but no proper transport system that befits a big capital city has yet been
introduced by the City authorities, resulting in a very unsatisfactory state. 98

Though the total number of dwellings at present in the City falls short of the demand,
resulting in overcrowding, the housing scenario of Dhaka has changed very impressively over
the last two centuries. The Nineteenth Century houses, mostly thatched huts erected in a line
upon the edges of narrow streets and lanes have given place to brick-built houses upon
spacious roads and planned areas. Apart from some magnificent houses built privately by the
wealthy citizens on privately owned land, the idea of having planned residential areas with

95   Bangladpedia (2004)
96   Banglapedia (2004)
97   Palanquin, a box-litter or sedan for traveling in, with a pole projecting before and behind, which is borne on the shoulders of two, four
     or even eight bearers of special caste or class. The introduction of rickshaw in the 1930s had, in fact, ousted it from the urban areas.
     The ever expanding communication network, introduction of motorized vehicles in land and waters all over the country, and the
     popularity of pedaled rickshaw have now made palki an institution of the past. Banglapedia (2004)
98   Banglapedia (2004)


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Section2                                                                                         Socioeconomic Information



two to four-storied buildings and housing colonies of similar height for people of limited
income began to take root only from the late Nineteenth Century and has continued to
dominate the housing scene ever since.

From the 1980s the shortage of suitable land has led to the construction of high-rise houses
with multiple stories both for offices and residences throughout the city. A group of very
talented local engineers, architects and builders as well as foreign companies have appeared
on the scene and are constructing such buildings and thus changing the cityscape of Dhaka. In
recent times Dhanmondi, Banani, Gulshan, Baridhara, Uttara, Shiddeshwari, Mirpur, Pallabi
areas have been developed into beautiful residential areas with expensive and luxurious
houses and apartment blocks. However, the house-building process is far from complete and
though the City is full of high-rise buildings and luxurious residences as well as humble one-
storied houses, nearly one-third of the population live in slums, in shanties and in the most
inhuman conditions. 99

Religious affiliation is more overwhelmingly Muslim than in the Subproject areas in
Northwest and West of Bangladesh, at approximately the same percents for Muslim and
Hindu populations as the national average, 92.72 and 6.50 percent respectively. In the
Northwest and West, there are larger enclaves of Hindu, Christian and in many instances
ethnic minority tribals than in the Dhaka area, who will be potential beneficiaries of the
improved electricity supply and who will also need to be taken into account in any
resettlement planning.

                Table 58: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Religious Affiliation by Percent 100

                                 Muslim           Hindu      Christian          Buddhist           Others         Total
Dhaka (District0                  92.72            6.50         --                 --              0.78 101        100
Bangladesh                        92.60            6.49         0.71              0.25              0.07          100

Agricultural occupations in the Dhaka Area (District) account for only about 12 percent. This
is quite low in a largely agricultural country such as Bangladesh, where those employed in
agriculture, forestry and fisheries account for some 48.7 percent of all employment. 102 Thus,
some 88 percent of occupations found in the Dhaka area may be considered primarily urban,
including industrial workers, construction and renters of property, which are subsumed in
Banglapedia (2004) in the category of Others, roughly 22 percent. Industrial workers would
include the largely female workforce in the textile industry, which is Bangladesh’s largest
industry and is for the most part centered on Dhaka. 103




99    Banglapedia (2004)
100   Based on Dhaka District Data. Banglapedia (2004)
101   Presumably including Christians and Buddhists.
102   BBS. Statistical Pocketbook. (2003)
103   BBS. Statistical Pocketbook. (2003)


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                          Table 59: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Main Occupations 104

                                   Agricultural                                                            Wage
              Agriculture          Laborer              Commerce           Service        Transport        Laborer        Others105      Total
Dhaka              7.62                 4.41               23.08            31.49            8.53            2.71            22.16        100

Dhaka and its environs are one of the largest industrial regions of Bangladesh, producing
varieties of goods and manufactures, from traditional products like textiles, silver and gold
ornaments to modern electronic goods - many of these under the joint venture system. There
are also industrial zones devoted exclusively to the manufacture of goods for export. These
export promotion zones manufacture high-tech goods in particular. The most important
industrial activity for which Dhaka has created an important place for itself on the world
market in recent years is the garment industry, producing textile and woolen goods on an
order basis from foreign buyers.

The garments industry is now the highest foreign exchange earner of the country, and the
City has almost 80 percent of the total garments factories of the Bangladesh, employing
thousands of workers, especially women. Dhaka is also now a major producer of leather
goods. 106

Dhaka has also become one of the most important commercial centers in the country. There is
brisk trade both in local and foreign products, ranging from high tech goods to cosmetics.
The city is now dotted with several multi-storied modern shopping centers where varieties of
goods are sold. The modern shops are gradually replacing the old-fashioned shops and
markets.

The City at present is also the headquarters of all financial institutions of the country. The
Bangladesh Bank, the country's central bank, is situated in the Motijheel Commercial Area,
and it controls all of Bangladesh’s banking and financial transactions. Dhaka's modern
banking institutions date back to the 19th century. Today Dhaka also houses the national and
metropolitan chambers of commerce and other institutions of the business people and
industrialists. In short, all of Bangladesh’s trade and commerce, import and export trade are
controlled from here. Just as the Bangladesh Bank looks after the public aspect of finance, so
does the various Chambers of Commerce protect the interests of private business. The Stock
Market, a recent growth, has added to the commercial life of the City. Table 22 indicates the
manufacturing enterprises found in Dhaka that will directly benefit from an improvement in
the supply of Electricity.

                            Table 60: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Manufacturing 107

Manufactories Ceramic industry, beverage industry, press and publication, garments industry, foot ware, jute mills, textile
mills, printing and dying factory, transformer industry, automobile industry, biscuit and bread factory, pharmaceutical
industry, cosmetic industry, soap factory, rice mill, flour mill, ice factory, ball pen industry, polythene industry, saw mill, brick
field, cold storage, welding, plant nursery, etc. Besides, there are many spare parts work shops at Nawabpur, Bangshal,
Dholai Khal Par and Sutrapur areas of Dhaka.

104   Based on Dhaka District Data. Banglapedia (2004)
105   Includes Industrial Laborers (mostly female textile workers from outside Dhaka), Construction, and renting out houses.
106   Banglapedia (2004)
107   Banglapedia (2004)


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                                      Figure 17: Dhaka City and District 108




108   Banglapedia (2004)


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Table 61 below shows the literacy rate of 62.3 percent for Dhaka, compared to an overall rate
of 53.9 percent for the District, taken here as representative of the wider Municipal Area,
60.1 percent for males and 45.9 percent for females. The average for Bangladesh as a whole
is 32.4 percent, 38.9 percent for men and 25.5 percent for women, so Dhaka City and its
wider Municipality Area have a very much higher than average literacy for all categories than
the national average. 109

                          Table 61: Dhaka Town & Metropolitan Area, Literacy Rates 110

        Dhaka City                                            Municipal Area (District)
         Literacy                      Male                     Female                              Literacy
           62.3                        60.1                       45.9                                53.9



Table 62 indicates the wide variety of educational and cultural institutions, newspapers and
periodicals and religious institutions that will benefit directly from an improved supply of
Electricity in Dhaka’s wider Municipal Area. Civic services in the modern sense started in
Dhaka in the Nineteenth Century with the establishment of the Dhaka Municipality in 1864.
From then on restrictions on building houses were introduced; spacious roads were
constructed; sweeping and cleaning of roads and privies were started; piped water-supply
began; markets were controlled; a traffic system was introduced and an Electricity Supply
System installed both with Government funds and private charities. 111

Dhaka is a major South Asian capital city playing a significant role in the political, economic,
social, cultural and sporting activities of the Region. It has developed into one of the most
important cultural centers of Asia, holding national and international art, music, cinema,
theatre, dance and literary conferences and festivals. Western-influenced theatrical
performances started in Dhaka from the middle of the Nineteenth Century and later the
appearance of female performers on stage created a sensation among the conservative
sections of Dhaka society. Dhaka today is one of the most important centers of entertainment
in Bangladesh, with numerous cinemas, theatres and musical halls. The City is dotted with
museums, libraries, art galleries, clubs and restaurants. 112

Today Dhaka is a prosperous and growing city where tremendous commercial, industrial,
financial, sporting and cultural activities take place. It is also politically very powerful, being
the Capital City and the administrative headquarters of the country. A substantial number of
the inhabitants are very rich. It is also the home of the rising 'Bangladeshi' middle class.
However, Dhaka has been caught up in a sudden spree of development and growth, without
proper planning and no real control over the haphazard growth. The never ending migration
of people from the countryside and district towns often without any jobs is creating
tremendous pressure upon the city with its meager housing and other facilities. 113




109 BBS (2005)
110 Banglapedia (2004).
111 Banglapedia (2004)
112 Banglapedia (2004)
113 Banglapedia (2004)




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Since 1971, the pressure on Dhaka has been enormous. The City registered a steady growth
in the number of residents. Along with it there is large floating population, the pressure of
which has resulted in the growth of slums in all vacant pockets in between the built-up areas.

The recent phenomenon of high rise buildings, both in the Commercial and Residential
Sectors, clearly manifest that highlands within the City have been exhausted. To cope up with
ever-increasing pressure, Dhaka has started going upwards, an inevitable and common
phenomenon in all modern cities with dense population and little scope for horizontal
expansion due to topographical reasons. Dhaka is on the verge of a change in its urban
character, vertical growth taking the place of horizontal expansion. From a small suburban
town Dhaka has emerged as a Mega City in course of about four centuries.

       Table 62: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Educational, Cultural & Religious Institutions 114

Educational, Cultural, Religious, & Commercial Institutions in Dhaka Municipal Area (District)
Educational Institutions: Public Universities 4, Private Universities 15, Government Medical Colleges 4, Private Medical
Colleges 11, Technical Training College 1, Government Teacher's Training Colleges 3, Government Colleges 21, Non-
Government Colleges 97, Law Colleges 3, Government High Schools 55, Non-Government High Schools 315, Junior High
Schools 24, Madrasahs 165, Government Primary Schools 399, Non-Government Primary Schools 226, NGO Operated
Primary Schools 149, Primary Teacher's Training Institutes 3, Technical Training Institutes 4, Kinder Garden Schools 143,
English Medium Schools 18. Cultural Organisations: Clubs 447, Associations 99, Public Libraries 59, Cinema Halls 147,
Theatre Groups 15, Theatre Stages 17, Cooperative Societies 367, Women's Organizations 74, Stadiums 8, Playgrounds
55, Museums 6, Gymnasiums 18, Swimming Pools 12, Zoo 1, Etc. Noted Cultural Organizations: Dhaka Club, Officer's
Club, National Press Club, Ladies Club, Sainik Club, RAOWA Club, Central Public Library, Jatiya Grantha Kendra, Raja
Rammohan Roy Library, National Museum, Ahsan Manzil Museum, Mirpur National Zoo, Shishu Academy, Shilpakala
Academy, Islamic Foundation, Bangla Academy, Bishwa Sahitya Kendra, Asiatic Society Of Bangladesh, No. 1 National
Stadium (Bangabandhu Stadium), Etc. Dhaka City itself has 88 cinema halls, 351 clubs, 55 playground, 136 government
and private hospitals and clinics, 4 parks, 4 national stadiums, 17 public and private universities, 4 government medical
colleges, 11 private medical colleges. Other important establishments include Bangladesh Supreme Court, High Court,
Judge Court, diplomatic missions of many countries, Bangladesh Secretariat, National Museum, National Zoo, and head
offices of various Sector corporations government departments, business houses and NGOs. Locally Published
Newspapers And Periodicals Dailies (Bangla): Ittefaq, Inqilab, Bhorer Kagaj, Prothom Alo, Banglar Bani, Sangbad,
Janakantha, Jugantar, Sangram, Rupali, Dainik Bangla, Dinkal, Arthaniti, Muktakantha, Ajker Kagaj, Al Amin, Dainik Bhor,
Desh Janata, Janapath, Janmabhumi, Khabar, Samachar, Sakti, Desh Bangla, Manab Jamin, Bangla Bazar, Etc; Dailies
(English): Bangladesh Times, Bangladesh Observer, Daily Star, Independent, New Nation, Financial Express, Morning Sun;
Weeklies: Aai Samay, Ekata, Bartaman Dinkal, Chuti, Dhaka Courier, Nagari, Purbhabas, Sandwip, Gram Barta, Bichitra,
Purnima, Jaijaidin, Sughanda, Robbar, Kriralok, Savar Barta, Jagrata Kantha, Saf Katha, Savar Kantha, Ganabhasha, Etc;
Extinct: Bandhab Patrika (1874), Dainik Azad (1935), Weekly Mohammadi (1910), Dainik Nabajug (1941), Samakal (1854),
Sahitya Patra (1948), Dainik Khadem (1910), Sabujpatra (1914), Moslem Bharat (1920), Kallol (1923), Al-Islam (1915),
Education Gazette (1846), Weekly Bartabaha 91856), Swadesh (Monthly, 1854), Bangadut (1829), Bangadarshan (1872),
Nabanur (1903), Bengal Gazette (1780), Bengal Gazette (1818), Shikha (1927), Saogat (1918), Basana (1908), Etc.
Religious Institutions Mosque 3088, Temple 808, Tomb Buddhiat Keyand And Pagoda 4, Church 33, Tomb 37. Dhaka Is
Called The City Of Mosque. Noted Mosques Of Dhaka Are Baitul Mukarram Mosque, Sat Gambuj (Seven Domed) Mosque,
Chalk Mosque, Lalbagh Mosque, Narinda Binod Bibi Mosque, Bibi Meher Mosque, Armanitola Mosque, Khawja Shahbaj
Mosque, Islam Khan Ki Mosque, Mariam Saleh Mosque, Sitara Begum Mosque, Azimpur Mosque, Kartalab Khan Mosque,
Farrukh Shayer Mosque, Tara Mosque, Amir Uddin Mosque, Dhaka University Central Mosque, Etc. Noted Temples Are
Joykali Mandir, Dhakeshwari Mandir, Lakkhinarayan Mandir, Kalibari Mandir, Shiva Mandir, Kadam Tali Kali Mandir,
Ramkrishna Mission Mandir, Brahmosamaj Mandir, Guru Nanak Shahi Guru Duara, Etc. Noted Churches Are Holy Rosary,
Amputi Thomas Anglican, Holy Cross, Armenian Church, Etc; Noted Tombs: Hazrat Shah Ali Bagdadi (R), Pir Jangi (R),
Shah Amir Ali Bagdadi (R), Golap Shah, Pir Ieameni (R), Niamat Ullah, Bibi Pari, Bibi Mariam, Bibi Champa, Chisti Behesti,
Etc. Noted Graveyards: Azimpur, Banani And Narinda Christian Graveyard. Hats, Bazars And Fairs Total Number Of Hats,
Bazars And Shopping Centres Are 316. Noted Hats: Gabtali Cattle Market, Sarulia Hat (Demra Upazila), Dhamrai,
Shreerampur, Kalampur (Dhamrai Upazila), Joypara, Kartikpur, Dohar, Medhula (Dohar Upazila). Noted Bazars: Kawran

114   Banglapedia (2004).


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Educational, Cultural, Religious, & Commercial Institutions in Dhaka Municipal Area (District)
Bazar, Captan Bazar, Waiz Ghat, Chawk Bazar, Tanti Bazar, Thatari Bazar, Naya Bazar, Bangla Bazar, Babu Bazar, Moulvi
Bazar, Rayer Bazar, Siddique Bazar, Swari Ghat; Noted Markets And Shopping Centres: Dhaka New Market, Baitul
Mukarram Super Market, Gulshan Market, Pir Eamini Market, Aziz Super Market, Eastern Plaza, Elephant Road, Banga
Bazar, Mauchak, Dhanmondi Hawkers' Market, Gaochia Market; Total Number Of Fairs Are 72, Most Noted Of Which Are
Dhaka International Trade Fair, Ekushey Book Fair, Ramna Baishaki Mela, Dhamrai Rath Jatra Mela, Dhamrai Poush
Samkranti Mela, Bahauttar Prahar Mela At Savar, Bairagi Mela At Nawabganj; Residential Hotels: 70, Most Noted Of Which
Are Dhaka Sheraton Hotel, Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, Hotel Purbani, Hotel Sundar Ban.

The civic services and urban facilities have increased tremendously in the last thirty years or
so. A network of roads connecting the various parts of the City as well as establishing links
countrywide has been constructed. The Asian Highway, the Tongi Diversion Road, the VIP
Road, the Bijoy Sarani Road, the Rokeya Sarani Road, the Mirpur-Muhammadpur Road, the
Satgumbud Road, the Dhaka- Sayidabad Road are some of the major roads of the Capital,
with many small streets branching off from them. 115

The City has been supplied with gas from the 1970s - a major aid that has helped the Capital
to develop into a modern place as well as freeing it from much pollution from the use of coal
and wood. Water supply, mostly from underground extraction through a Deep Tube-Well
System, has been vastly increased, but the method is dangerously associated with sub-soil
erosion. Recently Syedabad Water Purification & Supply Plant has been commissioned. It
draws water from the Sitalakhya River. 116

Likewise, the supply of Electricity, though greatly increased in the recent past has proved to
be inadequate for a city with about 9.1 million inhabitants and large industrial activities. The
ever-increasing demand for domestic purposes, industries, business houses, hospitals and
clinics, educational institutions and sporting venues has made the supply so inadequate that
the City experiences deliberate cuts in Power supply. Telephones, telex, fax, mobile phones,
e-mail and very recently the Internet have revolutionized the City's communication system
and its link with the rest of the world. 117

Table 63 shows the variety of medical institutions that are found in the Dhaka Metropolitan
(District) Area and which will also benefit from the improved Electricity supply.

                      Table 63: Dhaka Municipal Area (District), Medical Institutions 118

Medical Institutions in the Dhaka Municipal Area (District)
Health Centers: Government Hospitals 20, Upazila Health Complexes 5, Private Hospitals & Clinics 225, Child & Maternity
Welfare Centre 75, Satellite Clinics 127, Family Planning Centers 361 & Veterinary Hospitals 8.

2.2.2.4      New Projects and Upgrades in Dhaka 2005 Field Survey Socioeconomic Information
             for Sample Subproject Communities/Villages
Population in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
The 2005 SES sampled a population along the Dhaka Area Transmission Lines of about
78,500, in 16 communities/villages, with an average village size of 4,270. For both the

115 Banglapedia (2004)
116 Banglapedia (2004)
117 Banglapedia (2004)
118 Banglapedia (2004).




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Meghnaghat to Aminbazar and the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L Subprojects, the sample was
approximately one village every five kilometers. The largest sampled population, of 66,500,
was along the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L, in 12 villages. These also had the largest
average size, of 5,540.

               Table 64: Population in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities/Villages

                                                     No of Sampled                           Average Community
                    Subproject                       Communities          Population             Population
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                12               66,500                 5,540
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                4               12,000                 3,000
Total                                                      16               78,500                 4,270

Household Population
The sex ratio of all the Dhaka Subproject households sampled shows a remarkable skew
towards a preponderance of males, on average 112.1 males to 100 females. This is also
shown at older ages, which would not be found in an industrialized country. Average HH size
is 5.2, varying from 6.1 in Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L to only 4.2 in the more urbanized
Aminbazar to Old Ariport T/L.

 Table 65: Population in Dhaka Sample Subproject Households (HHs), by Gender, HH Size, Sex
                                           Ratio

                                 No of Sampled                                          Household       Sex Ratio
        Subproject                    HHs            Male       Female       Total        Size          (M/F)*100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L            60            195         174          369          6.1            112.1
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L           15             37          33          70           4.2            112.1
Total                                  75            232         207          439          5.2            112.1



Marital Status in Dhaka Subproject Sampled Communities
Table 66 shows a preponderance of married couples in the sampled households, for all
Subprojects, with only 3 percent unmarried and no widowed or divorced sampled population.

    Table 66: Marital Status of the Sample Respondents and Family Members, All Subprojects

      Marital Status      Respondents               %                Total population                  %
Married                       243                  97                       711                        55
Unmarried                      7                    3                       573                        44
Widow/Widower                  0                    0                        16                         1
Divorced                       0                    0                        2                          0
Total                         250                  100                     1,302                      100

Age Structure of Dhaka Sampled HHs, by Gender
Some 48 parecent of the sampled population in the Dhaka T/L area is under 25 years of age,
wheras only 6 percent is 60 years or over.



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      Table 67: Summary Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Dhaka Sample Subproject
                                       Households (HHs)

                                                                                   Dhaka Region
                  Broad Age Group                                   Total (M+F)                     Share %
  From 0-24 years                                                       211                           48
  From 25-59 years                                                      200                           46
  60+ years                                                              28                            6
  Total                                                                 439                           100



As in the 3 T/L Subproject area, Table 66 below shows there is a skewing of figures towards
male predominance, including in the older age cohorts. For instance, of those 60 years or
older, 53 percent are male and only 47 percent female.

                           Table 68: Age Structure and Sex of the Population
                            of Dhaka Sample Subproject Households (HHs)

                    Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L            Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                  Total
Age Group (Years)   M      %     F     %     T     %      M     %       F    %      T    %      M %      F    %     T    %
0-4                 15     8     11    6     26    7      3     8       3    9      6    9      18 8 14 7 32             7
                          (58)        (42)        (100)        (50)     )   (50         (100)     (56)       (44)       (100)
5-9                 11     6     18   10     29    8      2     5       4   13      6    9      13 5 22 11 35            8
                          (38)        (62)        (100)        (33)         (67)        (100)     (37)       (63)       (100)
10-14               12     6     22   13     34    9      7     20      3    9     10    13     19 8 25 12 44 10
                          (35)        (65)        (100)        (70)         (30)        (100)     (43)       (57)       (100)
15 - 24             45     23    44   25     89    24     6     16      5   15     11    16     51 22 49 24 100 23
                          (51)        (49)        (100)        (55)         (45)        (100)     (51)       (49)       (100)
25 - 34             39     20    28   16     67    18     4     11      8   24     12    17     43 19 36 17 79 18
                          (58)        (42)        (100)        (33)         (67)        (100)     (54)       (46)       (100)
35 - 44             24     12    24   14     48    13     6     16      5   15     11    16     30 13 29 14 59 13
                          (50)        (50)        (100)        (55)         (45)        (100)     (51)       (49)       (100)
45 - 59             26     13    24   14     50    14     7     19      5   15     12    17     33 14 29 14 62 14
                          (52)        (48)        (100)        (58)         (42)        (100)     (53)       (47)       (100)
60+                 23     12    3     2     26    7      2     5       0    0      2    3      25 11 3       1 28       7
                          (88)        (12)         0           (100)        (0)         (100)     (89)       (11)       (100)
Total               195 100 174 100 369           100     37   100     33 100 70        100 232 100 207 100 439 100
                          (53)        (47)        (100)        (53)         (47)        (100)     (53)       (47)       (100)




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Literacy and Educational Status of Dhaka T/L Subproject Sampled HHs
Overall some 59 percent of the sampled population was reportedto have either a primary or
secondary education in the Dhaka region, and this percentage generally applied for both
genders. On the other hand, only 15 percent of the sampled population was reported to be
illiterate.




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                             Table 69: Literacy and Education Levels of the Population of Dhaka Sample Subproject Households (HHs)

                                          Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                     Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                      Total
                                          M       %       F         %     T         %     M     %     F        %         T        %         M         %         F          %         T           %
 Illiterate                                 23    13          28    18         51   16      3    9        5        17         8       13        26        13        33         19         59         15
 Can read only                              18    10          15    10        33    10     1     3        2         7         3        5        19         9        17          9         36          9
 Primary (Class I to V)                     43    25          45    30        88    26     6    19        7        24        13       21        49        23        53         29        101         27
 Secondary (Class VI to X)                  56    32          47    31        103   32     14   42        8        28        22       35        70        34        55         30        125         32
 SSC                                        10     6           5     3         15    5      3    9        1         3         4        6        13         6         6          3         19          5
 HSC                                        16     9          10     7        26     8     2     6        4        14         6       10        18         9        14          8         32          8
 Graduation & above                          8     5           2     1        10     3     4    12        2         7         6       10        12         6         4          2        16           4
 All                                        174   100         152   100       326   100    33   100       29       100       62       100       207       100       181        100       388         100




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Religion in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
An average of 90 percent of the SES respondants on the Dhaka Area T/L Subprojects
reported their religion is Islam, i.e., were Muslim. As many as 96 percent of respondents on
the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L, which is largely within the Dhaka Municipality, are
Muslim. On the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject, 84 percent are Muslim,
compared with the national figure of 88.3 percent. 119 In the Dhaka Municipal Area nearly
92.72 percent are Muslim (Table 39).

An average of 8 percent of the sampled population identified themselves as Hindu, compared
with about 13 percent for the affected Municipal Areas and a national figure of 10.5 percent.
Only the Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L reported a Christian population, some 1 percent
of the sampled population, compared with a national figure of 0.03 percent. Christians were
subsumed within the ‘Other’ category for the affected Municipal Areas, which was less than
1 percent. No Buddhists were reported (0.03 percent of the national population).

Table 70: Religion in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population

                  Subproject                               Muslim        Hindu        Christian       Buddhist         Other      Total
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                  84            14             0              0               2         100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                 96            2              1              1               0         100
Average                                                      90             8            .5              .5              1         100
Bangladesh120                                               88.3          10.5          0.3             0.6             0.3        100

Ethnicity in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
The Badhi, or Bedey (alternative spelling), referred to in Bangladesh literature as ‘gypsies,’
where were some 2 percent of the surveyed community population of 66,500 along the
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L just south of Dhaka. Since these IPs traditionally live on
boats, their presence would seem to be natural in this area of low lying, frequently submerged
river lands. Their population may be at around 1,300 or so. They are not listed among the
IPs found in the BBS statistics shown in Table 70, and it is not clear what their total
population in Bangladesh is. A more detailed description of the Badhi, or Bede, is also given
below in the section on Indigenous Peoples.

       Table 71: Ethnicity in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled
                                           Population

                            Subproject                                           Bengali             Badhi (Badhja)              Total
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                                       97.8                    2.0                     100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                                      100                      --                     100
Total                                                                             98.9                    1.1                     100




119 Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2005. 2003 Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Planning Division, Ministry of Planning,

GOB. January.
120 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3452.htm




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Social Strata in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
Some 20.4 percent of the sampled population for the Dhaka Area T/L Subprojects was
described as Very Poor, and altogether nearly 48.6 percent either Poor or Very Poor. The
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L had the highest percentage of Poor or Very Poor, at 51.1
percent, more than half the sampled population. This is a somewhat higher proportion of
Poor/Very Poor than national estimates of social stratification, especially for rural areas. 121

The average Medium population was 37.2 percent, and the Rich were on average 14.2
percent.

                       Table 72: Social Strata in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities,
                                       by Percent of Sampled Population

                      Subproject                                         Rich       Medium          Poor         Very Poor          Total
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                              11.0        37.9           27.9           23.2              100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                             17.5        36.5           28.5           17.5              100
Total                                                                    14.2        37.2           28.2           20.4              100

Livelihood in 3 T/L Subproject Sampled HHs
Some 49 percent of sampled HHs in the Dhaka Subproject areas have only one earning
member working outside the household, 19 percent two earning members, 18 percent three
earning members, and 15 percent four or more earning members. This shows a higher
number of HHs with more than one earning member than was found in the 3 T/L Subproject
area.

The Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L shows a very high proportion of 23 percent HHs with
four or more earning members, probably reflecting a high rate of labor migration into Dhaka
and its surrounding industrial region.

      Table 73: Number of Earning Members in Dhaka Subproject Community HHs, by Percent of
                                      Sampled Population

                 Subproject                                              Number of HH Earning Members
                                                       1                 2             3           4                           T
                                                  No       %        No      %      No     %     No               %        No       %
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                       22       37       15     25       9     15    14               23       60       100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                       9       60        2     13       3     20     1                7       15       100
Total/Average                                     31       49       17     19      12     18    15               15       75       100




121   In the 1990s, millions of people faced the dehumanising effects of acute material scarcity because of inconsistent distribution and
      under-utilisation of land, lack of command of the poor over land and non-land resources, technological backwardness, disparity in
      income distribution and political upheaval. With a per capita income of approximately $386 (1999-2000), Bangladesh remains one of
      the poorest, most densely populated, and least developed nations especially characterised by pervasive poverty in both rural and
      urban areas. Nearly half of the country's population lives below the poverty line. Majority of its people lives in rural areas where
      problems of inequality and unemployment are growing rapidly. Gini ratios in rural and urban areas in constant 1963/64 prices were
      0.340 and 0.375 respectively in 1973/74, 0.362 and 0.365 in 1985/86, and 0.384 and 0.444 in 1995/96 (Banglapedia 2004).


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Monthly Income in Dhaka T/L Area Sampled HHs
The highest percentage of sampled HHs in the Dhaka Subproject area, 80 percent, earn
between Tk 7,001 – 25,000 monthly, compared to the 3 T/L area where roughly 80 percent of
all sampled HHs earn between Tk 2,501-10,000 monthly. This reflects the relative
industrialization of the Dhaka area compared to the 3 T/L Subproject areas. Only 9 percent
earn more than Tk 25,000 monthly.

  Table 74: Monthly Income Groups, Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Numbers and
                              Percent of Sampled Households

                                                   Monthly Income (Tk)
                          Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L         Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                  Total
Income Categories           No                %                 No                 %                       No %
<1,500                       0                0                  0                 0                        0   0
1,501 – 2,500                0                0                  0                 0                        0   0
2,501 – 3,500                1                2                  0                 0                        1   1
3,501 – 5,000                4                7                  0                 0                        4   5
5,001 – 7,000                4                7                  0                 0                        4   5
7,001 – 10,000              16                26                 1                 7                       17 24
10,001 – 15,000             20                33                 7                 47                      27 36
15,001 – 25,000             12                20                 3                 20                      15 20
>25,001                      3                5                  4                 26                       7   9
All                         60               100                15                100                      75 100



Principle Sources of Household Income in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
On average, some 39.8 percent of the sampled population in the Dhaka Area T/L Subprojects
depends primarily on Agriculture for their household income, considerably less than the 58.4
percent average for the the Three T/L Subproject sampled population in NW/W Bangladesh.
On average, 19.2 percent of the sampled population relies primarily on Business for
household income and 11.3 percent on Service, for a total of 30.5 percent. The category
‘Other’ averages a large 23 percent overall.

 Table 75: Principle Sources of HH Income in Dhaka Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
                                         Population

Subproject                                    Agriculture   Business    Service   Remittance       Other     All
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                      40.1         21.6        8.3        11.1           19.0      100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                     39.5         16.6       14.0        3.0            27.0      100
Total                                            39.8         19.2       11.3        7.0            23.0      100

Household Expenditure
Average HH expenditure for all sampled HHs in Dhaka Subproject area was roughly Tk
17,886, compared to only 8,000 Tk/Month in the 3 T/L Subproject area. On average, Food
(34 percent) is the highest expenditure of the Dhaka Subproject area HHs sampled during the
field survey, about the same percentage as for the 3 T/L area. Investment/Savings is the next
highest expenditure, at an average of 19 percent for all sampled HHs.


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Whereas Social and Festival Obligations (Other Expenditures) were the third highest
expenditure in the 3 T/L Area, at around 11 percent of all the sampled HHs, this category is
much further down the list in the Dhaka area. Instead, Education is the third highest
expenditure, at 9 percent.

Housing (8 percent) is a greater proportion of HHs expenditure in Dhaka compared to the 3
T/L aread (3 percent), reflecting the more urbanized nature of the area. Some 13 (17 percent)
of the 75 respondents reported Housing expenditure, compared to only 7 percent in the 3 T/L
area.

Clothing (8 percent) and Transport (6 percent) are next on the HH expenditure list. Social
Expenditures (6 percent) ranks much lower than in the 3 T/L area, where this category was 11
percent of sampled HH income and the third largest expenditure.

Interestingly, Fuel/Power and Medical expenditures (5 percent) are the lowest of
expenditures. The percentage of HH expenditure is similar to the 3 T/L area, except that they
rank higher than Housing, which is only 3 percent of 3 T/L HH expenditure.

     Table 76: Average HH Expenditure in Dhaka Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
                                          Population

                                                          Monthly Expenditure (Tk)
                                   Meghnaghat to Aminbazar Aminbazar to Old Airport
                                            T/L                       T/L                             Total
                                                                                                  Avg. Amount
            Category               No. Avg. Amount (Tk)   % No. Avg. Amount (Tk)      %      No       (Tk)    %
Food                               60        5,547        37 15       6,500           31     75      6,024    34
Investment/savings                 48        2,931        20 14       3,821           18     62      3,376    19
Education                          42        1,219         8 13       1,946            9     55      1,583     9
Housing                             6         550          4 7        2,186           10     13      1,368     8
Clothing                           60        1,148         8 15       1,620            9     75      1,384    8
Transport                          58         974          7   14        1,093         5 72          1,034       6
Others (Social & Festival                                  8                           6 71          1,160       6
                                   56        1,119             15        1,200
Obligations Etc)
Fuel/Power                         57        536           3 14          1,321        6 71            929        5
Medical                            60        802           5 15          1,253        6 75           1,028       5
All                                60       14,826        100 15        20,940       100 75         17,886      100

Land Tenure Patterns in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
On average, 38.8 percent of the Dhaka Area T/L Subproject sampled population is primarily
Owner Cultivators, some 19.2 percent are Owners who also are Tenants. This is considerably
lower than the 51.6 and 28.1 percent respectively for these two categories in the Three T/L
Subproject in NW/W Bangladesh. Tenants are 15.2 percent, and Absentee Owners are 6.9
Percent, much higher than the 3.4 percent of the sampled population in the Three T/L
Subproject in NW/W Bangladesh.




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Table 77: Land Tenure Patterns in Dhaka Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled Population

                                Owner       Owner Cum Tenant      Purely Tenant       Absentee
Subproject                     Cultivator      Cultivation         Cultivation         Owner            Other   All
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L      33.5             31.7                20.0              10.3             4.5    100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L     45.5             40.7                10.3              3.5               0     100
Total                            39.5             36.1                15.2              6.9              2.3    100

Services Available in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
The sampled Dhaka Area T/L Subproject communities have between 92-100 percent reported
having electricity available. Only 17 percent of the sampled Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L
Subprojects had telephone service, wheras 100 percent of the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L
Subproject, which is inside Dhaka City proper, had telephone access. Note that this takes into
account only land lines, not cell phone access.

Hospitals or Community Health Centers were found in roughtly one half the Dhaka Area T/L
Subproject communities, with a somewhat smaller percentage (42%) in the Meghnaghat to
Aminbazar T/L Subproject communities having these health care facilities. Schools were
found in all of the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled Subproject communities but only
in 67 percent of the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject sampled communities.

Whereas 50 percent of the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled Subproject communities
had the traditional Islamic madrassah schools, only 30 percent of the Meghnaghat to
Aminbazar T/L Subproject sampled communities had madrassahs. Some 25 percent of the
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled Subproject communities had a college, whereas only
8 percent of the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject sampled communities had one.

   Table 78: Services Available in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities, by Community and
                       Percentage of Communities Available/Not Available

Services                                         Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L       Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L
                                                    Yes             No.               Yes              No.
Electricity                                          11               1                4                 0
Percent                                             (92)             (8)             (100)              (0)
Telephone                                             2              10                4                 0
Percent                                             (17)            (83)             (100)              (0)
Hospital/Union or Community Health Center             5               7                2                 2
Percent                                             (42)            (58)              (50)             (50)
School                                                8               4                4                 0
Percent                                             (67)            (33)             (100)              (0)
Madrasa                                               4               8                2                 2
Percent                                             (33)            (67)              (50)             (50)
College                                               1              11                1                 3
Percent                                              (8)            (92)              (25)             (75)




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NGO Activities in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) run a remarkable number of target-oriented
programmes and projects in Bangladesh to improve the socio-economic conditions of small
and marginal farmers, assetless poor and distressed women. Notable among these
programmes are the group-based Micro Credit programs of Grameen Bank, BRAC, ASA,
Proshika and other local and foreign NGOs, the government initiated programs such as the
Swanirvar Bangladesh and Small Farmers Credit Project and donor funded special projects
such as Rural Finance Experimental Project, Bangladesh Swiss Agricultural Project and
NORAD projects for small entrepreneurship development (Banglapedia 2004).

The sampled communities on the Three T/L Subprojects had in total between six and seven
NGOs accounted for during the SES. All of them offer Micro Credit programs. 122 Whereas
in the Three T/L Subprojects in NW/W Bangladesh only the two major NGOs, BRAC and
ASA, offer other programs in addition to micro-financing, in the Dhaka Area the several
NGOs offer a broader range of programs.

BRAC 123 also delivers an Education program to Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L subproject
communities, although it doesn’t appear to be present in any of the sampled Meghnaghat to
Aminbazar T/L Subproject communities. This is strange, given BRAC’s wide coverage in
Bangladesh, unequalled by any other NGO.

Unlike in NW/W Bangladesh where ASA 124 also offers Family Planning/ Maternal and Child
Health to the Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L Subproject sampled communities, in the Dhaka
area it only offers a Microcredit program.

On the other hand, the other NGOs present offer a variety of programs in addition to
Microcredit. Grameen Bank offers Water, Health & Sanitation in the Meghnaghat to

122   Microcredit is a term now broadly used to mean very small-sized supervised loans without any collateral. Amounts of microcredit in
      Bangladesh vary from Tk 1000 to Tk 10,000 per beneficiary and are provided mainly by micro-finance institutions/programmes and
      also banks and conventional financial institutions to poor people with less than half an acre of land to undertake employment and
      income generating activities. Micro-Finance Institutions (MFIs) develop various tools to provide the poor with access to financial
      services so that they can increase their income and productivity. Microcredit programmes aimed at poverty alleviation cover a large
      number of borrowers with the objective of substantially removing socio-economic imbalances, especially in rural areas. Because the
      rural poor have long been excessively dependent on informal sources of finance, the microcredit program was pioneered in
      Bangladesh through a Grameen Bank project as an alternative. Microcredit-financing started as a program of group-based and
      intensively supervised loans to poor people, especially poor women. Grameen Bank initiated it in 1976 as a pilot project. The success
      of the group-based microcredit financing scheme of Grameen Bank and a host of other Micro-financing Institutions (MFIs) operating
      on the Grameen model has been greatly appreciated worldwide and replicated in more than 45 countries, including the United States.
      The number of borrowers of such credit throughout the world stood around 9 million in 2000. Of them, more than 5 million are from
      Bangladesh (Banglapedia 2004).
123   BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) an NGO set up in 1972 by its founder executive director Fazle Hasan Abed in
      Habiganj District. BRAC initially provided relief and rehabilitation assistance to refugees returning from India after the War of
      Liberation. Later, BRAC turned its focus on the long-term issue of poverty alleviation and empowerment of the poor in rural areas of
      the country. At present, BRAC promotes income generation for the poor, mostly landless rural people through microcredit and
      programs on healthcare, literacy, and education and training. BRAC is now a multi-faceted organisation with over 27,000 regular staff
      and 34,000 part-time teachers working in 60,000 villages in all 64 districts of Bangladesh. The BRAC Development Programme has
      so far (2003) organised over 3.85 million landless poor, mostly women, into 113,756 Village Organisations (VOs), each having 35-40
      members (Banglapedia 2004).
124   ASA (Association for Social Advancement) formed as an NGO in early 1978 by a few development workers led by Shafiqul Haque
      Choudhury, the founder Managing Director. The formation of ASA was the outcome of efforts to create an alternative type of
      organisation for the benefit of the poor in the belief that the existing top-down development approach was not benefiting those who
      really needed development. The activities of ASA now cover all 64 districts and the programmes are implemented in 26,400 villages of
      4,700 unions of 404 upazilas. It operates through 953 braches and plans to form 97 new branches by December 2001. Up to April
      2001, ASA had 1.3 million members and 1.2 million borrowers (Banglapedia 2004)..


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Aminbazar T/L subproject communities, though only Microcredit in the Aminbazar to Old
Airport T/L communities. DABI and ASOD also offer Water, Health & Sanitation in the
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L subproject communities, though they have no operations in
the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled communities. EFAD offers Family
Planning/Maternal & Child Health programs in the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L subproject
communities and have no presence in the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled
communities. Weave offers an Education program in addition to Microcredit in the
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled communities but has no presence in the Meghnaghat
to Aminbazar T/L subproject communities. Likewise, Sreejani offers, in addition to
Microcredit, Water, Health & Sanitation to the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled
communities. Proshika, 125 one of the prominent NGOs in Bangladesh, has only Microcredit
programs in the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Subproject communities.

Popular offers the widest range of programs, in the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L subproject
communities, they offer: Water, Health & Sanitation; Microcredit; Education; and
Development programs. In the Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L sampled communities, they
offer an Education project in addition to Microcredit.

                Table 79: NGO Activities Found In Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
                                                                                    Water Health &




                                                                                                                                        Development
                                                                                                     Child Health
                                                                                                     Micro Credit


                                                                                                     Maternal &
                                                                                    Sanitation




                                                                                                                            Education
                                                                                                     Planning/
                                                                                                     Family
Project                                               NGOS
                                                      Grameen Bank
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                           ASA
                                                      Proshika
                                                      DABI
                                                      ASOD
                                                      EFAD
                                                      Popular
                                                      Grameen Bank
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L
                                                      BRAC
                                                      Weave
                                                      Sreejani
                                                      Popular
                                                      ASA



125   Proshika Non-Government Organisation. Immediately after the War of Liberation in 1971, a group of young men, who could realise
      the inadequacy of the conventional development practices, began to plan development activities with an alternative approach. With an
      objective to contribute to rebuilding the war-ravaged country, they formed Proshika Manobik Unnayan Kendra (Proshika centre for
      human development) and started working in a few villages of Dhaka and Comilla districts in 1976. Proshika is an acronym of three
      Bangla words, proshikkhan (training), shikkha (education) and kaj (action). At present, Proshika operates through 187 Area
      Development Centres (ADCs) spread in 18,898 villages and 1,575 urban slums in 57 districts. It works with 1.22 million women and
      about one million men drawn from poor rural and urban households organised into 111,840 primary groups of 19 members each on
      average. The budget of the organisation for 2000-2001 was $116.79 million. The donor consortium of Proshika comprises CIDA,
      NOVIB, DFID, and EC, who contribute 20% of the organisation's total budget. The rest is covered from proshika's own resources and
      contributions by other indigenous sources (Banglapedia 2004).


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Electricity Connections
On average, some 97 of sampled HHs in the Dhaka area had electricity connection compared
to only 63 percent of sampled HHs in the 3 T/L area. REB provided most (89 percent) of the
electricity to the sampled HHs, although in the more urbanized Aminbazar-Old Airport T/L
area, as much of 43 percent of electric connections were with PDB.

     Table 80: Status of Electric Connection in Dhaka Subproject Sampled Communities and
                                       Supplying Agency

                                    Electrric Connection                            Supplier Agency
                                                                                                              Total
     Subproject        Yes     %        No      %       Total   %      PDB     %     REB        %     Total    %
Meghnaghat to
                        59     98        1       2         60   100     2       3     57       97      59     100
Aminbazar T/L
Aminbazar to Old
                        14     93        1       7         15   100     6      43      8       57      14     100
Airport T/L
Total                   73     97        2       3         75   100     8      11     65       89      73     100

Electricty Use
Of the 75 HHs sampled in the Dhaka Subproject area, of the 73 HHs (97 percent) having
electric connections, all of them indicated use of electricity for lighting, whereas only about 3
percent of the 73 HHs with electricity reported using electricity for cooking and 5 percent for
irrigation.

             Table 81: Status of Electricity Use, Dhaka Subproject Sample Households.

                                                             Type of Electricity Use (Multiple Response)
District
                                                     Lighting % Cooking % Irrigation               % Total
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                             59     98       2         3        1        2    60    100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                            14     93       0         0        3       20    15    100
Total                                                   73     97       2         3        4        5    75    100

Power Source for Irrigation
Some 44 percent of the 75 sampled HHs in the Dhaka Subproject area reported having
irrigation facilities, compared to 75 percent of HHs in the 3 T/L area, reflecting the greater
rural nature of the latter area. Of 33 multiple responses to the question of the power source
used for irrigation, 42 percent responses reported using Diesel (compared to 70 percent in the
T/L area), 36 percent Electricity (17 percent in the 3 T/L area), and 21 percent Traditional
(gravity, draft power) sources of power (13 percent in the 3 T/L area).




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                    Table 82: Irrigation Facilities, Dhaka Subproject Sample Households

                                                              Facilities (Multiple Response)
                                                                  Total               Electri        Traditi              Total
            Project            Yes      %     No   %     Total     % Diesel      %       c      %     onal      %   Total %
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L     30     50     30   50        60   100    13      43     10      33     7       23       30   100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L     3     20     12   80        15   100    1       33     2       67     0        0       3    100
Total                           33     44     42   56        75   100    14      42     12      36     7       21       33   100


Knowledge of T/L Subproject
Overall, of respondents in the Dhaka Subprojects area nearly half (47 percent) reported
knowing of the T/L planned for their area. Some 67 percent of the Aminbazar to Old Airport
T/L respondents knew and only 42 percent of Megnaghat to Aminbazar T/L respondents
knew.

         Table 83: Sample Households Knowledge about Proposed Transmission Line Dhaka
                                         Subprojects

                                                                             Response
              Project                   Yes             %               No              %             Total             Total %
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L             25              42              35              58             60                 100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L            10              67               5              33             15                 100
Total                                   35              47              40              53             75                 100

Land Prices in Dhaka Sample Subproject Communities
The following are SES determined land prices for agricultural and commercial lands in the
sampled communities along the Dhaka Area T/L Subproject ROWs. The rounded average
will be used to arrive at an estimated resettlement budget for these subprojects.

        Table 84: Recent Land Transaction (Buying & Selling) Rate in Dhaka Sample Subproject
                            Communities, Average Price (Tk) per Decimal

                        Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L           Aminbazar to Old Airport          Rounded Average for Dhaka
    Land Types                     (12)                               T/L (4)                            Area
Commercial                       203,333                             171,250                            187,292
Agricultural Land
High                                 46,909                             31,670                                 39,290
Medium                               37,375                             26,950                                 32,163
Low                                  20,800                             17,625                                 19,213
Fallow                               38,750                               --                                   38,750
Other                                20,000                             15,000                                 17,500




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Structure Prices
The following are SES determined land prices for residential and commercial construction in
the sampled communities along the Dhaka Area T/L Subproject ROWs. The rounded
average will be used to arrive at an estimated resettlement budget for these subprojects.

          Table 85: Average Cost (Tk) Per Square Foot, Housing Construction in Dhaka Sample
                                       Subproject Communities

                                                Meghnaghat to Aminbazar     Aminbazar to Old Airport
        Construction Types                               T/L                         T/L                        Total
Residential
Pucca                                                           249.2                300.0                      274.6
Semi-Pucca                                                      61.3                 52.4                        56.9
Tin Roof                                                        45.5                 26.9                       36.2
Straw (Thatch) Hut                                              27.0                 31.4                        29.2
Commercial
Pucca                                                           473.9                513.9                      293.9
Semi-Pucca                                                       73.6                 40.6                       57.1
Tin Roof                                                         45.8                 30.7                       38.3
Straw (Thatch) Hut                                               10.0                  0                         5.0

2.3          INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
Included in the Field Survey is an assessment of resettlement impacts, if any, on Indigenous
Peoples (IPs), as required by ADB’s Policy On Indigenous Peoples and the International
Social and Resettlement Specialist Consultant’s TOR. Based on the Field Survey results, the
Indigenous Peoples (IP) Screening and Categorization Form presented in Appendix G will
determine whether of not an Indigenous Peoples Development Program (IPDP) will be
required as per ADB policy 126 or, alternatively, whether any issues requiring to be addressed
may be dealt with within the RF and/or RP document. It is expected that, given the linear
nature of the transmission lines and the small size of substation and the peaking plant sites,
the latter will be the most appropriate for mitigating any potential resettlement impacts on
indigenous communities found in the subproject areas.

The ADB uses the term Indigenous Peoples to encompass a generic concept not easily reflected
in a single term. Other terms relating to the concept of IPs include cultural minorities, ethnic
minorities, indigenous cultural communities, tribals, scheduled tribes, natives, and aboriginals.
Accepted or preferred terms and definitions vary country by country, by academic discipline,
and even by the usage of groups concerned. IPs are regarded in ADB policy as those with a
social or cultural identity distinct from the dominant or mainstream society, which makes them
vulnerable to being disadvantaged in the processes of development.

ADB financed projects are assigned an IP Category depending on the significance of the
probable impacts on IP. The IP Categorization depends on the nature and magnitude of the
project’s potential positive and negative impact on IPs, which may result from its location,
the type and scale of the project, sensitivity of indigenous peoples’ issues, and vulnerability
of the IPs. A more detailed explanation of IP Impact Categorization is provided on the last

126   ADB. 1998. Policy on Indigenous Peoples. Manila. April.


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page of the ADB’s IP Categorization Form. Initial Screening for IPs is conducted as early as
possible in the ADB’s Project Cycle, at the Project Concept Stage where feasible, and no
later than Project or Program Preparatory Technical Assistance (PPTA), Project Preparatory
Note Fact-Finding, and Or Due Diligence.

The potential for at least some IPs, which in Bangladesh would be termed ‘Tribes,’ in the
subproject areas may be inferred from national BBS statistics that show IPs in the three
Divisions (Dhaka, Khulna, and Rajshahi) where the subprojects are located. They are also
identified in the Phulbari Coal Project’s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), 127 which
covers an important part of the Rajshahi Division. Figure 18 shows IP distribution across
Bangladesh and the two subproject areas where the 2005 SES indicated IP populations.

The 2005 SES found some 0.74 percent of IPs among the community populations surveyed,
or about 1,650 possible IPs in a population of some 222,800 surveyed along the five
Transmission Line Subproject ROWs.

The 2005 SES found IPs on only two of the T/L ROWs. Two IP groups were among the
surveyed communities along the Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L ROW, the Santal, who were
1 percent of the communities surveyed and the Mahili (a subtribe of the Munda) who were
0.5 percent of the community populations surveyed.

The overall sampled population along the proposed Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L ROW
was about 63,500, so the SES indicates some 635 Santals and 315 Mahili, for a potential of
some 950 IPs settled in communities along the ROW. Table 35, which shows IP populations
in Bangladesh and is based on Bureau of Statistics (BBS) statistics, indicates some 188,359
Santal and 3,534 Munda in Rajshahi Division, where the Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L
ROW is located. There are 202,744 in all of Bangladesh, whereas all of the Munda are
located in Rajshahi Division. Some description of these groups is given below. Both of them
have much larger populations in India, in West Bengal in particular.

The other IP group identified in the 2005 SES were the Badhi, or Bedey (alternative spelling),
referred to in Bangladesh literature as ‘gypsies,’ where were some 2 percent of the surveyed
community population of 66,500 along the Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L just south of
Dhaka. Since these IPs traditionally live on boats, their presence would seem to be natural in
this area of low lying, frequently submerged river lands. Their population may be at around
1,300 or so. They are not listed among the IPs found in the BBS statistics shown in Table 35,
and it is not clear what their total population in Bangladesh is. A more detailed description of
the Badhi, or Bede, is also given below.




  Manzurul Mannan. 2005. Phulbari Coal Project EIA: Anthropology and Culture of Asia Energy’s Phulbari Coal Project Area. Vol 4:
127

Section 3. Dhaka: Independent University, Bangladesh for SMEC. June.


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  Figure 18: Map of Tribal Group Distribution in Bangladesh, Showing Thakurgaon-Panchagarh
                    T/L and Meghnaghat-Aminbazar T/L Subproject Areas 128




128   Source: http://www.sdnpbd.org/sdi/international_days/Indigenous-people/2004/indigenous_people_bd/spatial_distribution.htm




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                                                    Table 86: Tribal Households and Their Population in Bangladesh, BBS 1991129

                    Tribal Group                                                                    Division
                                                             Dhaka                                  Khulna                                 Rajshahi                         Bangladesh
                                                    HH                   Pop                 HH                 Pop               HH                      Pop        HH                   Pop
1         Bangshi                                   419                 2,112                 --                 --                --                      --        419                 2,112
2         Buna                                       --                   --                  --                 --              2,822                  13,914     2,822                13,914
3         Chakma                                    564                2,999                 119                614                 1                       3      46,637              252,986
4         Coach                                    2,541               12,631                 --                 --                --                      --      2,541                12,631
5         Garo                                    12,505              60,221                                                      227                    1,130    14,042                68,210
6         Harjon                                     --                   --                  12                 63                --                      --         12                   63
7         Khasia                                     --                   --                  --                 --               214                    1,132     2,506                13,412
8         Mahat/Mahatoo                              --                   --                  --                 --               668                    3,534       668                 3,534
9         Marma                                     410                2,159                  22                107                 2                      8      30,004               154,216
10        Munda/Mundia//Mahili                       --                   --                 392               2,101                2                      11        394                 2,112
11        Muro/MO                                    --                   --                  --                 --               602                    3,085       620                 3,211
12        Pahari                                     --                   --                  --                 --               357                    1,853       357                 1,853
13        Rajbhangsi                                 --                   --                 476               2,474              609                    2,970      1,085                5,444
14        Saontal (Santal)                          157                  833                 575               3,172             38,241                 188,359   40,950               202,744
15        Tipra                                      90                  480                  --                 --                --                      --        228                 1,242
16        Tripura                                   380                2,061                  --                 --                --                      --     15,860                79,772
17        Urang                                      --                   --                 38                 195              1,471                   7,171     2,285                11,298
18        Uruo/Urua/Uria                             --                   --                  --                 --               506                    2,481       506                 2,481
National Total                                    24,994              123,258               7,723              40,558            63,253                 314,337   233,417             1,205,978




129   Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2005. 2003 Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, GOB. January.




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       Table 87: Ethnicity in Sample Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population

Subproject                                                   Bengali   Santal      Mahili         Badhi 130      Total
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                                     100       --          --             --             100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                                 98.5      1.0         0.5            --             100
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                               100       --          --             --             100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                  97.8      --          --             2.0            100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                 100       --          --             --             100
Average                                                      99.26     0.2         0.14           0.4            100

2.3.1        Santals
The Santals are an ethnic group in Bangladesh. Mainly living in the Himalayan sub-mountain
region in different districts of Rajshahi division, their principal home is in Radha (in West
Bengal), the forests of adjacent Bihar (Jhadkhand) and Orissa, and Chhota Nagpur. The
British government assigned a special territory for their living and named it Santal Pargana.
It is difficult to definitely say when and why they settled in the East Bengal region. But the
census of 1881 shows that there were Santal settlements in the districts of Pabna, Jessore,
Khulna and even in Chittagong. A survey of the Santal population of present Bangladesh
area conducted in 1941 recorded their number as 829,025. The censuses organized after the
Partition of Bengal (1947) did not count Santals as a separate group of people, and
consequently, their exact number in East Pakistan could not be determined. According to an
estimate made by Christian missionaries in the 1980s, the Santal population in northern
Bangladesh was over one hundred thousand. According to the 1991 census, the Santal
population was over two hundred thousand (Banglapedia 2004).

2.3.2        Mahili
The Mahili are a sub tribe of the Munda, a very small group of aboriginal people living in
different parts of Bangladesh. According to some estimates based on information gathered by
some NGOs, there are 212 Munda families in the country. As counted locally, 1,163 Mundas
live in scattered villages of Koyra and Dumuria upazilas of Khulna District and Shyamnagar,
Debhata, and Tala Upazilas of Satkhira District - all falling within the Sundarbans. The
ecosystem of the Sundarbans seems to suit the indigenous ways of living and cultural traits of
Mundas.

Until recently, Mundas (and Mahatos, another tribe bearing close affinity to them) were
known as bunos or jungle clearers. They came to this country about two hundred years ago
from Ranchi and Chota Nagpur of the Bihar State of India to help reclaim land for agriculture
for zamindars and dig lakes and ponds for them. They also came to work as wage laborers in
the Duars tea plantations in Jalpaiguri district, close to the tea gardens in Bangladesh.
According to a 1921 census, as many as 34,601 Mundas were working in the Duars tea
estates as against 115,350 Oraons and 23,488 Santals, who too came from the same region.
They had a deep attachment for their homes and lands back in Bihar. British settlement
officers of the time reported from Ranchi that "large numbers of those who emigrate to
Assam and the Duars return, if they are able to save a little money, and buy back the farms
they had lost, or acquire some land in the vicinity". According to some accounts, Mundas

130   Badhi = Bedey, or Badhja, in English, Gypsy or Snake Charmer.


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along with other tribes akin to them came from the Rajmahal Hills of India and settled in the
northern part of Rajshahi district. Some of them, like the Oraons, Mahatos and Santals,
settled in this country permanently and were employed in agriculture, at Indigo factories and
at tea plantations. These days most Mundas and Mahatos depend mainly on agriculture.

Ethnically, Mundas are described as a large Dravidian tribe of Chota Nagpur closely akin to
the Hos and Santals and on linguistic grounds classified as Kolarian. The name Munda is said
to be of Sanskrit origin meaning headman of a village. This titular designation is used by the
members of the tribe. Mundas and Oraons are also known by the general name of Kol. The
languages of the Munda subfamily are spoken in parts of northern and central India and
comprise more than 20 tongues, the important of which is Santali written in Roman,
Devanagari, Bengali and Oriya scripts. These languages belong to an Austroasiatic family of
languages spoken by about 65 million people. The Munda languages, spoken by about 4
million tribals, are closely related and are referred to by the single name of Kherwari.

Mundas are divided into 13 sub-tribes and some such sub-tribes are Kharia-Munda, Mahili-
Munda, Oraon-Munda, Bhuihar-Munda, and Manki-Munda. The sub-tribes are again divided
into numerous sects or kilis along totemistic lines. Mundas are of medium stature, stocky in
build and black in skin and are known for their hard work as labourers especially in removing
forests and cutting earth. Initially, they came as seasonal labourers but as demand for their
services increased, more of them flocked in. Many of these workers settled in different parts
of Bangladesh. But as jungles and forests dwindled under pressure of population and
consequent clearing and settlements, they found their traditional occupation not economically
viable any more. To survive, they resorted to alternative occupations such as agriculture,
fishing, van driving, small businesses and jobs.

A Munda may not marry a woman of his own sect. Adult marriage is in fashion and sexual
intercourse before marriage is tacitly recognised but as a common practice, the matches are
made by the parents. A bride-price is a custom and in a late 19th century study, it was found
to be Rs 4 to 20. Sindur dan, or the smearing of vermilion on the forehead of each other by
the pair is the essential and binding part of a marriage ceremony. Munda widows may marry
again by the ritual known as sagai. Divorce is allowed at the instance of either party but in
case of adultery the seducer is required to pay to the husband the full amount of the bride-
price. After marriage, a Munda son with his wife remains part of the joint family. In the past,
Mundas used to burn the body of their dead but wood being expensive, they put fire to the
face symbolically and then bury it.

At the head of Munda religion stands Sing-Bonga, the sun. There are other gods to take care
of different aspects of human and natural life and they require constant propitiation by way of
sacrificing of animals or fowls to keep the diseases off and save crops. The Munda festivals
are mostly related to seasons and crops. Some of these are: Sarhul or Sarjun-Baba, the spring
festival in Chaitra (March-April); Kadleta or Batauli in Asad (June-July) at the
commencement of the rainy season; Nana or Jom-Nana, the festival of new rice in Aswin
(October-November); and Kharia Puja or Magh Parab, the festival of harvesting the winter
rice.

Mundas and Mahatos in Bangladesh claim to be Hindus. They perform Shyama puja and Kali
puja sometime in November, Ashadi puja in July and Bhadu puja in September. They also
observe poush-parbon as harvesting ceremony. They are not, however, caste bound like the


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Hindus. They are very simple people and do not associate themselves with criminal activities.
It is rare to see them even engage in quarrels or fighting with neighbours. They live in thatch
houses. They are quite hospitable and it is their tradition to entertain guests with jawa or
country liquor. They love to drink jawa and sing at weddings and other festivals. Special
dishes include crabs, mice and snails.

Mundas have a montri or minister for all villages of a given area. He resolves conflicts
among the tribals with the help of modols (village leaders). Continuous inflow of Bangalis
from other regions creates ecological stresses for the dwindling forest, animal and aquatic
resources of the Sundarbans. Only very recently, Mundas started sending their children to
schools and with the help of some NGOs, they are taking to income generating activities to
mitigate their poverty. This may be one reason why the number of the aboriginals in the area
including the Mundas has been falling (Banglapedia 2004).


2.3.3       Badhi/Bedey (Badhja)
The English term of the Badhi or Bedey (Badhja) is Gipsy. They are a community belonging
mainly to the ethnic Mong-tong (Mangta) of Arakan, 131 ARAKAN, who in 1638, accompanied
the fugitive king of Arakan, Ballal Raja, and later settled in Bikrampur area near Dhaka.
Many of them were converted to Islam over time. Later, the Bedeys spread out to remote
areas of Bengal and Assam. The Mangta people were popularly called Bedey after the Bangla
word Baidda meaning village doctor. Bedeys pretend to know the art of healing, which they
use as a source of living. They are skilled in hunting. Physically, they are quite close to
Bangalis.

Bedeys follow the customs and practices of the Kowma society of Arakan. Apparently the
community is patriarchal, but the women tend to play crucial roles in day to day affairs. They
do all types of hard work. The community generally lives in clusters on machans (platforms)
constructed by the side of rivers or on boats. Throughout the year, and especially during
harvesting, they move out in groups from village to village and conduct their trade.

Bedeys call this travel gawal. They carry with them wicker-baskets of snakes or bags of
herbal medicines. Usually, it is the women who go in gawal. Snake catching and snake-
charming make a major source of income for them.

Towards the end of the month of Agrahayan at the beginning of winter and in the last half of
Ashad, at the end of the dry season, they go in gawal with their families. The first round of
gawal continues up to the middle of the month of Chaitra and the second round continues up
to the middle of the month of Aswin. While in gawal, they live with their families, mostly in
boats, tents or in the verandas of local schools. After the gawal they return to their permanent
place of residence and indulge in various festivities, in which young males and females are
allowed to choose their partners and marry them with due consent of their guardians. After
marriage, the husband goes to the wife's house to live permanently. The wife takes a vow that
she will take care of her husband and the children. In case a young man from outside the
community marries a Bedey girl by enticement, he has to pay a fine for obtaining consent of
the community. Polygamy, child marriage and living in a joint family are not in vogue.

131   Arakan a state of Myanmar (Burma) situated on the northern and western parts of that country, which exerted considerable influence,
      both political and cultural, on the South and South-Eastern parts of Bangladesh from very early times (Banglapedia 2004).


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Widows are not prohibited from remarriage. If divorced, husband and wife divide their
properties including children among themselves. The larger share goes to the wife.

Every Bedey family, if not entirely destitute, has its own boat. A few families with their boats
form a group and the boats of the group form a fleet. Each fleet takes an identity of a sub-
tribe headed by a sardar. The sardar divides his fleet into a number of small groups and
appoints a guide for each of the groups through whom he coordinates the community affairs.
The sardar determines the trade routes and area of operation for every group. He imposes
penalty for violation of norms and pronounces decree to that effect after examining witnesses
and evidences. If any group fails to return from gawal in time without showing good reason,
the sardar can punish them. Maintenance and subsistence of the sardar are the responsibilities
of the fleet. Special fees are paid to the sardar at the time of marriage. The sardar receives
gifts on the occasion of different festivals.

Besides the fleet sardars, the Bedey clans and sub-clans also have their own leaders elected in
a meeting in the presence of all sardars on a fixed day of the year. In the past, the Bedey
sardars used to come to the month-long fair on the occasion of Kartik Baruni Snan (holy
bath) held at a place near Munshiganj, where the Ganges and the Brahmaputra meet. They
used to meet there with different Bedey groups and conduct election of leaders of the clans
and sub-clans. At present they meet together for the purpose at Munshiganj and Chittagong
every year between 5 Kartik and 15 Agrahayan. These meetings are also used for settling
disputes that accumulate throughout the year.

The Bedeys lead austere and easy life. They do not hesitate to confess their guilt to the sardar
if they make any offence, even if they know that the punishment may be severe. They are
omnivorous and are usually addicted to drugs. As they claim to be Muslims, they tend to
maintain a minimal relationship with the local Muslims. They also practice many rites and
rituals of Hindu religion.

The Bedey men wear lungi. Their women cut a ten cubit long cloth into two pieces and wear
one piece on lower part of the body twisting it around the waist in two folds and hang the
other piece like a scarf on the neck. They wear fatua or angi (loose shirt without collar). At
present many Bedey men and women wear normal Bengal dresses.

The Mong-tongs of Bangladesh are divided into nine sects. They are Lauyo, Chapailya,
Bajikar, Bej, Gayin, Mellach, Bandaira, Mal and Shapuria (snake charmer). All these groups
consider that doing physical work in the field is undignified. Their universal profession is to
practice folk medicine and to sell indigenous drugs including different kinds of wild
creepers, leaves and roots. Application of mantra (mystical verse) and jhadfuk (exorcism for
expulsion of evil spirits) is very dominant in their method of treatment. Many do believe that
the Bedeys are experienced in massages and in the treatment of the child diseases, arthritic
pain and toothache. Bedeys demonstrate exciting jugglery and tricks, draw tattoos and display
different kinds of physical feats. In the matter of treatment they use some of the traditional
medicines and instruments, like, holy verses, roots of trees, bones of birds and animals, oil of
hornbills (Dhanesh birds), trumpets made of the horns of the cows or buffalos, broken glasses
and sharp teeth of Kakila fish.

Typically, the Bedeys assemble people in bazaars or open places by attracting them through
tricks, magic shows and snake charming. The purpose is to motivate the crowd to buy their


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goods and services. Methods of treatment and medicines prescribed by different sects of
Bedeys are different. The Lauyo Bedeys or the Babajias sell fish and garland of fish bones.
These Bedeys hail from Biania of Bikrampur, Charar Ghope of Narayanganj and Amirabad,
Maichakhali, Hurail, Nargaon, Narayanpur, Hajiganj, Laksham and Meherkalibari of
Comilla. The Gain Bedeys sell fragrant spices. They come from Netrokona. The Bej Bedeys
(Michchigiri) specialise in treatment of diseases of the eye and they live in Barisal, Projpur
and Nawabganj. They operate upon eyes with broken glass. The profession of the Chapailya
Bedeys (Shajdar) is to sell garlands of fish bones, tiger's paws and bones of birds as healers
of pain in muscles and other parts of the body. Besides they sell opium, pearl ornaments,
bangles, crescent necklaces and cockles. They are expert in making and marketing beautiful
Sanas (weaving sticks) for weavers.

They are also expert divers. The diving Bedeys mainly come from Tongi, Demra and Badda
of Dhaka, Saturia of Manikganj, tea gardens of Mirjapur and Amirabad of Comilla. The
Bajikar and Mellach Bedeys sell fox bones and oil of the hornbills. The Shialya Bedeys do
not have any transactions with other Bedey groups. They eat everything including cows,
boars and snakes and worship the Hindu gods and goddesses. They live in Lalmonirhat and in
the bordering areas of India. The Bandaira Bedeys, residing largely in Lalmonirhat, sell parts
of monkey bodies as medicine and earn by monkey shows. They sing in praise of
Ramachandra and Laksman and describe the ferociousness of Rama and Raban and the
activities of Hanuman. The Mal Bedeys remove snake poison, extract teeth worms, sell
medicines for healing arthritis and blow horns. They catch snakes and sell them, but they do
not show games of the snakes. They reside in Madaripur, Bikrampur, Dhaka, Rajshahi,
Comilla and Noakhali. The Shapurias (snake charmers) sell amulets and talismans. They
catch snakes. They show feats of snakes, but do not sell them. They worship the Manasa (the
goddess of snakes). They live in Bikrampur of Dhaka and Sunamganj of Sylhet.

The Bedeys have their own language called Thet or Ther. They use it within their own
community. The language has much similarity with the language of the Arakanese. Most of
the words used in the language have their origin in Prakrit.

Like all other citizens of the country, Bedeys are entitled to all civic rights including right to
vote. However, their number in Bangladesh is gradually decreasing. Some Bedeys have
changed their profession and have now lost their original identity. (Banglapedia 2004).




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Section 3            Goals & Objectives, Policy Framework, and Entitlements

3.1     THE RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The RF will have the following Goals:
        To ensure fair compensation for all Affected Persons (APs), whether directly or
        indirectly affected, and
        To evolve a modus-operendi to implement Resettlement and Rehabilitation
        activities in an effective and efficient manner.

The RF will have the following Objectives:
        Developing a Policy Framework by clearly defining various categories of APs and
        specifying their entitlement to compensation as admissible under the law and
        project conditionality
        Assessing the socio-economic status of the APs prior to project intervention to
        serve as a benchmark and find out about the APs’ own views on resettlement
        Determining the quantities of compensation in cash and kind that is payable to
        each AP under the adopted Policy Framework; and
        Formulating an implementation strategy and organizational structure to carry out
        resettlement and rehabilitation of the APs.

3.1.1   Achieving the RF Goals and Objectives
To achieve the goals and objectives and to conform to the Bank’s Involuntary Resettlement
Policy, the following will be taken into account:
        Land Acquisition and Resettlement Issues will be considered early during
        Subproject design;
        Consultation meetings with APs and other stakeholders, including local
        Government. and other concerned officials, will be required for including local
        input into Subproject design, and this process will continue throughout the
        planning and implementation stage;
        All potential APs will be identified along with their land, structure and assets
        likely to be affected through conducting necessary surveys to assess impacts and
        propose necessary mitigation;
        APs will be paid cash compensation for land at Replacement Market Value and
        also cash compensation for structures, crops, trees, and perennials at Current
        Market Price;
        APs without land title, e.g., renters, illegal occupants and squatters will receive
        Relocation and Income Restoration Grants;
        The RPs developed for Subprojects will include provisions for other forms of
        assistance, such as shifting costs, house reconstruction grants, and income
        restoration allowances; and




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For implementation of the Subproject RPs, the Implementing Agency (IA) will engage an
Implementing Non-Governmental Organization (Implementing NGO) experienced in
resettlement.

3.2         RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK (RF) POLICY FRAMEWORK
Land acquisition and resettlement policies for the Project are derived from two sources. The
first includes The Acquisition and Requisition of Immovable Property Ordinance, Bangladesh
(1982 Ordinance) and its subsequent amendments in 1993 and 1994. The 1982 Ordinance
governs all cases of acquisition and requisition by the Government of immovable property
(i.e., land, built structures etc.) for any public purpose or in public interest. In accordance
with the 1982 Ordinance, the legal process is initiated by application of the requiring agency
or department to the Deputy Commissioner (DC) of the concerned District with a detailed
map of the area and a Land Acquisition Plan.

The DC is empowered to permanently acquire and/or temporarily require the property in
question and the owners affected by such acquisition are eligible to compensation for losses.
In assessing the amount of compensation and value of the acquired property, the DC Office
takes into consideration as number of factors such as review of land transaction in the locality
over the past twelve months, and present market rate. The Ordinance was amended in 1993 to
increase the amount of the premium for compulsory acquisition from 25 to 50 percent on the
assessed value of the property and to match the Market or Replacement Value. The 1994
Amendment made provisions for payment of crop compensation to tenant cultivators also.
The 1982 Ordinance, however, only recognizes the Titled Owner(s) of the property and the
Non-Titled Users (for example, renters, illegal occupants/squatters) are not eligible to get any
compensation.

The Resettlement Policy Framework for the Project will be built upon the laws of the
Government of Bangladesh and ADB’s Policy on Involuntary Resettlement (1995). 132 This
Project will be bound by the principles and conditions stated in this RF as approved by ADB,
and the Government. Provisions and principles adopted in this RF will supersede the
provisions of relevant decrees currently in force in Bangladesh wherever a gap exists. The
ADB’s Policy on Involuntary Resettlement requires that displaced persons be:
            Compensated for their losses at replacement costs
            Assisted with the move and during the transition period at the relocation site
            Enabled to reconstruct a land-based productive existence, and
            Assisted in their efforts to improve their former level of living standards, income
            earning capacity, and productive levels, or at least to restore them

The absence of legal title to land will not be a bar to compensation. In other words, all
Affected Persons (APs) will benefit from the Project, irrespective of their legal status as
landowners or users of Project acquired land. The Bank’s Policy also requires that population
displacement be avoided or minimized as much as possible and that the APs and host



132   ADB. 2003. Operations Manual Involuntary Resettlement Best Practice (OM Section F2/BP). Manila: October 29. This Operations
      Manual supplements, but does not replace, ADB. 1995. Policy on Involuntary Resettlement. Manila: August and ADB. 1998.
      Handbook on Resettlement: A Guide to Good Practice. Manila: 1998. All three apply.


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populations be involved in resettlement planning and implementation. Further, in planning
for relocation, women’s needs and constraints will be addressed and preferences considered.

The RF will ensure that APs are not disadvantaged and can regain their lost income and
livelihoods in a short period of time. Thus, the policies and approach require to be adopted
for this Project will meet the requirements of the Bank’s Policy on Involuntary Resettlement.

3.3        RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK ENTITLEMENTS
3.3.1      Land Acquisition and Compensation Policy Matrix
The Entitlement Matrix presented below outlines the various losses, methods of identification
of Entitled Persons (EPs), compensation benefits and the results of actions in terms of
restoration of income and livelihood of the APs in the Sector Loan’s Subprojects, where
applicable. It will be applied to the RPs developed for each of the Sector Loan Subprojects.




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                                                                                  Table 88: Entitlement Matrix 133

                                                                                                                                                                                       Agencies
    Type Of Loss                   Compensation Entitlements                            Entitled Persons                            Implementation Guidelines                      Responsibilities
1. Loss Of                  a) Cash Compensation under the Law                a) Legal owner(s) of land as               a) The Deputy Commissioner (DC) will identify         a) The DC will pay
Agricultural Land,          (CCL) including 50% Premium ;                     determined by DC;                          the Entitled Person (EP) and determine CCL            CCL+Premium
Low Land, Shrimp            b) Additional Grant (AG) to cover                 b) Legal owner(s) of land as               including 50% Premium ;                               b) IA will pay AG
Gher (pond), Etc.           replacement market value of land (if higher       determined by DC;                          b) The replacement market price will be               through NGO.
                            than CCL including premium);                      c) Legal owner purchased                   determined by Property Valuation Advisory             c) IA will refund
                            c) Reimbursement of Registration Cost             replacement land during Resettlement       Team (PVAT);                                          Registration Cost
                            (RRC) for purchase of replacement land            Plan (RP) implementation                   c) The RRC will be @22% of the deed value not         through NGO.
                                                                                                                         exceeding replacement market value of land
                                                                                                                         determined by the PVAT.
2. Loss Of Access To        a) One Time Cash Grant (OTCG) for loss of         a) Renter/user of the land identified by   a) OTCG will be @ Tk 5000/- per family or Tk.         a) IA will pay the OTCG
Land By Tenant/             income.                                           Implementing Agency                        200/- per decimal of concerned land, whichever        directly to the APs
Sharecroppers                                                                 (IA)/Nongovernmental Agency (NGO).         is lower.                                             through NGO.
3. Loss Of Crops            a) CCL for Standing Crops;                        a) Legal owners as determined by DC;       a) DC will determine compensation for standing        a) DC will pay CCL
                            b) Differential between CCL and OTCG for          b) Legal owners as determined by DC;       crops;                                                including 50% premium
                            loss of crops by owners                           c) Legal owners                            b) Differential of CCL including premium and          for standing crops;
                            c) Harvest of Crops free of cost, if any.                                                    OTCG @0.6 Kg per Sq.m. x Tk 10/- per Kg, if           b) IA will pay Grant
                                                                                                                         higher;                                               through NGO
                                                                                                                         c) The EPs may harvest the standing crops             c) NGO will motivate
                                                                                                                         before taking over land by IA                         EPs to vacate land.
4. Loss Of                  a) CCL including 50% Premium for land;            a) Legal owners as determined by DC;       a) The DC will identify the EP and determine          a) The DC will pay CCL
Homestead,                  b) AG to cover replacement market price of        b) Legal owner(s) of land as               CCL including 50% Premium through legal               + Premium;
Commercial                  land (if higher than CCL including premium);      determined by DC;                          procedures;                                           b) IA will pay AG
Industries                  c) RRC for purchase of replacement land.          c) Legal owner or purchased                b) The Replacement Market Price (RMP) will be         through NGO;
                                                                              replacement land during RP                 determined by PVAT;                                   c) IA will refund
                                                                              implementation.                            c) The RRC will be @ 22% of the Deed Value            Registration Cost
                                                                                                                         not exceeding RMP of land determined by the           through NGO.
                                                                                                                         PVAT.

133   Adapted from: PGCB. 2001. Resettlement Plan (RP). Khulna-Ishurdi 230 Kv Transmission Line Project (162 Km) and Ashuganj-Jamuna Bangabandhu Bridge-Serajganj 230 Kv Transmission Line Project (160
       Km). Dhaka: The Power Grid Company of Bangladesh Ltd. October.


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                                                                                                                                                                    Agencies
    Type Of Loss                Compensation Entitlements                      Entitled Persons                       Implementation Guidelines                 Responsibilities
5. Loss Of Structure    a) CCL including 50% Premium for land.       a) Legal owner(s) of structure as     a) The DC will identify the legal owner and      a) The DC will pay CCL
Residential             b) AG to cover replacement market price of   determined by DC;                     determine CCL including 50% Premium;             + Premium;
Commercial/Industrial   structure (if higher than CCL including      b) Legal and socially recognised      b) The RMP will be determined by PVAT;           b) IA will pay AG
/ Shops, Etc.           premium);                                    owner(s) of structure;                c) The TG will be @ 10% of the assessed value    through NGO;
                        c) Transfer Grant (TG) for shifting of       c) Legal and socially recognised      of the structure by DC or Tk. 2000/- per         c) IA will pay AG
                        structure;                                   owner(s) of structure.                household whichever is higher.                   through NGO.
                        d) Reconstruction Grant (RG) for             d) Legal owner(s) of shifttable       d) The RG will be @10% of the assessed           d) IA will pay RG




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3.3.2        Identification of Losses and Compensation Issues, as per the Entitlement Matrix
Compensation will be paid to APs for all losses due to the acquisition of land and properties
for the PSDP II Sector Loan’s Subprojects. The Bank policy recognizes both directly and
indirectly APs as eligible for compensation based on the nature of losses. For operational
purposes, it will therefore, important to define and clarify the following concepts and issues
associated with project impact and resettlement benefits. 134

3.3.2.1        Affected Persons (APs)
APs will be defined as those affected by acquisition of land or lost structure, both residential,
commercial and others, as determined by the Land Acquisition Laws or through the Socio-
Economic Survey (SES) for those eligible for Project Grants. APs without ownership rights,
such as renters, illegal occupants or squatters, whose means of livelihood will be directly
affected, will be entitled to Compensation and Relocation Benefits.

3.3.2.2        Households
A household includes all persons living and eating together (sharing the same kitchen and
cooking food together as single-family unit). This definition has been used during the SES for
collection of household data for impact assessment and resettlement planning.

3.3.2.3        Structures, Residential and Commercial
All residential structures including kitchens, toilets, cowshed boundary walls, and other
associated structures; industrial and commercial establishments; and community facilities on
the ROW alignment or within the Subproject site footprint will be compensated.
Compensation will be at Replacement Costs, to be determined by authorized GOB official
and SES reference. Likewise, compensation for land, trees, crops and other assets will be
paid directly to the entitled persons by the DC office.

3.3.2.4        Entitled Person (EP)
An Entitled Person (EP) is one who has lost his/her assets (for example land, structure) and/or
employment as a direct or indirect Project impact. Typically, EPs are Titled Land and/or
Structure Owners who will be entitled to Cash Compensation under Law (CCL) as well as
Non-Titled Household Heads identified by the SES conducted after the project detailed
design, who will be entitled to a variety of Project Grants.

3.3.2.5        Tenants/Squatters
Tenants and Squatters are the households who do not lose any land (agricultural/house plot)
of their own but earn a living and/or live on land acquired by the Sector Loan’s Subproject.
This includes renters and unauthorized occupants or squatting households, shop owners who
are users of land within the RoW or within the Subproject site footprint.

3.3.2.6        Replacement Land
The IA will provide alternative land or house plot. If land is not available due to scarcity as
well as any other reasons in the area. In that case, EPs will receive cash compensation for
land and/ or house plot at Replacement or Market Value. During the SES, information on
134   Draft Text from PGCB. 2001. Resettlement Plan (RP). The West Zone Power System Development Project. Dhaka: The Power Grid
       Company of Bangladesh Ltd. October.


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Section3                                                    Goals & Objectives, Policy Framework, and Entitlements



land price requires to be collected through interviewing both Affected and Unaffected
Persons. If the assessed value and compensation of land by DC office is lower than the
current prevailing rate, the IA will pay the difference to the EPs through the Implementing
NGO.

3.3.2.7     Relocation and Resettlement
Relocation refers to physically moving from the affected to the new area/site and rebuilding
homes, assets, including productive land/ employment while resettlement means re-
establishing income, livelihoods and community social system. Resettlement benefits will be
provided by the Sector Loan’s Subproject, such as Shifting Allowance, Replacement Land,
Employment, and Income Restoration Assistance due to loss of wage/income to help APs to
rehabilitate their lost assets and way of life.

3.3.2.8     Income Restoration Assistance
Persons directly affected by the Subproject (for example, household head, land owners,
tenants/ sharecroppers, and squatters) due to dislocation and relocation will likely lose
workdays for a considerable period of time to reconstruct and resettle in their new place of
residence. There will be provisions for subsistence and lost wages/incomes to assist APs to
restore their incomes in the post-resettlement period.

3.4        COMPENSATION PROCESSES
The Sector Loan’s compensation policy covers losses of APs, both Titled Owners and Non-
Titled Persons, and the process of paying compensation is outlined below. While some losses
are covered by existing GoB laws, for example, loss of land by owners including structures,
crops, trees, others have been developed to meet the Bank’s resettlement policy standards and
are specific to the Project.

The process of identification starts with the Awardee List, from which the DC pays awards
for appropriation of assets. The List is prepared mouza wise, and identification in the field is
done accordingly.

3.4.1      Compensation by GoB/DC Offices and by the IAs.
All land acquisition related compensation and payments for lost structures, crops, trees etc.
owned by APs will be paid by the concerned DC Office to EPs immediately after Gazette
Notification under 7(3) a (i.e., publication of notification of award of compensation) of the
1982 Ordinance. The concerned DC Office will conduct a Joint Verification with the IA’s
field staff of the listed properties, i.e., land and structures, on the RoW alignment or
subproject site footprint and complete the assessment for payments. The IA will allocate
appropriate funds with the concerned DC Office for payment of compensation.

Details of the Compensation Process are:

The Concerned DC Office will pay Cash Compensation under Law (CCL) for land to the
Titled Owners under the 1982 Ordinance. Since the CCL is typically less than the Market
Value, an additional Cash Grant will be made available to assist APs to buy replacement
agricultural land and/or house plots.




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Payment of compensation to owners for lost structures (residential and commercial), trees
and crops will be made by the DC Office.

Cash compensation will be paid to Tenant Farmers (who cultivate the land) for loss of
standing crops, if any, in accordance with the 1994 amendment of the 1982 Ordinance.

Cash Compensation for illegal structures e.g., belonging to squatters on the RoW alignment
or subproject site footprint, as identified by the Detailed Design SES, will be paid by the DC
Office to the owner/s of the structure/s.

In accordance with the Law, compensation by the DC Office will to be paid to the owners of
property only. However, all additional Grants will be paid by the concerned IA through the
Implementing NGO.

3.4.2      Compensation by IAs through Implementing NGOs.
Payment for losses not covered by the GoB laws will be paid by IAs/GoB to meet the Bank’s
policy requirements for involuntary resettlement. These payments will be processed, prepared
and delivered by the Implementing NGO to be hired by the Project Authority to carry out
administration tasks identified in the Subproject RP, for instance:
           An Additional Cash Grant will be provided to the directly affected households at
           Market Value for both agricultural and homestead land. The Implementing NGO
           will work with APs to identify suitable replacement land at reasonable prices or
           alternatively assist them in other possible ways to restore their lost income and
           livelihood.
           Transfer Grants or Relocation Assistance, to be indicated in the Subproject’s
           Resettlement Budget, will be provided by the IA through the Implementing NGOs
           to EPs for shifting of structures.
           A one time Cash Grant of a certain amount, to be indicated in the Subproject’s
           Resettlement Budget, will be provided for squatters through the Implementing
           NGO.
           The loss of workdays during the relocation of EPs, to be indicated in the
           Subproject’s Resettlement Budget, will be provided through the Implementing
           NGO.

3.5        BANGLADESH LAND ACQUISITION LAWS/DECREES
Implementation of development projects often involves acquisition of large tracts of land
necessitating displacement of considerable number of people. It can cause great hardship to
the displaced people economically, socially and environmentally. In most cases, the APs are
not the direct beneficiaries of the development project. Without the additional provision for
resettlement and rehabilitation being associated with land acquisition measures, as provided
above, the laws for acquisition of property may be inadequate to fully mitigate the impacts.

The following outlines the legal framework in Bangladesh for acquisition of property. The
first land acquisition law was enacted in 1824 and, amended a number of times, remained in
place until the partition of British India in 1947. Based on this law, the Acquisition and




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Section3                                                                     Goals & Objectives, Policy Framework, and Entitlements



Requisition of Immovable Properties Ordinance of 1982 (with a few amendments) is the final
version of the relevant legal framework for acquisition of land in Bangladesh.

The salient features of the ordinance are that, one, when the Government decides to acquire a
piece of land for public purpose the 1982 Ordinance is applied. Notice is served to person/s
interested in the land. Matters to be considered or not to be considered for determining
compensation are dealt with under this law.

After the rate of compensation is determined, the Government then tenders payment notice.
In case the Entitled Person/s (EPs) do not consent to receive or there is no EP/s to receive, or
there is any dispute as to the title to receive, the rule says that the compensation shall be
deemed to have been paid and the land shall stand acquired.

As regards disputes on the rate of compensation, there are provisions to go for Arbitration
and subsequently to an Arbitration Appellate Tribunal where the compensation earlier
decided can be revised up to 10 percent in each stage.

Under the 1982 Ordinance, APs have limited scope to negotiate with the Government about
the price of land, but have no right to refuse acquisition. The law guarantees payment of
compensation before land is taken over; however, in practice this does not happen in many
cases, and in some projects a good number of people have had to vacate their land before they
were paid compensation.

The Deputy Commissioner (DC) 135 is the only institution on behalf of the Government to
acquire land for any public reason. Under the 1982 Act, the procedure of identifying the
person/s interested and determining the rate of compensation serves the purpose of both the
government and the acquiring body.

The Government is obliged to pay the compensation only for the assets under acquisition and
then hand it over to the Requiring Body (RB). Under the 1982 Ordinance the Government has
no obligation to resettle the APs or to mitigate any adverse impact of the project So
application of the 1982 Act neither helps to resettle the affected per person nor takes care to
restore their lost income.

The compensation (official registration value of land of the proceeding year), is not enough
either to buy equal area of land from the open market or to build a house in a new place. To
resettle a person it is required to pay replacement value of the acquired property which is
always higher than the compensation.

3.5.1        Land Acquisition Process and Compensation Assessment
Under the 1982 Ordinance the acquisition process is lengthy in view of the fact that several
mandatory steps have to be followed for acquisition of land. In accordance with the



135   The Deputy Commissioner is the chief administrative and revenue officer of a district. The Deputy Commissioner is looked upon as the
       eyes and ears of the Government in such areas as law and order, land administration, disaster management and elections, both
       general and local. The Deputy Commissioner works under the general guidance and supervision of the Divisional Commissioner.
       They are under the administrative control of the Cabinet Division although their posting and transfer are made by the ministry of
       establishment. The deputy commissioners are drawn from the members of the Bangladesh Civil Service (Administration). Banglapedia
       (2004).


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Ordinance, the legal process is initiated by an application from the RB, which can be any
governmental or non-government agency.

3.5.1.1         Time Frame for Legal Procedure and Appeal 136
The following is the time frame for the legal procedure and appeal under the 1982 Ordinance:

The RB has first to indicate the area proposed to be acquired on a definite map (mauja, or
revenue, map) stating the purpose for which the acquisition is necessary.

The DC will satisfy himself that the property in question is needed for public purpose and in
public interest. He will then publish a Notice (Section) in the proscribed his decision to
acquire the property. Objection to the decision of the DC may be raised within 15 days in
writing. Sec 4(i).

A hearing will be given to the Objection, and the DC will prepare a report within 30 days
following the 15 days’ notice first given under Section 4(i) calling for objections. If the
property in question is above 50 Bighas, 137 the DC will refer the matter to the Government
(the Ministry of Land). When the area is less than 50 Bighas he will send the report to the
Divisional Commissioner for decision. The decision in either case will be final. Time
available to the DC is 15 days after the submission of the report and not exceeding one month
for special reasons. When decisions are to be made by government this shall be made within
a period not exceeding ninety days from the date of report by the DC.

If however, no objections are received, the DC will make the final decision in case of areas
less than 50 Bighas within 10 days of the expiry of the 15 day period and within 30 days if
the DC so permits.

After a decision of acquisition of a property has been made, the DC issues a second Public
Notice, again to be published at convenient places at or near such property. The Public Notice
shall state the intention of the authorities to take possession of the property. It shall also invite
all persons with interests in the property to appear in person or through an agent before the
DC, within 15 days after the publication of the Notice, to state the nature or their interest in
the property and submit claims to compensation (Section 6).

3.5.1.2         Time Frame for Assessment and Payment of Compensation
The process of determining compensation, assessment of the same, and hearing of objections,
usually takes quite a long time beyond the mandatory 15 days. It may even take months to
assess compensation and to make awards as per the Government rules and regulations.

The Ordinance of 1982 provides for arbitration (by a civil judge) when the affected party
does not accept the award make by the DC. He has 45 days to apply to the Arbitrator. The
Arbitrator’s decision can be appealed against in a Tribunal by either side (the AP or the DC).

After making the award for compensation, the payment of the same in full is arranged before
the property is taken possession of, first by the DC, and subsequently handed over to the RB,
free from all hindrances/legal encumbrances.

136
       Flow Charts I & II are found in Appendix B1 and B2 of the 2001 RP
137   1 Bigha= 0.135 Hectare


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Fifty percent additional compensation is paid to the affected owners in consideration of the
compulsory nature of acquisition and the quick eviction from the same.

Compensation must be paid or deposited within a period of one year from the date of decision
of acquisition. All proceedings stand abated on the expiry of that period. Besides, the DC
may, with the approval of the competent authorities, revoke all proceedings in respect of the
acquisition of any property at any time before the payment of compensation (Section 12).

Another cause of delay is the approval by Government for acquisition of land above 50
Bigahs. This can be avoided if the DC processes such proposals through the Commissioner
who sends the same expeditiously to the Government in the Ministry of Land. The Ministry
of Land is allowed to finalize the issue then and there without referring the same to the Prime
Minister’s Secretariat. The total period is not to be more than 30 days for such reference to
Government.

3.5.1.3    Eviction
There is no such term as eviction in the Acquisition and Requisition of Immovable Property
Ordinance 1982. But there is a definite instruction under Section 9 of the Ordinance that the
DC shall not take into consideration any disinclination of the person interested to part with
property to be acquired.

Read with that, Section 11 on Acquisition and Possession, clarifies that when the
compensation as per award has been paid or is deemed to have been paid, the property shall
stand acquired and vest absolutely in the Government free from all encumbrances, and the
DC shall thereupon take possession of the property.

The entire practice has by now become so well known to all concerned that nobody raises
objections to the process of taking over possession by the DC. On acquisition and receipt of
compensation the previous owners voluntarily leave the relevant property. So the need for
taking recourse to eviction by force seldom arises. If, however so required, the DC can apply
force to evict unwilling owners.

Immediately after the acquisition of the property, a declaration is made by the DC in the
prescribed form to that effect and the same is published in the Official Gazette.




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Section 4    Consultation and Participation and Grievance Redress
  Mechanisms

4.1           PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION
But identifying the indirectly affected APs, such as the share croppers, tenant farmers,
squatters, or farm laborers is done through a Socio-economic Survey (SES). The land owners
are asked to name their farm laborers and share croppers. So the identification starts with the
directly affected APs by which many of the indirectly affected APs are identified.

The first and most important step in the process of resettlement is to identify the primary and
secondary APs. After the APs are identified, they will be consulted about the resettlement
policy and if necessary the policy may be modified to make it more project and area specific.
Then the APs will be brought for participation in the process of resettlement. This approach
will help to:
              Better understand the likely impacts of the Subproject
              Obtain pertinent social and environment data
              Assess alternative formulation of Subproject works
              Determine community and individual preference
              Design appropriate and mutually acceptable Compensation Plan
              Contribute to more successful Resettlement and Rehabilitation

The IAs will appoint an Implementing NGO with experience, knowledge of, and contacts
with APs to assist in:
              Preparing the List of APs
              Monitoring the Compensation Payments
              Gathering and sharing information and avoiding potential problems

Each RP will be prepared and implemented in close consultation with the Stakeholders and
will involve Focus Group discussions and meetings, particularly with the APs. The
Resettlement Policy Framework, as presented in the RF, will be made available in the Bangla
language during Focus Group meetings at the village level. Copies of draft RPs will be
distributed among community groups prior to finalization of the Detailed Design for local
inputs, after the SES has been carried out to avoid fraudulent claims.

A Public Consultative Committee (PCC) at the Thana (Upzila) 138 level will be formed to
supervise the Compensation Payment to APs. The PCC will include representative of the
District Deputy Commissioner, the Thana Nirbahi Officer, Public Representatives, concerned
Union Chairmen, representative of the IA, and representative of selected NGOs having good
reputation in the area. Formation of the PCC will be functionally equivalent to Resettlement
Coordination Committee enunciated in the ADB's Policy on Involuntary Resettlement. Such
committees will also be vital for ensuring that project monitoring and implementation take
place effectively, and that monitoring will provide feedback into Project implementation.

138   Subdistrict


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Section 4                                        Consultation and Participation and Grievance Redress Mechanisms




4.2         GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISMS
All formal arbitration appeal to redress the complaints from the APs shall be addressed under
the existing laws of the country. The detailed land acquisition procedure required under the
law will be followed, salient features of which are briefly described below:

The legal process starts with a formal letter from the RB to the acquiring body to the DC.

Following the procedural formalities for permission through different Gob agencies, the DC
serves preliminary notice for acquisition of the land under Section 3 of the 1982 Ordinance.

Any person having interest in such property may object to the proposed acquisition to the DC
in writing within 15 days (Sec. 4.1). The DC will prepare a report and refer the case to higher
authorities for decision (Sec.4.2). However, if no objections are raised within the 15 days
time-limit the final decision may be made by the DC in case of properties of up to 50
standard Bighas of land, otherwise the Commissioner (Sec. 4.3 and Sec. 5) will take the
decision in case of such dispute.

After a decision of acquisition of a property has been made, the DC issues a Second Public
Notice, again to be published at convenient places or near such property. It shall invite all
persons with interests in the property to appear in person or by an agent before the DC, within
15 days, after the publication of the Notice to state the nature of their interest in the property
and submit claims to compensation (Sec. 6).

Payments of compensation must be made before the authorities take possession of the
property (Sec. 10-1).

After compensation has been paid or deposited in the Public Account of the Republic, the
property shall stand acquired and vested absolutely with the Government free from all
encumbrances. The DC can take possession of the property after a declaration has been made
in the Official Gazette (Sec. II).

Compensation must be paid or deposited within a period of sixty days from the date of
receiving the estimate from the acquiring body (Sec. 7/4). In default all proceedings shall
stand abated on the expiry of that period.

The 1982 Ordinance also covers the case of temporary requisition of property for a public
purpose or in the public interest (Part III). With prior approval of the Government, the DC
can decide on the requisition of any property for a period two years. No prior approval will,
however, be required in case of emergency requisition (Sec. 1 8). But with prior approval of
the GOB, requisition period may extend more than two years.

The DC may take possession of the requisition after serving the Requisition Order. If a
person is not satisfied with the amount of compensation or there is a dispute over ownership,
the DC may deposit the money in the Public Account.

A person not accepting the award made by the DC may submit an application to the
Arbitrator for revision of the award within 45 days from the date of notice of the award (Sec.
28). The Arbitrator is a Government appointed Judicial Officer, not below the rank of
Subordinate Judge. If compensation determined by the Arbitrator is higher than that decided


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Section 4                                           Consultation and Participation and Grievance Redress Mechanisms



by the DC, an additional compensation for delay at the rate of 10 percent per annum may be
paid (Sec. 32). As per amendment of 1994, the Arbitrator can not differ with the
compensation amount by more than 10% of the DC’s Award (Sec. 31).

An appeal against the decision by the Arbitrator can be made to an Arbitration Appellate
Tribunal, which consists of a member appointed by the Government from among persons
who are or have been District Judges. A decision of the said Tribunal shall be final (Sec. 34).

There is a general popular feeling that obtaining fair compensation from GoB agencies may
be difficult. In this respect ADB Policy is that the APs will receive fair compensation through
IA assistance. The APs will be fully informed and closely consulted by the Implementing
NGO on their resettlement and compensation options. The process of consultation to be
established at the initial stage of the Subproject implementation will continue throughout the
Subproject implementation period. The IAs will have the administrative support from the
Implementing NGO, to be hired by the Subproject Management, to ensure payment of fair
compensation and transparency in the disbursement of compensation to the APs.

Complaints and Grievance Procedures will be outlined in each RP and Grievance Redress
Committees (GRCs) will be established for each Subproject with representatives from the
IAs, APs, women and vulnerable groups, local government, and NGOs. The Chief
Resettlement Officer (CRO) or authorized person nominated by the CRO, will chair the
GRC. Other than disputes relating to ownership rights under the court of law, the Committee
will review grievances involving all resettlement benefits, relocation and other assistance.
Grievances will be redressed within two to four weeks from the date of lodging the
complaints. The functions of the GRCs will be to:
            Receive applications and hold hearings on AP grievances concerning the Project,
            in particular regarding resettlement issues.
            Refer APs to the concerned authority/Deputy Commissioner if the grievance can
            be dealt through conventional law or by arbitration.
            Make decisions to resolve AP grievances following RP policy if outside
            conventional law and if the grievance does not lend itself to arbitration.
            Prepare recommendations according to the procedure described by the GRC in
            resolving AP complaints.

The GRCs will receive AP grievances and resolve them in the following manner:
            The written AP grievance will be lodged with the GRC within a month of the
            receipt of ID Card or from when the AP is informed of their entitlement.
            The GRC will meet to resolve the AP grievance within 10 days of its receipt and
            will preserve the records and procedure of the meeting. The GRC will mention
            the basis of its resolutions in the written record of its meetings.
            The GRC will publicize its decisions regarding AP grievances through local
            community meetings and through the distribution of leaflets to the public.
            All the GRC activities will take place in the office of the GRC chairperson.




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Section 4                                      Consultation and Participation and Grievance Redress Mechanisms



The Implementing NGOs will form Resettlement Advisory Committees (RACs) to involve
the local communities and APs in the implementation process. The RACs will be formed by
the Implementing NGOs after their field presence is established and will consist of
representatives from the APs, women/vulnerable groups and Local Government Institutions
(LGIs). The local Upazila Chairmen/Member will chair the RAC and a representative of the
Implementing NGO will act as the member secretary.




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Section 5                                            Relocation and Income Restoration

5.1    RELOCATION OF HOUSING AND SETTLEMENTS
The RP is a time-bound action plan with budget setting out resettlement strategy, objectives,
entitlement, actions, responsibilities, monitoring and evaluation. The RP will address each
category of potential losses as per ADB guidelines and the existing laws of the country.

The project activities do not involve displacement of people from their present homesteads. It
has only a limited impact on the income and livelihood of the APs. So a Short Resettlement
Plan will be prepared to take care of the affected populations and all losses that might be
incurred, through appropriate mitigative measures. Exact number of APs due to transmission
line is identified and they will be compensated for the loss of crops, trees etc during the
process of actual physical construction of the Transmission Lines. However, for lands for
substation/switchyard, number of APs will be identified during land acquisition process.

The SES date shows that none in the acquired land for the Subprojects will affect household
structures. A separate settlement area relocation household will not be necessary. The SES
did not indicate any plot of agricultural land will be converted for household in future. So
there is no long term effect either. However it has been stated that houses on the ROW of
Transmission Line will be discouraged as the high voltage electric line will overpass those
houses. An option for such household has been kept if these APs would like to relocate the
house and convert the house plot for any other purpose including garden or agriculture. The
necessary compensation package and budget will be available and is included in the detailed
budget (below).

5.2    INCOME RESTORATION
In any resettlement program it may be unrealistic to assume that all APs can be economically
rehabilitated without assistance, in a sustainable manner. In a rural context where a majority
of the APs are likely to be illiterate and job opportunities are limited, the Subproject planners
will be required to develop an alternative source of income in the form of Income Generation
Programs (IGP). The main features should be:
       Human Resources Development (HRD) and
       Occupational Skill Development (OSD)

Considering the vulnerability in the community, particular attention will be given to women
APs. Because the poorest in rural Bangladesh are inevitable women, they become more
vulnerable than male APs. Some 80 percent of the APs selected for IGP will be women
whether head of household or a dependent. The HRD and OSD options will be chosen by the
AP, and for the necessary training will be given by selected training organizations or NGOs.
On completion of training on HRD and OSD, bank loan facilities will be extended in easy
terms so that the APs can start income generation programs. To make it sustainable, the
program will be well designed and systematically monitored and evaluated.

The Subprojects will displace a number of people from agricultural activities. Many of the
APs may have to switch their agriculture activity to small trading or may go down to be a day
labor. The compensation package will be sufficient for those marginal farmer to switch to a



                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J          5-1
SWection 5                                                                  Relocation and Income Restoration



trading/business provided they have training or guidance from the NGOs appointed for the
implementation of RP.

The Implementing NGOs will also liaise with IAs and the Contractors to assist the APs,
especially women and other vulnerable persons to, as feasible, obtain employment during the
construction period. The IAs will make provision in the Contractor contracts for preferential
employment of qualified APs, including affected women in Subproject works.




                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                     5-2
Section 6                                                             Institutional Framework

The Power Cell, as Executing Agency (EA) will have overall coordination, planning,
implementation and financing responsibilities. Power Cell fully recognizes the importance
and complexity of the resettlement programs in the Sector Loan. The Project Director (PD) of
the Sector Loan’s Project Management Office (PMO), Dhaka will monitor the RP
implementation through the Chief Resettlement Officer (CRO), a senior Power Cell staff
(preferably a social scientist) with a rank of Executive Engineer. The CRO will also
coordinate preparation of Subproject RPs and liaise with the ADB and the Implementing
Agencies (IAs), viz., BPDB, PGCB, DESCO, and DESA to assure the RF is carried out as
agreed between the GoB and ADB. The CRO will ensure that the RF guides the preparation
of Subproject RPs, so appropriate entitlements and mitigation measures are established in the
RPs.

A Land Acquisition and Resettlement Support Team will be established within the each IA’s
Project Implementing Unit (PIU), consisting of a domestic Social Development Specialist
and a Chief Resettlement Officer (CRO). The Team’s responsibility will include preparation,
implementation, and monitoring of the RP; stakeholder participation; information
dissemination, and liaison with other government agencies, in particular with the CRO
appointed by Power Cell.

Internally, the IA’s PIU will conduct monthly internal monitoring of the progress of the
planned land acquisition and resettlement activities. The Land Acquisition Officer (LAO), in
the Office of the Deputy Commissioner will assist the PIU for monitoring of the progress of
land acquisition. An External Monitoring and Evaluation Agency will be commissioned for
annual, mid-term and end-term monitoring and evaluation of these activities.

The IAs will appoint an Implementing NGO with experience, knowledge of, and contacts
with APs to assist the PIU in:
       Preparing the List of APs
       Monitoring the Compensation Payments
       Gathering and sharing information and avoiding potential problems

The Implementing NGOs will assist the IA to deliver supplementary direct and indirect
payments to reach replacement cost, and other assistance such as one-time Cash Grant to
vulnerable groups as well as provision of training and credit for business start-up.

The Implementing NGO will open, as required, field offices in affected districts and will
involve APs, including women, in the implementation process. The Implementing NGOs will
also liaise with IAs and the Contractors to assist the APs, especially women and other
vulnerable persons to, as feasible, obtain employment during the construction period. The IAs
will make provision in the Contractor contracts for preferential employment of qualified APs,
including affected women in Subproject works.

The relevant DCs will be responsible for acquisition of land for the Subprojects. The RC will
ensure co-ordination between various relevant offices, particularly DC at the District level,
and the Implementing NGO. The DC, with IA and AP representatives, will conduct a Joint



                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J       6-1
Section 6                                                                                                            Institutional Framework



Verification Survey of properties on the affected land based on the Land Acquisition Plan
that will be submitted by the IA’s PIU to the DC. Construction activities will not commence
and land will not be possessed until the people affected have been properly compensated.

A Public Consultative Committee (PCC) at the Thana (Upzila) 139 level will be formed to
supervise the Compensation Payment to APs. The PCC will include representative of the
District Deputy Commissioner, the Thana Nirbahi Officer, Public Representatives, concerned
Union Chairmen, representatives of the IAs, and representative of selected NGOs having a
good reputation in the area. 140 To ensure that APs receive full compensation, the PCC will
supervise payments of compensation to the APs. The PCC will visit points geographically
close to the AP for payments, including whatever cash options the APs prefer. Such
committees will also be vital for ensuring that project monitoring and implementation take
place effectively, and that monitoring will provide feedback into Project implementation.

MPEMR, through a gazette notification, will form various committees/teams 141 for
implementation of the RP at the field level. Joint Verification Teams (JVTs) will be formed
to carry out the physical verification. The Implementing NGOs will computerize losses of
physical assets and their owners identified by the JVTs. Property Valuation Advisory Teams
(PVATs) will be formed to review the assessment of the implementing NGO on the market
price of land and other property affected by the Subproject at their replacement cost. The
Resettlement Coordinator (RC) at the Subproject Office (SMO) level will chair the
JVT/PVAT as convener and representative of the implementing NGO will act as the member
secretary. Grievances Redress Committees (GRCs) will be formed for resolving any
grievances involving Resettlement Benefits, relocation, and other assistance. The scope and
responsibility of these committees/teams will clearly be defined in the gazette.




139   Thana = unit of police administration. Upazila = sub-district. The principal functionary is the Thana Nirbahi Officer (TNO), overseeing
      the main centre of development activities with most of the development departments of the provincial government having their own
      functionaries at this level.There are now 496 thanas in the country including those in metropolitan police jurisdictions. Banglapedia
      (2004).
140   Formation of the PCC will be functionally equivalent to Resettlement Coordination Committee enunciated in the ADB's Resettlement
      Policy.
141   Joint Verification Team (JVT), Property Valuation Advisory Team (PVAT) and Grievance Redress Committee (GRC).




                               Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                           6-2
Section 7                                           Resettlement Budget and Financing

The cost of land acquisition and resettlement for the five T/L Subprojects is estimated at
$2.721 million, including physical contingencies (Table 87). The Government will provide
the entire fund for land acquisition and resettlement. The fund will be released through
Deputy Commissioner’s offices for acquired properties, whereas all other additional benefits
will be paid directly by the IAs through the Implementing NGOs.

The IA will further ensure that resettlement budgets are delivered on time to the DC’s Office
and the Implementing NGO, for timely RP implementation.

The total land to be acquired the T/L Subprojects is 35 acres. Based on the SES and a series
of Public Consultations on the proposed compensation package, a Compensation Matrix has
been prepared (Table 86). The budgeted provision will be made in the Project Proforma (PP),
which will be present budget estimated based on the Nov-Dec SES Field Survey.

In addition to the budget provisions, the Project Proforma (PP) will be adjusted to take into
account urban lands to be bought on a willing seller/willing buyer basis but which could not
be assessed at this time due to the early stage of the planning process and lack of siting
studies for these. The same will hold true for the Khulna Peaking Power Plant, as concept
level studies are updated to design level.

The payment schedule will be in two stages. The compensation for land acquisition involve
the transfer of money to Deputy Commissioner on his requisition as per the Land Acquisition
Act (LAA). The other entitlement for the APs will be directly paid by the IA & the NGO
appointed for implementation of the RP. The second stage of payment of compensation
package will carried unit during the construction of the Subprojects. Whereas the
construction of the Transmission Lines does not usually involve much land acquisition, but
instead temporary use of land involving damage to the standing crop (20.9 acres) and other
temporary structures on the ROW, the budget has included cost for acquiring land under the
transmission pole pods as well as the compensation of standing crops and any structures that
the owners may wish to move out of the ROW, as will be determined through consultation by
the Implementing NGO during construction.




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J       7-1
Section 7                                                                                                                                        Resettlement Budget and Financing




                                                      Table 89: Total RP Budget for Subprojects, in Taka and US$

                                                                                                   3 T/L Subprojects           Dhaka T/L Subprojects         Total RP Budget
                                   Compensation Items                                        Million Tk     Million US$) 142   Million Tk Million US$   Million Tk Million US$
1. Land: (Ccl Plus 50% Premium For All Categories Of Total Land)                              33.863             0.521          45.644       0.702        79.507        1.223
I. Agriculture                                                                                13.138              0.20          22.675        0.35        35.813         0.55
II. Homestead                                                                                  3.450              0.05           2.933        0.05        6.383          0.98
III. Commercial                                                                                4.618              0.07           2.933        0.05        7.551          0.12
IV. Low Land/Water Bodies                                                                      1.369              0.02           1.888        0.03        3.257          0.05
V. 50% Premium On CCL For All Categories of Land                                              11.288              0.17          15.215        0.23        29.503         0.45
2. Structure All Types (Average Price):                                                        7.056             0.109          13.475       0.702       20.531         0.811
3. Compensation To Crops (@ Tk. 12/KGX 2025/Acre).                                              391              0.006           0.117       0.002                      0.008
A. Sub Total: Sl 1-3 (Paid By DC Office)                                                      41.310             0.636          59.236       0.911       100.546        1.547
4 Relocation Grants (10% Of The Structure Value)                                               0.706              0.01           1.348        0.02        2.054          0.03
5. House Construction Grants (10% Of The Structure Value)                                      0.706              0.01           1.348        0.02        2.054          0.03
6. Compensation For Loss Of Access Land By Tenant Cultivators @ Tk 200/Decimal                 0.097             0.001           0.039       0.001        0.136         0.002
7.Relocation Grants For Rental And Other Households @ Tk.3000/Household                        0.120             0.002           0.174       0.003        0.294         0.005
8.Additional Cash Grant To Match Market Value Of Land (Subject To Purchase Of                  4.600              0.07            6.15        0.10        10.75          0.17
Replacement Land)
9 Stamp Duty For Land Registration (22% Of Deed Value)                                         7.452              0.12          11.83         0.18        19.282         0.30
10 Loss Of Income Of Households During Relocation And Transition Period. @ Tk. 125 Daily X     1.800              0.03          5.029          0.8        6.829          0.11
For 90 Days Each
11 Additional Assistance To Female Headed Households @ Tk. 3000/ Household                     0.048             0.001           0.039       0.001        0.087         0.001
12. Administrative Cost Of Ea’s Resettlement Unit (Lump Sum)                                   5.000              0.08            5.0        0.08         10.00         0.15
13. Hiring Of NGO For Resettlement Implementation (Lump Sum)                                   7.500              0.12            7.5         0.12         15.00         0.23
B. Sub Total: Sl 4-13 (To Be Paid By The EA)                                                  28.029             0.431         32.193        0.495        60.222        0.926
Total (A&B)                                                                                   69.339             1.067          91.429       1.406       160.768        2.473
15. Contingency@10% Of Total Costs (A&B)                                                       6.934             0.107           9.143       0.141        16.077        0.248
Grand Total                                                                                   76.273             1.174         100.572       1.547       176.845        2.721

142   1 US$ = 65 Tk


                                                     Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                          7-2
Section 7                                                                                                                                                                        Resettlement Budget and Financing




                                        Table 90: Resettlement and Land Acquistion Budget of APs for 3 T/L Subprojects, Taka and US$

                                                                                                                    For Northern & Southwest Area                                                     Remarks
                                                                                                                          Unit Price     Total Amount                    Amount
                        Compensation Items                                                Quantity/Number                (Million Tk)     (Million Tk)                (Million US$) 143
1. Land: (Ccl Plus 50% Premium For All Categories Of Total Land)                      23.0 144 Acres And 160                             33.863                      0.521
I. Agriculture                                                                        H/Hs
II. Homestead                                                                         16.1 Acres                        0.816 Acres              13.138              0.20
III. Commercial                                                                       1.38 Acres                        2.500 Acres              3.450               0.05
IV. Low Land/Water Bodies                                                             1.61 Acres                        2.868 Acres              4.618               0.07
V. 50% Premium On CCL For All Categories Of Land                                      3.91 Acres                        0.350 Acres              1.369               0.02
                                                                                      23.0 Acres                                                 11.288              0.17
2. Structure All Types (Average Price):                                               67,850 Sft With 185               0.038/Structure          7.056               0.109
                                                                                      Structures                        (Tk104/Sft)
3. Compensation To Crops (@ Tk. 12/KGX 2025/Acre).                                    16.1 Acres                        0.024/Acre              391                  0.006
A. Sub Total: Sl 1-3 (Paid By DC Office)                                                                                                        41.310               0.636
4 Relocation Grants (10% Of The Structure Value)                                                                                                0.706                0.01
5. House Construction Grants (10% Of The Structure Value)                                                                                       0.706                0.01
6. Compensation For Loss Of Access Land By Tenant Cultivators @ Tk                    4.83 Acres With 30 H/Hs           0.020/Acre              0.097                0.001                  40% Of Total Cultivable
200/Decimal                                                                                                                                                                                 Land Assumed Under
                                                                                                                                                                                            Tenant Cultivation
7.Relocation Grants For Rental And Other Households @                                 40 H/Hs                                                    0.120               0.002                  40% H/Hs In Assumes As
Tk.3000/Household                                                                                                                                                                           Rental H/Hs.
8.Additional Cash Grant To Match Market Value Of Land (Subject To                     23.0 Acre                         0.200/Acre               4.600               0.07                   Lump Sum Amount @ 5.0
Purchase Of Replacement Land)                                                                                                                                                               Lakhs Has Been Assumed
9 Stamp Duty For Land Registration (22% Of Deed Value)                                23.0 Acre                         0.324/Acre               7.452               0.12
10 Loss Of Income Of Households During Relocation And Transition                      160 H/Hs/Owner                    0.011                    1.800               0.03
Period. @ Tk. 125 Daily X For 90 Days Each

143   1 US$ = 65 Tk
144   The Field Survey found 12.8 acres of land in N/SW for three transmission line projects will require, which has been calculated as per requirement of land for each tower multiplied by the total number of towers
      but PGCB indicated for 23.0 acres, it may require for construction of different establishment/facilities. So in this budget estimation has been done for 23.0 acres of land.


                                                                Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                                                    7-3
Section 7                                                                                                                                    Resettlement Budget and Financing



                                                                                             For Northern & Southwest Area                                     Remarks
                                                                                                   Unit Price     Total Amount         Amount
                          Compensation Items                             Quantity/Number          (Million Tk)      (Million Tk)    (Million US$) 143
11 Additional Assistance To Female Headed Households @ Tk. 3000/     16 H/Hs                                      0.048            0.001                Assumed 10% H/Hs Are
Household                                                                                                                                               Female Headed
12. Administrative Cost Of Ea’s Resettlement Unit (Lump Sum)                                                           5.000       0.08
13. Hiring Of NGO For Resettlement Implementation (Lump Sum)                                                           7.500       0.12
B. Sub Total: Sl 4-13 (To Be Paid By The EA)                                                                           28.029      0.431
Total (A&B)                                                                                                            69.339      1.067
15. Contingency@10% Of Total Costs (A&B)                                                                               6.934       0.107
Grand Total                                                                                                            76.273      1.174




                                                   Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                       7-4
      Section 7                                                                                                                                                                      Resettlement Budget and Financing




                                 Table 91: Budget for Land Acquisition and Resettlement & Rehabilitation of APs for Each of the 3 T/L Subprojects

                                                  Chuadanga-Jheniadah-Magura T/L                                         Noagoan-Joypuhat T/L                                      Thakurgoan- Panchagar T/L
                                                                                                                           Unit Price                                                    Unit Price
                                       Number/           Unit Price (In      Million                           Quantity/   (In Million  Million                Million      Number/      (In Million  Million           Million
     Compensation Items                Quantity           Million Tk)          Tk          Million US$         Number          Tk)        Tk                     US$        Quantity         Tk)         Tk               US$
1. Land: (Ccl Plus 50%              75 HHs                                  15.495        0.238              40 H/Hs                   8.220                   0.126     45 HHs owning                7.939             0.122
Premium For All Categories          owning 10.6                                                              owning 5.8                                                  6.6 Acres
Of Total Land)                      Acres                                                                    Acres
I. Agriculture                      8.0 Acres           0.743               5.944                            4.0 Acres    0.850        3.400                             4.2 Acres           0.865            3.633
II. Homestead                       0.5 Acres           2.300               1.150                            0.3 Acres    2.500        0.750                             0.5 Acres           1.180            0.590
III. Commercial                     0.5 Acres           5.000               2.500                            0.3 Acres    2.633        0.790                             0.7 Acres           0.971            0.680
IV. Low Land/Water Bodies           1.6 Acres           0.460               0.736                            1.2 Acres    0.450        0.540                             1.2 Acres           0.325            0.390
V. 50% Premium On Ccl For
All Categories Of Land              10.6 Acre                               5.165                            8.8 Acres                           2.740                   6.6 Acres                            2.647
2. Structure All Types              92 Structures       0.025/Structure     2.300         0.035              48                0.030/Struct      1.429         0.022     45 Structures       0.026            1.151     0.018
(Average Price):                    With 29,708         (Tk 77.4/Sqft.                                       Structures        ure (Tk                                   With 18,422         /Structure
                                    Sqft. Floor                                                              With 19,720       72.4/Sqft)                                Sft. Floor Area     (Tk.62.4/ Sft)
                                    Area                                                                     Sft. Floor
                                                                                                             Area
3. Compensation To Crops            8.0 Acres           0.024/Acre          1.95          0.300              4.0 Acres         0.024/Acre        0.98          0.15      4.2 Acres           0.024/Acre       0.101     0.016
(@ Tk. 12/Kg X 2025 Kg.
/Acre) 145
A. Sub Total: Sl 1-3 (Paid By                                               19.745        0.304                                                  10.629        0.164                                          9.191     0.141
DC Office)
4 Relocation Grants (10% Of                                                 0.230                                                                0.143                                                        0.115
The Structure Value)
5. House Construction                                                       0.230                                                                0.143                                                        0.115
Grants (10% Of The
Structure Value)
6. Compensation For Loss Of         2.4 Acres           0.020/Acres         0.048                            1.2 Acres         0.020/Acres       0.024                   1.3 Acres With      0.020/Acres      0.026

      145   Compensation to crops has been estimated valued at Tk. 12.00 per kg. Multiplied (“X” is the sign of multiplication) by acreage production of 2025 kg.


                                                                      Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                                               7-5
      Section 7                                                                                                                                          Resettlement Budget and Financing



                                            Chuadanga-Jheniadah-Magura T/L                               Noagoan-Joypuhat T/L                          Thakurgoan- Panchagar T/L
                                                                                                           Unit Price                                        Unit Price
                                 Number/        Unit Price (In      Million                   Quantity/    (In Million  Million    Million      Number/      (In Million  Million             Million
    Compensation Items           Quantity        Million Tk)          Tk       Million US$    Number           Tk)        Tk        US$         Quantity         Tk)        Tk                 US$
Access Land By Tenant          With 14 H/Hs                                                  With 7 H/Hs                                     9 H/Hs
Cultivators @ Tk.
200/Decimal
7.Relocation Grants For        15 H/Hs                             0.045                     12 H/Hs                       0.036             13 H/Hs                            0.039
Rental And Other
Households @
Tk.3000/Household
8.Additional Cash Grant To     10.6 Acre        0.200              2.12                      5.8 Acres      0.200          1.160             6.6 Acres           0.200          1.32
Match Market Value Of Land
(Subject To Purchase Of
Replacement Land)
9 Stamp Duty For Land          10.6 Acres       0.322/Acres        3.41                      5.8 Acres      0.312/Acres    1.808             6.6 Acres           0.265/Acre     1.747
Registration (22% Of Deed
Value)
10 Loss Of Income Of           75 H/Hs          0.011              0.844                     45 H/Hs        0.011          0.506             40 H/Hs             0.011          0.450
Households During
Relocation And Transition
Period. @ Tk. 125 Daily X
For 90 Days Each
11 Additional Assistance To    7 H/Hs                              0.021                     5 H/Hs                        0.015             4 H/Hs                             0.012
Female Headed Households
@ Tk. 3000/ Household
12. Administrative Cost Of                                         2.500                                                   1.300                                                1.200
Ea’s Resettlement Unit
(Lump Sum)
13. Hiring Of Ngo For                                              3.500                                                   2.000                                                2.000
Resettlement Implementation
(Lump Sum)
B. Sub Total: Sl 4-13 (To Be                                       12.948     0.199                                        7.135   0.110                                        7.024     0.108
Paid By The EA)



                                                              Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                         7-6
     Section 7                                                                                                                           Resettlement Budget and Financing



                                    Chuadanga-Jheniadah-Magura T/L                             Noagoan-Joypuhat T/L                        Thakurgoan- Panchagar T/L
                                                                                                 Unit Price                                      Unit Price
                         Number/        Unit Price (In    Million                    Quantity/   (In Million  Million     Million   Number/      (In Million  Million      Million
    Compensation Items   Quantity        Million Tk)        Tk       Million US$     Number          Tk)        Tk          US$     Quantity         Tk)         Tk          US$
Total (A&B)                                              32.693     0.503                                    17.764       0.274                               16.215       0.249
15. Contingency@10% Of                                   3.269      0.050                                    1.776        0.027                               1.622        0.025
Total Costs (A&B)
Grand Total                                              35.962     0.553                                        19.540   0.301                                 17.837     0.274




                                                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                    7-7
Section 7                                                                                                                                             Resettlement Budget and Financing




                        Table 92: Resettlement and Land Acquistion Budget of APs for Dhaka Region T/L Subprojects, Taka and US$

                                     Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                     Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                              Total          Comments
                                                           Total
                                                         Amount           Amount                                             Total       Total       Total           Total
                          Quantity/       Unit Price      (Million         (Million    Quantity/          Unit Price        (Million    (Million    (Million       (Million
Compensation Items         Number        (Million Tk)       Tk)             US$)       Number            (Million Tk)         Tk)        US$)         Tk)            US$)
1. Land: (CCL Plus      95 HHs, with                     40.136           0.617       35 HHs, with                         5.508       0.085       45.644         0.702
50% Premium For All     12.0 Acres                                                    0.30 Acres
Categories Of Total
Land)
I. Agriculture          4.8 Acres        4.691/Acre            22.517                 0.05 Acres      3.167/Acre           0.158                   22.675         0.35
II. Homestead           0.6 Acres        20.333/Acre           1.220                  0.10 Acres      17.125/Acre          1.713                   2.933          0.05
III. Commercial         0.6 Acres        20.333/Acre           1.220                  0.10 Acres      17.125/Acre          1.713                   2.933          0.05
IV. Low Land/Water      6.0 Acres        3.000/Acre            1.800                  0.05 Acres      1.763/Acre           0 .088                  1.888          0.03
Bodies
V. 50% Premium On       12.0 Acres       1.115/ Acres          13.379                 0.3 Acres                            1.836                   15.215         0.23
CCL For All
Categories Of Land
2. Structures, All      170              0.055/Structure       9.350      0.144       75              0.055/Structure      4.125       0.063       13.475         0.702
Types (Average          Structures,      (Tk 111/Sft)                                 Structures,
Price):                 Having 84,585                                                 Having
                        Sft Floor Area                                                17,415 Sft
                                                                                      Floor Area
3. Compensation for     4.80             0.024/Acre            0.117      0.002       0.00            0.00                 0.00        0.00        0.117          0.002
Crops (@ tk. 12/Kg x
2,025/acre).
A. Sub Total: Sl 1-3                                           49.603     0.763                                            9.633       0.148       59.236         0.911
(Paid by DC Office)
4. Relocation Grants                                           0.935      0.01                                             0.413       0.006       1.348          0.02
(10% of the Structure
Value)
5. House Construction                                          0.935      0.01                                             0.413       0.006       1.348          0.02



                                                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                            7-8
Section 7                                                                                                                                         Resettlement Budget and Financing



                                     Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                 Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                             Total          Comments
                                                          Total
                                                         Amount          Amount                                           Total      Total      Total          Total
                           Quantity/      Unit Price     (Million        (Million    Quantity/        Unit Price         (Million   (Million   (Million       (Million
 Compensation Items        Number        (Million Tk)      Tk)            US$)       Number          (Million Tk)          Tk)       US$)        Tk)           US$)
Grants (10% of the
Structure Value)
6. Compensation for      1.94           0.020/acre           0.039      0.001                                            0.00       0.00       0.039         0.001       30% of Total
loss of Access to Land   (25 Tenant                                                                                                                                      Cultivable
by Tenant Cultivators    Cultivators)                                                                                                                                    Land
@ Tk. 200/Decimal                                                                                                                                                        Assumed
                                                                                                                                                                         Under
                                                                                                                                                                         Tenant
                                                                                                                                                                         Cultivation
7.Relocation Grants      38 HHs                              0.114      0.002       20                                   0.060      0.001      0.174         0.003       25% of The
for Rental and Other                                                                                                                                                     Total
Households @                                                                                                                                                             Households
Tk.3,000/Household                                                                                                                                                       (H/Hs)
                                                                                                                                                                         Assumes As
                                                                                                                                                                         Rental HHs
                                                                                                                                                                         In Meg.-
                                                                                                                                                                         Amin Bazaar
                                                                                                                                                                         And 60% At
                                                                                                                                                                         Amin Bazar-
                                                                                                                                                                         Old Airport
                                                                                                                                                                         Area.
8.Additional Cash        12.0           0.500/acre           6.000      0.09        0.30          0.500/acre             0.150                 6.15          0.10        Lump Sum
Grant To Match                                                                                                                                                           Amount @
Market Value Of Land                                                                                                                                                     Tk 2.0 Has
(Subject To Purchase                                                                                                                                                     Been
Of Replacement Land)                                                                                                                                                     Assumed
9 Stamp Duty For         12.0           0.736/acre           8.830      0.14        0.30          1.000/acre             0.300      0.001      9.13          0.14
Land Registration
(22% Of Deed Value)
10. Loss of Income Of    95 HHs/Owner   0.012                1.069      0.02        35            0.012                  0.396      0.001      1.465         0.02



                                                     Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                           7-9
Section 7                                                                                                                                     Resettlement Budget and Financing



                                     Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                              Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                             Total           Comments
                                                          Total
                                                         Amount       Amount                                           Total      Total      Total          Total
                           Quantity/      Unit Price     (Million     (Million    Quantity/        Unit Price         (Million   (Million   (Million       (Million
Compensation Items         Number        (Million Tk)      Tk)         US$)       Number          (Million Tk)          Tk)       US$)        Tk)           US$)
Households During                                                                HHs/Owner
Relocation And
Transition Period. @
Tk. 125 Daily X For 90
Days Each
11. Additional              8HHs                           0.024                    5 HHs                              0.015                 0.039             0.001    Assumed
Assistance To Female                                                                                                                                                    10% HHs
Headed Households                                                                                                                                                      are Female
@ Tk. 3000/                                                                                                                                                              Headed
Household
12. Administrative                                         4.500       0.07                                            0.500      0.01        5.0              0.08
Cost Of EA’s
Resettlement Unit
(Lump Sum)
13. Hiring of NGO for                                      6.500        0.1                                            1.000      0.02        7.5              0.12
Resettlement
Implementation (Lump
sum)
B. Subtotal: Sl 4-13 (to                                   28.946      0.445                                           3.247      0.050     32.193             0.495
be paid by the EA)
Total (A&B)                                                78.549      1.208                                          12.880      0.198     91.429             1.406
14.                                                         7.855      0.121                                           1.288      0.020      9.143             0.141
Contingency@10% of
Total Costs (A&B)
Grand Total                                                86.404      1.329                                          14.168      0.218     100.572            1.547




                                                  Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                          7-10
Section 8                                                            Implementation Schedule

All resettlement activities will be coordinated with the civil works. Land acquisition activity
will be determined after Detailed Design SES is carried out.




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J         8-1
Section 9                                                                      Monitoring and Evaluation

Resettlement monitoring means the collection, analysis, reporting and use of information
about the progress of resettlement, based on the RP. Monitoring focuses on physical and
financial targets and delivery of entitlements to people affected. The IAs, and Implementing
NGOs to be appointed by the IAs will jointly monitor the disbursement of funds. The
following matrix outlines the major inputs and outputs, as well as the indicators that would be
used for monitoring progress in the RP implementation process and shown below:

                         Table 93: Proposed Monitoring Procedure and Indicators

                 Input                                   Output                                  Indicator
Organizational
PCC formed                                IA forms PCC and provides Terms         Minutes of first meeting and issues
                                          of Reference                            discussed
Implementing NGO appointed by IA          Implementing NGO reports                Contract Document and TOR
                                          mobilization of staff. Information
                                          dissemination and consultation
                                          starts
Land acquisition and compensation
payment
Notice under Section 3 issued             APs knows about acquisition             % of APs responded to the notice
                                                                                  Copy of notice collected by PCC &
                                                                                  reported to PGCB
CCL processing started                    Valuation of assets started             % of legal owners identified by DC
Notice under Section 6 issued             APs learn about legal documents         % of APs with required documents
NGO’s assist APs to record the names                                              % of APs have disputed ownership
of rightful ownership
Compensation estimate finalized by DC     Funds placed with DC                    Bank Receipt/ Acknowledgement
Implementing NGOs start consultation      Additional resettlement assistance if   Final list of APs
and undertake Census of APs and           required estimated                      Legal owners receive ID if necessary
estimates fair compensation by land
parcel
Notice under Section 7 issued and CCL     APs learn about amount of               % of APs receive CCL
Payment started                           compensation                            % of APs goes for appeal
IAs pay additional resettlement           IAs pay and NGO supervises              Bank Receipt/ Acknowledgement
assistance if required
Implementing NGO monitors                 APs receive additional assistance, if   Documentation supported by PCC
disbursement of additional resettlement   required
assistance


9.1      MONITORING & EVALUATION OF RESETTLEMENT OPERATIONS
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) are the critical activities in resettlement operations.
Resettlement monitoring is a continuous process of data collection; analysis and reporting
about the progress of work against set objectives or expectations. The implementation of the
RP will be monitored both internally & externally to provide feedback to the IA and to assess
the effectiveness of resettlement policy and implementation.




                          Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                              9-1
Section 9                                                                                   Monitoring and Evaluation




9.2         INTERNAL MONITORING
The internal monitoring by the IA will deal with all aspects of Land Acquisition and
Resettlement at the Subproject as well as field levels. The Project Management, particularly
the Projector Director or IA’s CRO will be responsible for monitoring the progress of
resettlement activities at the Subproject level, which includes:
            Information Campaign and Consultation with the APs;
            Status of Land Acquisition and Compensation Payments;
            Compensation for Lost Structures and Assets;
            Relocation of APs; and
            Payment of Income Restoration Assistance.

The benchmark for Subproject level monitoring will come from land acquisition and the
census.

The Implementing NGO will conduct field level monitoring and assess the daily operation of
land acquisition and resettlement activities. The mechanisms to be used in the field level
monitoring include:
            Review of AP Files ;
            Informal Sample Survey of APs ;
            Key Informant Interviews ;
            In-Depth Case Studies ; and
            Community/Public Meetings.

9.3         EXTERNAL MONITORING
The External Monitoring will be conducted through the Donors’ review mission by an
International Resettlement Specialist on an intermittent basis during the implementation of
the Project. External monitoring involves review of resettlement implementation, verification
of the results of internal monitoring in the field, and consultation with APs, officials, and
community leaders for preparing review reports.

The specific tasks and methodology for external monitoring shall include:
            Review of pre-project baseline data on APs ;
            Identification & selection of an appropriate set of indicators for gathering and
            analyzing information on resettlement impacts ;
            Use of various formal and informal surveys for impact analysis ; and
            Assessment of the resettlement efficiency, effectiveness, impact and
            sustainability, drawing lessons as a guide to future resettlement policy making and
            planning.

The external monitoring will commence in the first quarter of the project implementation &
shall continue through the implementation of the Project. A sample TOR for external
monitoring & evaluation can be found in Annex 2.


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Section 9                                                                                       Monitoring and Evaluation




9.4         TIME FRAME & REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
During the implementation phase, the Head of SDU, will prepare monthly reports on the
progress of resettlement activities and forward copies of the reports to the Donor. A format
for resettlement implementation monitoring has been devised for monthly monitoring and
data collection by field officials (Figure xx). An International Resettlement Specialist will
conduct review and monitoring missions during the implementation stage and will report to
the Donor, the EA, and IAs on the progress of all aspects of land acquisition and resettlement
activities. The IAs will prepare a final report at the end of the Subproject activity, which will
be compiled by the EA as a final M&E Report. The report will provide evidence whether
adverse effects of the Sector Loan’s Subprojects have been mitigated adequately or at least
pre-project standard of living and income have been restored as a result of the Subprojects’
RPs.

                     Table 94: Resettlement Monitoring of Monthly Progress Report

                                                                                           Progress
                                                                                            During
                                   Unit     Completed       Cumulative                     Reporting          Status &
           Component               Total       %           Achievement     Completed        Month             Remarks
1.Resettlment Preparation
Identification of APs
Group meetings with APs
Distribution of structures
Compensation for crop/tree

2. Payment of Compensation
Land(agriculture/homestead)
Compensation for structures
Compensation for crop/tree

3.Relocation/Income
Restoration Activity
Relocation & households
Payment of transfer grant
Income restoration grant




                            Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                        9-3
Attachments

ATTACHMENT 1: RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK (RF) AS DESCRIBED IN ADB’S OM F2/OP
The Resettlement Framework (RF) is described in OM F2/OP under Section E Resettlement
Planning Documents, viz, Chapter 3. Resettlement Framework:

Para 28. For ADB equity investments, loans, and/or guarantees, including through financial
intermediaries with investments, subprojects, or components that have not been selected or
prepared before appraisal and that may involve involuntary resettlement, a resettlement
framework must be submitted before the first management review meeting (MRM) or private
sector credit committee meeting (PSCCM), unless they are expected to have no resettlement
effects….A resettlement framework sets out the broad magnitude of the scope, together with
the policy, procedures, and capacity-building requirements for preparing future subprojects,
components, or investments.

Para. 29. The resettlement framework sets out the resettlement policy and screening and
planning procedures that will apply to subprojects, components, or investments that are
prepared and approved during loan implementation to ensure that they conform to ADB’s
involuntary resettlement policy. The resettlement framework contains the arrangements for
preparing full or short resettlement plans during implementation of the loan’s subprojects,
depending on the significance of the involuntary resettlement impacts. The resettlement
framework includes (i) loan or investment description, with the likely scope, extent, and
magnitude of the resettlement effects; (ii) screening procedures for pipeline investments or
components; (iii) resettlement policy principles and eligibility criteria that are consistent with
the policy and cover all investments, subprojects, and components under the loan; (iv)
resettlement entitlements; (v) resettlement design criteria; and (vi) administrative, resourcing,
and financing arrangements for preparation, approval, implementation, monitoring, and
evaluation of full or short resettlement plans. It also sets out provisions for strengthening the
capacity of the relevant executing agency, project sponsor, or financial intermediary if
required to address resettlement issues. The resettlement framework may stand alone or may
accompany a resettlement plan or plans for a known site, investment or core subproject that is
prepared before the first MRM or PSCCM.




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J        ATT-1
Attachments                                                           Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework




ATTACHMENT 2: POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK
THE ELECTRICITY ACT. 1910

All activities performed by the licensee of electricity supply in Bangladesh are regulated
under the Electricity Act 1910. Work provisions under this Act is reviewed below:

Section 12. Provisions as to the opening and breaking up of street, railways and tramways:

1)      Any licensee may from time to time but subject always to the terms an conditions of
his license within the area of supply, or when permitted by the terms of his license to lay
down or place electric supply lines without the area of supply, without, that area.

Open and break up the soil and pavement of any street, railway or tramway,

Open and break up any sewer, drain or tunnel in or under any street, railway or tramway

Lay down and place electric supply lines and other works

Repair, alter or remove the same; and

Do all other acts necessary for the due supply of energy.


2)      Nothing contained in sub section (1) shall be deemed to authorise or empower a
licensee [without intimation to the local authority or to the owner or] occupier concerned, are
the case may be, to lay down or place any electric supply line or other work in through or
against any building, or on, over or under any land not dedicated to public use whereon
wherever or where under any electric supply-line or work has not already when lawfull laid
down or placed by such licensee:

Provided that any support of an aerial line or any stay on street required for the sole purpose
of securing in position any support of an aerial line may be fixed on any building or land or,
having been so fixed, may, be altered, not withstanding the objection of the owner or
occupier of such building or land if the District Magistrate by order in writing so directs.

Provided, also, that, if at any time the owner or occupier of any building or land on which any
such support, stay or street has been fixed shows sufficient causes, the District Magistrate
may by order in writing direct any such support, stay or street to be removed or altered.

3)      When making an order under sub-section (2) the District Magistrate shall fix the
amount of compensation or of annual rent, or of both, which should in his opinion be paid by
the licensee to the owner or occupier,

4)      Every order made by a District Magistrate under sub-section (2) shall be subject to
revision by the [Government]

5)      Nothing contained in sub section (i) shall be deemed to authorise or empower any
licensee to open or break up any street not repairable by the [Government] or a local
authority, or any railway or tramway, except such streets railways or tramways (if any), or
such parts thereof, as he is specially authorized to break up by his license, without the written


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Attachments                                                            Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



consent of the person by whom the street is repairable or of the person for the time being
entitled to work the railway or tramway unless with the written consent of the [Government].

Provided that the [Government] shall not given any such consent as aforesaid, until the
licensee has given notice by advertisement or otherwise as the [Government] may direct, and
within such period as the [Government] may fix in this behalf, to the person above referred
to, and until all representations or objections received in accordance with the notice have
been considered by the [Government].

Section 13. Notice of new Works –

1)      Where the exercise of any of the powers of a licensee in relation to the execution of
any works involves the placing of any works in, under, over, along or across any street, part
of a street, railway tramway, canal or waterway the following provision shall have effect,
namely:

a)      not less then one month before commencing the execution of the works (not being a
service line immediately attached, or extended to be immediately attached, to a distributing
main, or the repair, renewal or amendment of existing works or, which the character or
Position is not to be altered), the licensee shall serve upon the person responsible for the
repair of the street or part of a street (hereinafter in this section refereed to as “the repairing
authority”) or upon the person for the time being entitled to work the railway, tramway, canal
or waterway (hereinafter in this section refereed to as “the owner”), as the case may be, a
notice in writing describing the proposed works, together with a sufficiently large to show
clearly the details of the propose works, and not in any case smaller than one inch to eight
feet vertically and sixteen inches to the mile horizontally and intimating the manner in which,
and the time at which, it is proposed to interfere with or alter any existing works, and shall,
upon being require to do so by the repairing authority or owner, as the case may be from to
time give such further information in relation thereto as may be desired.

b)      if the repairing authority intimates to the licensee that it disapproves of such works,
section or plan, or approves thereof subject to amendment, the licensee may, within one week
of receiving such intimation, appeal to the [Government], whose decision, after considering
the reasons given by the repairing authority for its action, shall be final.

c)       if the repairing authority fails to give notice in writing of its approval or disapproval
to the licensee within one month, it shall be deemed to have approved of the works, section
and plan, and the licensee, after giving not less than forty-eight hours’ notice in writing to the
repairing authority, may proceed to carry out the works in accordance with the notice and the
section and plan served under clause (a);

d)      if the owner disapproves of such works, section or plan, or approves there of subject
to amendment, he may, within three weeks after the service of the notice under clause (a)
serve a requisition upon the licensee demanding that any question in relation to the works or
to compensation, or to the obligations of the owner to others in respect thereof, shall be
determined by arbitration, and thereupon there matter shall, unless settled by agreement, be
determined arbitration;




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Attachments                                                           Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



e)      Where no requisition has been served by the owner upon the licensee under clause (d)
within the time named, the owner shall be deemed to have approved of the works, section and
plan, and in that case, or where after a requisition for arbitration the matter has been
determined by arbitration, the works may upon payment or securing of compensation, be
executed according to the notice and the section and plan, subject to such modifications as
may have been determined by arbitration or agreed upon between the parties;

f)      where the works to be executed consist of the laying of any underground services line
immediately attached, or intended to be immediately attached, to a distributing main, the
licensee shall give to the repairing authority or the owner, as the case may be not less than
forty eight hours notice in writing of his intention to execute such works;

g)      where the works to be executed consist of the repair, renewal or amendment of
existing works of which the character or position is not to be altered, the licensee shall,
except in case of emergency, give to the repairing authority, or to the owner, as the case may
be not less than forty eight hours notice in writing of his intention to execute such works, and
on the expiry of such notice, such works shall be commenced forth with and shall be carried
on with all reasonable dispatch, and if possible, both by day and by night until completed.

2)      Where the licensee makes default in complying with any of these provisions, he shall
make full compensation for any loss or damage incurred by reason thereof and where any
difference or dispute arises as to the amount of such compensation, the matter shall be
determined by arbitration.

3)      Not withstanding anything in this section, the licensee may, in case of emergency due
to the breakdown of any underground electric supply-line, after giving notice in writing to the
repairing authority or the owner, as the case may be of his intention to do so, place an aerial
line without complying with the provisions of sub-section (1)

Provided that such aerial line shall be used only until the defect in the underground electric
supply-line can be made good, and in no case unless with the written consent of the
[Government] for a period exceeding six weeks and shall be removed as soon as may be after
such defect is remove.

Section 14. Alteration of pipes or wires –

1)      Any licensee may alter the position of any pipe / wire (not forming in a case where
the licensee in a not a local authority, part of a local authority’s main sewer), or of any wire
under or over any place which he is authorized to open or break up, if such pipe or wire is
likely to interfere with the exercise of his powers under this acts and nay person may alter the
position of any electric supply-lines or works of a licensee under or over any such place as
aforesaid, if such electric supply –lines or works are likely to interfere with the lawful
exercise of any powers vested in him.

2)    In any such case as aforesaid the following provisions shall, in the absence of an
agreement to the contrary between the parties concerned, apply, namely:

a)     not less than one month before commencing any alteration, the licensee or other
person desiring to make the same (hereinafter in this action referred to as “the operator”)



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Attachments                                                           Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



shall serve upon the person for the time being entitled to the pipe, wire, electric supply-lines
or works as the case may be (hereinafter in this section referred to as “the owner”), a notice
writing, describing the proposed alteration, together with a section and plan thereof on a scale
sufficiently large to show clearly the details of the proposed works and not in any case
smaller than one inch to eight feet vertically and sixteen inches to the mile horizontally, and
intimating the time when it is to be commenced, and shall sub-sequentially give such further
information in relation thereto as the owner may desire;

b)      within fourteen days after the services of the notice, section and plan upon the owner,
the owner may serve upon the operator a requisition to the effect that any question arising
upon the notice, section or plan shall be determined by arbitration and thereupon the matter
shall, unless settled by agreement, be determined by arbitration;

c)      every arbitrator to whom a reference is made under clause (b) shall be regard to any
duties or obligations which the owner is under, and may require the operator to execute any
temporary or other work so as to avoid, as far as possible, interference therewith;

d)      where no requisition is served upon the operator under clause (b) within the time
named, or where such a requisition has been served and the matter has been settle by
agreement or determined by arbitration, the alteration may, upon payment or securing of any
compensation accepted or determined by arbitration, be executed in accordance with the
notice, section and plan and subject to such modifications as may have been determined by
arbitration or agreed upon between the parties;

e)      the owner may at any time before the operator is entitled to commence the alteration,
serve upon the operator a statement in writing to the effect that he desires to execute the
alteration himself and requires the operator to give such security for the repayment of any
expenses as may be agreed upon or, in default of agreement, determined by arbitration;

(f)     where a statement is served upon the operator under clause (e), he shall, not less than
forty-eight hours before the execution of the alteration is required to be commenced, furnish
such security and serve upon the owner a notice in writing intimating the time when the
alteration is required to be made; and thereupon the owner may proceed to execute the
alteration as required by the operator;

(g)     where the owner declines to comply, or does not, within the time and in the manner
prescribed by a notice served upon him under clause (f), comply with the notice, the operator
may himself execute the alteration;

(h)    all expenses properly incurred by the owner in complying with a notice served upon
him by the operator under clause (f) may be recovered by him from the operator,

3)    Where the licensee or other person desiring to make the alteration makes default in
complying with any of these provisions, he shall make full compensation for any loss or
damage incurred by reason thereof, and, where any difference or dispute arises as to the
amount of such compensation, the matter shall be determined by arbitration;




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Attachments                                                            Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



Section 15.    Lying of electric supply lines or other words near sewers,
               pipes or other electric supply lines or works,

(1)     Where -

(a)     the licensee required to dig or sink any trench for laying down any new electric
supply lines or other works, near to which any sewer, drain, water course or work under the
control of the [Government] or of any local authority, or any pipe syphon, electric supply line
or other work belonging to any duly authorised person, has been lawfully placed, or

(b)      any duly authorised person requires to dig or sink any trench for laying down or
constructing any new pipes or other works, near to which any electric supply lines or works
of a licensee have been lawfully places,

The licensee or such duly authorised person, as the case may be hereinafter in this section
referred to as “the operator”, shall, unless it is otherwise agreed upon between the parties
interested or in case of sudden emergency, give to the [Government] or local authority, or to
such duly authorised person or to the licensee, as the case may be hereinafter in this section
referred to as “the owner” [immediate intimation in writing by special messenger or by
telephonic message followed by written intimation] before commencing to dig or sink the
trench and the owner shall have the right to be present during the execution of the work,
which shall be executed to the reasonable satisfaction of the owner.

2)      where the operator finds it necessary to undermine but, not to alter, the position of any
pipe, electric supply line or work, he shall support it in position during the execution of the
work, and before completion shall provides a suitable and proper foundation for it where so
undermined

3)      where the operator (being the licensee) lays any electric supply-line across, or so a to
be liable to touch, any pipes, lines or service-pipes or service-lines belonging to any duly
authorized person or to any person supplying, transmitting or any using energy under this
Act, he shall not except with the written consent of such person and in accordance with
section 34, sub-section (1), lay he electric supply-lines so as to come into contact with any
such pipes, lines or service pipes or service lines.

4)      where the operator makes default in complying with any of the provisional of this
section, he shall make full compensation for any loss or damage incured by reason thereof

5)     where any difference or dispute arises under this section, the matter shall be
determined by arbitration

6)      where the licensee is a local authority, the references in this section to the local
authority and sewers, drains, water courses or works under its control not apply

Section 16.    Streets, railways, tramways, sewers, drains or tunnels
               broken up to be reinstated without delay

1)      Where any person in exercise of any of the powers conferred by or under this Act.
opens or breaks up the soil or pavement of any street, rain way or tramway, or any sewer,
drain or tunnel, he shall –


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Attachments                                                            Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



a)      Immediately cause the part opened or broken up to be fenced and guarded.

b)     Before sunset cause a light or lights, sufficient for the warning of passengers, to be set
up and maintained until sunrise against or near the part opened or broken ups

c)     With all reasonable speed fill in the ground and reinstate and make good the soil or
pavement, or the sever, drain or tunnel, opened or broken up, and carry away, the rubbish
occasioned by such opening or breaking ups and

d)      After reinstating and making good the soil or pavement, or the sewer, drain or tunnel
broken or opened up, keep the same in good repair for three months and for any further
period, not exceeding nine months, during which subsidence continues.

2)      Where any person fails to comply with any of the provision of sub-section (a) the
person having the control or management of the street, railway, tramway, sewer, drain or
tunnel in respect of which the default has occurred, may cause to be executed the work which
the defaulter has delayed or omitted to execute and may recover from him the expenses
incurred in such execution.

3)     Where any difference or dispute arises as to the amount of the expenses incurred
under sub-section (2) the matter shall be determined by arbitration.

Section 17.    Notice to telegraph authority

1)      A licensee shall, before laying down or placing, within ten yards of any part of any
telegraph line, any electric supply-line or other works ([not being either service lines] or
electric supply lines for the repair, renewal or amendment of existing works of which the
character or position is not to be altered) give not less than ten days notice in writing to the
telegraph authority specifying.

a)      the course of the works or alteration proposed,

b)      the manner in which the works are to be utilised

c)      the amount and nature of the energy to be transmitted and

d)      the extent to, and manner in, which (if at all) earth returns are to be used

And the licensee shall conform with such reasonable requirements, either general or special,
as may be laid down by the telegraph authority within that period for preventing any
telegraph line from being injuriously affected by such works or alterations.

Provided that, in case of emergency (which shall be stated by the licensee in writing to the
telegraph authority) arising from defects in any of the electric supply lines or other works of
the licensee, the licensee shall be required to given only such notice as may be possible after
the necessity for the proposed new works or alterations has arisen.

2)      Where the works to be executed consist of the laying [or placing] of any * service line
the licensee shall not less than forty-eight hours before commencing the work, serve upon the
telegraph authority a notice in writing of his intention to execute such works.


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Attachments                                                           Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



Section 18.    Aerial Lines

1)     Save as provide in section 13, sub-section (3) nothing in this part shall be deemed to
authorize or empower a licensee to place any aerial line along or across any street, railway,
tramway, canal or water way unless and until the [Government] has communicated to him a
general approval in writing of the methods of construction which he propose to adopt:

Provided that the communication of such approval shall in no way relieve the licensee of his
obligation with respect to any other consent required by or under this act.

2)     Where any aerial line has been placed or maintained by a licensee in breach of the
provisions of sub-section (1) the [Government] may require the licensee forthwith to remove
the same, or may cause the same to be removed, and recover from the licensee the expenses
incurred in such removal;

3)       Where any tree standing or lying rear and aerial line, or where any structure or other
object which has been placed or has fallen near an aerial line subsequently to the placing or
such line, interrupts or interferes with or is likely to interrupt or interfere with, the
conveyance or transmission of energy on the accessibility of any works, a Magistrate of the
first class may, on the application of the licensee, cause the tree, structure of object to be
removed or otherwise dealt with as he thinks fit.

4)      When disposing of an application under sub-section (3), the Magistrate shall in the
ease of any tree in existence before the placing of the aerial line, award to the person
interested in the tree such compensation as he thinks reasonable, and such person may
recover the same form the licensee.

Explanation – For the purposes of this section, the expression “tree” shall be deemed to
include any shrub, hedge, jungle growth or other plant.

Section 19.    Compensation for damage –

1)     A licensee shall, in exercise of any of the powers conferred by or under this Act,
cause as little damage, detriment and inconvenience as may be and shall make full
compensation for any damage detriment or inconvenience caused by him or by any one
employed by him.

2)     Save in the case provided for in section 12, sub-section (3), where any difference or
dispute arises as to the amount or the application of such compensation, the matter shall be
determined by arbitration.

Section 9A.    Supply

Point where supply is delivered – For the purposes of this Act, the point at which the supply
of energy by a licensee to a consumer shall be deemed to commence shall be determined in
such manner as may be prescribed.

Section 20.    Power for licensee to enter premises and to remove fittings or other apparatus
of licensee



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1) A licensee or any person duly authorize by a licensee may, at any reasonable time, and on
informing the occupier of his intention, enter any premises to which energy is or has been
supplied by him, for the purpose of-

 (a)    Inspecting and testing the electric supply-lines, meters, fittings, works, and apparatus,
for the supply of energy belonging to the licensee, or

(b)    ascertaining the amount of energy supplied or the electrical quantity contained in the
supply; or

(c)    removing, where a supply of energy is no longer required, or where the licensee is
authorized to take away and cat off such supply any electric supply lines [meter] fitting,
works or apparatus belonging to the licensee.

2)      A licensee or any person authorized as aforesaid may also, in pursuance of a special
order in this behalf made by the District Magistrate and after giving not less than twenty four
hours notice in writing to the occupier, enter any premises to which energy is or has been
supplied, or is to be supplied, by him for the purpose of examine and testing the electric
wires, fittings, works and apparatus for the use of energy belonging to the consumer.

3)      Where a consumer refuses to allow a licensee or any person authorized as aforesaid to
enter his premises in pursuance of the provision of sub-section (2), or when such licensee or
person has so entered, refuses to allow him to perform, any act which he is authorized by
those sub-sections to perform, or fails to give reasonable facilities for such entry or
performance, the licensee may, after the expiry.




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ACQUISITION AND REQUISITION OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY ORDINANCE OF 1982

Acquisition of immovable property is made in Bangladesh now under the Acquisition and
Requisition of Immovable Property Ordinance of 1982. This Ordinance replaced the Land
Acquisition Act, 1894. and the East Bengal (Emergency) Requisition of Property Act of 1948
This Ordinance is (with a few exceptions which will be discussed later) governing all cases of
acquisition and requisition by the government of immovable property for any public purpose
or in the public interest. It may be noted that contrary to the previous Act, i.e. Act XlIl of
1948 this Ordinance deals only with immovable property (Land Acquisition Act I of 1894
also dealt with only immovable property i.e. land).

Not withstanding the repeal of the 1894 and 1948 Land Acquisition Acts, all proceedings and
matters relating to the acquisition and requisition of property under these Acts (including
applications and appeals pending before any Arbitrator or Court) continue to be heard or
disposed of as if these Acts were still in force.

Also the land acquisition provisions of the Town Improvement Act of 1953 as well as
Chittagong and Khulna Development Authority Ordinances were to be repealed after the
promulgation of the 1982 Land Acquisition Ordinance. In the year 1994 a major amendment
was done in the ordinance under Act-20 to expedite the acquisition process and suffering of
the APs.

Below follows a review of the most important features of the 1982 Ordinance. Wherever
necessary, references are also made to relevant administrative regulations and instructions. In
accordance with the Ordinance, the legal process is initiated by an application from the
requiring Body, which can be any governmental or non-governmental agency.

In the Ordinance it is stated that whenever it appears to the Deputy Commissioner that any
property in any locality is likely to be needed for a public purpose or in public interest, he
shall cause a notice to be published at convenient places in or near the property to be acquired
(Sec. 3). Any person having interest in such property may object to the proposed acquisition
to the Deputy Commissioner in writing within 15 days (Sec. 4.1). The DC will prepare a
report and refer the case to higher authorities for decision (Sec.4.2). If the property exceeds
50 (fifty) standard bighas of land, the final decision will be made by the government. In case
of property up to 50 bighas, the final decision will be made by the Divisional Commissioner.
However, if no objections are raised within the 15 days time-limit the final decision may be
made by the DC in case of properties of up to 50 standard bighas of land, otherwise the
Commissioner (Sec. 4.3 and Sec. 5) will take the decision in case of dispute.

After a decision of acquisition of a property has been made, DC issues a second public notice,
again to be published at convenient places at or near such property. The public notice shall
state the intention of the authorities to take possession of the property. It shall also invite all
persons with interests in the property to appear in person or by an agent before the DC, not
before 15 days (!) after the publication of the notice, to state the nature of their interest in the
property and submit claims to compensation (Sec. 6).

It is explicitly stated that in determining the compensation, the DC shall not consider any
disinclination of the person to part with theproperty, any increase in the value of the property
to be acquired likely to accrue from the use of it after it has been acquired (Sec. 9).


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Payments of compensation must be made before the authorities take possession of the
property (Sec. 10.1).

The property acquired under the Ordinance must not, without prior approval of the
government, be used for any purpose other than the purpose for which it has been acquired
(Sec. 17).

After compensation has been paid or deposited in the Public Account of the Republic the
property shall stand acquired and vest absolutely with the Government free from all
encumbrances. The DC can take possession of the property after a declaration has been made
in the Official Gazette (Sec. 11).

Compensation must be paid or deposited within a period of sixty days from the date of
receiving the estimate from the RB (Sec. 7/4). In default all proceedings shall stand abated on
the expiry of that period. Besides, the Deputy Commissioner may, with the approval of the
competent authorities, revoke all proceedings in respect of the acquisition of any property at
any time before the payment of compensation (Sec. 12).

The Ordinance also covers the case of temporary requisition (In part III) of property for a
public purpose or in the public interest. With prior approval of the government the DC can
decide on the requisition of any property for a period two years. No prior approval will,
however, be required in case of emergency requisition (Sec.18). But with prior approval of
the GoB, requisition perod may extend more than two years.

The DC may take possession of the requisition after serving the requisition order. The
amount of compensation will be equal to the estimated rent which would have been payable
for the use and occupation of the property if it had been taken on lease for that period plus
compensation for estimated expenses for vacating and re-occupying the property (Sec. 20). If
a person is not satisfied with the amount of compensation or there is a dispute over
ownership, the DC may deposit the money in the Public Account (Sec. 21).

A person who does not accept the award made by the DC may submit an application to the
Arbitrator for revision of the award within 45 days from the date of notice of the award (Sec.
28). The Arbitrator is a Government appointed Judicial Officer, not below the rank of
Subordinate Judge (Sec. 27). A decision determined by the Arbitrator is higher than that
decided by the DC, an additional compensation for delay at the rate of 10 percent per annual
may be paid (Sec. 32). As per amendment of 1994, the Arbitrator can not defer the
compensation amount more than 10 times of the D.C.S Awards (Sec. 31).

An appeal against the decision by the Arbitrator can be made to an Arbitration Appellate
Tribunal, which consists of a member appointed by the government from among persons who
are or have been District Judges. A decision of the said Tribunal shall be final (Sec. 34).

It may be observed that the Ordinance does not exclusively apply to acquisition by the
government. Sections 14 and 15 govern the cases of acquisition of property at the cost of
person other than the government, A condition is that there is an agreement between the
acquiring person and the government. The Government is entitled to charge a fee (to cover
some administrative costs for the acquisition)




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In 1989 the government ordered that in reference to the provisions of Ordinance II of 1982,
the President would have to give permission for acquisition of land exceeding 10 bighas of
land.

There are special instructions regarding unused acquired property and requisition of
buildings.

LAND ACQUISITION PROCEDURES

Land acquisition requires interaction between, on the one hand, the Requiring Body (RB),
which normally is a national infrastructure development government agency, such as the
Water Development Board, Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB), etc. in the
present case the PGCB. And, on the other hand, the Acquiring Body (AB) which normally is
the Ministry of land which delegates some of its authority to the Deputy Commissioner at the
District level or the Commissioner at the divisional level.

The division of responsibility between the RB and the Acquiring Body (AB) is in broad terms
that the Requiring Body provides the technical input and the Acquiring Body the legal input
in the land acquisition process. It is the Requiring Body which must ensure that the project,
which is the basis for the acquisition of land, is approved by the authorities and that funds are
available. The Requiring Body must also justify the need for land and other property on the
basis of field surveys including detailed engineering design and prepare all necessary
documents required for decision making. At this stage the Acquiring Body processes the land
acquisition cases including determination of the level of compensation and payment to the
concerned people. When land acquisition is completed, the land is handed over to the
requiring Body.

The legal aspects of the land acquisition process starts with the Requiring Body (RB)
submitting an application to the Deputy Commissioner with a request to acquire land for a
specific purpose. The procedures for dealing with land acquisition matters are established in a
Government Memo dated October 1985. In respect of proposals in the water resources sector,
the Water Development Board issues additional guidelines. The proposal must contain the
following items:

A Proforma indicating the amount of land required, a time table for the acquisition of land
and the purpose for which the land is to be acquired;

A Layout Plan, which shows the location of the project on a map;

A Site Plan, showing the alignment in red ink on a Mouza map;

A Land Schedule showing classification of land and ownership of plots to be acquired;

Certificate of Minimum Requirement, issued by the Requiring Body stating that the quantity
of land proposed for acquisition is the absolute minimum for a proper implementation of the
project;

Administrative Approval, comprising a copy of approved Project Proforma.




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After receiving the proposal the DC will arrange for a field verification jointly with the staff
of the Requiring Body. This includes a classification of the land to be acquired and an
identification of trees and standing crops of value, which are involved.

The Requiring Body’s application is then submitted to the District Land Allocation
Committee (DLAC) or the Divisional Land Allocation Committee (depending on the amount
of land required) for the allocation of land. The letter may in turn refer the proposal to the
Central Land Acquisition Committee for a decision. After clearance by the relevant Land
Allocation Committee the DC issues the preliminary notice and, if required, hears objections
against the proposed acquisition. If there are no objections, the DC may give the formal
approval for land acquisition under the condition that the area to be acquired covers less than
ten standard bighas. However, if there are objections and/or the acquisition is above ten
standard bighas of land, the DC submits the application to the Commissioner or the Ministry
of Land for the final approval. The DC's submission shall be accompanied by the DLAC's
(CLAC's) clearance, the DC's report on the objection petitions and information on the number
of households likely to be affected. In respect of projects executed by the Upazila Parishad,
the government has authorized the Divisional Commissioner to make the final decision even
if the land to be acquired is above 10 bighas.

After the final approval by the government / Commissioner / Deputy Commissioner (as the
case may be), the case is referred back to the DC for the assessment of compensation and the
identification of the owner of the plots to be acquired. With the final approval to acquire land,
the requiring body must place required funds for payment of compensation with the DC. If
the Requiring Body fails to do that within sixty days from the date of receipt of the estimate
for DC, for no fault of the person interested all proceedings shall stand abated and a
declaration to that effect by the DC will be published in the official Gazette (See 12).

Compensation is paid by the DC's office. There are no specific rules on where or in which
form compensation should be paid. Normally smaller amounts appear to be paid in cash
whereas larger amounts are paid by cheques to persons who are identified by the Chairman or
members of the Union Parishad or by gazetted officers. In case the rightful owner of the plot
of land cannot be identified or there is conflict over ownership or the distribution of
compensation funds are deposited in the Public Account of the Republic.

In case the person does not accept the award of compensation the person can go for
Arbitratior according to the provisions of the Land Acquisition Ordinance of 1982 or the
Emergency Land Acquisition Act of 1989.

After payment of compensation the ownership of the land is formally transferred to the
Requiring Body by mutation of the Requiring Body's name in the revenue records of the
Government maintained in the Thana Land office/Tahsil office generally after the transfer is
published in the Government Gazette.

OBJECTION AGAINST ACQUISITION

An aggrieved party has the right to raise objection to the decision of the Deputy
Commissioner to acquire his property. To exercise this right, the party in question will have
to refer his objection in writing within 15 days after the publication of the acquisition notice.
The Deputy Commissioner will then give the objector the opportunity of being heard either in



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person or by an agent. After hearing the objection and making further inquiry, if necessary,
the Deputy Commissioner will prepare a report in this connection within a period of the
month.

In case the land/property to be acquired exceeds 50 standard bighas, the Deputy
commissioner will submit the record of the proceedings along with his report to the
Government (in the Ministry of Land / Property Minister) for a decision. When it is not so,
the recorded proceedings and the report will go the Divisional Commissioner for a decision.
The decision in either case will be final.

Once decision has been made for acquisition of any property, the Deputy Commissioner will
serve notice in the prescribed manner to the effect that the property in question is to be
acquired and that possession of the same will be taken and that claims to compensation by the
concerned parties can be made to him (DC). Such notice will give detailed particulars of the
property in question and ask the concerned parties to appear before the Deputy Commissioner
in person, not before 15 days after publication of the notice, to claim compensation according
to rules. Such notice will also be served upon the occupier and all other sharers, if any, of the
property in question.

Award of compensation: The Deputy commissioner after examining the claims of
compensation will make an award of compensation for the property. He will also divide the
compensation among all other sharers, if there is any.

COMPENSATION FOR ACQUIRED PROPERTY

Once decision has been made for acquisition of any property, the Deputy Commissioner will
serve notice in the prescribed manner to the effect that the property in question is to be
acquired and that possession of the same will be taken and that claims to compensation by the
concerned parties can be made to him (DC). Such notice will give detailed particulars of the
property in question and ask the concerned parties to appear before the Deputy Commissioner
in person, not before 15 days after publication of the notice, to claim compensation according
to rules. Such notice will also be served upon the occupier and all other sharers, if any, of the
property in question.

Award of compensation: The Deputy commissioner after examining the claims of
compensation will make an award of compensation for the property. He will also divide the
compensation among all other sharers, if there is any.

MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED IN DETERMINING COMPENSATION

In determining the amount of compensation, the Deputy Commissioner will take into
consideration the following factors:

Market value at the date of publication of the proposal to acquire the land in question (under
section 3 of the ordinance). Market value is determined/calculated on the basis of average
value or similar properties in the vicinity during the twelve months proceeding the date of
publication of the notice.

Costs of standing crops or trees on the land/property at the time of taking its possession by
the Deputy Commissioner.


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Dislocation from his other properties, if any.

Injuries/adverse-effect on his other properties or his income.

Reasonable cost of shifting from residence or place of business.

Loss of income of the property in between the service of notice and possession of the
property taken by the Deputy Commissioner.

In addition, an extra amount of 50% of the market value so calculated will be awarded to the
dispossessed person in consideration of the compulsory nature of the acquisition.

MATTERS NOT CONSIDERED IN DETERMINING COMPENSATION

The matters which has not been considered in determining the compensation are :

Sudden acquisition without providing the owner sufficient time to make alternative
arrangement for the property is being dispossessed off.

In attachment to the property, sentiment or any other psychological consideration, e.g. the
property may be ancestral and therefore the owner may value it much more psychologically,
traditionally than more economically.

Damage suit against another (private person) which may take place in course of enjoying
such property cannot be transferred to the acquiring authority.

No claim of any damage for any effect upon the property following service of notice or actual
use of the property under changed circumstances (after acquisition of the said property).
Increase of value of the said property after its acquisition.

Cost of any alteration or improvement to the acquired property without the sanction of the
Deputy Commissioner after the date of publication of the notice for acquisition.

PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION

After an award is made, the Deputy Commissioner will make payment of the entire amount
of compensation in full before the land/property in question is acquired and taken possession
of. In addition 50% additional compensation will be paid to the affected owners in
consideration of the compulsory nature of acquisition and involuntary nature of acceptance of
the same by the owners.

PROBLEMS OF VALUATION AND COMPENSATION

For the calculation of compensation, the land acquisition officials at the district have to
depend on the available records of rights and records of transfer of property. The common
practice of under reporting the value of land in transfer deeds (in order to avoid taxes) results
in too low a level of compensation. On the other hand, there are also a few examples of fake
transfers at an artificially high level taking place in anticipation of land being acquired, in
order to raise the level of compensation.




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The practice of not registering inherited land and property in the name of the present owner,
in combination with an outdated and disorganized land record system means that the
identification of the recipients of compensation becomes very time consuming. The imperfect
land record system also provides scope for manipulations.

In many reported cases, payment is not made in full, even if there is an agreement between
the parties. A field survey reported that nearly 90 percent of the concerned households
incurred extra legal expenses. In the assessment of land acquisition for the construction of
Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge, it was reported that the recipients had to pay the officials
around ten percent of the awarded compensation as a service charge.

Non-payment or delayed payment of compensation is, however, not only due to a slow
functioning of the district administration. The policy of disbursing government funds for land
acquisition in three or four installments, spread out over the year, means that the district
administration may not have sufficient funds available when payment is due. JMBA however
has an adequate balance with the DC's.

The property owners incur high transaction expenses for travailing to and from the district
office to claim the rights and to receive compensation. Objections against acquisition are
often heard and payment of compensation is normally done in the district town. This means
that the recipients not only face high costs for travelling to the district town, but also lose
income.

The notice for acquisition of land (under the 1982 Ordinance} is not served to the individuals
concerned but is only made known through public notice, results frequently in forfeiture of
rights. People get to know about the government's intention to acquire land too late to make
necessary preparations.

TIME FRAME

(a)    Payment of compensation must be made before the authority takes possession of the
property (Ordinance of 1982).

(b)    Compensation must be paid or deposited within a period of one year from the date of
decision of acquisition. All proceedings shall stand abated on the expiry of that period
(Ordinance 1982).

Persons with interest or right over the property to be acquired have 10 days in the 1989 Act
and 15 days in the 1982 Ordinance to submit claims for compensation.

The 1989 Act emphasizes quicker compensation by introducing the concept of "provisional
compensation" which is to be determined within 10 days of the order of acquisition. Land can
be acquired on payment of provisional compensation. However, the final compensation is to
be determined within three months from the date of acquisition.

AGENCY RESPONSIBILITY

The administrative set up for land administration has two tiers under the Ministry of Land
Administration and Land. At the Divisional level there is an Additional Commissioner
dealing with land administration under the Commissioner. At the District level there is an


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Additional Deputy Commissioner in charge of land administration. Under him there is at least
one Land Acquisition Officer and several Assistant Land Acquisition Officers. The number
of officers depends on the size of the District Dhaka District, as an example, has five Land
Acquisition Officers. Non-gazetted officers include Kanungos (normally two per district but
more in larger districts), surveyors, etc.

ADB RESETT/LEMENT POLICY AND ENTIT/LEMENT FRAMEWORK

In order to ensure that displaced persons are not put at a disadvantage because of project, which may
by itself be very attractive, the Asian Development ADB, in its Handbook on Resettlement describes
its policy and procedures on involuntary resettlement (ADB, 1998). The Asian Development ADB
policy aims at providing benefits from the project to the displaced persons taking into account the
following factors:

Displacement (and consequential resettlement) should be avoided or kept at a minimum. This requires
exploration of all viable alternative designs of a project.

Displaced persons should be compensated for all losses at full replacement cost. This will include
assistance during transition period, assistance in regaining social and economic condition. Poorest
groups and special categories such as ethnic minorities, female-headed households are to receive
special alternation in all matters: acquisition, compensation payments, transition, relocation and
rehabilitation.

Community (displaced) participation in resettlement planning and execution thereof be encouraged.

Community (host area) participation should be encouraged. Social integration in the host community
should be ensured, if necessary by enlarging host area community facilities.

Resettlement benefits should be extended to people who do not have land rights but enjoyed
traditional rights and squatters or those who lose their employment etc. (indirectly affected people)

In recent years the Asian Development ADB required resettlement issues to be explored early in the
project cycle and examines the viability and acceptability of resettlement plan as part of project
appraisal. Full cost estimates and financing have to be available before a project is accepted for
financing. Asian Development ADB also requires now that benefits under the resettlement plan
should be available well in time before a person is asked to move out of the project area or at least
adequate transitional benefits are made available to them.

ENTIT/LEMENT PRINCIPLES FOR THE PROJECT

Based on the ADB's Policy for Involuntary Resettlement, the following principles have been
identified as being applicable for this activity for the Subprojects-.

The principal objective of involuntary settlement policies is to ensure that populations
affected by the Project should be at least as well off, if riot better of than they would have
been without the project. Affected populations should be able to maintain, and preferably
improve their standard of living and quality of life.

The Populations affected by the Projects are defined as those who stand to lose, as a
consequence of the Projects, all or part of physical and nonphysical assets, including homes,
homesteads, productive lands, commercial properties, tenancy, income.-earning
opportunities, social and cultural activities and relationship, and other losses that may be


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identified during the process of resettlement planning. A socioeconomic survey would be
carried out to find out impacts due to the transmission line routes and the findings would be
filed with the concerned DC’s offices. These will represent the closing dates for
compensation eligibility for physical assets as these would be identified. Affected populations
will receive fair (market-based replacement cost) compensation for all losses, including
physical and nonphysical assets. Compensation will include not only immediate losses, but
also opportunities foregone. Affected populations that stand to lose only part of their physical
assets will not be let with a proportion that will be inadequate to sustain their current standard
of living, such a minimum size to be identified and agreed during the resettlement planning
process.

All affected populations will be equally eligible for compensation and mitigative measures,
irrespective of tenurial status, social or economic standing and any such factors that may
discriminate against achieving the objectives mentioned above.

Involuntary resettlement will be minimized by identifying between possible alternative
project designs, appropriate social, economic, operational, and engineering solutions that
have the least impact on populations in the Project Area. Since it is possible to identify the
affected population only during the actual construction of the transmission lines, a short
resettlement plan will be prepared for the affected populations that would specify among
other things, those affected, all losses that might be incurred, and appropriate mitigative
measures.

Adequate budgetary support is fully committed and will be made available to cover the costs
of land acquisition within the agreed implementation period. The Project Proforma prepared
by the IA(s) for the XXX Subproject contains two cost items for this purpose. An allocation
of Tk. X.xx million for right of way payments and of Tk. Xx.xx million for land acquisition
and resettlement is included on pages xx and xx of the Project Proforma. The Project
Proforma prepared by the EA(s) for the XXX Subproject contains xx cost items for this
purpose. An allocation of Tk. X.xx million for right of way payments and of Tk. X.x million
for land acquisition and resettlement is included on pages xx and xxof the Project Proforma
[Concept Level Paper].

Construction activities will not commence until the required lands have been fully acquired,
which have been identified to be empty/agricultural lands and compensations paid out as per
GOB and ADB guidelines.

Appropriate reporting, monitoring, and evaluation mechanisms will be identified and set in
place as part of the resettlement management system, Evaluation of the resettlement process
and the final outcome will be conducted independent of the Executing Agency.

The current legislation governing land acquisition for public purposes in Bangladesh is the
Acquisition and Requisition and Immovable Property Ordinance (Ordinance 11 of 1982) and
its subsequent amendments in 1993 and 1994 to the extent permissible under the GOB rules.
If any other provisions beyond GOB rules are to be made, such provisions will be allowed
only after GOB approval. In accordance with the Ordinance, the legal process is initiated by
an application by the requiring agency or department to the Deputy Commissioner (DC) of
the District. In determining the amount of compensation for the affected owners, the DC
takes into consideration a number of factors, e.g. present market rate to determine the value


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of the land. As there is no national policy for resettlement of project-affected people in
Bangladesh, the ADB's Policy On Involuntary Resettlement will be the guideline followed in
this RP..

SUPPORT PRINCIPLES FOR DIFFERENT LOSS CATEGORIES

Loss of Land and Trees Thereon

The Subproject may cause people to lose land and trees thereon that they own. The project
through the Bangladesh Government will therefore compensate land owners of required
private land and any trees thereon with their entitled cash compensation under the law (CCL).
Lands have been occupied for two purposes: one for laying pillars of transmission tower and
construction of substation and another for facilitating the works. For construction of
substation the land is acquired permanently. However no permanent acquisition of land is
required for transmission line construction. The EA(s) policy is to revert the lands to the
owners for the original use of the acquisition land.

The acquired lands are planned to be fully compensated as per CCL, which is 50% higher
than the market price (it is calculated based on the selling & buying records at sub registrar
officer and in-depth interview of APs & non APs by the consultant). The DC based on
equivalent, mouza wise, current market prices will determine the value of CCL or equivalent
replacement land. Where the equivalent replacement land value exceeds the CCL (inclusive
of the 50% land premium), the difference will be paid by The EA(s). The project will refund
stamp duties on equivalent replacement land where applicable, but only if the replacement
land is purchased within 12 months of the issuance of Notice 3 for land acquisition or during
the life of the implementation period, whichever is the longer. The EA(s) have also a policy
to pay the value of two crops for the requisitioned land although one crop is lost by few
cultivators. To ensure fare compensation agriculture department assesses value of crops lost,
homestead by PWD and trees by Forest Department are taken into account.

The entitlement unit for loss of private land compensation is the landowner who may be an
adult individual or individuals, adult member or members of a private company, family or
household. For public land transfer to The IA(s) as new ROW land, the entitlement unit is
the Government. For this project all Category 1 impacts would be classified as "non-
vulnerable" affected persons/entities.

Compensation for loss of land and any trees thereon will apply to affected public land (being
transferred to the EAs), affected private non-residential (commercial etc.) land being activity
used for Its nonresidential purpose at the time of the 'commencement of the acquisition
process, affected private residential land being actively used for its residential purpose at the
time of the commencement of the acquisition process, and any affected private
idle/vacant/open land.

Loss of Non-Residential and Residential Structures

The need to demolish existing structures would be kept to a minimum. However if there are
situations where such activity is unavoidable to accommodate the project, appropriate
compensation packages would be paid as per law. The project through the Bangladesh -
Government will therefore compensate owners of non-residential and residential structures



                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                 ATT-19
Attachments                                                            Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



'that need to be demolished for the project's implementation their entitled compensation under
the law (CCL). V\/here the legality of ownership is not provable, the IA will recognize
"socially recognized owners" as persons entitled to compensation for loss of their structures.

There may be two types of affected structures. A "non-shiftable structure" which is a
structure with walls and roof that are not salvageable more or less intact, e.g. brick walls with
reinforced concrete roof, and brick walls with Cl sheet roof; arid a "shiftable structure" -
which is a structure made of materials that could be salvaged without incurring much damage
to those materials e.g. structures with Cl sheet walls and roof, or with bamboo walls and Cl
sheet roof and the like.

For "non-shiftable" structures, CCL inclusive of a 50% premium or the replacement value as
determined by the IA, whichever is the greater, will be paid as compensation. Owners of
"non-shiftable" structures will be permitted to retain salvageable building materials, and a
Structure or House Construction Grant of Tk. 3,500 will be available to those affected owners
who opt to construct a replacement structure and who are classified by the project as
vulnerable APs.

For "shiftable" structures, compensation will not be paid. Instead, a Structure or House
Transfer Grant equivalent to one-eighth of the replacement cost of the structure will be paid
by the EA(s). If the owner of a "shiftable" structure is unable to shift (transfer) the structure,
cash compensation will be provided equivalent to the replacement value of the structure as
determined by the EA(s), instead of receiving the Structure or House Transfer Grant.

Where applicable, when the entitlement is greater than the CCL amount (inclusive of the 50%
premium) as assessed by the Deputy Commissioner, the difference will be paid by the EA(s).

Loss of structure compensation will apply to all affected non-residential, residential and
associated structures on affected private and public land. This will involve both.
"Vulnerable" and "non-vulnerable" owners who may be an adult individual or individuals,
adult member or members of a private company, family or household.

Loss of structure compensation also applies to "vulnerable" permanent stalls and static semi
permanent stalls located on private and public land within the areas of impact (i.e. within the
proposed project ROWs).

A "static" semi permanent stall refers to a hawker or vendor who operates that semi-
permanent stall at the same single location/site every working day he or she conducts
business. That is, he or she has no other place of business from day-to-day; nor during the
day.

As cash compensation is considered a high-risk option for poor and "vulnerable" people and
is normally inadequate in re-establishing their lost structures. The project will therefore
encourage "Vulnerable" or at risk affected persons to choose compensation options involving
a replacement "non-shiftable" structure or the shifting of a "shiftable" structure. Wealthier or
more resourceful people ("non-vulnerable" people), on the other hand, may prefer cash
compensation, which in their case does not entail a risk.

Loss of Other Non-Structure Assets



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Attachments                                                           Attachment 2: Policy and Legal Framework



"Shiftable" and "non-shiftable" non-structure assets other than land will be affected by the
project, requiring their removal. The project will therefore compensate owners of other non-
structure assets that need to be removed for the project's implementation. This will also apply
to "socially recognized owners" of non-structure assets as recognized by the EA(s) where the
legality of ownership is not provable.

For '.non-shiftable" assets, compensation will be the estimated current CCL value or the
replacement value of the asset as determined by the whichever is the greater.

For "shiftable" assets, if the asset is shifted by the owner, compensation will be one-eight of
the replacement cost of the asset. The replacement value determined by the will be paid if the
asset is unable to be shifted by the owner.

Where applicable, any entitlement greater than the CCL value will be paid by the EA(s).

The compensation is applicable to non-structure assets on private and public lands, and will
affect both "vulnerable" and "non-vulnerable" owners of those assets.




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                 ATT-21
Attachments                                                       Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO




ATTACHMENT 3: DRAFT TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR) FOR IMPLEMENTING NGO
Background
Description of Sector Loan and IA’s Subproject

Scope of Work – General
The general scope of work for the selected NGO shall include: (i) design, production, and
dissemination of information such as project brochures and pamphlets regarding the Sector
Loan’s RF policies; (ii) assisting the IA’s Director-PIU and his staff in the implementation of
RP; and (iii) close coordination with IA staff, department/line agencies, local government
officials in the performance of tasks.

Key implementation issues in the delivery of the tasks include: (i) Consultation and
Stakeholder Participation; (ii) Verification Of Census/Inventory; (iii) Updating the RP, if
required; and (iv) Assisting APs in the process of Relocation/Resettlement.

Specific Tasks
Information Campaign: The Implementing NGO will design, plan and implement an
information campaign in the affected areas primarily to inform the APs about the entitlement
policy and how to avail of their respective entitlements. The campaign would include
measures such as distribution of information booklets, leaflet, notices and other materials
among the APs, community meetings, public announcements, and any other measures
necessary to provide information to all APs in the project area.

Identification of Entitled Persons and Issuance of ID Cards: Consult census/survey data and
prepare final list of affected SBEs/households for ID card issuance.

Assistance to APs during Relocation: The implementing NGO will assist the APs in pre- and
post relocation period. Also, NGO staff will assist APs where necessary in preparing
grievance cases for consideration by the committees.

Assistance to BWDB in payment of Resettlement Benefits to APs: The selected NGO will be
responsible to assist the IA in processing entitlements for the APs and making payment of
resettlement benefits to them. The Implementing NGO will compile and process data and
develop and operate a computerized Management Information System.

RP Implementation Schedule
The work is scheduled to start in _____ and will continue till the end of _____. Further
details on the Subproject construction and RP scheduling.

Suggested Sequence of Tasks
The Implementing NGO will assist BWDB in the land acquisition and resettlement process
provided that the design options are finalized and the project proceeds on. The Table below is
the ideal sequence of tasks while work on some of the tasks may proceed simultaneously
depending situation.




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Attachments                                                                    Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



Table: Sequence of Tasks for Land Acquisition and Resettlement

      Key actions in                                                                                         Responsible
         sequence                                             Approaches                                    Organization
Preparation of Land           Engineering design is finalized, topographic survey and land                Consultants
Acquisition Proposals         acquisition survey conducted, Mauja Maps are prepared with exact
(LAPs), by Mauja              location of the right of way of the structural measures, thereby the Land
(if applicable) and           Acquisition Proposals are prepared
location
Review and revision of        Once the designs are finalized, baseline socio-economic survey can be       NGO
Resettlement Plan (RP)        conducted for all socially –recognized property owners. While after
                              issuance of notice u/s 3 by DCs, the survey will be cover loss and
                              asset inventory to the individual legal owners. The Resettlement Plan
                              will be reviewed and revised for unique observation in the
                              census/survey. This survey will be the cut-off date for resettlement
                              plan.
Submission of LAPs to         IA follows through                                                          IA
DC
Approval of LAPs              IA follows through.                                                         DC/Ministry of Land
Joint verification and        Physical verification and assessment of the affected properties and         IA/Implementing
valuation of property         their owners/users by the Joint Verification Team (JVT). Both JVT and       NGO
                              the person concerned should sign verification records for each affected
                              person. Disputes are also recorded. Valuation of property by Property
                              Valuation Advisory Team (PVAT) for replacement market value of
                              property is carried out. Implementing NGO compiles and process the
                              data.
Issuance of Notice u/s 3      IA follows through and the NGO assists.                                     DC

Information Campaign &        Implementing NGO will carry out consultation regarding policies and
RP Disclosure                 options, and required legal documents to claim compensation begins.
                              Property owners are advised/helped to gather all required documents.
                              Ownership and other issues/disputes expected to be forthcoming;
                              GRCs become functional.
Budget Revision               Budget is revised in view of the JVT findings and PVAT                      IA/Implementing
                              recommendations approved by BWDB                                            NGO
Preparation of Individual     Takes into account choice of options made by those not covered by the       IA/Implementing
Entitlements                  law                                                                         NGO
Issuance of ID Cards          APs having no legal disputes involving any rights will be identified and    IA/Implementing
                              ID cards will be issued. The process continues.                             NGO
Assessment and                DC staff assesses the quantity and value of the properties in               DC Staff
Valuation of the acquired     accordance with the acquisition law. IA participates and follows
properties                    through.
Disbursement of               Payment of compensation to non-titled owners, can begin                     IA/Implementing
compensation                                                                                              NGO
Issuance of Notice u/s 6      IA follows through. Legal owners bring in the required documents (or        DC/Implementing
                              might be asked to bring them during disbursement). GRC keep                 NGO may assist
                              functioning. DC prepares estimate and receives fund from BWDB.
Issuance of Notice u/s 7      IA follows through. DC, as it appears in his/her own records,               DC/Implementing
                              determines legality of individual ownership. If these records are not up-   NGO may assist
                              to-date, disputes may arise. Updating of legal paper may take a great
                              deal of time. GRCs keep functioning. Court cases involving ownership
                              and other matters can be expected
Issuance of ID Cards          To those whose legal ownership is established with DCs and have no          IA/Implementing
                              further encumbrances/disputes. The process continues                        NGO



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Attachments                                                                   Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



      Key actions in                                                                                          Responsible
         sequence                                           Approaches                                        Organization
Disbursement of Cash         DC starts payment of CCL. Legal owners might be asked to bring in all       DC
Compensation under Law       required documents at this stage as well. Disputes may arise anew and
(CCL)                        lead to long delays.
Finalizing Additional        CCL amounts are needed to determine whether or not IA owes                  IA/Implementing
Individual Entitlements      additional payment. In cases where IA owes, additional compensation         NGO
for those covered by law     over CUL is finalized taking into account choices of options made by
                             the APs
Disbursement of              IA starts payment of additional compensation                                IA/Implementing
Additional Compensation                                                                                  NGO
(difference between
replacement market price
and CCL, if applicable)
Land hand over to BWDB       DC pays CUL and hand-over land to the IA                                    DC
Eviction Notice              Given to individual affected persons at completion of all                   IA
                             compensation/entitlement, from DC and IA, IA/Implementing NGO
                             keeps records of issuance date of eviction notice, signed by both
                             BWDB and evictees
Land hand over to            Contractors move into the sites the day following expiration of the         IA
Contractors                  eviction notice.



Staffing Inputs by the NGO
The Implementing NGO will provide staff inputs for each of the MDIP and PIRDP sub-
projects in order to carry out the works under this Terms of Reference (TOR). The man-
months and designation of the staff should be as stated in Table 6.1. The NGO should show
the duration of their services and limit as per requirement in consultation with the civil works
contract. If settlement of legal issues on land acquisition requires longer time, the NGO may
have to demobilize for a period as per the request from the executing agency in writing.

Table: Manpower Input for the RP Implementation

Sl. No     Position                                           Nos. Unit      Estimated no. of man-month [Example]
A. Professional Staff
1.         Team Leader (Resettlement Specialist)                   1                                24
2.         Deputy Team Leader (Resettlement Expert)                2                               48
3.         Land Acquisition Specialist                             1                                6
4.         Women in Development Specialist                         1                                 6
5.         Computerized MIS Specialist                             1                                24
           Sub-total                                               6                               108
B. Office Support Staff
1.         Database Manager                                        1                               24
2.         Accountant                                              1                                24
3.         Computer Operator                                       2                               48
4.         Messenger                                               1                                24
           Sub-total                                               5                               120
C. Field Support Staff
           Area Manager                                            2                               48
           Supervisor                                              3                               72



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Attachments                                                                Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



Sl. No      Position                                        Nos. Unit      Estimated no. of man-month [Example]
            Field Accountant                                    2                            48
            Resettlement Worker                                15                           360
            Messenger                                           2                            48
            Sub-total                                          24                           576
            Grand Total                                        35                           804
Minimum Required Experience of Professional Staff
The Professional Staff to be proposed by Implementing NGO should have the qualification
and experience as shown in Table 7.1.

Table: Required Qualification and Experience of Professional Staff

                                        Minimum
                                         Years Of
                                       Experience
                      Academic          In Similar
    Position         Qualification       Position                               Specific Experience
Team Leader          MSc/MSS          8               Experience in planning and implementing resettlement program
(Social scientist)                                    and in (i) leading and supervising multidisciplinary teams engaged
                                                      in socioeconomic development activities; (ii) multidisciplinary action
                                                      research/surveys; and thorough knowledge of (iii) Bangladesh land
                                                      administration system and land acquisition laws; (iv) process and
                                                      functionaries involved in land administration and acquisition; (v)
                                                      report writing capability; and ability to demonstrate personal
                                                      integrity and create a transparent and accountable work
                                                      environment.
Deputy Team          M.Sc. /MSS       5               Experience in (i) leading and supervising multidisciplinary teams
Leader                                                engaged in socioeconomic development activities; (ii) ability to
                                                      conduct methods; and thorough knowledge of (iii) Bangladesh land
                                                      administration system and land acquisition laws – specifically the
                                                      property valuation process; (iv) the process and functionaries
                                                      involved in land administration and acquisition; and (v) report
                                                      writing capability;
Land Acquisition     MSS/LLM          6               Thorough knowledge about Bangladesh land administration system
Specialist                                            and land acquisition laws – specifically the property valuation
                                                      process; (iv) the process and functionaries involved in land
                                                      administration and acquisition; and extensive practical experience
                                                      (iii) examining/identifying legal issues involved in land transaction,
                                                      inheritance and other issues related to legality of ownership, (iv)
                                                      working with mouza maps, and (v) advising on resolving legal
                                                      issues.
Women in             MSS              4               Thorough knowledge of gender issues and their implications in
Development                                           development projects; research and work experience relating to
Specialist                                            gender issues; and knowledge of techniques and their applications
                                                      in mobilizing community participation in development programs.
Computerized         M.Sc. in         8               Working experience and knowledge of software, preferably
MIS Specialist       Statistics/                      relational, that are most commonly used in Bangladesh;
                     Mathematics                      demonstrated ability to design and implement user friendly menu-
                                                      driven MIS(s) for monitoring progress and generate reports as and
                                                      when necessary




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Attachments                                                       Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO




Major functions of the Implementing NGO to be performed
As mentioned earlier, the selected NGO will assist BWDB in implementing successfully all
stipulations agreed in the RP under the RSDP in their entirely, fairly and transparently. In this
context the major functions to be performed by the NGO are:

(1)     Information Dissemination and Feedback

Ensuring dissemination of project and resettlement policy related information to the project
affected persons and others (community groups, local administration, etc.) who might be
considered instrumental in the effective and transparent implementation of the RP. Even
though the RP recommends some dissemination mechanisms, the Implementing NGO could
suggest innovations in the course of its implementation and would gather information and
disseminate it upward to the project authority.

During implementation of the project, extensive consultation and collaboration with key
stakeholders on a continued basis is planned. The selected Implementing NGO will be
required to assist the PIU in organizing such consultation programs and facilitate consultation
with localized representatives like ward commissioners, participation groups, etc.

(2)     Assisting APs in Resettlement Process

The main purpose is to make the APs and Entitled Persons (EPs) aware of the acquisition
process; assist them to claim the Cash Compensation under the Law (CCL) to be paid by the
DCs as well as those that might be paid by the IA. Some of the suggested tasks are:

Ensuring receipt of the acquisition Notices under Sections 3, 6 and 7 of the Land Acquisition
Law by the individual EPs and explaining to them the contents and implication of these
Notices.

Informing the EPs about the legal documents required for claiming compensation from DCs,
and checking the current status of legal documents, in order to minimize disputes over
ownership, use rights and the time to make the claims. This include, inter alia:

Checking with the APs to make sure that they have all the required documents to claim
compensation from DCs

Whether or not the ownership records are up-to-date in cases of purchase/sale and inheritance
of the property being acquired, and advising and assisting the EPs to procure them.

Whether or not there are usufruct rights of others on the properties under acquisition and
informing the people with such rights about the compensation policies

Informing the EP households, especially the vulnerable ones, about the "compensation in
cash and /or kind" option stipulated in the RP and ensuring fulfillment of the choices made by
them.

Assisting the APs to receive any entitlements, such as, reimbursement of stamp duties related
to land purchases.




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Attachments                                                       Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



Assisting the APs not covered by the Law, such as tenant and wage laborers, owners of
business on public lands, squatters, and such others to get their entitlements from the IA.

Counseling and helping the households, whose previous incomes have been seriously
affected, to find alternative sources of income.

As required by the RP, the Implementing NGO will participate in the joint physical
verification of the affected properties. In this process, the NGO will document all disputes
that might be faced and the problem cases that might need special attention by the IA.

Together with the IA, the Implementing NGO will pursue the DC and other concerned offices
to arrange for on-site payment of compensation, and organize the EPs in groups and
accompany them to the concerned offices or the project sites – if on-site payment is agreed by
DC.

(3)     Grievance Redress Procedure

The selected Implementing NGO will play a vital role in the Grievance Redress Process. The
most important preconditions for doing this with maximum effectiveness are that the NGO
operatives will build personal rapport and confidence with the APs and will be fully aware of
all socio-economic problems/issues arising from the acquisition. Among other things, the
NGO will:

Ensure that the APs are fully aware of the grievance redress procedure and the process of
bringing their complaints to the Grievance Redress Committees (GRCs).

Assist the APs in any useful manner (e.g., preparing an application, accompanying them to
the hearing and explaining the grievance to the GRCs, and the like) to bring the complaints to
the committee.

Impartially investigate the veracity of the complaints and try to settle them amicably, fairly
and transparently before they go to the redress committee or the courts of law.

For more focused work in this area, the Implementing NGO will prepare a list of problem
cases (based on ownership and other disputes detected while checking the status of legal
documents, information from the APs themselves and other sources) which would be updated
as and when necessary, while RP implementation progresses. In doing so the NGO will pay
special attention to the problems and needs of the vulnerable APs.

(4)     Information management

The selected Implementing NGO will collect and computerize all data related to the pre-
acquisition condition of the AP households and the nature and magnitude of all categories of
losses as well as the compensation thereof, as to be determined by DCs and the Joint
Verification Team (JVT) to be organized by the PMU of the IA All essential information will
have to be generated by using one or more Menu-Driven Management Information System.
Among other things, the NGO will:

Maintain computerized baseline socioeconomic databases and collect supplemental
information as and when necessary and update them, during the course of implementation.


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Attachments                                                       Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



Collect and computerize data on individual losses and the compensation thereof, as
determined by DC and JVT for all legally and socially recognized EPs.

Collect and computerize all information for market survey and assessment of property and
their owners by the PVAT (Property Valuation Advisory Team), process data and compile
reports for the PVAT recommending replacement market price of land and other property.

Collect and computerize all information related to different types of losses incurred due to the
project and additional protection measures and update the 'entitled persons' files'.

Prepare 'entitlement card' for the individual EPs, as per their types of losses, and the amount
of compensation due for each type of loss from legal title, and the amount of compensation, if
any, to be paid by BWDB, as well as other non-monetary entitlements.

Prepare and issue Identification Cares for each EP (head of the household – in case of those
not covered by the law), containing his/her photograph (to be taken by the NGO itself) and
other vital information.

Collect and maintain details of the issues/disputes causing delay in the disbursement/receipt
of compensation and the persons involved in them, including the cases brought to the courts
of law.

Document information on the cases, with reasons, brought to and resolved by the GRC, with
decisions going in favour of or against the complaints. Collect and maintain relocation
information on the homestead losers by categories of EP households, such as legal owners,
squatters and others.

Maintain information on purchase of replacement home lot and other lands as well as the
stamp duties reimbursed by the IA.

Collect and maintain information on physical, social and institutional infrastructure and
amenities (latrines, tube wells, etc), if any, that might be provided by the IA.

Maintain information on socioeconomic rehabilitation activities that the selected
Implementing NGO would propose to undertake.

(5)     Reporting Progress

The Subproject RP will require that all EPs are paid the stipulated
compensations/entitlements before they are evicted from the properties and /or construction
works begin. The selected Implementing NGO will provide the IA and the ADB Monthly
Report, submitted through the Power Cell’s CRO, on the progress in RP implementation,
including any issues that might be hindering progress, separately for each civil works
contract. The report will be brief consisting of both quantitative and qualitative information
on:

The acquisition process to be initiated by the DCs which will include status of issuance of the
major Notices (e.g., 3, 6, 7) under the Acquisition Law, a Land Register with valuation of the
affected properties, placement of funds with DCs by the IA, etc.



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Attachments                                                       Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



Total number of EPs identified by DCs for CCL, and the cumulative progress made in
disbursement of CCL, by loss categories.

Total number of EPs (recognized by DCs) also eligible for additional payment from the IA,
and cumulative progress made in payment, by loss and entitlement categories.

Number of vulnerable affected households, and estimates of the number of such and other
households choosing 'compensation in kind' under the 'cash-or-kind' option, specifics of such
choices; and the progress made in implementing the related policies.

Total number of the EPs, who are not covered by the law (but are socially recognized
owners/users of the affected properties), identified for compensation/entitlement from the IA
and cumulative progress made in disbursement, by loss and entitlement categories.

Number of cases received by the Grievance Redress Committee indicating the types of
grievance made in favor of or against the complainants.

Total number of home lot losers needing relocation, and relocation provisions are stipulated
in the Subproject RP.

Implementation of major tasks in socioeconomic rehabilitation programs, which the selected
Implementation NGO will propose to undertake.

Any other issues that are relevant to implementing the policies stipulated in the Subproject
RP.

The selected Implementing NGO will design tabular and other formats appropriate for
reporting on the above information. To the extent possible, the tables will have to be pre-
programmed in the menu-driven MIS, and the quantitative reports will have to be generated
directly.

9.0     Reporting Requirements

The selected Implementing NGO appointed by the IA for implementation of the Subproject
RP will report to PD of the Project Management Unit (PMU) of the IA, the CRO of the EA,
and Asian Development Bank.

The selected Implementing NGO shall provide 5 copies of the Final Report at the end of the
Subproject and a Monthly Progress Report on or before 7th day of the month following the
commencement of their services.

Each Report shall set forth concise statement concerning the activities relevant to the jobs and
will include:

A clear and complete account of work performed in each Subproject component;

Work Plan for the next reporting period;

Status of funding and expenditure;




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Attachments                                                             Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



Identification of any problems encountered or anticipated that would affect the completion of
the project within the time and money constraints set forth in the agreement, together with
recommended solution to such problems.

A Mid-Term Report shall also be prepared for the project by the NGO. This report should
summarise progress, present the results of the strategic planning process, identify any
potential problems or issues and provide details of the work to be completed over the
remainder of the project period.

The selected Implementing NGO is encouraged to produce working papers and technical
papers throughout the implementation period after the Sector Loan Subproject starts.

10.0    Criteria for NGO Selection

The Implementing NGO to be selected for the tasks must have proven experience in
resettlement/development planning and implementation. Specifically, the selected
Implementing NGO must have (i) demonstrated capacity to mobilize the required trained and
experienced field staff, and (ii) experience in implementation of social
development/resettlement plan. The NGO must have at least 5 years of working experience in
the implementation of resettlement programs in donor-funded projects.

10.1    Thresholds for Primary Selection

The interested NGO must fulfill the following thresholds for participating in the bid:

NGOs must have at least 5 years of working experience in the implementation of the
resettlement and land acquisition under externally-funded programs;

The NGOs must be registered under the Social Welfare Department or under the NGO
Affairs Bureau;

The NGOs must be able to present certificate from the concerned Government authority to
verify their satisfactory performance in resettlement social surveys, planning and
implementing resettlement plan, monitoring and evaluation through effective management
information system, and writing analytical reports meeting the standards of the external
financiers; and

The NGOs must be able to present audit report in the last three years that verifies the
sufficient financial base to undertake and operate large programs

The technical proposal will be evaluated as per the table below

                           Evaluation Criteria                                 Points          Total Points
1.      Competence of Organization                                                                  25
        1.1      Registration                                                    5
        1.2      General experience                                              5
        1.3      Similar experience                                              10
        1.4      Experience in software development and MIS operation            5
2.      Understanding of the TOR                                                                    10
        2.1      Concept & objectives                                             1



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Attachments                                                          Attachment 3: Draft TOR for Implementing NGO



                         Evaluation Criteria                                 Points         Total Points
        2.2     Scope of work                                                  2
        2.3     Assumptions and risks factors                                  5
        2.4     Comments on TOR                                                2
3.      Approaches and Methodology                                                               25
        3.1     Approach & methodology                                          5
        3.2     Team composition and manning schedule                          5
        3.3     The work plan                                                  15
4.      Competence of key staff                                                                  40
        4.1     Academic qualification                                          5
        4.2     Experience in socioeconomic research                           10
        4.3     Work experience in general areas of socioeconomic              10
development
        4.4     Experience in similar tasks                                    15
Total                                                                                           100


Submission of Proposal and Content
The combined technical and financial proposal 1 original and 3 certified copies to the Sector
Loan Subproject Director of the IA during office hours of Month/Year. The technical and
financial proposals to be forwarded in two separate sealed envelops clearly marking the name
of the project, the assignment and own address.

The contents of the proposal should be in the order of
        Proposal reference;
        Competence of organization;
        Understanding of the Terms of Reference;
        Approaches and methodology;
        Work plan;
        Competence of professionals to be involved supplemented with signed CVs.

Selection of Proposal
NGO proposals based on the evaluation of the technical proposal as above will be ranked and
the three first ranked proposals will be selected for negotiation. The first ranked NGO will be
called for negotiation first. This Terms of Reference and the financial proposal of the NGO
will be revised in the negation meeting. Upon successful negotiation, the NGO will be
awarded contract. If failed, the second ranked NGO will be invited and so on.




                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                   ATT-31
Attachments                                                                  Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results




ATTACHMENT 4: 2005 SOCIOECONOMIC FIELD STUDY RESULTS, COMBINED TABLES
Population

Table: Population in Sample Project Communities/Villages

                                                    No of Sampled                           Average Community
                    Subproject                      Communities            Population           Population
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                            14                 53,200               3,800
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                                      8                 27,600               3,450
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                                 11                 63,500               5,770
Subtotal                                                  33                144,300               4,340
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                               12                 66,500               5,540
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                               4                 12,000               3,000
Subtotal                                                  16                 78,500               4,270
Total                                                     49                222,800               4,300



Household Population
Table: Population in Sample Project Households (HHs)

                                      No of
                                     Sampled                                            Household     Sex Ratio
           Subproject                  HHs           Male      Female       Total         Size        (M/F)*100
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L          80           204        199          403            5           102.5
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                   40            88         85          173           4.3          103.5
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L               55           152        135          287           5.2          112.6
Subtotal                               175           444         419         863           4.8          105.7
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L             60           195        174          369           6.1          112.1
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L            15            37         33           70           4.2          112.1
Subtotal                                75           232         207         439           5.2          112.1
Total                                  250           676        626         1,302          5.0          108.0



Table: Marital Status of the Sample Respondents and Family Members, All Subprojects

      Marital Status    Respondents                %                Total population                 %
Married                     243                   97                       711                       55
Unmarried                    7                     3                       573                       44
Widow/Widower                0                     0                        16                        1
Divorced                     0                     0                        2                         0
Total                       250                   100                     1,302                     100




                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                  ATT-32
Attachments                                                                                         Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results



Table: Summary Age Structure and Sex of the Population of All Subproject Sample
Subproject Households (HHs)

                        Northern Region               Southwestern Region                    Dhaka Region             All Regions Combined
   Broad Age            Total      Share                                                    Total     Share                         Share
      Group             (M+F)        %            Total (M+F)             Share %           (M+F)       %             Total (M+F)     %
From 0-24 years          219        48                212                   53               211        48                 642        49
From 25-59 years         209        45                167                   41               200        46                 576        44
60+ years                 32         7                 24                    6                28         6                  84         7
Total                    460        100               403                   100              439       100                1302       100

Table: Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject Households
(HHs)

   Age
  Group Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-
 (Years)     Magura T/L      Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                                           Total
          M % F % T             % M % F %                    T     %       M     %     F      %      T     %      M % F % T                %
0-4        9    4 21 11 30      7      3    3     9 11 12          7        7    5     12     9      19    7      9    4 21 11 30          7
               (30)    (70)    (100)       (25)       (75)        (100)         (37)         (63)         (100)       (30)       (70)    (100)
5-9       20 10 19 10 39 10 9 10 4                     5     13    8       14    9     7      5      21    7      20 10 19 9 39 10
               (51)    (49)    (100)       (69)       (31)        (100)         (67)         (33)         (100)       (51)       (49)    (100)
10-14     15 7 28 14 43 11 6                7     9 11 15          9       16   10     20    15      36    12     15 7 28 14 43 11
               (35)    (65)    (100)       (40)       (60)        (100)         (44)         (56)         (100)       (35)       (65)    (100)
15 - 24   53 26 47 23 100 25 11 13 21 24 32                        17      34   22     37    27      71    25     53 26 47 24 100 25
               (53)    (47)    (100)       (34)       (66)        (100)         (48)         (52)         (100)       (53)       (47)    (100)
25 - 34   29 14 26 13 55 14 25 28 16 18 41                         24      32   22     25    19      57    20     29 14 26 13 55 14
               (53)    (47)    (100)       (61)       (39)        (100)         (56)         (44)         (100)       (53)       (47)    (100)
35 - 44   28 14 30 15 58 14 14 16 9 11 23                          13      18   12     11     8      29    10     28 14 30 15 58 14
               (48)    (52)    (100)       (61)       (39)        (100)         (62)         (38)         (100)       (48)       (52)    (100)
45 - 59   34 17 20 10 54 13 12 14 10 12 22                         13      18   12     19    14      37    13     34 17 20 10 54 13
               (63)    (37)    (100)       (55)       (45)        (100)         (49)         (51)         (100)       (63)       (37)    (100)
60+       16 8        8 4 24    6      8    9     7    8     15    9       13    8     4      3      17    6      16 8       8    4 24     6
               (67)    (33)    (100)       (53)       (47)        (100)         (76)         (47)         (100)       (67)       (33)    (100)
Total     204 100 199100 403 100 88 100 85 100 173 100 152 100 135 100 287 100 204 100 199 100 403 100
               (51)    (49)    (100)       (51)       (49)        (100)         (53)         (47)         (100)       (51)       (49)    (100)




                          Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                             ATT-33
Attachments                                                                           Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results



Table: Age Structure and Sex of the Population of Dhaka Sample Subproject
Households (HHs)

                    Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L            Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                   Total
Age Group (Years)   M      %     F     %     T     %      M     %      F   %      T       %     M %       F    %     T    %
0-4                 15     8     11    6     26    7      3     8      3    9     6       9     18 8 14 7 32              7
                          (58)        (42)        (100)        (50)    )   (50          (100)      (56)       (44)       (100)
5-9                 11     6     18   10     29    8      2     5      4   13     6       9     13 5 22 11 35             8
                          (38)        (62)        (100)        (33)        (67)         (100)      (37)       (63)       (100)
10-14               12     6     22   13     34    9      7     20     3    9     10     13     19 8 25 12 44 10
                          (35)        (65)        (100)        (70)        (30)         (100)      (43)       (57)       (100)
15 - 24             45     23    44   25     89    24     6     16     5   15     11     16     51 22 49 24 100 23
                          (51)        (49)        (100)        (55)        (45)         (100)      (51)       (49)       (100)
25 - 34             39     20    28   16     67    18     4     11     8   24     12     17     43 19 36 17 79 18
                          (58)        (42)        (100)        (33)        (67)         (100)      (54)       (46)       (100)
35 - 44             24     12    24   14     48    13     6     16     5   15     11     16     30 13 29 14 59 13
                          (50)        (50)        (100)        (55)        (45)         (100)      (51)       (49)       (100)
45 - 59             26     13    24   14     50    14     7     19     5   15     12     17     33 14 29 14 62 14
                          (52)        (48)        (100)        (58)        (42)         (100)      (53)       (47)       (100)
60+                 23     12    3     2     26    7      2     5      0    0     2       3     25 11 3        1 28       7
                          (88)        (12)         0           (100)       (0)          (100)      (89)       (11)       (100)
Total               195 100 174 100 369           100     37   100     33 100 70         100 232 100 207 100 439 100
                          (53)        (47)        (100)        (53)        (47)         (100)      (53)       (47)       (100)




                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                            ATT-34
Attachments                                                                 Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results



Table: Age Structure and Sex of the Population of All the Sector Loan Sample
Subproject Households (HHs)

                                              All Subprojects under Power Sector Loan
  Age Group (Years)        M            %            F              %                T                %
0-4                        37           6            56             9                93                7
                                       (40)                        (60)                              (100)
5-9                        56           8            52             8               108                8
                                       (52)                        (48)                              (100)
10-14                      56           8            82             13              138               11
                                       (41)                        (59)                              (100)
15 - 24                   149           23          154             25              303               24
                                       (49)                        (51)                              (100)
25 - 34                   129           19          103             16              232               18
                                       (56)                        (44)                              (100)
35 - 44                    90           13           79             13              169               13
                                       (53)                        (47)                              (100)
45 - 59                    97           14           78             12              175               13
                                       (55)                        (45)                              (100)
60+                        62           9            22             4                84                6
                                       (74)                        (26)                              (100)
Total                     676          100          626            100             1,302             100
                                       (52)                        (48)                              (100)



Table: Literacy and Education Levels of the Population of Sample 3 T/L Subproject
Households (HHs)

                   Chuadanga to
       Literacy Jhenaidah to Magura
      Level              T/L         Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L   Total
                 M % F % T % M % F % T % M % F % T % M % F % T %
 Illiterate     28 15 32 18 60 17 7 9 11 15 18 12 20 15 19 16 39 15 28 15 32 19 60 17
 Can read
                 8 4 8 5 16 5 5 6 9 12 14 9 8                       6 16 13 24 9 8 4 8 5 16 5
only
 Primary
                64 35 64 38 128 36 17 21 15 21 32 20 15 11 21 18 36 15 64 36 64 37 128 36
(Class I to V)
 Secondary
                52 28 50 30 102 29 21 26 26 36 47 31 40 28 40 34 80 31 52 28 50 30 102 29
(Class VI to X)
 SSC            13 8 6 4 19 5 11 14 4 5 15 10 19 14 11 9 30 12 13 7 6 4 19 5
 HSC            11 6 3 2 14 4 10 12 5 7 15 10 19 14 10 8 29 11 11 6 3 2 14 4
 Graduation &
                 8 4 5 3 13 4 10 12 3 4 13 8 16 12 2                          2 18 7 8 4 5 3 13 4
above
 All            184100 168 100352 100 81 100 73 100 154 100 137 100 119 100 256 100 184 100 168 100 352 100




                      Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                    ATT-35
Attachments                                                                                    Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results



Table: Literacy and Education Levels of the Population of Dhaka Sample Subproject
Households (HHs)

                             Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                Total
                              M     %     F     %     T     % M %          F    %          T      %     M        %   F    %         T     %
 Illiterate                  23     13    28    18    51    16    3 9      5    17      8         13 26 13 33 19 59 15
 Can read only               18     10    15    10    33    10    1 3       2    7      3          5  19   9  17   9  36   9
 Primary (Class I to V)      43     25    45    30    88    26    6 19      7    24     13         21 49 23 53 29 101 27
 Secondary (Class VI to X)   56     32    47    31    103    32   14 42     8    28     22         35 70 34 55 30 125 32
 SSC                         10      6     5     3     15    5    3 9       1    3      4          6  13   6   6   3  19   5
 HSC                         16      9    10     7     26     8    2 6     4    14      6         10 18    9  14   8  32   8
 Graduation & above           8      5     2     1    10     3    4 12      2    7      6         10 12    6   4   2  16   4
 All                         174    100   152   100   326   100   33 100   29   100     62        100 207 100 181 100 388 100

Table: Literacy and Education Levels of the Population of All Sample Subproject
Households (HHs)

                               M                 %                  F                 %                     T                T
        Illiterate             81                13                 95                18                 176              15
 Can read only                 40                 7                 50                 9                  90               8
 Primary (Class I to V)       145                23                152                27                 297              26
 Secondary (Class VI to                          30                                   32                                  31
                              183                                  171                                   354
X)
 SSC                          56                 9                 27                  5                   83             7
 HSC                          58                10                 32                  6                  90              8
 Graduation & above           46                 8                 14                  3                  60              5
 All                          609               100                541                100                1,150           100



Religion in Subproject Communities

Table: Religion in Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population

                                                             Muslim        Hindu      Christian        Buddhist      Other        Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-MaguraT/L                                  92            7            1               0            0           100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                                          87           10            0               0            3           100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                                      72           20            0               0            8           100
Subtotal Average                                               84           12            0                0           4           100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                    84           14            0               0            2           100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                   96            2            1               1            0           100
Subtotal Average                                               90            8           .5               .5           1           100
Average                                                        87           10          .25              .25          2.5          100




                          Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                      ATT-36
Attachments                                                                      Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results



Ethnicity in Subproject Communities

Table: Ethnicity in Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population
                      Subproject                            Bengali    Santal    Mahili      Badhi (Badhja)        Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                                100        --         --                              100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                                         100        --         --               --             100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                                    98.5       1.0        0.5               --             100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                   97.8       --         --              2.0             100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                  100        --         --               --             100
Average                                                      99.26      0.2       0.14              0.4             100

Social Strata in Subproject Communities
Table: Social Strata in Subproject Communities, by Percent of Sampled Population
                      Subproject                             Rich       Medium        Poor     Very Poor          Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                               13.6        37.0         30.2       19.2              100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                                        10.5        46.0         26.4       17.1              100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                                    13.2        45.0         27.8       14.0              100
Subtotal                                                     12.4        42.7         28.1       16.8              100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                                  11.0        37.9         27.9       23.2              100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                                 17.5        36.5         28.5       17.5              100
Subtotal                                                     14.2        37.2         28.2       20.4              100
Total                                                        13.3        40.0         28.2       18.5              100

Principle Sources of Household Income in Subproject Communities

Table: Principle Sources of HH Income in Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
Population
                 Subproject                  Agriculture        Business    Service    Remittance         Other    All
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                  45.8              16.6        5.8         2.6             28.9     100
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L                           66.9              16.4        7.6         3.2              5.8     100
Thakurgaon-Panchagarh T/L                       62.5              10.3       15.0         3.4              9.0     100
Subtotal                                        58.4              14.4        9.5          3.1            14.6     100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                     40.1              21.6        8.3         11.1            19.0     100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                    39.5              16.6       14.0         3.0             27.0     100
Subtotal                                        39.8              19.2       11.3          7.0            23.0     100
Average                                         49.0              16.8       10.4          5.0            18.8     100

Table: Number of Earning Members in Total Subproject Community HHs, by Percent
of Sampled Population
                                                                     Number of HH Earning Members
                 Subproject                        1                2          3        4 and above              Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                50       63      16     20   11    13      3       4            80     100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                      26       65       4     10    7    17       3      8            40     100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                  24       44      19     35    9    16       3       5           55     100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                   22       37      15     25    9    15      14      23           60     100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                   9       60       2     13    3    20       1       7           15     100



                       Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                          ATT-37
Attachments                                                                                                                Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results




Table: Monthly Income Groups, Sample Subproject Communities, by Numbers and Percent of Sampled Households

                                                                                  Monthly Income (Tk)
                             Chuadanga-
                             Jhenaidah-     Naogaon to     Thakurgaon to                       Meghnaghat to Aminbazar to
                             Magura T/L    Joypurhat T/L   Panchagarh T/L        Subtotal      Aminbazar T/L Old Airport T/L      Subtotal             Total
              Income Group   No      %      No      %       No       %         No        %      No     %      No       %       No        %       No             %
<1500                         0      0       0       0       0       0          0         0      0      0      0       0        0        0        0             0
1501 – 2,500                  1      1       0       0       4       7          5         3      0      0      0       0        0        0        5             2
2,501 – 3,500                12     15       5      12       9      16         26       15       1      2      0       0        1        1       27            11
3,501 – 5,000                29     36      11      28      15      27         55       32       4     7       0       0        4        5       59            24
5,001 – 7,000                 9     11      10      25       8      15         27       15       4      7      0       0        4        5       31            12
7,001 – 10,000               14     18       8      20      12      22         34       19      16     26      1       7       17       24       51            20
10,001 – 15,000               8     10       5      12       2       4         15         9     20     33      7      47       27       36       42            17
15,001 – 25,000               7      9       1       3       3       5         11         6     12     20      3      20       15       20       26            10
>25,001                       0      0       0       0       2       4          2         1      3      5      4      26        7        9        9             4
All                          80     100     40     100      55      100        175      100     60    100     15      100      75       100      250           100




                                     Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                     ATT-38
Attachments                                                                               Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results




Table: Average HH Expenditure in 3 T/L Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled
Population

                                                                 Monthly Expenditure (Tk)
                          Chuadanga-              Thakurgaon to               Aminbazar to
                                     Naogaon to                 Meghnaghat to
                          Jhenaidah-               Panchagarh                  Old Airport Total
        Category                     Joypurhat T/               Aminbazar T/L
                          Magura T/L                   T/L                         T/L
                               Avg        Avg            Avg          Avg           Avg      Avg
                         No Amount No Amount No Amount No Amount No Amount No Amount
                               (Tk)       (Tk)           (Tk)         (Tk)          (Tk)     (Tk)
Food                     80       2880      40     2313      55      2733       60     5547     15     6,500   250        3,614
Clothing                 80        686      39     740       53       617       60     1148     15     1,620   247        849
Housing                   1        100      5      300       6        255       6       550      7     2,186   25         869
Fuel/Power               75        322      31     460       43       446       57      536     14     1,321   220        485
Education                62        700      17     624       36       842       42     1219     13     1,946   170        946
Medical                  80        532      38     421       53       379       60      802     15     1,253   246        592
Transport                73        474      38     528       51       562       58      974     14     1,093   234        663
Investment/Savings       73       1321      38     1659      44      1533       48     2931     14     3,821   217        1941

Others (Social &
                          80       760      40     858       54      1067       56     1119     15     1,200   245        952
Festival Obligations Etc)

All                      80       7675      40     7292      55      7716       60     13,310   15    19,459   250        9,682



Land Tenure Patterns in Subproject Communities

Table: Land Tenure Patterns in Subproject Communities, by % of Sampled Population

                                Owner           Owner Cum Tenant            Purely Tenant        Absentee
       Subproject                                                                                               Other           All
                               Cultivator          Cultivation               Cultivation          Owner
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-
                                 42.4                 38.9                      16.7                 2.00            0       100
Magura T/L
Naogaon-Joypurhat
                                 62.3                 18.3                      15.5                 3.8             0       100
T/L
Thakurgaon-
                                 50.0                 27.0                      18.7                 4.3             0       100
Panchagarh T/L
Subtotal                         51.6                 28.1                      16.9                 3.4             0       100
Meghnaghat to
                                 33.5                 31.7                      20.0                 10.3           4.5      100
Aminbazar T/L
Aminbazar to Old
                                 45.5                 40.7                      10.3                 3.5             0       100
Airport T/L
Subtotal                         39.5                 36.1                      15.2                 6.9            2.3      100
Average                          45.6                 32.1                      16.0                 5.2            1.1      100




                          Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                               ATT-39
Attachments                                                                                                                         Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results




Services Available in Subproject Communities

Table: Services Available in Subproject Communities, by Community and Percentage of Communities Available/Not Available

                                            Chuadanga-            Naogaon-Joypurhat       Thakurgaon-Panchagarh        Meghnaghat-           Aminbazar-Old Airport
                                        Jhenaidah-Magura T/L            T/L                        T/L                 Aminbazar T/L                 T/L
                                          Yes         No.          Yes        No.            Yes         No.         Yes          No.          Yes          No.
   Electricity                             11          3            6           2              8          3           11            1           4            0
   Percent                                (79)       (21)          (75)       (25)           (73)        (27)        (92)          (8)        (100)         (0)
   Telephone                               2          12            3          5              2           9           2            10           4            0
   Percent                                (14)       (86)          (38)       (62)           (18)        (82)        (17)         (83)        (100)         (0)
   Hospital/Union or Community Health
                                           7            7            4           4             4             7        5            7            2              2
   Center
   Percent                                (50)         (50)        (50)         (50)         (36)           (64)     (42)         (58)          (50)         (50)
   School                                  12            2          7            1            8              3         8           4             4             0
   Percent                                (86)         (14)        (88)         (13)         (73)           (27)     (67)         (33)         (100)          (0)
   Madrasa                                 9            5           3            5            9              2         4           8             2             2
   Percent                                (64)         (36)        (38)         (62)         (82)           (18)     (33)         (67)          (50)         (50)
   College                                 4            10          3            5            5              6         1           11            1             3
   Percent                                (29)         (71)        (38)         (62)         (45)           (55)      (8)         (92)          (25)         (75)




                                                 Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                                                  ATT-40
Attachments                                                                 Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results




NGO Activities

Table: NGO Activities Found In Project Communities


                                                              Family
                                      Water                  Planning/
                                     Health &               Maternal &
       Project            NGOs      Sanitation Micro Credit Child Health Education Development        Library
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah- Shwanirvar
Magura                Founder
T/L                   Zagoroni
                      Weave
                      Grameen
                      Bank
                      Sreejani
                      ASA
                      BRAC
                      EFAD
                      DABI
Naogaon-Joypurhat T/L
                      TMSS
                      Grameen
                      Bank
                      BRAC
                      ASA
                      Manobik
Thakurgaon-
                      RDRS
Panchagarh T/L
                      Grameen
                      Bank
                      BRAC
                      ASA
                      Grameen
                      Bank
Meghnagha-Aminbazar
T/L                   ASA
                      Proshika
                      DABI
                      ASOD
                      EFAD
                      Popular
                      Grameen
Aminbazar-Old Airport Bank
T/L                   BRAC
                      Weave
                      Sreejani
                      Popular
                      ASA



                      Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendix J                  ATT-41
Attachments                                                                       Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results



Table: Status of Electric Connection in Subproject Sampled Communities and
Supplying Agency

                                   Electrric Connection                               Supplier Agency
       Project                                                                                                   Total
                       Yes    %        No      %      Total       %     PDB      %      REB      %      Total     %
Chuadanga-
                       46     58        34     43         80     100     20      43      26      57      46       100
Jhenaidah-Magura T/L
Naogaon to Joypurhat
                       30     75        10     25         40     100      5      17      25      83      30       100
T/L
Thakurgaon to
                       35     64        20     36         55     100     16      46      19      54      35       100
Panchagarh T/L
Subtotal               111    63        64     37      175               41      37      70      63     111

Meghnaghat to
                       59     98        1       2         60     100      2      3       57      97      59       100
Aminbazar T/L
Aminbazar to Old
                       14     93        1       7         15     100      6      43      8       57      14       100
Airport T/L
Subtotal                73    97         2      3       75       100      8      11     65       89     73        100
TOTAL                  184    74        66     26      250       100     49      27     135      73     184       100



Table: Status of Electric Connection in Subproject Sampled Communities and
Supplying Agency

                                                    Electrric Connection    Supplier Agency
                  Project                     Yes    % No % Total % PDB % REB % Total Total %
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                46     58 34 43 80 100 20 43 26 57 46         100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                      30     75 10 25 40 100 5 17 25 83 30          100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                  35     64 20 36 55 100 16 46 19 54 35         100
Total                                         111    63 64 37 175 100 41 37 70 63 111       100

Table: Status of Electricity Use, All Subproject Sample Households

                                                               Type of Electricity Use (Multiple Response)
                   District
                                                    Lighting     % Cooking % Irrigation              % Total
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L                         46        58       0        0        2        3      80     100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                               30        75       0        0        4        10     40     100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L                           35        64       2        4        0        0      55     100
Subtotal                                              111                 2                 6              175
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L                            59        98       2        3        1        2      60     100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L                           14        93       0        0        3        20     15     100
Sub-total                                              73        97       2        3        4        5      75     100
All                                                   184        73       4        2       10        4     250     100




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Attachments                                                                            Attachment 4: SES Field Study Results



Table: Irrigation Facilities, Sample Households All Subprojects

                                                                Facilities (Multiple Response)
                                                                                                    Total
                 Project                  Yes % No % Total % Diesel % Electric % Traditional % Total %
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L               30 50 30 50 60  100 13    43 10      33 7          23     100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L              3     20 12 80 15   100 1          33 2           67 0            0        100
Sub-total                                 33 44 42 56 75      100 14         42 12          36 7            21       100
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L            47 59 33 41 80      100 42         89 5           11 5            11       100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                  36 90 4 10 40       100 28         78 7           19 9            25       100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L              48 87 7 13 55       100 41         85 14          29 6            13       100
Subtotal                                  131     44    175   100 111          26             20                     100
All                                       164 66 86 34 250    100 125        76 38          23 27           16       100


Table: Sample Households Knowledge about Proposed Transmission Line Subprojects

                                                                            Response
              Project                   Yes            %              No               %            Total        Total %
Chuadanga-Jhenaidah-Magura T/L           6             8              74               93            80            100
Naogaon to Joypurhat T/L                36             90              4               10            40            100
Thakurgaon to Panchagarh T/L            41             75             14               25            55            100
Subtotal                                 83                           92                             175           100
Meghnaghat to Aminbazar T/L             25             42             35               58            60            100
Aminbazar to Old Airport T/L            10             67              5               33            15            100
Subtotal                                 35            47             40               53             75           100
All                                     118            47             132              53            250           100




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Land Prices

Table: Recent Land Transaction (Buying & Selling) Rate in the Project Areas, Average Price (Tk) per Decimal

                    Chuadanga-                                                Rounded
                    Jhenaidah-     Naogaon-          Thakurgaon-          Average for NW/W          Meghnaghat-             Aminbazar-Old        Rounded Average for
    Land Types      Magura T/L   Joypurhat T/L      Panchagarh T/L          Bangaldesh              Aminbazar T/L            Airport T/L             Dhaka Area
Commercial            50,000        26,333              9,714                  28,680                 203,333                 171,250                 187,292
Agricultural Land
High                   7,077        4,280               5,500                    5,620                     46,909                31,670                 39,290
Medium                 7,585        12,727              11,800                  10,700                     37,375                26,950                 32,163
Low                    4,590        4,500               3,250                    4,115                     20,800                17,625                 19,213
Fallow                   --         3,000               2,600                    2,800                     38,750                  --                   38,750
Other                 23,769          --                  --                    23,770                     20,000                15,000                 17,500




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Structure Prices

Table: Average Cost (Tk) Per Square Foot, Housing Construction in the Project Areas

                    Chuadanga-                                             Rounded Average                                                  Rounded             Rounded
 Construction    Jhenaidah-Magura     Naogaon-         Thakurgaon-            for NW/W            Meghnaghat-         Aminbazar-Old        Average for         Average for
     Types              T/L         Joypurhat T/L     Panchagarh T/L         Bangladesh           Aminbazar T/L        Airport T/L         Dhaka Area          Sector Loan
Residential
Pucca                 160.8             285.2              356.5                  270                  249.2               300.0               275                 273
Semi-Pucca            58.5              85.3               44.9                   65                   61.3                52.4                57                  61
Tin Roof              22.1              47.8               19.7                   30                   45.5                26.9                 36                  33
Straw (Thatch)                                                                     17                                                           29                  23
                       35.5             10.3                4.9                                        27.0                31.4
Hut
Commercial
Pucca                 195.3             397.0              393.9                  330                  473.9               513.9               294                 312
Semi-Pucca            22.9              82.4               44.8                   50                   73.6                40.6                57                  54
Tin Roof              12.0              13.6               21.2                   16                   45.8                30.7                 38                  27
Straw (Thatch)                                                                     4                                                            10                   7
                        0                5.8                5.4                                        10.0                  0
Hut




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Table: Estimated Land Acquisition, Resettlement Impacts for T/L Subprojects

                                      3 T/L                                                    Meghnaghat to                             Aminbazar to Old
                                  Subprojects                                                  Aminbazar T/L                                Airport T/L             Total
                                    Number               Quantity           Number                Quantity              Number               Quantity              Number             Quantity
Land                             160 HHs             23.0 Acres           95 HHs           12.0 Acres Owned           35 HHs           0.3 Acres Owned           290 HHs          35.3 Acres
                                                     Owned 146                                                                                                                    Owned
o    Agriculture                                     16.1 Acres                            4.8 Acres                                   0.05 Acres                                 20.95 Acres
o    Homestead                                       1.38 Acres                            0.6 Acres                                   0.10 Acres                                 2.08 Acres
o    Commercial                                      1.61 Acres                            0.6 Acres                                   0.10 Acres                                 2.31 Acres
o    Low Land/Water                                  3.91 Acres                            6.0 Acres                                   0.05 Acres                                 9.96 Acres
Bodies

2. Structure                     185 Structures      67,850 Sqft Floor    170              84,585 Sqft Floor Area     75               17,415 Sqft Floor Area    430              169,770 Sqft
                                                     Area                 Structures                                  Structures                                 Structures       Floor Area
3. Crops for Compensation        16.1 Acres                                                4.80 Acres                                  0.00 Acres                20.9 Acres
4. Tenant Cultivators            30 HHs              4.83 Acres           25 HHs           1.94 Acres Cultivated      0 HHs            0.00 Acres Cultivated     55 HHs           6.77 Acres
                                                     Cultivated                                                                                                                   Cultivated
5. Renters                       (40 HHs)                                 (38 HHs)                                    (20 HHs)                                   (98 HHs)
6. (Female Head                  (16 HHs)                                 (8 HHs)                                     (5 HHs)                                    (29 HHs)
ed Households)




146
   The Field Survey found 12.8 acres of land the N/SW for the 3 Transmission Line Subprojects will be required, which has been calculated as per requirement of land for each tower
multiplied by the total number of towers but PGCB indicated for 23.0 acres, it may require for construction of different establishment/facilities. So in this budget estimation has been done for
23.0 acres of land.



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Appendix K                                Resettlement Policy and Legal Framework

                                THE ELECTRICITY ACT, 1910

All activities performed by the licensee of electricity supply in Bangladesh are regulated
under the Electricity Act 1910. Work provisions under this Act are reviewed below:

Section 12. Provisions as to the opening and breaking up of street, railways and tramways:

1)      Any licensee may from time to time but subject always to the terms an conditions of
his license within the area of supply, or when permitted by the terms of his license to lay
down or place electric supply lines without the area of supply, without, that area.

   o Open and break up the soil and pavement of any street, railway or tramway,
   o Open and break up any sewer, drain or tunnel in or under any street, railway or
     tramway
   o Lay down and place electric supply lines and other works
   o Repair, alter or remove the same; and
   o Do all other acts necessary for the due supply of energy.

2)     Nothing contained in sub section (1) shall be deemed to authorise or empower a
licensee [without intimation to the local authority or to the owner or] occupier concerned, are
the case may be, to lay down or place any electric supply line or other work in through or
against any building, or on, over or under any land not dedicated to public use whereon
wherever or where under any electric supply-line or work has not already when lawfull laid
down or placed by such licensee:
Provided that any support of an aerial line or any stay on street required for the sole purpose
of securing in position any support of an aerial line may be fixed on any building or land or,
having been so fixed, may, be altered, not withstanding the objection of the owner or
occupier of such building or land if the District Magistrate by order in writing so directs.

Provided, also, that, if at any time the owner or occupier of any building or land on which any
such support, stay or street has been fixed shows sufficient causes, the District Magistrate
may by order in writing direct any such support, stay or street to be removed or altered.

3)      When making an order under sub-section (2) the District Magistrate shall fix the
amount of compensation or of annual rent, or of both, which should in his opinion be paid by
the licensee to the owner or occupier,

4)      Every order made by a District Magistrate under sub-section (2) shall be subject to
revision by the [Government]

5)      Nothing contained in sub section (i) shall be deemed to authorise or empower any
licensee to open or break up any street not repairable by the [Government] or a local
authority, or any railway or tramway, except such streets railways or tramways (if any), or


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such parts thereof, as he is specially authorized to break up by his license, without the written
consent of the person by whom the street is repairable or of the person for the time being
entitled to work the railway or tramway unless with the written consent of the [Government].

Provided that the [Government] shall not given any such consent as aforesaid, until the
licensee has given notice by advertisement or otherwise as the [Government] may direct, and
within such period as the [Government] may fix in this behalf, to the person above referred
to, and until all representations or objections received in accordance with the notice have
been considered by the [Government].

Section 13. Notice of new Works –

1)      Where the exercise of any of the powers of a licensee in relation to the execution of
any works involves the placing of any works in, under, over, along or across any street, part
of a street, railway tramway, canal or waterway the following provision shall have effect,
namely:

        a)      not less then one month before commencing the execution of the works (not
        being a service line immediately attached, or extended to be immediately attached, to
        a distributing main, or the repair, renewal or amendment of existing works or, which
        the character or Position is not to be altered), the licensee shall serve upon the person
        responsible for the repair of the street or part of a street (hereinafter in this section
        refereed to as “the repairing authority”) or upon the person for the time being entitled
        to work the railway, tramway, canal or waterway (hereinafter in this section refereed
        to as “the owner”), as the case may be, a notice in writing describing the proposed
        works, together with a sufficiently large to show clearly the details of the propose
        works, and not in any case smaller than one inch to eight feet vertically and sixteen
        inches to the mile horizontally and intimating the manner in which, and the time at
        which, it is proposed to interfere with or alter any existing works, and shall, upon
        being require to do so by the repairing authority or owner, as the case may be from to
        time give such further information in relation thereto as may be desired.

        b)      if the repairing authority intimates to the licensee that it disapproves of such
        works, section or plan, or approves thereof subject to amendment, the licensee may,
        within one week of receiving such intimation, appeal to the [Government], whose
        decision, after considering the reasons given by the repairing authority for its action,
        shall be final.

        c)     if the repairing authority fails to give notice in writing of its approval or
        disapproval to the licensee within one month, it shall be deemed to have approved of
        the works, section and plan, and the licensee, after giving not less than forty-eight
        hours’ notice in writing to the repairing authority, may proceed to carry out the works
        in accordance with the notice and the section and plan served under clause (a);

        d)      if the owner disapproves of such works, section or plan, or approves there of
        subject to amendment, he may, within three weeks after the service of the notice
        under clause (a) serve a requisition upon the licensee demanding that any question in
        relation to the works or to compensation, or to the obligations of the owner to others



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        in respect thereof, shall be determined by arbitration, and thereupon there matter shall
        , unless settled by agreement, be determined arbitration;

        e)      Where no requisition has been served by the owner upon the licensee under
        clause (d) within the time named, the owner shall be deemed to have approved of the
        works, section and plan, and in that case, or where after a requisition for arbitration
        the matter has been determined by arbitration, the works may upon payment or
        securing of compensation, be executed according to the notice and the section and
        plan, subject to such modifications as may have been determined by arbitration or
        agreed upon between the parties;

        f)      where the works to be executed consist of the laying of any underground
        services line immediately attached, or intended to be immediately attached, to a
        distributing main, the licensee shall give to the repairing authority or the owner, as the
        case may be not less than forty eight hours notice in writing of his intention to execute
        such works;

        g)      where the works to be executed consist of the repair, renewal or amendment of
        existing works of which the character or position is not to be altered, the licensee
        shall, except in case of emergency, give to the repairing authority, or to the owner, as
        the case may be not less than forty eight hours notice in writing of his intention to
        execute such works, and on the expiry of such notice, such works shall be commenced
        forth with and shall be carried on with all reasonable dispatch, and if possible, both by
        day and by night until completed.

2)      Where the licensee makes default in complying with any of these provisions, he shall
make full compensation for any loss or damage incurred by reason thereof and where any
difference or dispute arises as to the amount of such compensation, the matter shall be
determined by arbitration.

3)      Not withstanding anything in this section, the licensee may, in case of emergency due
to the breakdown of any underground electric supply-line, after giving notice in writing to the
repairing authority or the owner, as the case may be of his intention to do so, place an aerial
line without complying with the provisions of sub-section (1)

Provided that such aerial line shall be used only until the defect in the underground electric
supply-line can be made good, and in no case unless with the written consent of the
[Government] for a period exceeding six weeks and shall be removed as soon as may be after
such defect is remove.

Section 14. Alteration of pipes or wires –

1)      Any licensee may alter the position of any pipe / wire (not forming in a case where
the licensee in a not a local authority, part of a local authority’s main sewer), or of any wire
under or over any place which he is authorized to open or break up, if such pipe or wire is
likely to interfere with the exercise of his powers under this acts and nay person may alter the
position of any electric supply-lines or works of a licensee under or over any such place as
aforesaid, if such electric supply –lines or works are likely to interfere with the lawful
exercise of any powers vested in him.


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2)    In any such case as aforesaid the following provisions shall, in the absence of an
agreement to the contrary between the parties concerned, apply, namely:

        a)      not less than one month before commencing any alteration, the licensee or
        other person desiring to make the same (hereinafter in this action referred to as “the
        operator”) shall serve upon the person for the time being entitled to the pipe, wire,
        electric supply-lines or works as the case may be (hereinafter in this section referred
        to as “the owner”), a notice writing, describing the proposed alteration, together with
        a section and plan thereof on a scale sufficiently large to show clearly the details of
        the proposed works and not in any case smaller than one inch to eight feet vertically
        and sixteen inches to the mile horizontally, and intimating the time when it is to be
        commenced, and shall sub-sequentially give such further information in relation
        thereto as the owner may desire;

        b)     within fourteen days after the services of the notice, section and plan upon the
        owner, the owner may serve upon the operator a requisition to the effect that any
        question arising upon the notice, section or plan shall be determined by arbitration and
        thereupon the matter shall, unless settled by agreement, be determined by arbitration;

        c)     every arbitrator to whom a reference is made under clause (b) shall be regard
        to any duties or obligations which the owner is under, and may require the operator to
        execute any temporary or other work so as to avoid, as far as possible, interference
        therewith;

        d)      where no requisition is served upon the operator under clause (b) within the
        time named, or where such a requisition has been served and the matter has been
        settle by agreement or determined by arbitration, the alteration may, upon payment or
        securing of any compensation accepted or determined by arbitration, be executed in
        accordance with the notice, section and plan and subject to such modifications as may
        have been determined by arbitration or agreed upon between the parties;

        e)      the owner may at any time before the operator is entitled to commence the
        alteration, serve upon the operator a statement in writing to the effect that he desires
        to execute the alteration himself and requires the operator to give such security for the
        repayment of any expenses as may be agreed upon or, in default of agreement,
        determined by arbitration;

        (f)     where a statement is served upon the operator under clause (e), he shall, not
        less than forty-eight hours before the execution of the alteration is required to be
        commenced, furnish such security and serve upon the owner a notice in writing
        intimating the time when the alteration is required to be made; and thereupon the
        owner may proceed to execute the alteration as required by the operator;

        (g)     where the owner declines to comply, or does not, within the time and in the
        manner prescribed by a notice served upon him under clause (f), comply with the
        notice, the operator may himself execute the alteration;

        (h)    all expenses properly incurred by the owner in complying with a notice served
        upon him by the operator under clause (f) may be recovered by him from the operator,


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3)    Where the licensee or other person desiring to make the alteration makes default in
complying with any of these provisions, he shall make full compensation for any loss or
damage incurred by reason thereof, and, where any difference or dispute arises as to the
amount of such compensation, the matter shall be determined by arbitration;


Section 15.    Lying of electric supply lines or other words near sewers,
               pipes or other electric supply lines or works,


(1)     Where -

        (a)     the licensee required to dig or sink any trench for laying down any new
        electric supply lines or other works, near to which any sewer, drain, water course or
        work under the control of the [Government] or of any local authority, or any pipe
        syphon, electric supply line or other work belonging to any duly authorised person,
        has been lawfully placed, or

        (b)    any duly authorised person requires to dig or sink any trench for laying down
        or constructing any new pipes or other works, near to which any electric supply lines
        or works of a licensee have been lawfully places,

The licensee or such duly authorised person, as the case may be hereinafter in this section
referred to as “the operator”, shall, unless it is otherwise agreed upon between the parties
interested or in case of sudden emergency, give to the [Government] or local authority, or to
such duly authorised person or to the licensee, as the case may be hereinafter in this section
referred to as “the owner” [immediate intimation in writing by special messenger or by
telephonic message followed by written intimation] before commencing to dig or sink the
trench and the owner shall have the right to be present during the execution of the work,
which shall be executed to the reasonable satisfaction of the owner.

2)      where the operator finds it necessary to undermine but, not to alter, the position of any
pipe, electric supply line or work, he shall support it in position during the execution of the
work, and before completion shall provides a suitable and proper foundation for it where so
undermined

3)      where the operator (being the licensee) lays any electric supply-line across, or so a to
be liable to touch, any pipes, lines or service-pipes or service-lines belonging to any duly
authorized person or to any person supplying, transmitting or any using energy under this
Act, he shall not except with the written consent of such person and in accordance with
section 34, sub-section (1), lay he electric supply-lines so as to come into contact with any
such pipes, lines or service pipes or service lines.

4)      where the operator makes default in complying with any of the provisional of this
section, he shall make full compensation for any loss or damage incured by reason thereof

5)     where any difference or dispute arises under this section, the matter shall be
determined by arbitration



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6)      where the licensee is a local authority, the references in this section to the local
authority and sewers, drains, water courses or works under its control not apply

Section 16.    Streets, railways, tramways, sewers, drains or tunnels
               broken up to be reinstated without delay

1)      Where any person in exercise of any of the powers conferred by or under this Act.
opens or breaks up the soil or pavement of any street, rain way or tramway, or any sewer,
drain or tunnel, he shall –

        a)     immediately cause the part opened or broken up to be fenced and guarded.
        b)      before sunset cause a light or lights, sufficient for the warning of passengers,
        to be set up and maintained until sunrise against or near the part opened or broken ups
        c)      with all reasonable speed fill in the ground and reinstate and make good the
        soil or pavement, or the sever, drain or tunnel, opened or broken up, and carry away,
        the rubbish occasioned by such opening or breaking ups and
        d)     after reinstating and making good the soil or pavement, or the sewer, drain or
        tunnel broken or opened up, keep the same in good repair for three months and for
        any further period, not exceeding nine months, during which subsidence continues.

2)      Where any person fails to comply with any of the provision of sub-section (a) the
person having the control or management of the street, railway, tramway, sewer, drain or
tunnel in respect of which the default has occurred, may cause to be executed the work which
the defaulter has delayed or omitted to execute and may recover from him the expenses
incurred in such execution.

3)     Where any difference or dispute arises as to the amount of the expenses incurred
under sub-section (2) the matter shall be determined by arbitration.

Section 17.    Notice to telegraph authority

1)      A licensee shall, before laying down or placing, within ten yards of any part of any
telegraph line, any electric supply-line or other works ([not being either service lines] or
electric supply lines for the repair, renewal or amendment of existing works of which the
character or position is not to be altered) give not less than ten days notice in writing to the
telegraph authority specifying.

        a)     the course of the works or alteration proposed,

        b)     the manner in which the works are to be utilised

        c)     the amount and nature of the energy to be transmitted and

        d)     the extent to, and manner in, which (if at all) earth returns are to be used




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and the licensee shall conform with such reasonable requirements, either general or special,
as may be laid down by the telegraph authority within that period for preventing any
telegraph line from being injuriously affected by such works or alterations.

Provided that, in case of emergency (which shall be stated by the licensee in writing to the
telegraph authority) arising from defects in any of the electric supply lines or other works of
the licensee, the licensee shall be required to given only such notice as may be possible after
the necessity for the proposed new works or alterations has arisen.

2)      Where the works to be executed consist of the laying [or placing] of any * service line
the licensee shall not less than forty-eight hours before commencing the work, serve upon the
telegraph authority a notice in writing of his intention to execute such works.

Section 18.    Aerial Lines

1)     Save as provide in section 13, sub-section (3) nothing in this part shall be deemed to
authorize or empower a licensee to place any aerial line along or across any street, railway,
tramway, canal or water way unless and until the [Government] has communicated to him a
general approval in writing of the methods of construction which he propose to adopt:

Provided that the communication of such approval shall in no way relieve the licensee of his
obligation with respect to any other consent required by or under this act.

2)     Where any aerial line has been placed or maintained by a licensee in breach of the
provisions of sub-section (1) the [Government] may require the licensee forthwith to remove
the same, or may cause the same to be removed, and recover from the licensee the expenses
incurred in such removal;

3)       Where any tree standing or lying rear and aerial line, or where any structure or other
object which has been placed or has fallen near an aerial line subsequently to the placing or
such line, interrupts or interferes with or is likely to interrupt or interfere with, the
conveyance or transmission of energy on the accessibility of any works, a Magistrate of the
first class may, on the application of the licensee, cause the tree, structure of object to be
removed or otherwise dealt with as he thinks fit.

4)      When disposing of an application under sub-section (3), the Magistrate shall in the
ease of any tree in existence before the placing of the aerial line, award to the person
interested in the tree such compensation as he thinks reasonable, and such person may
recover the same form the licensee.

Explanation – For the purposes of this section, the expression “tree” shall be deemed to
include any shrub, hedge, jungle growth or other plant.

Section 19.    Compensation for damage –

1)    A licensee shall, in exercise of any of the powers conferred by or under this Act,
cause as little damage, detriment and inconvenience as may be and shall make full
compensation for any damage detriment or inconvenience caused by him or by any one
employed by him.


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2)     Save in the case provided for in section 12, sub-section (3), where any difference or
dispute arises as to the amount or the application of such compensation, the matter shall be
determined by arbitration.

Section 9A.    Supply

Point where supply is delivered – For the purposes of this Act, the point at which the supply
of energy by a licensee to a consumer shall be deemed to commence shall be determined in
such manner as may be prescribed.

Section 20.    Power for licensee to enter premises and to remove fittings or other apparatus
of licensee

1) A licensee or any person duly authorise by a licensee may, at any reasonable time, and on
informing the occupier of his intention, enter any premises to which energy is or has been
supplied by him, for the purpose of-

        (a)    Inspecting and testing the electric supply-lines, meters, fittings, works, and
        apparatus, for the supply of energy belonging to the licensee, or

        (b)     ascertaining the amount of energy supplied or the electrical quantity contained
        in the supply; or

        (c)    removing, where a supply of energy is no longer required, or where the
        licensee is authorised to take away and cat off such supply any electric supply lines
        [meter] fitting, works or apparatus belonging to the licensee.

2)      A licensee or any person authorised as aforesaid may also, in pursuance of a special
order in this behalf made by the District Magistrate and after giving not less than twenty four
hours notice in writing to the occupier, enter any premises to which energy is or has been
supplied, or is to be supplied, by him for the purpose of examine and testing the electric
wires, fittings, works and apparatus for the use of energy belonging to the consumer.

3)      Where a consumer refuses to allow a licensee or any person authorised as aforesaid to
enter his premises in pursuance of the provision of sub-section (2), or when such licensee or
person has so entered, refuses to allow him to perform, any act which he is authorised by
those sub-sections to perform, or fails to give reasonable facilities for such entry or
performance, the licensee may, after the expiry.




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 ACQUISITION AND REQUISITION OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY ORDINANCE OF 1982


Acquisition of immovable property is made in Bangladesh now under the Acquisition and
Requisition of Immovable Property Ordinance of 1982. This Ordinance replaced the Land
Acquisition Act, 1894. and the East Bengal (Emergency) Requisition of Property Act of 1948
This Ordinance is (with a few exceptions which will be discussed later) governing all cases of
acquisition and requisition by the government of immovable property for any public purpose
or in the public interest. It may be noted that contrary to the previous Act, i.e. Act XlIl of
1948 this Ordinance deals only with immovable property (Land Acquisition Act I of 1894
also dealt with only immovable property i.e. land).

Not withstanding the repeal of the 1894 and 1948 Land Acquisition Acts, all proceedings and
matters relating to the acquisition and requisition of property under these Acts (including
applications and appeals pending before any Arbitrator or Court) continue to be heard or
disposed of as if these Acts were still in force.

Also the land acquisition provisions of the Town Improvement Act of 1953 as well as
Chittagong and Khulna Development Authority Ordinances were to be repealed after the
promulgation of the 1982 Land Acquisition Ordinance. In the year 1994 a major amendment
was done in the ordinance under Act-20 to expedite the acquisition process and suffering of
the APs.

Below follows a review of the most important features of the 1982 Ordinance. Wherever
necessary, references are also made to relevant administrative regulations and instructions. In
accordance with the Ordinance, the legal process is initiated by an application from the
requiring Body, which can be any governmental or non-governmental agency.

In the Ordinance it is stated that whenever it appears to the Deputy Commissioner that any
property in any locality is likely to be needed for a public purpose or in public interest, he
shall cause a notice to be published at convenient places in or near the property to be acquired
(Sec. 3). Any person having interest in such property may object to the proposed acquisition
to the Deputy Commissioner in writing within 15 days (Sec. 4.1). The DC will prepare a
report and refer the case to higher authorities for decision (Sec.4.2). If the property exceeds
50 (fifty) standard bighas of land, the final decision will be made by the government. In case
of property up to 50 bighas, the final decision will be made by the Divisional Commissioner.
However, if no objections are raised within the 15 days time-limit the final decision may be
made by the DC in case of properties of up to 50 standard bighas of land, otherwise the
Commissioner (Sec. 4.3 and Sec. 5) will take the decision in case of dispute.

After a decision of acquisition of a property has been made, DC issues a second public notice,
again to be published at convenient places at or near such property. The public notice shall
state the intention of the authorities to take possession of the property. It shall also invite all
persons with interests in the property to appear in person or by an agent before the DC, not
before 15 days (!) after the publication of the notice, to state the nature of their interest in the
property and submit claims to compensation (Sec. 6).




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It is explicitly stated that in determining the compensation, the DC shall not consider any
disinclination of the person to part with theproperty, any increase in the value of the property
to be acquired likely to accrue from the use of it after it has been acquired (Sec. 9).

Payments of compensation must be made before the authorities take possession of the
property (Sec. 10.1).

The property acquired under the Ordinance must not, without prior approval of the
government, be used for any purpose other than the purpose for which it has been acquired
(Sec. 17).

After compensation has been paid or deposited in the Public Account of the Republic the
property shall stand acquired and vest absolutely with the Government free from all
encumbrances. The DC can take possession of the property after a declaration has been made
in the Official Gazette (Sec. 11).

Compensation must be paid or deposited within a period of sixty days from the date of
receiving the estimate from the Requiring body (RB) (Sec. 7/4). In default all proceedings
shall stand abated on the expiry of that period. Besides, the Deputy Commissioner may, with
the approval of the competent authorities, revoke all proceedings in respect of the acquisition
of any property at any time before the payment of compensation (Sec. 12).

The Ordinance also covers the case of temporary requisition (In part III) of property for a
public purpose or in the public interest. With prior approval of the government the DC can
decide on the requisition of any property for a period two years. No prior approval will,
however, be required in case of emergency requisition (Sec.18). But with prior approval of
the GoB, requisition perod may extend more than two years.

The DC may take possession of the requisition after serving the requisition order. The
amount of compensation will be equal to the estimated rent which would have been payable
for the use and occupation of the property if it had been taken on lease for that period plus
compensation for estimated expenses for vacating and re-occupying the property (Sec. 20). If
a person is not satisfied with the amount of compensation or there is a dispute over
ownership, the DC may deposit the money in the Public Account (Sec. 21).

A person who does not accept the award made by the DC may submit an application to the
Arbitrator for revision of the award within 45 days from the date of notice of the award (Sec.
28). The Arbitrator is a Government appointed Judicial Officer, not below the rank of
Subordinate Judge (Sec. 27). A decision determined by the Arbitrator is higher than that
decided by the DC, an additional compensation for delay at the rate of 10 percent per annual
may be paid (Sec. 32). As per amendment of 1994, the Arbitrator can not defer the
compensation amount more than 10 times of the D.C.S Awards (Sec. 31).

An appeal against the decision by the Arbitrator can be made to an Arbitration Appellate
Tribunal, which consists of a member appointed by the government from among persons who
are or have been District Judges. A decision of the said Tribunal shall be final (Sec. 34).




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It may be observed that the Ordinance does not exclusively apply to acquisition by the
government. Sections 14 and 15 govern the cases of acquisition of property at the cost of
person other than the government, A condition is that there is an agreement between the
acquiring person and the government. The Government is entitled to charge a fee (to cover
some administrative costs for the acquisition)

In 1989 the government ordered that in reference to the provisions of Ordinance II of 1982,
the President would have to give permission for acquisition of land exceeding 10 bighas of
land.

There are special instructions regarding unused acquired property and requisition of
buildings.

LAND ACQUISITION PROCEDURES

Land acquisition requires interaction between, on the one hand, the Requiring Body (RB),
which normally is a national infrastructure development government agency, such as the
Water Development Board, Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB), etc. in the
present case the PGCB. And, on the other hand, the Acquiring Body (AB) which normally is
the Ministry of land which delegates some of its authority to the Deputy Commissioner at the
District level or the Commissioner at the divisional level.

The division of responsibility between the Requiring Body and the Acquiring Body is in
broad terms that the Requiring Body provides the technical input and the Acquiring Body the
legal input in the land acquisition process. It is the Requiring Body which must ensure that
the project, which is the basis for the acquisition of land, is approved by the authorities and
that funds are available. The Requiring Body must also justify the need for land and other
property on the basis of field surveys including detailed engineering design and prepare all
necessary documents required for decision making. At this stage the Acquiring Body
processes the land acquisition cases including determination of the level of compensation and
payment to the concerned people. When land acquisition is completed, the land is handed
over to the requiring Body.

The legal aspects of the land acquisition process starts with the Requiring Body (RB)
submitting an application to the Deputy Commissioner with a request to acquire land for a
specific purpose. The procedures for dealing with land acquisition matters are established in a
Government Memo dated October 1985. In respect of proposals in the water resources sector,
the Water Development Board issues additional guidelines. The proposal must contain the
following items:

A Proforma indicating the amount of land required, a time table for the acquisition of land
and the purpose for which the land is to be acquired;

    o A Layout Plan, which shows the location of the project on a map;

    o A Site Plan, showing the alignment in red ink on a Mouza map;

    o A Land Schedule showing classification of land and ownership of plots to be
      acquired;


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    o Certificate of Minimum Requirement, issued by the Requiring Body stating that the
      quantity of land proposed for acquisition is the absolute minimum for a proper
      implementation of the project;

    o Administrative Approval, comprising a copy of approved Project Proforma.

After receiving the proposal the DC will arrange for a field verification jointly with the staff
of the Requiring Body. This includes a classification of the land to be acquired and an
identification of trees and standing crops of value, which are involved.

The Requiring Body’s application is then submitted to the District Land Allocation
Committee (DLAC) or the Divisional Land Allocation Committee (depending on the amount
of land required) for the allocation of land. The letter may in turn refer the proposal to the
Central Land Acquisition Committee for a decision. After clearance by the relevant Land
Allocation Committee the DC issues the preliminary notice and, if required, hears objections
against the proposed acquisition. If there are no objections, the DC may give the formal
approval for land acquisition under the condition that the area to be acquired covers less than
ten standard bighas. However, if there are objections and/or the acquisition is above ten
standard bighas of land, the DC submits the application to the Commissioner or the Ministry
of Land for the final approval. The DC's submission shall be accompanied by the DLAC's
(CLAC's) clearance, the DC's report on the objection petitions and information on the number
of households likely to be affected. In respect of projects executed by the Upazila Parishad,
the government has authorized the Divisional Commissioner to make the final decision even
if the land to be acquired is above 10 bighas.

After the final approval by the government / Commissioner / Deputy Commissioner (as the
case may be), the case is referred back to the DC for the assessment of compensation and the
identification of the owner of the plots to be acquired. With the final approval to acquire land,
the requiring body must place required funds for payment of compensation with the DC. If
the Requiring Body fails to do that within sixty days from the date of receipt of the estimate
for DC, for no fault of the person interested all proceedings shall stand abated and a
declaration to that effect by the DC will be published in the official Gazette (See 12).

Compensation is paid by the DC's office. There are no specific rules on where or in which
form compensation should be paid. Normally smaller amounts appear to be paid in cash
whereas larger amounts are paid by cheques to persons who are identified by the Chairman or
members of the Union Parishad or by gazetted officers. In case the rightful owner of the plot
of land cannot be identified or there is conflict over ownership or the distribution of
compensation funds are deposited in the Public Account of the Republic.

In case the person does not accept the award of compensation the person can go for
Arbitratior according to the provisions of the Land Acquisition Ordinance of 1982 or the
Emergency Land Acquisition Act of 1989.

After payment of compensation the ownership of the land is formally transferred to the
Requiring Body by mutation of the Requiring Body's name in the revenue records of the
Government maintained in the Thana Land office/Tahsil office generally after the transfer is
published in the Government Gazette.



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OBJECTION AGAINST ACQUISITION
An aggrieved party has the right to raise objection to the decision of the Deputy
Commissioner to acquire his property. To exercise this right, the party in question will have
to refer his objection in writing within 15 days after the publication of the acquisition notice.
The Deputy Commissioner will then give the objector the opportunity of being heard either in
person or by an agent. After hearing the objection and making further inquiry, if necessary,
the Deputy Commissioner will prepare a report in this connection within a period of the
month.

In case the land/property to be acquired exceeds 50 standard bighas, the Deputy
commissioner will submit the record of the proceedings along with his report to the
Government (in the Ministry of Land / Property Minister) for a decision. When it is not so,
the recorded proceedings and the report will go the Divisional Commissioner for a decision.
The decision in either case will be final.

Once decision has been made for acquisition of any property, the Deputy Commissioner will
serve notice in the prescribed manner to the effect that the property in question is to be
acquired and that possession of the same will be taken and that claims to compensation by the
concerned parties can be made to him (DC). Such notice will give detailed particulars of the
property in question and ask the concerned parties to appear before the Deputy Commissioner
in person, not before 15 days after publication of the notice, to claim compensation according
to rules. Such notice will also be served upon the occupier and all other sharers, if any, of the
property in question.

Award of compensation: The Deputy commissioner after examining the claims of
compensation will make an award of compensation for the property. He will also divide the
compensation among all other sharers, if there is any.

COMPENSATION FOR ACQUIRED PROPERTY
Once decision has been made for acquisition of any property, the Deputy Commissioner will
serve notice in the prescribed manner to the effect that the property in question is to be
acquired and that possession of the same will be taken and that claims to compensation by the
concerned parties can be made to him (DC). Such notice will give detailed particulars of the
property in question and ask the concerned parties to appear before the Deputy Commissioner
in person, not before 15 days after publication of the notice, to claim compensation according
to rules. Such notice will also be served upon the occupier and all other sharers, if any, of the
property in question.

Award of compensation: The Deputy commissioner after examining the claims of
compensation will make an award of compensation for the property. He will also divide the
compensation among all other sharers, if there is any.

MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED IN DETERMINING COMPENSATION
In determining the amount of compensation, the Deputy Commissioner will take into
consideration the following factors:

Market value at the date of publication of the proposal to acquire the land in question (under
section 3 of the ordinance). Market value is determined/calculated on the basis of average



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value or similar properties in the vicinity during the twelve months proceeding the date of
publication of the notice.

Costs of standing crops or trees on the land/property at the time of taking its possession by
the Deputy Commissioner.

    o Dislocation from his other properties, if any.
    o Injuries/adverse-effect on his other properties or his income.
    o Reasonable cost of shifting from residence or place of business.
    o Loss of income of the property in between the service of notice and possession of the
      property taken by the Deputy Commissioner.

In addition, an extra amount of 50% of the market value so calculated will be awarded to the
dispossessed person in consideration of the compulsory nature of the acquisition.

MATTERS NOT CONSIDERED IN DETERMINING COMPENSATION
The matters which has not been considered in determining the compensation are :

o Sudden acquisition without providing the owner sufficient time to make alternative
  arrangement for the property is being dispossessed off.

o In attachment to the property, sentiment or any other psychological consideration, e.g. the
  property may be ancestral and therefore the owner may value it much more
  psychologically, traditionally than more economically.

o Damage suit against another (private person) which may take place in course of enjoying
  such property cannot be transferred to the acquiring authority.

o No claim of any damage for any effect upon the property following service of notice or
  actual use of the property under changed circumstances (after acquisition of the said
  property). Increase of value of the said property after its acquisition.

o Cost of any alteration or improvement to the acquired property without the sanction of the
  Deputy Commissioner after the date of publication of the notice for acquisition.

PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION

After an award is made, the Deputy Commissioner will make payment of the entire amount
of compensation in full before the land/property in question is acquired and taken possession
of. In addition 50% additional compensation will be paid to the affected owners in
consideration of the compulsory nature of acquisition and involuntary nature of acceptance of
the same by the owners.

PROBLEMS OF VALUATION AND COMPENSATION
For the calculation of compensation, the land acquisition officials at the district have to
depend on the available records of rights and records of transfer of property. The common
practice of under reporting the value of land in transfer deeds (in order to avoid taxes) results
in too low a level of compensation. On the other hand, there are also a few examples of fake


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transfers at an artificially high level taking place in anticipation of land being acquired, in
order to raise the level of compensation.

The practice of not registering inherited land and property in the name of the present owner,
in combination with an outdated and disorganized land record system means that the
identification of the recipients of compensation becomes very time consuming. The imperfect
land record system also provides scope for manipulations.

In many reported cases, payment is not made in full, even if there is an agreement between
the parties. A field survey reported that nearly 90 percent of the concerned households
incurred extra legal expenses. In the assessment of land acquisition for the construction of
Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge, it was reported that the recipients had to pay the officials
around ten percent of the awarded compensation as a service charge.

Non-payment or delayed payment of compensation is, however, not only due to a slow
functioning of the district administration. The policy of disbursing government funds for land
acquisition in three or four installments, spread out over the year, means that the district
administration may not have sufficient funds available when payment is due. JMBA however
has an adequate balance with the DC's.

The property owners incur high transaction expenses for travailing to and from the district
office to claim the rights and to receive compensation. Objections against acquisition are
often heard and payment of compensation is normally done in the district town. This means
that the recipients not only face high costs for travelling to the district town, but also lose
income.

The notice for acquisition of land (under the 1982 Ordinance} is not served to the individuals
concerned but is only made known through public notice, results frequently in forfeiture of
rights. People get to know about the government's intention to acquire land too late to make
necessary preparations.

TIME FRAME

(a)    Payment of compensation must be made before the authority takes possession of the
property (Ordinance of 1982).

(b)    Compensation must be paid or deposited within a period of one year from the date of
decision of acquisition. All proceedings shall stand abated on the expiry of that period
(Ordinance 1982).

Persons with interest or right over the property to be acquired have 10 days in the 1989 Act
and 15 days in the 1982 Ordinance to submit claims for compensation.

The 1989 Act emphasizes quicker compensation by introducing the concept of "provisional
compensation" which is to be determined within 10 days of the order of acquisition. Land can
be acquired on payment of provisional compensation. However, the final compensation is to
be determined within three months from the date of acquisition.




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AGENCY RESPONSIBILITY

The administrative set up for land administration has two tiers under the Ministry of Land
Administration and Land. At the Divisional level there is an Additional Commissioner
dealing with land administration under the Commissioner. At the District level there is an
Additional Deputy Commissioner in charge of land administration. Under him there is at least
one Land Acquisition Officer and several Assistant Land Acquisition Officers. The number
of officers depends on the size of the District Dhaka District, as an example, has five Land
Acquisition Officers. Non-gazetted officers include Kanungos (normally two per district but
more in larger districts), surveyors, etc.

ADB RESETTLEMENT POLICY AND ENTITLEMENT FRAMEWORK

In order to ensure that displaced persons are not put at a disadvantage because of project, which may
by itself be very attractive, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), in its Handbook on Resettlement
describes its policy and procedures on involuntary resettlement (ADB, 1998). The ADB policy aims
at providing benefits from the project to the displaced persons taking into account the following
factors:

    o   Displacement (and consequential resettlement) should be avoided or kept at a minimum. This
        requires exploration of all viable alternative designs of a project.

    o   Displaced persons should be compensated for all losses at full replacement cost. This will
        include assistance during transition period, assistance in regaining social and economic
        condition. Poorest groups and special categories such as ethnic minorities, female-headed
        households are to receive special alternation in all matters: acquisition, compensation
        payments, transition, relocation and rehabilitation.

    o   Community (displaced) participation in resettlement planning and execution thereof be
        encouraged.

    o   Community (host area) participation should be encouraged. Social integration in the host
        community should be ensured, if necessary by enlarging host area community facilities.

    o   Resettlement benefits should be extended to people who do not have land rights but enjoyed
        traditional rights and squatters or those who lose their employment etc. (indirectly affected
        people)

In recent years the Asian Development ADB required resettlement issues to be explored early in the
project cycle and examines the viability and acceptability of resettlement plan as part of project
appraisal. Full cost estimates and financing have to be available before a project is accepted for
financing. ADB also requires now that benefits under the resettlement plan should be available well in
time before a person is asked to move out of the project area or at least adequate transitional benefits
are made available to them.

ENTITLEMENT PRINCIPLES FOR THE PROJECT

Based on the ADB's Policy for Involuntary Resettlement, the following                    principles     have
been identified as being applicable for this activity for the Subprojects-.

    o The principal objective of involuntary settlement policies is to ensure that populations
      affected by the Project should be at least as well off, if riot better of than they would


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        have been without the project. Affected populations should be able to maintain, and
        preferably improve their standard of living and quality of life.

    o The Populations affected by the Projects are defined as those who stand to lose, as a
      consequence of the Projects, all or part of physical and nonphysical assets, including
      homes, homesteads, productive lands, commercial properties, tenancy, income.-
      earning opportunities, social and cultural activities and relationship, and other losses
      that may be identified during the process of resettlement planning. A socioeconomic
      survey would be carried out to find out impacts due to the transmission line routes and
      the findings would be filed with the concerned DC’s offices. These will represent the
      closing dates for compensation eligibility for physical assets as these would be
      identified. Affected populations will receive fair (market-based replacement cost)
      compensation for all losses, including physical and nonphysical assets. Compensation
      will include not only immediate losses, but also opportunities foregone. Affected
      populations that stand to lose only part of their physical assets will not be let with a
      proportion that will be inadequate to sustain their current standard of living, such a
      minimum size to be identified and agreed during the resettlement planning process.

    o All affected populations will be equally eligible for compensation and mitigative
      measures, irrespective of tenurial status, social or economic standing and any such
      factors that may discriminate against achieving the objectives mentioned above.

    o Involuntary resettlement will be minimized by identifying between possible
      alternative project designs, appropriate social, economic, operational, and engineering
      solutions that have the least impact on populations in the Project Area. Since it is
      possible to identify the affected population only during the actual construction of the
      transmission lines, a short resettlement plan will be prepared for the affected
      populations that would specify among other things, those affected, all losses that
      might be incurred, and appropriate mitigative measures.

    o Adequate budgetary support is fully committed and will be made available to cover
      the costs of land acquisition within the agreed implementation period. The Project
      Proforma prepared by the EA(s) for the XXX Subproject contains two cost items for
      this purpose. An allocation of Tk. X.xx million for right of way payments and of Tk.
      Xx.xx million for land acquisition and resettlement is included on pages xx and xx of
      the Project Proforma. The Project Proforma prepared by the EA(s) for the XXX
      Subproject contains xx cost items for this purpose. An allocation of Tk. X.xx million
      for right of way payments and of Tk. X.x million for land acquisition and resettlement
      is included on pages xx and xxof the Project Proforma [Concept Level Paper].

    o Construction activities will not commence until the required lands have been fully
      acquired, which have been identified to be empty/agricultural lands and
      compensations paid out as per GOB and ADB guidelines.

    o Appropriate reporting, monitoring, and evaluation mechanisms will be identified and
      set in place as part of the resettlement management system, Evaluation of the
      resettlement process and the final outcome will be conducted independent of the
      Executing Agency.



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The current legislation governing land acquisition for public purposes in Bangladesh is the
Acquisition and Requisition and Immovable Property Ordinance (Ordinance 11 of 1982) and
its subsequent amendments in 1993 and 1994 to the extent permissible under the GOB rules.
If any other provisions beyond GOB rules are to be made, such provisions will be allowed
only after GOB approval. In accordance with the Ordinance, the legal process is initiated by
an application by the requiring agency or department to the Deputy Commissioner (DC) of
the District. In determining the amount of compensation for the affected owners, the DC
takes into consideration a number of factors, e.g. present market rate to determine the value
of the land. As there is no national policy for resettlement of project-affected people in
Bangladesh, the ADB's Policy On Involuntary Resettlement will be the guideline followed in
this RP..

SUPPORT PRINCIPLES FOR DIFFERENT LOSS CATEGORIES

Loss of Land and Trees Thereon
The project may cause people to lose land and trees thereon that they own. The project
through the Bangladesh Government will therefore compensate land owners of required
private land and any trees thereon with their entitled cash compensation under the law (CCL).
Lands have been occupied for two purposes: one for laying pillars of transmission tower and
construction of substation and another for facilitating the works. For construction of
substation the land is acquired permanently. However no permanent acquisition of land is
required for transmission line construction. The EA(s) policy is to revert the lands to the
owners for the original use of the acquisition land.

The acquired lands are planned to be fully compensated as per CCL, which is 50% higher
than the market price (it is calculated based on the selling & buying records at sub registrar
officer and in-depth interview of APs & non APs by the consultant). The DC based on
equivalent, mouza wise, current market prices will determine the value of CCL or equivalent
replacement land. Where the equivalent replacement land value exceeds the CCL (inclusive
of the 50% land premium), the difference will be paid by The EA(s). The project will refund
stamp duties on equivalent replacement land where applicable, but only if the replacement
land is purchased within 12 months of the issuance of Notice 3 for land acquisition or during
the life of the implementation period, whichever is the longer. The EA(s) have also a policy
to pay the value of two crops for the requisitioned land although one crop is lost by few
cultivators. To ensure fare compensation agriculture department assesses value of crops lost,
homestead by PWD and trees by Forest Department are taken into account.

The entitlement unit for loss of private land compensation is the landowner who may be an
adult individual or individuals, adult member or members of a private company, family or
household. For public land transfer to The EA(s) as new ROW land, the entitlement unit is
the Government. For this project all Category 1 impacts would be classified as "non-
vulnerable" affected persons/entities.

Compensation for loss of land and any trees thereon will apply to affected public land (being
transferred to the EAs), affected private non-residential (commercial etc.) land being activity
used for Its nonresidential purpose at the time of the 'commencement of the acquisition
process, affected private residential land being actively used for its residential purpose at the
time of the commencement of the acquisition process, and any affected private
idle/vacant/open land.


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Loss Of Non-Residential and Residential Structures
The need to demolish existing structures would be kept to a minimum. However if there are
situations where such activity is unavoidable to accommodate the project, appropriate
compensation packages would be paid as per law. The project through the Bangladesh -
Government will therefore compensate owners of non-residential and residential structures
'that need to be demolished for the project's implementation their entitled compensation under
the law (CCL). V\/here the legality of ownership is not provable, PGCB will recognize
"socially recognized owners" as persons entitled to compensation for loss of their structures.

There may be two types of affected structures. A "non-shiftable structure" which is a
structure with walls and roof that are not salvageable more or less intact, e.g. brick walls with
reinforced concrete roof, and brick walls with Cl sheet roof; arid a "shiftable structure" -
which is a structure made of materials that could be salvaged without incurring much damage
to those materials e.g. structures with Cl sheet walls and roof, or with bamboo walls and Cl
sheet roof and the like.

For "non-shiftable" structures, CCL inclusive of a 50% premium or the replacement value as
determined by the PGCB, whichever is the greater, will be paid as compensation. Owners of
"non-shiftable" structures will be permitted to retain salvageable building materials, and a
Structure or House Construction Grant of Tk. 3,500 will be available to those affected owners
who opt to construct a replacement structure and who are classified by the project as
vulnerable PAPs.

For "shiftable" structures, compensation will not be paid. Instead, a Structure or House
Transfer Grant equivalent to one-eighth of the replacement cost of the structure will be paid
by the EA(s). If the owner of a "shiftable" structure is unable to shift (transfer) the structure,
cash compensation will be provided equivalent to the replacement value of the structure as
determined by the EA(s), instead of receiving the Structure or House Transfer Grant.

Where applicable, when the entitlement is greater than the CCL amount (inclusive of the 50%
premium) as assessed by the Deputy Commissioner, the difference will be paid by the EA(s).

Loss of structure compensation will apply to all affected non-residential, residential and
associated structures on affected private and public land. This will involve both.
"Vulnerable" and "non-vulnerable" owners who may be an adult individual or individuals,
adult member or members of a private company, family or household.

Loss of structure compensation also applies to "vulnerable" permanent stalls and static semi
permanent stalls located on private and public land within the areas of impact (i.e. within the
proposed project ROWs).

A "static" semi permanent stall refers to a hawker or vendor who operates that semi-
permanent stall at the same single location/site every working day he or she conducts
business. That is, he or she has no other place of business from day-to-day; nor during the
day.

As cash compensation is considered a high-risk option for poor and "vulnerable" people and
is normally inadequate in re-establishing their lost structures. The project will therefore
encourage "Vulnerable" or at risk affected persons to choose compensation options involving


                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                   K-19
Appendix K                                                             Resettlement Policy And Legal Framework



a replacement "non-shiftable" structure or the shifting of a "shiftable" structure. Wealthier or
more resourceful people ("non-vulnerable" people), on the other hand, may prefer cash
compensation, which in their case does not entail a risk.

Loss of Other Non-Structure Assets
"Shiftable" and "non-shiftable" non-structure assets other than land will be affected by the
project, requiring their removal. The project will therefore compensate owners of other non-
structure assets that need to be removed for the project's implementation. This will also apply
to "socially recognized owners" of non-structure assets as recognized by the EA(s) where the
legality of ownership is not provable.

For '.non-shiftable" assets, compensation will be the estimated current CCL value or the
replacement value of the asset as determined by the whichever is the greater.

For "shiftable" assets, if the asset is shifted by the owner, compensation will be one-eight of
the replacement cost of the asset. The replacement value determined by the will be paid if the
asset is unable to be shifted by the owner.

Where applicable, any entitlement greater than the CCL value will be paid by the EA(s).

The compensation is applicable to non-structure assets on private and public lands, and will
affect both "vulnerable" and "non-vulnerable" owners of those assets.




                    Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                   K-20
Appendix L                    Project Site and Row Photos and Descriptions




             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices   L-1
Appendix L                                                  Project Site And Row Photos And Descriptions




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             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                      L-3
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             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                      L-5
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             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                      L-8
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             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                      L-9
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             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                    L-12
Appendix L                                                  Project Site And Row Photos And Descriptions




             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                    L-13
Appendix L                                                  Project Site And Row Photos And Descriptions




             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                    L-14
Appendix L                                                  Project Site And Row Photos And Descriptions




             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                    L-15
Appendix L                                                  Project Site And Row Photos And Descriptions




             Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                    L-16
Appendix M Analysis of Subsidy to Domestic Consumers (Monthly Data)

Analysis of Subsidy to Domestic Consumers (Monthly Data) 7
                                                                                Scenario A                              Scenario B
Income         Income                   Average % of                           Average % of                            Average % of
 Group          Group                       HH              Scenario A              HH              Scenario B              HH
 (Taka)         (Taka)                  Expenditure         Electricity         Expenditure         Electricity         Expenditure
1988-89        1995-96        % of        Spent on         Consumption         Spent on Fuel       Consumption         Spent on Fuel
 Prices         Prices        HHs       Fuel & Light          (kWh) 8             & Light             (kWh)               & Light
  <750          <1,070        3.80         10.78                49.5               20.79               37.1                18.29
750-999      1,070-1425       6.30          8.75                61.7               16.87               46.3                14.84
 1,000-         1,430-        8.54          7.56                67.7               14.58               50.8                12.82
  1,249          1,785
 1,250-         1,790-        9.06           7.38               80.8                14.23                60.2               12.52
  1,499          2,140
 1,500-         2,145-        17.66          7.10               96.2                13.69                72.1               12.04
  1,999          2,855
 2,000-         2,860-        14.36          6.70               113.6               12.92                85.2               11.76
  2,499          3,570
 2,500-         3,575-        9.85           6.35               128.7               12.25                96.5               11.46
  2,999          4,285
 3,000-         4,290-        13.02          5.57               138.6               10.74               104.0               10.21
  3,999          5,715
 4,000-         5,720-        6.53           5.20               162.4               10.29               121.8                9.80
  4,999          7,145
 5,000-         7,150-        3.43           5.38               199.2               11.24               149.4               10.43
  5,999          8,575
 6,000-         8,580-        2.23           4.54               210.0                9.60               157.5                8.86
  6,999         10,005
 7,000-        10,010-        1.39           4.15               219.4                8.86               164.6                8.14
  7,999         11,435
 8,000-        11,440-        0.96           4.19               244.1                9.13               183.1                8.32
  8,999         12,865
 9,000-        12,870-        0.69           4.24               282.5                9.47               211.9                8.53
  9,999         14,295
10,000-        14,300-        0.81           3.86               253.4                8.47               190.0                7.69
 12,499         17,865
12,500+         17,870        1.36           2.68               268.3                5.94               201.2                5.37




7   London Economics. 1997. Bangladesh Power Sector Reform, Final Report. Analysis of Long-Run Marginal Costs and Tariff
    Recommendations. Vol. 3, April. (In association with Denton Hall, Ian Pope Associates, Lahmeyer International)., p. 65
8   Scenario A that 100% of fuel and light expenditure is allocated to electricity. Scenario B that 75% is allocated this way.


                            Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                                       M-1
Appendix N                                       Proposed PSDP II Investment Sub Projects

                         PROPOSED PSDP II INVESTMENT PROJECTS,
             THEIR LEVEL OF PREPARATION & POTENTIAL RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS

     EA                             PROJECT PREPARATION               RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS
A.   BPDB GENERATION PROJECTS
1.   100 MW Peaking Plant in        BPDB. 2005. Development           BPDB says the Plant will be on existing site.
     Khulna (Western Zone)          Project Proposal (DPP):           However, DPP indicates land acquisition for
                                    Construction of Khulna 100 MW     residential area (equal to Plant Area) will be
                                    Peaking Power Plant. Dhaka:       needed, location not yet decided. DPP budget
                                    MPEMR (Power Division).           shows no allocation for land acquisition.
                                    September
B.   PGCB TRANSMISSION PROJECTS
1.   400 kV Meghnaghat-Aminbazar Transmission Line & Improvements Around Dhaka
a)   400 kV, 50 Km Overhead         PGCB. 2005. In House Study for No Right-Of-Way (ROW) Study Exists.
     (O/H) Line from Meghnaghat     Meghnaghat-Aminbazar 400 kV:      In House Study recommends Route Survey is
     to Aminbazar                   Transmission Line. September.     performed as soon as possible after approval of
                                                                      Project.
b)   Two 230 kV bay extensions at Same as Above                       Bay extensions will be within existing fenced
     Aminbazar and two at                                             areas. No Land Acquisition.
     Meghnaghat
2.   132 kV Improvements Around Ullon
a)   132 kV, 3 Km Line              No Documentation Available.       No Land Acquisition.
     Underground (U/G) Cable
     from Ullon to Rampura
b)   Renovation of 132/33 kV        Same as Above                     Renovations are said to be within the Substation
     Substations (SS) at Ullon and                                    Area. No Land Acquisition.
     Hasnabad
3.   System Improvements in Aminbazar – Old Airport Area
a)   230 kV, 10 km Double Circuit No Documentation Available.         No ROW Study Exists. 4 km O/H will go from
     (4 O/H, 6 U/G) Anminbazar to                                     Aminbazar SS to pass by but not connect with
     Old Airport                                                      another existing SS. From near that SS it will be
                                                                      6 km U/G and run along Mirpur Road to new SS
                                                                      at Old Airport.
b)   230/132 kV 2x300 MVA SS at Same as Above                         Exact Location Not Decided. Will be new SS
     Old Airport                                                      adjacent to also New 132 kV SS, both in Old
                                                                      Airport Area owned by GOB and Empty. No
                                                                      Land Acquisition.
c)   132 kV, 7 Km U/G Double        Same as Above                     No ROW Study Exists. From New 132 kV SS at
     Circuit for Connecting New                                       Old Airport to New Dhaka University SS. No
     SS                                                               Land Acquisition..
d)   Two 132/33 kV, 2x80/120 SS Same as Above                         Exact Location Not Decided. Old Airport Area
     at Old Airport and Dhaka                                         owned by GOB and Empty. For Dhaka
     University                                                       University, need to buy from University. No
                                                                      Land Acquisition.
4.   132 kV Transmission Lines and SS in Western and Northern Regions
a)   73 Km O/H Line from            PGCB. 2003. Project Concept       No ROW Study Exists. Route is Not Decided.
     Chuadanga to Jhenaida to       Paper (PCC): Three                Line will not use, but may parallel, existing 33 kV
     Magura                         Transmission Line Project (132    ROW.
                                    kV). February                     PCC indicates 23 Acres Total for the Three
                                                                      Transmission Lines Project is expected to be
                                                                      acquired. PCC Budgets: (i) Feasibility Study: 40



                         Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                           N-1
Appendix N                                                                    Proposed PSIDP II Investment Sub Projects



     EA                                PROJECT PREPARATION               RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS
                                                                         Lac Taka; (ii) Route Survey and Soil Testing:
                                                                         53.72 Lac Taka; (iii) Right of Way Compensation
                                                                         for Crop Loss: 79.00 Lac Taka.
b)   40 Km O/H Line from               Same as Above                     Same as Above
     Naogaon to Jaipurhat
c)   45 Km O/H Line from               Same as Above                     Same as Above
     Thakurgaon to Panchagarh
d)   Three 132/33 kV, 2x25/41          Same as Above                     Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates
     MVA SS; One Each at                                                 land acquisition at 6 Acres Magura and
     Magura, Chuadanga, and                                              Chaudanga each and 5 Acres at Joypurha, Total
     Joypurhat                                                           of 17 Acres.
d)   One 132/33 kV 15/20 MVA           Same as Above                     Exact Location Not Decided. PCC estimates 6
     SS at Panchagarh                                                    Acres land acquisition. (Note PCC includes
                                                                         expansion of Existing SS at Jhenaida, Naogaon,
                                                                         and Thakurgaon. Need to confirm these are not
                                                                         in this Loan.)
     C. DESA DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
1.   Emergency Rehabilitation of Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.            No New SS in this Project. No Land Acquisition.
     Ten 33/11 kV SS: Khilgaon,  DESA Development Project
     Satmasjid, Jigatala,        Proposal (DPP): Reinforcement,          (Note DPP says Land is required for construction
     Dhanmandi, Tejgaon, Kazla,  Renovation & Augmentation of            of substation, but there is no budget for Land
     Postagola, Fatulla, Demra,  33/11 kV Substations under              Acquisition. Probably erroneous, needs to be
     and Lalbag                  DESA Project. July                      confirmed)

2.   New SS to Meet Existing And       Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.      Project Involves New SS and New 132 and 33
     New Demand Including Two          Development Project Proposal      kV U/G Cables and O/H Lines.
     132/33 kV SS, Five 33/11 kV       (DPP): Emergency
     SS, and 132 and 33 kV O/H         Reinforcement & Augmentation      o   Two 132/33 kV SS will go next to existing
     Lines and U/G Cables              of DESA Grid System Project.          33/11 kV SSs on already owned land
                                       July.                             o   Exact locations for Five 33 kV SS will have
                                                                             to be determined and land purchased
                                                                         o   141.5 km of 132 kV O/H line and 120.5 km
                                                                             of 33 kV O/H lines will be required
                                                                         o   (Km of U/G Cables?)

                                                                         DPP allocates Budget for Acquisition &
                                                                         Purchase of Land and Landed Properties of
                                                                         Assets: GOB: 170.000 Lac Taka, Percent of
                                                                         Total Project Cost = 0.022
3.   Upgrade Transformers at           Planning Circle, DESA. 2005.      Involves SS work only. These are existing SS.
     Shyampur, Maghbazar, and          Development Project Proposal      No New SS in this Project. No new lines will be
     Maniknagar 132/33 kV SS to        (DPP): Procurement &              needed. No Land Acquisition.
     50/75 MVA                         Installation of 132/33 kV 50/75
                                       MVA Transformer Project.. July
4.   Upgrade Shyampur 11 kV            Planning Circle, DESA. 2005       Involves SS work only. This is an existing
     switching station to 33/11 kV     Development Project Proposal      switching station, to be converted to 33/11 kV
     SS                                (DPP): Up-gradation of            SS. No new SS in this project. No new lines will
                                       Shyampur BSCIC 11kV               be needed. No Land Acquisition.
                                       Switching Station to a regular
                                       33/11kV Substation Project.
                                       July
5.   Lines and Related Facilities to   Same DPP as Projects 1 & 2.       No new SS in this project. Includes poles, O/H
     Support Projects 1 & 2.                                             lines, U/G cables, distribution transformers,
                                                                         meters, etc. No Land Acquisition.



                          Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                          N-2
Appendix N                                                                 Proposed PSIDP II Investment Sub Projects



     EA                              PROJECT PREPARATION              RESETTLEMENT EFFECTS
     D. DESCO DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
1.   Gulshan Distribution System Upgrade
a)   Four (4) New 33/11 kV SS at     DESCO. 2004. Project Concept     According to PCC, No Feasibility Study Done.
     Badda, Basundhara, DOHS         Paper (PCC) Planning &           Sites Not Identified as Yet.
     Mahakhali, and Zia Intl Airport Upgrading of Power Feeding &
                                     Distribution System under        PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’
                                     DESCO Area.                      Substation 200.00 Lac Taka. Unspecified Area.
b)   Rehab of Three (3) Existing     Same as Above                    Same as Above
     33/11 kV SS at Kafrul, Uttara,
     and ADA
c)   33 & 11 kV Underground          Same as Above                    Same as Above
     Cables, 11 kV Switchgears,
     11 & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors
     & O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
     Distribution Trans-Formers,
     Voltage Regulators, Etc
2.   Mirpur Distribution System Upgrade
a)   Two (2) New 33/11 kV SS at      DESCO. 2004. Recast Project      According to PCC, No Feasibility Study Done.
     Baunia and Mirpur               Concept Paper (PCC)              Sites Not Identified as Yet.
                                     Strengthening DESCO’s Electric
                                     Distribution Network             PCC Budgets Land Acquisition for only ‘One’
                                                                      Substation 100.00 Lac Taka For 0.25 Acres.
b)   Rehab of Existing Mirpur        Same as Above                    Same as Above
     33/11 kV SS
c)   33 & 11 kV Underground          Same as Above                    Same as Above
     Cables, 11 kV Switchgears,
     11 & 0.4 kV Aerial Conductors
     & O/H Lines, 11/0.4 kV
     Distribution Trans-Formers,
     Voltage Regulators, Etc.




                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                           N-3
Appendix O                  List of Communities/FGDs from Socioeconomic Survey

                                   List of Community/Villages Interviewed

                                                                                                      No. of
Sl. No. Name of Com./Village        Thana/Upazila        District         Name of Project          Participants
1       Dudghata                 Sonargoan           Narayanganj    Meghnaghat-AminbazarT/L      11
2       Mograpara                -do-                -do-           -do-                         12
3        South Lakhankhola       Bandar              -do-           -do-                         18
4       Old Sayedpur             Narayanganj Sadar   -do-           -do-                         18
5       Baktabali                Fatullah            -do-           -do-                         12
6       Ainta                    Keraniganj          -do-           -do-                         10
7       Teguria                  Keraniganj          -do-           -do-                         09
8       Gadabag                  Keraniganj          -do-           -do-                         13
9       Chandpur                 Keraniganj          -do-           -do-                         11
10      Beauta                   Keraniganj          -do-           -do-                         15
11      Chapra Bazar/Shamlapur   Savar               -do-           -do-                         07
12      Mukhrakanda              Savar               -do-           -do-                         14
Su14b-total:                                                                                     136
13      Tolarbagh                Mirpur              Dhaka          Aminbazar- Old Airport /TL   07
14      West Agargoan            Mohd. Pur           -do-           -do-                         10
15      Mirpur mazar             Mirpur              -do-           -do-                         08
16      Technical More           Mirpur              -do-           -do-                         09
Sub-total:                                                                                       34
27      Pabanpur                 Nagaon Sadar        Nagaon         Nagaon-Joypurhat T/L         06
18      Paikpara                 Nagaon              -do-           -do-                         07
19      Kadi Bari                Badalgachi          -do-           -do-                         10
20      Shurakhali               Badalgachi          -do-           -do-                         07
21      Jagat Nagar              Badalgachi          -do-           -do-                         10
22      Paharpur                 -do-                -do-           -do-                         07
23      Badsha Bazar             Joypurhat           Joypurhat      -do-                         17
24      Chandi                   -do-                -do-           -do-                         08
Sub-total                                                                                        72
25      Gobinda Nagar            Thakurgoan          Thakurgoan     Thakurgoan-Panchagar T/L     10
26      Jganathpur               -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         9
27      Shahi Nagar              -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         11
28      Uttar Arajei             -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         10
29      Mujabarni                -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         13
30      Khalisha Kuni            -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         10
31      Madargonj                -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         14
32      Chandrapara              Boda                Panchagar      -do-                         10
33      Maniram Jot              -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         12
34      Telipara                 Panchagar           -Do-           -Do-                         10
35      Mirgar                   -Do-                -Do-           -Do-                         13
Sub Total                                                                                        100
36      Sankar Chandra           Chuadanga Sadar Chuadanga          Chuadanga- Jhenidaha- Magura 07
                                                                    T/L
37     Gugirhuda                 -do-                -do-           -do-                         13
38     Bhultia                   -do-                -do-           -do-                         10
39     Rangiar Pota              -do-                -do-           -do-                         12
40     Boydanga                  -do-                -do-           -do-                         10
41     Konezpur                  Jhenidaha Sadar     Jhenidaha      -do-                         13
42     Korapara                  -do-                -do-           -do-                         09
43     Uttar Kastro Sagra        -do-                -do-           -do-                         11
44     Sonadaha                  -do-                -do-           -do-                         12


                        Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                     O-1
Appendix O                                                       List of Communities/FGDs from Socioeconomic Survey



                                                                                                      No. of
Sl. No. Name of Com./Village      Thana/Upazila       District             Name of Project         Participants
45      Terodah                -do-               -do-            -do-                           12
46      Uthali                 Magura Sadar       Magura          -do-                           13
47      Garicharon Pur         -do-               -do-            -do-                           11
48      Abalpur                -do-               -do-            -do-                           13
49      Shaziara               Magura Sadar       Magura          -do-                           09
Sub-total                                                                                        156
Grand Total                                                                                      498


                                 List of FGDs and Number of Participants

 Sl.                                                                                                      No. of
        Name of Town/Place       Thana/Upazila        District             Name of Project
 No.                                                                                                   Participants
  1. Sonargoan                 Sonargoan           Narayangonj           Meghna-Aminbazar T/L               13
  2. Tegoria                   Keraniganj            Dhaka                       -do-                       19
  3. Aminbazar                 Mirpur                  -do-                      -do-                       15
  4. West Agargoan             Mohd. Pur               -do-              Aminbazar-Old Airport              13
Sub-total                                                                                                   60
  5. Hatil Bulu Para           Joypurhat Sadar       Joypurhat               Joypurhat SS                    9
  6. Joypurhat SS Site         Joypurhat Sadar       Joypurhat               Joypurhat SS                   13
  7. Joypurhat Town            Joypurhat Sadar       Joypurhat               Joypurhat SS                   11
Sub-total                                                                                                   33
  8. Panchagar                 Panchagar Sadar      Panchagar                Panchagar SS                   16
  9. Panchagar                 Panchagar Sadar      Panchagar                Panchagar SS                   19
 10. Panchagar                 Panchagar Sadar      Panchagar                Panchagar SS                   18
Sub-total                                                                                                   53
 11. Magura                    Magura Sadar           Magura                  Magura SS                     13
 12. Magura                    Magura Sadar           Magura                  Magura SS                     16
Sub-total                                                                                                   29
 13. Jhenidaha                 Jhenidaha Sadar      Jhenidaha                Jhenidaha SS                    8
 14. Jhenidaha                 Jhenidaha Sadar      Jhenidaha                Jhenidaha SS                    6
 15. Jhenidaha                 Jhenidaha Sadar      Jhenidaha                Jhenidaha SS                    9
Sub-total:                                                                                                  23
 16. Chuadanga                 Chuadanga Sadar      Chuadanga               Chuadanga SS                    12
 17. Chuadanga                 Chuadanga Sadar      Chuadanga               Chuadanga SS                    14
Sub-total:                                                                                                  26
Grand Total: FGD 17                                                                                        224




                      Component C – Volume 4: Social and Resettlement Issues Appendices                          O-2

				
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