Liu Yadong: Revelation of the U.S. software industry
Software is the IT industry, hope, and software is the heart of Chinese IT industry.
Software &quot;outperform,&quot; and Hot, non-software factors are
involved in prop; software small absolute size of the market; software companies with
low profit margins; software practitioners to low labor productivity; software client
application failure rate, software internationalization nowadays ... ... how to get rid of
these difficulties it is now concerned about the progress of the people of
China&#39;s software-profile proposition.
People admired the United States, Europe, and even India. However, the software
industry&#39;s development can not be divorced from its dependency
environment. &quot;Computer World&quot; has written this special Dr. Liu
Yadong, through the development of software industry in China and the United States
A Comparative Study of the environment, draw conclusions - the development of
China&#39;s software industry needs to take a and the United States (Europe,
India), a completely different path of development.
I, management and technology: software environment for the growth of the United
All along, the U.S. software development model of the software industry have been
regarded as a model. American model is written textbooks, software practitioners
learn to become a classic.
U.S. independent software industry began in the 20th century 50s. For half a century,
the industry in the United States set up numerous milestone, from the first
programmers hired 60% of the nation&#39;s &quot;big program&quot;
to the first million dollar software product, to giants like Oracle can see the birth
of ... ... out, the U.S. software industry to speed up the spiral path. In this process, the
software United States progressive manner, through the close ranks of business and
technology, the characteristics of a great American industry environment to grow up.
First of all, a mature business environment gave birth to the generally high level of
U.S. corporate management level.
Modern Western business cultures in Greece, Rome&#39;s city-state system of
commercial economy to contract with the premise of the rule of law, business
independence and private property is protected. The formation of large industrial
revolution, more mature business environment today, the foundation of Western,
created a number of mature modern enterprise, which has a mature management,
advanced management tools, and comprehensive management theory. In particular,
the United States as representatives of business culture has a long history, mature
market environment, a high degree of enterprise market, competitive and orderly.
World War II the United States, corporate giant fold out step management theory and
management practice development, the United States to fine work organization
internal and external to seek to make both globalization from the human resource
planning to plant management, from logistics to inventory management ... ... of the
organization is more standardized, more advanced management demand has been
Statistics show that, ERP, CRM and other enterprise application software
implementation, 30% of the challenge is technical, while the remaining 70% were
from the management. It can be said, a mature business environment gave birth to the
United States generally higher level of management companies starting point, this is
the rise of enterprise software applications has laid a solid foundation, making the rise
after 50 years of commercial software packages combined with the enterprise
business process like a duck.
Second, the pioneer American corporate IT environments in fact start from the
beginning of low-skilled.
Initially, in promoting the development of software industry, the U.S. government
played a very important role. They started in 1949, SAGE air defense project, was
hired only 1,200 nationwide in the 700 software engineers who write code more than
one million lines, the total expenditure of 80 billion dollars. Similar items into the
United States, &quot;University of programmers.&quot;
It now appears that the early advance of the United States in the application of
technology in fact started from a low starting point. 20th century half-century after 50
years, the software language evolved, the main body went through from the original
machine language, assembly language, high-level language to object-oriented
languages (with Java as its representative) four generations of change. Enterprise
software applications system is also changing - from the early host, stand-alone
application, to the early 20th century to the 90 client / server computing mode of
transfer, then the mid 90s in the 20th century, the Internet and it represents the
emergence of e-commerce a, and forced companies to software applications to further
the multi-technology system network environment of distributed systems migration.
Software, processing power depends on the hardware development. 50 years from the
beginning of the 20th century enterprise applications, software engineers had to attach
importance to the question - how was expensive, limited computing resources, to
develop more efficient to meet the department level to enterprise applications?
Software language, application systems, and hardware limitations of the decision at
the time the history of enterprise software development in the United States must face
the technology now seems very low starting point. Based on this, in the latter part of
the application of a long evolution, gradually many are there of IT &quot;legacy
Again, organization, management and technology Joining the evolution of the U.S.
enterprise applications to progressive mode change.
Changes in technology environment, the U.S. decision to the U.S. enterprise software
applications are changing. About the 20th century the late 80s, the United States
realized the first phase of enterprise information, or information infrastructure. The
early 90s in the 20th century, enterprise-class software from the host, stand-alone
applications to client / server computing transfer. At this point, the United States
entered the second stage information technology companies, for leveraging IT for
business process started, management structure adjustment (BPR), to the mid-20th
century, 90 Nian Dai, N 层 distributed Ji Tong&#39;s Chuxian of the traditional
client / server pattern caused by the pressure. Enterprise information entered its third
phase, that is business processes, management structures and information technology,
combined the three are derived from the CRM, ERP and data warehousing, and other
new concepts of management concepts and systems, and further adoption of
enterprise application integration ( EAI) and other means of business, management
and information system integration optimization. The U.S. is in the third stage of
Finally, a large number of legacy enterprise application system as an objective
historical burden, but not cure.
Half-century in the process of implementation of enterprise applications, software, the
U.S. spent a huge social and economic resources. The evolution of each technology,
U.S. companies will be on different operating systems, and support software running
on client devices to invest heavily. Constantly new purchase package, continuously
develop the traditional method of application, continued to support the back-office
functions to encode the business logic ... ..., technology, much earlier evolution of the
investment to become a &quot;legacy.&quot; Throughout the 20th century,
80&#39;s, as these business applications or solutions to the growing diversity,
management of these legacy systems becomes more difficult.
Can be said that legacy systems as a software product of the United States, a historical
and objective existence of a better future in the deployment of enterprise applications,
they become the burden of history, not marching orders are.
II &quot;Plum pile&quot; story: the U.S. enterprise applications software
&quot;In 2003 the United States Information Development Report&quot;
(hereinafter referred to as the &quot;Report&quot;) that the current state of
the entire U.S. enterprise software and network applications has reached a high level,
the inter-enterprise logistics, information flow and capital flow system has been
reunified. Supply chain management, customer relationship management software in
the United States to be more widely used, their production, management, operation is
organic connection, from raw material purchase to product sales information,
available on the network through the effective integration of software; United States,
many companies have developed the ERP (enterprise resource planning) software,
and SCM (supply chain management software), CRM (customer relationship
management software) and so on.
First, a large number of sector-level software packages to the depth of the application
form such as &quot;plum post&quot; the same pattern.
After World War II, when the United States mature business environment,
state-management system, the lower the starting point of IT development, technical
background effects, making U.S. companies in the software functions required is
relatively standard in the software structure required relatively stable performance on
the software more emphasis on integration and optimization. Those integrated
&quot;advanced management experience,&quot; the department level suite
just to meet these needs.
Customer application by that time needs, and expensive computing resources
constraints, these enterprise applications software for the department from birth is the
beginning of class application services. They are subjective in accordance with
department functions or a simple division for personnel management functions,
financial, administrative, ERP, CRM, SCM, BI and so on. At this time, U.S.
companies were regulated sector management process maturity of
&quot;bits&quot; approach logically mapped to a large database, as well as
optimization of enterprise software products. U.S. companies began to control the
software business management.
This kind of packaged software applications based model deeply rooted in U.S.
corporate IT applications. Some people called and vivid metaphor, saying that this is
like a traditional Chinese martial arts in the &quot;Plum Blossom
piles&quot;, each &quot;pile&quot; are carrying the specific features
and functions corresponding to different business organizations, different companies
&quot;need to&quot; choose &quot;pile&quot;,
&quot;pile&quot; &quot;pile&quot; together can
&quot;fight&quot; the beautiful &quot;routine.&quot; Can be
said that those &quot;plum post&quot; - a large number of packaged
software applications, enterprise applications in the United States has become a trend
everywhere, and the formation of the distinct features of the American model.
These software applications to suit the characteristics of the &quot;plum
post&quot; form is not accidental. Behind this model is actually specified by the
U.S. business, management, technology, history and reality factors. Market
&quot;Plum piles&quot; of high demand, so that SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft
and other packaged software vendors and gradually occupy the market leader of
enterprise-class, and continue to develop a standardized application of experience to
give customers a new product. Increasingly, enterprise software suite to control the
big firm, and became the hub of their business processes.
Secondly, the &quot;plum post&quot; there is no uniform software
standards between, resulting in information silos there, had to develop an
&quot;integration&quot; as the theme of enterprise application integration.
Those located in different departments and different companies, &quot;Plum
piles&quot;, largely to enhance the enterprise&#39;s management level.
But as the business needs of progress, it was found that the distribution within the
enterprise&#39;s &quot;plum post&quot; difficult dialogue between,
and among different companies, &quot;Plum pile&quot; Communication is
difficult, thus the formation of information islands , competition based on value chain
management is also a problem. Software vendors have had to answer a question - how
to deploy those independent enterprise software product (or solution) to integrate into
a unified IT resources to achieve a more flexible, more competitive business
From the software point of view, large-scale enterprise software, &quot;Plum
pile&quot; often require different hardware and software running on a distributed
network. In order to better develop and applications to run on This heterogeneous
platform software, there is an urgent need for a standards-based, independent of the
computer hardware and development 和 操作系统 operating environment, so that
&quot;plum post&quot; dialogue, then to &quot;integration&quot;
as the characteristics of middleware technology came into being.
From the enterprise application architecture point of view, enterprise-class
applications are no longer satisfied with a simple stand-alone systems and client /
server system, but towards the three-and N-tier architecture of the distributed
environment constantly moving, middleware, in the original between client and server
side. They are responsible for data security and integrity of the transmission, through
the load balancer to adjust the overall efficiency of enterprise information systems,
which make up less than two layers. They seem to have an independent
&quot;Plum pile&quot; up in knots collusion - the role of a connecting link
between the application from the supporting platform, in a variety of complex,
multi-state &quot;plum post&quot; to reconcile between the logistics.
According to statistics, from the 20th century 90&#39;s, was born in middleware
application integration into the U.S. commercial market, with an average annual
compound growth rate of more than 60% of rapid development. Even now, large U.S.
companies 40% of annual IT budgets are voted to the application integration platform.
2003, U.S. sales of middleware products 4.8 billion, accounting for global middleware
market, 68.6% of total sales. The United States a truly great power of enterprise
application integration. Integration of functions that provide middleware vendors such
as BEA, IBM, Oracle and SUN, etc., to become the winner of the U.S. market during
this period. In the following years, a growing number of independent software
companies to potential and Health, an unprecedented wealth of enterprise software
Again, a high degree of coupling of the &quot;plum post&quot; software
package structure, difficult to adapt to changes in customer applications flexibility.
First, those from within the enterprise - the company&#39;s growing staff
changes, they often lead to a new technology even if the adoption of an organizational
restructuring, a more wonderful ideas, a reduction in operating costs of reform are
likely to rise the new requirements. Followed by those from outside the firm - the
government policy changes, mergers and acquisitions among enterprises, as well as
some major political and economic events, etc., will affect the business and
For example, customers expect to achieve business integration and collaboration, in
collaboration built on a highly efficient enterprise application system; customer
expectations on the supply chain of information transmission and processing time in
order to achieve faster market responsiveness; customer expectations can quickly
implement and low-cost deployment to meet the individual needs of the software
system, and adapt to future changes in business environment ... .... In a word,
changing business, organizational and technical environment, the software allows
customers &quot;on demand&quot; capacity requirements higher and
Departmental-level software packages start from the code level, it is often stressed
that implementation of function, innate structure of large and stable market to meet
some of the organization and management needs; but it is taken in the main on curing
most of the software features, which leaving only a small part of the configuration
parameters of the way, so the performance of structural rigidities in product, difficult
to adapt to changes in demand for more frequent full.
&quot;Coupling&quot; is a kind of interdependence between software
modules measure. High coupling software is difficult to maintain, a modification or
even more prone to another office changes. Starting from the code-level software
packages and custom software coupled with a high degree of ossification or structure,
or development methods and low efficiency. Changing patterns in the enterprise,
corporate outreach expanding, ever-changing business environment, enterprise
business to constantly adjust the time, continued use of this to one characterized by
the development of software has become increasingly stale and outdated.
Finally, the advent of the Internet makes the &quot;plum post&quot; be
re-packaged and began to deploy based on the &quot;service&quot;
After 1994, the rapid development of the Internet, making the U.S. software industry
entered a new era!
Over the years, in different departments who support different management functions
of enterprise applications, &quot;Plum pile, they have almost cured the business
management functions and workflow, and C / S structure, N-tier structure of the
environment is deeply rooted. Internet The emergence of the outbreak of the
revolution can make the strength of the business world. Internet-based enterprise
software application requirements across space, across time, cross-device, cross-user
collaboration, the software is extremely complex, heterogeneous environments. this
case the traditional functions of management by the application of software model is
under unprecedented impact.
The United States a large number of enterprise applications is the slow time in half a
century to establish. In terms of single time, client / server era, N-tier structure of the
times, and the subsequent era of Internet applications, progressive change of IT
technology to enterprise organizations have to face the complex, heterogeneous
application environments. Changing business needs means not only better meet the
challenges from the Internet and e-commerce, and the need to precipitate a substantial
investment that legacy systems, existing systems, and new browser-based front-end
bound up. In this case, the deployment based on the &quot;service&quot; to
a lot of e-commerce into a different, decentralized services, bundled with new trends.
In this trend, the required application developers to think beyond and to consider the
reuse of existing services, or check how services are reused; this method encourages
the use of alternative technologies and methods (such as information mechanism),
linked through the service, rather than writing new code to the framework application;
message mechanism of this method, after properly constructed, allowing the company
only by adjusting the existing service model, rather than be forced to develop
large-scale application code, making In the business environment within the time
allowed to changing market conditions make rapid response; this approach requires
developers from the &quot;service&quot; point of integration to design
future applications, even if it benefits not immediately apparent.
Reviewing history, we see - the United States &quot;Plum pile,&quot;
many of the numerous processes, but also a manufacturing and services
&quot;Plum pile&quot; of the company&#39;s growth for the software
giant and the process of consulting services giant. Most &quot;Plum
pile&quot; in the provision of most of the curing software feature, have retained
some of the custom-configure the required parameters, and is responsible for the
completion of the &quot;second configuration&quot; of the service
providers are mainly PricewaterhouseCoopers, Accenture , Ernst &amp; Young,
KPMG and other management consulting firms.
Thus, when SAP, Oracle, Seibel, Peoplesoft and other software products level, a
&quot;plum post&quot; strong language on behalf of the market, these
management consulting firm as a &quot;plum pile experts&quot;
collaborative product manufacturers to customer service. &quot;Plum
pile&quot; product providers and &quot;plum pile expert&quot;
service provider division of labor between the natural. This informal alliance between
the business so that they become a maintenance man and the U.S. model income
The birth of the United States from the first independent software company, the first
huge program appears more and more multi-sectoral level software applications to
middleware to integrate the development of the mission, you can see that the U.S.
software industry, every advance in is close ranks in business and technology, the
natural evolution carried out. Demand-led enterprise management software
technology advances, software driven business management to improve technological
progress. In this process, the software giant and services giant to achieve a natural
specialization, in a complete circle join hands to promote the software industry eco
United States continues to rise, the final success of the software, the United States
Forward to the next generation
&quot;American model&quot; in promoting the progress of the software,
while the United States, is also being constantly adjusted. National Institute of
Standards and Technology a research report: &quot;85% of the
world&#39;s total software sales is the large proprietary software, and its
development up to 70% failure rate!&quot; At this time, whether IBM, BEA, or
Siebel, SAP, software giants are beginning to think the new era of enterprise
applications software, the direction of where the United States?
Gartner is described the application of the ideal vision of the future business, it said,
Let IT become more flexible, more responsive to the needs of business units to
achieve real-time enterprise (Real-Time Enterprise), to more thoroughly get rid of the
face technology products or solutions, shackles and easily respond to changing
business requirements of the development.
In 2003, Tom Siebel to make a prediction - the next generation of enterprise software
will be those who &quot;focus on the industry&#39;s best implementation
of the case and the process of software.&quot; In the absence of a better name to
find before he named it &quot;business process software.&quot; And this
corresponds, IBM and other companies more willing to use
&quot;service&quot; to describe the &quot;business
process&quot; and also that - the deployment of next-generation service-oriented
software architecture (Service-oriented architecture, referred to as SOA) will be the
future of enterprise IT applications trend.
Surrounding the application of business process management is not a new thing, many
IT organizations in the United States has been exploring for many years. As is stated
above, from a low starting point of the software application framework for enterprise
organizations made the United States to face the changing, complex and
heterogeneous technology environment. The emergence of the Internet and
e-commerce is for companies who need a lot of legacy systems, existing systems, and
new browser-based front-end bound up. At this time, service-oriented (business
process) of the application architecture (SOA) has become the new bundle of different
methods of distributed services. So, not so much a service-oriented architecture is a
technical, as it is a philosophy - it&#39;s more like a description of the business
processes, bundled services, IT infrastructure and organizational methodology, is a
calculation environment, design, development, deployment and management
New U.S. model to shift in this direction is consistent with its own development and
application situation. A large number of distributed heterogeneous environment of
different services it must be to find a more suitable model to solve the problem. On
the one hand, the focus of enterprise applications in service-oriented application
framework, the better the support of business Liu Cheng Fangxiangzhuanyi, the
Guoquguanzhu Zhineng management system into the application process for the
concerned management applications, which enable IT Biandedanxing, business
real-time response; the other hand, it is through a variety of standards-based
technologies to more convenient, suitable, scalable, affordable prices the way to
achieve a large number of past and existing business services, integration, and adapt
to changing needs .
Now, service-oriented architecture (SOA) has become a popular word. But when we
realize that - the future of enterprise applications will provide better support to
achieve the transfer of the business process, we see - SOA is just the first progress, not
a revolution. Those in the course of half a century, spent trillions of dollars of
corporate IT legacy systems as it had to face the &quot;obstacle&quot;,
they were like a huge monster, living in the United States placed in the software
forward to the next generation journey.
The Heritage has played a huge role in Monster, but is still functioning. They do not
have command of. SOA purely in the concept could become a revolutionary affect
future applications. But it is the formation of these historical legacy systems, but it
only became a progressive. In the enterprise business processes to better support its
effectiveness has been greatly reduced had.
According to Gartner Group&#39;s expected, the ultimate value of SOA is to
enable IT and business simultaneously, to achieve IT business from months to minutes
and seconds of response, and ultimately help achieve the business independently, to
meet the highly dynamic business environment demands. We have to say, when the
presence of a large number of legacy systems, this may just be a wonderful ideal
However, the direction of U.S. efforts in enterprise applications has never been
interruption. Gartner Group even predicts that by 2008, SOA will become an absolute
advantage in the software engineering practices, and the possibility of 70% of the end
of the traditional software architecture for 40 years of dominance.
(&quot;Computer World&quot; special on Dr. Liu Yadong current Primeton
(common element) software company&#39;s chairman and CEO is AsiaInfo
(CICA) and co-founder, has Renya Xin Chief Operating Officer)
October 10, 2004 Computer World