Lean Manufacturing Definition - DOC

Document Sample
Lean Manufacturing Definition - DOC Powered By Docstoc
					Lean Manufacturing Definition
Lean Manufacturing Definition

Lean Manufacturing Definition

-------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------

      JIT Lean production and industrial engineering applications in China, the trend
of IE
      long time, because the traditional planned economic system and in such a rigid
system of industrial production under the neglect of the efficiency, effectiveness, and
even the entire national economy due to the failure of the operating efficiency and low
efficiency. Since the 80s of the 20th century, reform and opening up
China's industrial system as a fundamental change, new management ideas
and management methods began to enter the Chinese industry. In recent years,
Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation to lean production implementation of JIT
as the main content of "crisis management", Santana down 5%
year after production costs, labor productivity increased 5% year after year. China
Second Automobile Factory in the implementation of Lean Production gearbox JIT1
years, double the output capacity than the original design, working capital and
production workers decreased by 50%, labor productivity increased by 1. FAW
transmission plant to implement lean production JIT, six months, output growth was
44.3%, 37% of overall labor productivity growth, per capita growth of 25.1% and
earning profits.
      promote the use of industrial engineering and lean production methods IE JIT
(referred to as LP) and other advanced management techniques, so that combined
with China's national conditions, China has become an irreversible trend,
and enter the international market for Chinese enterprises to find a shortcut.

       What is JIT Lean Production
       Lean Manufacturing (Lean Production, referred to as LP) is a Massachusetts
Institute of Technology plans to organize several international car (IMVP) expert on
Japanese JIT JIT (Just In Time) production of the acclaimed title. Fine, that few but do
not put extra factors of production, but production at the appropriate time necessary
number of market needs product (or the next process urgently needed products);
benefits that all operations must be useful, effective, cost-effective . Lean Production
from the Toyota Production System JIT, is organized by the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology 14 countries in the world, experts and scholars, spent five years at a cost
5 million U.S. dollars, in order to create a mass-produced automobile in this way and
typical JIT Lean Production industry, for example, by the theoretical summed up after.
It is a current industry best organization system and method of production.
       JIT Lean Production is the post-war Japanese automobile industry was the
"resource scarcity" and "more variety, small
batch" the product of market discipline. It is starting from Toyota
It's long odds, by Kiichiro Toyoda and Ohno resistance to first-class people
to work together, gradually improving until the 60's formed.
      JIT is a kind of lean production methods to minimize the production of resources
and 降低 occupied by business management and operations operate on a cost of
production, it is a concept, a kind of Wen Hua. Lean production JIT is determined
pursuit of perfection, the pursuit of excellence is excellence, perfection, to achieve the
ultimate goal of zero seven continuous efforts. It supports personal and corporate life
as a spiritual force, but also in the never-ending learning process of getting a state of
      essence of Lean Production is to manage the JIT process, including optimization
of organization and management of personnel, efforts to cut the middle management,
to organize the reform of the flat, to reduce non-direct production personnel; the
implementation of synchronized production of equalization to achieve zero inventory
and flexible production; implementation of the whole production process (including
the entire supply chain) the quality assurance system, to achieve zero non-performing;
reduce and reduce any part of the waste, zero waste; eventually pull in-time
      JIT Lean Production produced variety of products to meet customer requirements
as possible, but also through its various segments used to eliminate all waste (human,
material, time and space) of the methods and means to meet customer demand on
price . Lean Production JIT demands the elimination of all waste, the pursuit of
excellence and continuous improvement in production processes to remove all the
useless things, the arrangements for each of the principles of workers and their job is
to add value, remove all non-value-added jobs; streamline the product development
design, production, management does not produce any value-added work. Its purpose
is best quality, lowest cost and highest efficiency of the market needs the most rapid
      JIT and Lean Production differences between the traditional mode of production
mainly as follows: change the quality control measures; eradication (decrease) in
various buffer; increased sense of involvement and responsibility of workers; training
staff and communication with staff; only automation where needed; lean
organizational structure.
           JIT Lean Production is centered on maximizing the use of the
company's employees, vendors and collaboration capabilities inherent in
the assets of a comprehensive philosophical system. This system requires the
formation of a solution to the problem of environmental issues and continuous
improvement to improve, all aspects of requests are the most outstanding, which
broke the boundaries of the traditional functions.
      JIT Lean Production major is characterized by:
      (1), Quality - find, correct and solve problems;
      (2), flexible - small quantities, a stream;
      (3), time to market - to minimize development time;
      (4), product diversification - to shorten product cycle, reducing the impact of
economies of scale;
     (5), efficiency - to improve productivity, reduce waste;
     (6), adaptability - the standard size assembly, coordination and cooperation;
     (7), learning - continuous improvement.
       lean production and JIT production relations is the obligation of each
other's material interests. This relationship between man and man,
including: workers and employers, collaborative works and assembly plants, factories
collaboration between the vendors and factories through thick and thin. When the
system normal operation, the system will have each member of the active
participation and the desire for continuous improvement.
     the development of science and technology, productivity improvement, and the
mass production mode of continuous development and improvement, lean production
JIT is likely to make. For developing countries, lean production JIT without
substantial investment, production technology can be rapidly increased to a
world-class level, also apply to China.
     Lean Production JIT that the real cause of production activities is the user! Mass
production methods of success lies in its strong emphasis on manufacturing and
design process to meet the requirements, thus bringing the user into the background,
the relationship between users and producers do not get enough attention.
     user relations attention, is the modern market mature, highly competitive results.
In a very mature market competition, the enterprise product performance, quality and
cost, have almost the same, competition, reflected in the time of delivery, after-sales
service other items of work, how to seize the user, is the main concern of
manufacturers . Moreover, the Internet's development, further promote
technology, price, market transparency constitute the basic elements of finished
products, finished products of different companies of similar small gap between the
comprehensive, services, customer policy to become competitive in the important
enterprises Tese wear      Ji
     JIT Lean Production's client relationships, JIT, lean production is an
important part of the user (buyer) is lean production JIT firms as part of the
production process which is often called the master, is to achieve Lean premise sales.
     Japan's marketing system did not fully meet the requirements of JIT
Lean Production and its behavior in a number of ways lean thinking. How to
implement lean sales, is a dynamic process of development, the models have been
changing. One in essence, need to carefully appreciate to understand. The following
will be Toyota (Toyota) car sales as an example to illustrate the lean thinking and
customer relationship marketing.
     Toyota has five distribution channels in Japan - Toyota, Toyota small car, vision,
corolla. These distribution channels nationwide, usually owned assembly plants. Each
channel of distribution of all finished products of Toyota's part (with
different license plates and vehicle), the main difference between them is the service
to different consumer groups. This car has five distribution channels for the clear
signs Toyota to set up these channels aimed at the development of manufacturers and
users of direct links.
      example: Guangzhou Honda Automobile Company marketing model
      Guangzhou Honda Automobile Company (Guangzhou Honda Automobile Co.,
Ltd.) Guangzhou Automobile Group and Japan's Honda Motor Co., Ltd. a
joint venture company. June 1998 listing. March 26, 1999 at Accord (Accord) car
line-off ceremony, marking the company entered the mass production stage.
       Guangzhou Honda, Honda introduced the model used in the world - the
establishment of service-centric set of vehicle sales, service, spare parts, one of four
special feedback sales and service network, its main purpose is to car by providing a
comfortable environment, professional sound service and pure components, allowing
users to use the car from the car to get the whole process a good service to win
customers trust and satisfaction, attract a steady stream of new and old customers.
      Its main contents are:
      1. Four in one (vehicle sales, service, spare parts, and information feedback).
      2. Special store operating to service the center, through service to attract and
encourage customers to purchase, through the special services to ensure long-term
stability of the income shop.
      3. Products can only be sold in special stores, direct sales to end-users and to
ensure satisfactory service to users, and users in order to establish mutual trust
      4. The national implementation of the unified sales price (excluding freight).
      5. Brand franchise: You can only sell the products and Honda, Guangzhou Honda
line of cars and accessories.
      6. Cash provided vehicle.
      7. Authorized by the Guangzhou Honda with "H" mark the
unification of the CI image.
      8. To individual users as the main objective of smooth       City

      Lean Production and significance of the superiority of JIT
      compared with mass production methods, the Japanese lean production methods
used in the superiority of JIT mainly in the following areas:
      1, product development, production systems and factories in other departments
of human resources required, the minimum mass production mode can be reduced to 1
/ 2;
      2, new product development cycle, the minimum can be reduced to l / 2 or 2 / 3;
      3, the production process of in-process inventory can be reduced to a minimum 1
/ 10;
      4, the lowest factory space can be reduced to 1 / 2;
      5, finished goods inventory can be reduced to a minimum 1 / 4;
      6, product quality can be increased by 3 times.
      JIT Lean Production is a completely rational pursuit of production, efficiency,
flexibility to produce high-quality products meet the needs of the production
technology and management techniques. Many of its basic principles and methods of
positive significance to the manufacturing sector; its production planning and control
and inventory management, the basic idea of the rich and the development of modern
production management theory has an important role.

      lean production management methods on the characteristics of JIT
      1, pull (pull) production time (JIT)
      - the end-user demand for producing a starting point.
      - stressed that logistics balance, the pursuit of zero inventory, a process required
the processing of finished parts can enter the next process immediately.
      - organization of production relies on the operation of Kanban (Kanban) for.
Kanban delivery processes from demand information between (billboards of
Xingshibuxian, the key is the ability to transmit information).
      - the beat production by human intervention, control and logistics to ensure a
balance in production (for each process, the following procedures shall ensure timely
supply of).
      - As a result of pull-type production, production planning and scheduling is
essentially completed by the individual production units themselves, not in the form
of a centralized plan, but during the operation of coordination between production
units is essential.
      2, total quality management
      - emphasis on quality is produced rather than testing out, from the quality control
process to ensure the final quality.
      - the production process of inspection and control of quality in every process is
carried out. Focuses on training each employee's quality consciousness, to
ensure timely detection of quality problems.
      - if found in the production process quality problems, according to the situation,
you can immediately stop production until the problem in order to ensure does not
appear valid non-conforming product processing.
      - for quality problems, usually related to technical and production organization
staff as a team, with collaboration soon as possible.
      3, team work method (Teamwork)
      - every employee at work not only to carry out orders, more importantly, active
participation, play a role in decision-making and decision support.
       - Organization team was not entirely in accordance with the principles of
division of administrative organization, but mainly divided according to business
      - team members emphasized the multi-skill, required within the team are familiar
with the work of other staff to ensure smooth coordination.
      - team members work performance evaluation by the evaluation of the internal
      - team work in an atmosphere of trust essential to a long-term supervision and
control oriented, while avoiding the work every step of the verification, to improve
        - the team's organization is changing, different things, create a
different team, the same person may belong to different teams.
      4, CE (Concurrent Engineering)
     - in product design and development period, the conceptual design, structural
design, process design, the final demand combined with the fastest speed to ensure the
quality required to complete.
     - all work related to this project by the team completed. Their own arrangements
for members of the group process itself, but a regular basis or at any time feedback
and coordination to solve the problems.
     - based on appropriate information systems tools, feedback and coordination of
the projects. CIM using modern technology, product research and development during
the process of parallel auxiliary projects.

      JIT and lean production management of high-volume production of more ideas
        JIT Lean Production as a success in practice, from the environment to
management objectives are the new management ideas, not simply the application of
new management tools, but rather a set of business environment, culture and
management method a high degree of integration management system. Therefore, JIT
Lean Production is an autonomous system itself.
      1, the optimum range of different
      mass production methods from the United States, is based on the relationship
between U.S. companies, emphasizing market-oriented, optimize resource allocation,
each firm limits on financial relationships to optimize their own internal management.
And related companies, whether suppliers or distributors, Zeyi opponents as equals.
      Lean Production JIT Zeyi production processes as a clue, closely related to the
supply chain organization, optimize the entire production system as a target. On the
one hand reduce business transaction costs of collaboration, on the other hand needs
to ensure stable and timely supply.
      2, different attitude towards stocks
           mass production mode of inventory management emphasized that
"necessary evil and inventory."
              Lean Production JIT inventory management emphasized that
"inventory is root of all evil."
      Lean Production in JIT production all the stock as a "waste"
at the same time that the inventory cover up the production system defects and
problems. It has stressed that to ensure the supply of production, on the other hand
stressed that the requirements of the zero inventory, thus constantly exposed to the
production of the basic aspects of the conflict and to improve and continue to lower
stock inventory to eliminate the resulting "waste." Based on this,
lean production JIT proposed the "elimination of all waste"
slogan, the pursuit of the goal of zero waste.
      3, different view of operational control
      high-volume production methods of traditional employment system based on
both the employment relationship, business management emphasized individual work
efficiently to achieve the division of labor, and strict operational audits to promote and
assurances, and audit work also prevent businesses produce personal work negative
      JIT Lean Production from Japan, the popular Oriental cultural influence, in the
professional division, stressed that mutual cooperation and the streamlining of
business processes (including the necessary verification) - elimination of the business
of "waste."
      4, Quality of different
      traditional modes of production will be a certain amount of seconds as the
inevitable result of the production.
      JIT Lean Production decentralized organization based on collaboration with
others the view that the producers themselves absolutely reliable product quality
assurance is possible, without compromising the continuity of production. The core
idea is that the causes leading to quality problems is not the probability of, by
eliminating the production of quality produce links to "eliminate all defects
caused by waste", the pursuit of zero bad.
      5, on the attitude of different
      mass production approach emphasizes the management of the strict hierarchy. Is
strictly required for employees to complete tasks assigned by higher authorities, were
seen as subordinate position of "equipment."
      JIT Lean Production stressed personal intervention in the production process, try
to play a primary and everyone's subjective initiative, while stressing the
coordination, evaluation of individual employees is also based on long-term
performance. This approach more employees as members of corporate groups, rather
than machines.

     JIT Lean Production System and the structure of the major projects
     implementation of lean production and JIT requirements in six key areas are:
     1, the implementation of lean production JIT basis - through the 5S activities to
improve site management.
     2, JIT-JIT production systems
     when the customer needs, according to customer need, and provide the products.
By a series of tools to enable enterprises to achieve JIT production, the main tools are:
     balanced production cycle - single production time Takt Time == Cycle Time
     Continuous Improvement KAIZEN (Continuous Improvement)
     a stream of production-One Piece Flow
     cell production of Cell Production - U-type arrangement
     value stream analysis of VA / VE
     method IE
     Pull and Kanban PULL & KANBAN
     Visual Management
     reduction to reduce production cycle-LEADTIME
     Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
     quick die (SMED)
       3,6 σ quality management principles, to be implemented in product
development and production process. Include:
     responsibility of the operator's quality
      operator concept of active stop line work
      error proofing system technology
      standard operating SO & OS operating standards
      FIFO FIFO control
      identify the underlying causes (5 Why) 5WHY
       4, play a workforce initiative, stressing that "a team of Lean
Enterprise initiative is a basic operation mode." To encourage team spirit,
tear down the walls between departments of an enterprise.
         5, visual management. Not only managers, but all the staff of the
company's situation at a glance. Information to fully communicate the best
way is to put all the processes are on the table, so that visualization.
      6, constantly striving for perfection. Enterprise management philosophy and
critical thinking of staff, even if never reach the ideal of perfection, even if waste is
negligible, progress is little by little, we must continue to move forward!

      Lean Production System JIT objectives
      (1), lean the basic goal of JIT production
      industrial enterprises in terms of profits for the purpose of social and economic
organization. Therefore, to maximize profits on the basic objectives of the enterprise.
Changing in the market today, Lean Production JIT flexible organizational forms of
production, according to changes in market demand, timely, and quickly adjust
production, relying on close and careful management, by "completely
eliminate waste," to prevent excessive production of enterprises The profit
targets. To achieve this basic objective of lean production JIT must be good to achieve
the following three sub-objectives: inventory, high flexibility (multiple varieties), no
      (2), lean production sub-goal of JIT
      1, zero inventory
      a full inventory of the production system, the system will cover the various
problems. For example, downtime caused by equipment failure, poor quality of work
caused by waste or rework, schedule delays caused by lateral wrangling, the
production gap caused by poor planning, etc., can use a variety of inventory, and
contradictions passivation, the problem was flooded. On the surface, the production is
still a balance to, in fact, the whole production system may have many flaws, and
even more frightening is that, if the existing production system problems blind,
insensitive, over time, will lose the sense of urgency and initiative Almost Beijing
Therefore, stocks in Japan called the "root of all evil" is a
production system is unreasonable, inconsistent production process, production and
evidence of poor operation and proposed "march to the zero
inventory" slogan. Therefore, the "zero inventory"
lean production methods to become the main objectives pursued by one of JIT.
      2, highly flexible
      high flexibility refers to the organizational form of production of enterprises are
dynamic and can adapt to the requirements of diverse market demand, timely
production of many varieties organizations to improve their competitiveness.
Changing face of the new issue market, JIT lean production target must be highly
flexible, high flexibility and high productivity of unity. Flexibility and productivity to
achieve a unified, lean production JIT must be organized, labor, equipment, three
showed high flexibility.
     (1), Organizational Flexibility: Lean Production in JIT, the decentralization of
decision-making power, rather than concentrated in the chain of command, it does not
adopt the static functional-based structure, but by the project team based dynamic
organizational structure.
     (2), Labour Flexibility: fluctuations in market demand, the required labor force is
also adjusted accordingly. JIT Lean Production is a versatile workforce skills and
more able to work, changes in demand, it can be adjusted by the operator to adjust the
operation of short-term changes.
     (3), flexible equipment: automated process with rigid dispersed, fixed rhythm
and contrast the characteristics of water production, lean production methods used
moderate JIT flexible automation technology (CNC machine tools co-exist with the
multi-function common) to process relatively concentrated, there is no fixed beat, and
the materials of non-sequential delivery of production organization, so that lean
production JIT in small volume production conditions, close to the large number of
production due to the high rigidity Automation efficiency and low cost, both rigid
Automation is not flexibility.
     3, zero-defect
     rarely made the traditional zero-defect production and management objectives,
general business raised only unqualified allowable percentage of acceptable quality
level. The idea is: to achieve a certain number of substandard products is inevitable.
JIT and Lean Production's goal is to eliminate all causes of nonconforming
products produced in the processing of each process are required to reach the best
level, the pursuit of zero defect.
      to the zero-defect quality products, "was wrong and replaced by
the" get to spend more money, time and effort, stressing that
"the first time against a" very important. If every person in their
own work, develop a habit, any prior preparation and prevention seriously and take
preventive measures, in many cases there will be no quality problems. Therefore, the
pursuit of product quality should be the concept of defect prevention, we must do
everything for the first time, a "zero defect" quality control
system. Always the last general business costs spent on prevention of defects can be
saved, the result has caused a lot of waste, such as materials, working hours,
inspection costs, rework costs. Should be recognized, after the test is negative, passive,
and often too late. Various error and need to redo part of the cost, often several times
the cost of prevention. Therefore, there should be more efforts in the defect prevention,
and perhaps start spending more on fees, but soon will be able to recover the cost.

     pillars of Lean Production and the ultimate goal of JIT
     "zero waste" as the ultimate goal of JIT lean production,
specifically manifested in PICQMDS 7, the target detailing as follows:
     (1) "zero" approach to changing working hours to waste
(Products0 Mixed Flow Production)
     the processing of switching processes species Transferring waste time with
assembly line reduced to "zero" or close to
     (2) "zero" inventory (Inventory0 reduce inventory)
     processing and assembly will be connected to running water, remove the middle
of inventory, variable market forecast production for the simultaneous production
orders, inventory will be reduced to zero.
     (3) "zero" waste (Cost0 overall cost control)
     eliminate redundant manufacturing, handling, waiting for the waste, zero waste.
     (4) "zero" bad (Quality0 high quality)
     bit bad not test out the inspection, but the source should be created to eliminate it,
and the pursuit of zero bad.
     (5) "zero" fault (Maintenance0 improve operating rate)
     eliminate machinery downtime, zero failures.
      (6) "zero" stagnation (Delivery0 rapid response, short
     maximum compression lead time (Lead time). To eliminate the middle of this
stagnation, to achieve "zero" stagnation.
     (7) "zero" disasters (Safety0 safety first)
     people, factories, product safety to prevent full inspection, the implementation of
SF inspection system.

      JIT Lean Production and Industrial Engineering IE
      Industrial Engineering IE (Industrial Engineering) is the personnel, materials,
equipment, energy and information are integrated systems composed of design,
improvement of a science. IE is the way to achieve lean manufacturing engineering
based on JIT, lean production is an important component of JIT.
      Japanese companies in the implementation of Lean Production JIT, the use of IE
in a large number of industrial engineering operations research, action research, time
to study the technology, so that lean production JIT always stood on a scientific basis,
so lively and fruitful. Japanese companies in the use of IE had been creative and
effective, making lean production JIT not only bring qualitative change in
organization of production, but also brings product development, quality control,
internal and external collaboration management, relations with the user a series of
fundamental corporate organizational structure, management system after the major
changes and major changes in business values, including the most affected include the
enterprise culture of Japanese companies. Toyota production survey that the Minister
of Zhongshan, Kiyotaka, Toyota Production System (JIT) is the application of IE in
the enterprise.
      Japan from the U.S. introduction of IE, after half a century of development, the
formation of rich Japanese style IE, that is closely integrated with IE and management
practices, emphasizing on-site management optimization. To promote Chinese
enterprises in the implementation of JIT lean production process, should be combined
with on-site analysis of IE, from IE and the popularization of starting to realize the
pull-type production time.

     working procedure before the implementation of ISO9000 is the IE
     ISO9000 is the International Organization for Standardization for the product
(including services) quality and impact of all aspects of quality assurance measures
established by international standard. Essence of business is simply carrying out
ISO9000 International Organization for Standardization developed scientific quality
guarantee system and quality control standards to ensure the quality of products. IE is
to implement the ISO9000 of the former working procedure, only through the mass to
find the problem, ask questions, improve operations, optimal management, and
ultimately affect the product quality, all the procedures, links, assignments are made
to improve, formulated on this basis in the standard is the high-quality, actionable,
have mass. The sake of discussion engaged in implementing standards documents,
most likely the original, backward, irrational simple operation and management
procedures described or pirated, many domestic enterprises implementing standards
of evidence, the product quality is not the fundamental solution is fully demonstrated
the fact that this. Therefore, the implementation of ISO9000 from IE basics.