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					         Land not for Sale
      A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in
                                       Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot, Cambodia




                                                                             November 2005




                                                 A Report by Teang Tnaut Association

English Language version – for Khmer translation of Executive summary please contact Teang Tnaut
Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




                                        Contents

                                        Report concept                                                                         3
                                        Executive summary (Khmer & English)                                                    4
                                        Challenges for the future (Khmer & English)                                            10

                                        Snapshot Survey: a Summary                                                             13
                                        A closer look: Sihanoukville                                                           16
                                        A closer look: Koh Kong                                                                24
                                        A closer look: Kampot                                                                  33




                                        Appendix                                                                               38
                                        project outline
                                        list of NGOs/IOs/Government offices involved in development (by town)
                                        survey results
                                        SEILA commune database population statistics
                                        references




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                  Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




                                                            Report Concept
                                                            In March 2005 the Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) in Bangkok approved a
                                                            proposal for a study on the baseline situation for informal communities in the 3 coastal
                                                            towns of Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot (please see Appendix for project outline)
                                                            .


                                                            Objectives: to draw together baseline data (in both english and khmer) on urban poor
                                                            situation in these 3 provincial towns to assist the ongoing urban poor/ landlessness dialogue
                                                            and provide partners with this basic information. In particular looking at;
                                                            mapping: obtaining simple town plans and mapping location of main communities



Study area; Map courtesy of Canby publications
                                                            snapshot survey: sample survey of basic situation and outlook of 20 urban poor residents
                                                            in each town


                                                            interviews/discussions: with community leaders, Government officers and development
                                                            organisations to gain a wider picture of the situation


                                                            Information: wide distribution of findings to partners, communities, Government etc.
                                                            This report will be copied to the various organizations involved in protecting rights and
                                                            assisting development with the communities concerned . It will also provide baseline
                                                            information for potential interventions and upgrading in these towns over the coming years.



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             Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005



Executive Summary                                                                       A new trend of Landlessness
                                                                                        The findings in this report add weight to the view
In researching the outline situation of these                                           that, although landlessness is an ongoing issue, there is
informal settlements a number of issues have                                            a new trend of landlessness and housing rights abuses
emerged. The following summary touches on these                                         emerging which is affecting not only the informal
issues and attempts to provide an overview                                              settlements covered in this study but Cambodia as a
although each heading in itself could be the subject                                    whole. It is fuelled by a number of issues including
of an entire report. It is hoped, however, that this                                    huge speculative investment, rising land prices, weak
study allows the reader a window onto the overall                                       governance and a number of other factors that are
situation.                                                                              looked at in this summary.
                                                                                        The study of these 3 coastal towns in many ways
       What is an informal or marginalised
                                                                                        reflects the national situation in which informal
                      community?
                                                                                        settlements are being affected at different rates and in
      For the purposes of this report informal
  communities are those which have arisen, usually                                      different ways. Some settlements are poor but have
  without formal planning, along road sides, river                                      been settled a long time and have a sense of security
    banks and along edges of public and private                                         while others are equally poor but are recently settled,
   property. Marginalised communities are those
                                                                                        lack a cohesive community bond and are therefore
    which are recognised by authorities but are
                                                                                        more vulnerable to eviction and abuse. For example
   lacking in many of the basic facilities of clean
   water supply, sanitation and adequate access.                                        Koh Kong’s settlements are largely migratory with a
  Most resettlement sites fall into this category.                                      high percentage coming to the province in search of
                                                                                        possible work at the Thai border.



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              Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005


Kampot has more established communities which are                                        nation’s 13 million residents into precarious
also affected by grinding poverty and lack of                                            temporary housing situations with relatives, bottom
infrastructure, but less prone to eviction and                                           end rented accommodation or simply onto the street.
harrassment by authorities. Sihanoukville, also has more                                 A recent OXFAM report on Landlessness refers to
established communities but is experiencing aggressive                                   these people ‘…increasingly resorting to migration in a
land speculation and a higher number of disputes (some                                   largely fruitless search for adequate livelihood.’
violent). In all of these situations the common theme is
that informal communities, whether temporary and
                                                                                           The potential social and political unrest that could result
migratory or long term and settled, are facing
                                                                                           from the continuing growth of this portion of the
increasing threats from a combination of local and
                                                                                           population is substantial and a cause for concern’.
international developers and Government officers. The
                                                                                           OXFAM/GB Landlessness Assessment report (2004)
communities have little or no ability to question or
object despite a large international aid community
presence (although there have been some high profile                                     A young population/ weak education system
cases of negotiation).                                                                   Compounding the situation is the 50.3% of the
                                                                                         population that is under the age of 20. This huge
Informal settlements are set to grow                                                     ‘wedge’ of young, largely unskilled Cambodians (from
                                                                                         the 80s baby boom) is already emerging on the work
In recent years there have been a number of factors
                                                                                         market with few employment opportunities. Schools
coming into play that are beginning to ‘squeeze’ the
                                                                                         are already strained with lack of qualified staff, monthly
situation everywhere – one obvious statistic is a
                                                                                         salaries are mostly US$20-30 and classes are often
growing population whose families are unable to
                                                                                         teeming with
provide adequate land for the next generation. This is
pushing more and more of the

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                     Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




children. Higher education is generally run as a fee-paying,                              Weak governance
commercial enterprise with very mixed teaching quality                                    Despite many donor backed initiatives to strengthen
and little or no accreditation.                                                           governance Ministries are still a long way from having a
                                                                                          full compliment of trained staff especially in provincial
                                                                                          towns. Therefore while there are a number of excellent
                                                                                          Government staff with skill and integrity, most ministries
                                                                                          are still lacking a significant percentage of experienced
                                                                                          staff. In addition some Government officers are taking the
                                                                                          opportunity of new found ‘skills’ to exploit loopholes and
                                                                                          actually assist directly or indirectly in abuses. This stems
                                                                                          from a system which routinely continues to rely at all
                                                                                          levels on a decades old embedded formula of bribes, kick-
                                                                                          backs and ‘unofficial’ payments and it is clear that
                                                                                          meaningful change in governance will be, at best, slow.




   Source: Inter-Censal survey, Ministry of Planning (2004)




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                  Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005


Ignorance of the Law/ No faith in the Law                                              Land Speculation fuelling interest
Even Government officers and NGOs are unclear about                                    An end to civil conflict in 1998 combined with general
the new Land Law which leaves most Cambodians largely                                  political stability and huge investment from the Chinese and
unaware of what changes have occurred and how to go                                    other (mainly) Asian countries has led to pockets of Land
about basic land negotiations including land registration. ‘In                         speculation and spiralling land prices. Phnom Penh has been
general people living in remote areas do not understand                                the main target but other provincial towns especially
the process of acquiring land certificates’ noted ADHOC,                               Sihanoukville have been affected. With millions of dollars at
one of Cambodia’s leading human rights organisations, ‘of                              stake, families once living quietly along rivers, lakes (boeungs),
all cases brought to Cadastral commission only 6 cases                                 roads and other property are now being required, coereced
saw resolution with 174 families receiving suitable                                    or forced to move on.
compensation.‘ 1 This has left thousands of families
stranded without help. Many already understand well                                    restricted window for public dialogue
enough, through successive regimes, that in Cambodia
                                                                                       It is clear that today Cambodia has an increasingly restricted
‘Might is Right’. Meanwhile efforts to improve this
                                                                                       window for public dialogue. Recent Political and Media
situation such as the Ministry of Land use, Planning,,
                                                                                       censure as well as limits on public meetings and activities of
Urbanism and Construction’s ‘Social Land Concession
                                                                                       NGOs, combined with ongoing issues of impunity for
system’ (funded by the World Bank) which aims to
                                                                                       developers and high ranking officials has fuelled growing
distribute some areas of State public Land to the poor
                                                                                       issues of land grabbing. The situation for these informal
continues to make slow progress and find many snags
                                                                                       settlements (and the Country’s), which contain the bulk of
(among them simply determining what areas are actually
                                                                                       the poor, looks barely different from a decade ago and their
classed as State Public Land….)
                                                                                       future, it could be argued, looks unlikely to improve .

1 ADHOC Annual Human Rights review 2003


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               Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005



Exerpt from New York Times article
6th November 2005
Land values in Phnom Penh are estimated to have tripled                               developer promises to build a replacement on the outskirts or
in the past five years, and the market is so rabid that small                         suburbs of the city where land is less valuable, but most details
lakes are being filled to create more prime land to sell.                             remain secret.. In one deal, the Royal University of Fine Arts, near
"There seems to be a frenzy, a momentum to grab up                                    the French Embassy in Phnom Penh, is being swapped for a building
anything you can,“ said Miloon Kothari, a specialist on                               to be completed on reclaimed land at a far edge of the city. In
adequate housing for the United Nations, on a visit here at                           another, the municipal police headquarters near the central market
the end of August. "The decisions seem to be dictated by                              has been traded for a new building on the outskirts. Similar deals
money and political expediency.“ The most prominent of                                have been made for police headquarters in Siem Reap and
the current deals are being accomplished in a stream of                               Battambang, according to Licadho, one of Cambodia's leading human
land swap agreements with a small number of well-                                     rights groups.
connected private companies. In those swaps, the
                                                                                      The main prison, behind the Royal Palace, has been emptied for a
                                                                                      developer who has built a prison, also on the outskirts. The
                                                                                      Cambodia Daily reported that one developer had acquired the
 ‘The Cambodian defenders project and the Cambodian
                                                                                      Ministry of Justice, the Supreme Court, the Appeals Court and the
 Centre for Human Rights are struggling to cope with the
                                                                                      Phnom Penh Municipal Court, and was building suburban
 fall-out from large scale land ownership disputes, where
                                                                                      replacements.
 usually the victims are the powerless poor. CDP
 coordinator Chea Dara said in most cases land occupied
                                                                                      "The government sells schools, a hospital, and now a lake," Kek
 by families was confiscated by official authorities and
                                                                                      Galabru, who heads Licadho, said last spring. "One day they're going
 powerful people.’
                                                                                      to sell the Mekong - they're going to sell the whole of Phnom Penh."
 Phnom Penh Post, August 2004



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              Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




Legacy of the Khmer Rouge (KR) and lack of Trust                                         Some positive signs
Much is written about the legacy of the KR, the civil                                    This summary paints a generally bleak picture about
war and the current regimes that even today continues                                    the new pressures on these informal settlements. Yet
to rely on ‘patronage’ and intimidation, albeit on a lesser                              there are reasons for hope. The current situation is far
scale, to underpin its authority. However this KR legacy                                 from critical; these towns have nothing approaching
is very rarely recognised in public dialogue beyond a                                    the mass slum settlements of Indian cities such as
general denouncement of the ‘terrible Pol Pot’ (ah-Pot).                                 Mumbai and there is a great opportunity for Cambodia
For example in Kampot (as throughout Cambodia)                                           to grow its towns and cities without creating them.
there are many public figures who were in KR uniform                                     Programmes such as the Starfish project in
as recently as 1998. Rarely is this talked about publicly                                Sihanoukville show that there are NGOs involved in
and certainly no one questions it but is a situation that                                support for the informal settlements and each town
affects all society and its ability to ‘trust’ the                                       has at least 2 operational Human Rights organisations.
Government and each other. The KR’s system of spies                                      Settlements themselves are very resourceful and
(chhlop) continues to be used informally today and                                       although local politics are unlikely to change
reminds people that they are ‘being watched’. It is a                                    significantly, there are many precedents of flexibility
situation that will take many years, possibly generations,                               and negotiation in Khmer culture. The question
to change but it is important to name it as one of the                                   remains whether the authorities will allow people the
factors that has caused Cambodia’s problems and                                          freedom to build and upgrade their homes or whether
continues to do so today.                                                                they will allow this rising tide of evictions and land
                                                                                         grabbing to go unchecked.




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              Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




Challenges for the future                                                          There is an also a major gap in the public’s understanding
                                                                                   about Land Rights; how to register land and how to complain

Sharing information                                                                about abuses. It is a massive undertaking which human rights
                                                                                   organisations and others (such as GTZ and LMAP) are
It is clear from the fieldwork of this study that there is
                                                                                   attempting to address, promoting better information and
considerable information available but limited sharing
                                                                                   dialogue between central Government, Commune councils,
of information through networks or Forums within
                                                                                   local NGOs and community groups.
which information can be usefully and easily
exchanged. Even in Phnom Penh, which has a number
of NGOs involved in these issues including RAN                                     Striving for a clear Land registration system
(Resettlement Action Network) at NGO Forum and                                     At the core of this situation is a lack of political impetus to
the Housing Rights Taskforce (formerly based out of                                create a working system of registration accessible to
the UNCHR office), there is limited information                                    everyone. This leaves the situation ‘in limbo’, to the detriment
exchange. In the provinces the situation is often worse.                           of the average landowner and to the profit of those abusing
There is a need to recognise the limitations of                                    the system.
organisations but also to encourage existing NGOs to
network in the provinces on these issues. Supporting                                 The Kouprey Express
workshops, exchanges and Forums but also needing to
                                                                                     This is a project run by NGO Wild Aid to educate the public
go beyond the routine workshop menu – for example
                                                                                     about environmental issues and wildlife protection. A van
introducing creative arts and performance can be very
                                                                                     equipped with information materials and a video projector
effective in providing public messages and advocating
                                                                                     tours the country. It is a simple, clear and effective method
indirectly against abuse.                                                            particularly in remote areas and could be used for a number of
                                                                                     issues including Land Rights.

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             Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




                                                                                             Links to media
                                                                                             One of the most effective methods of
                                                                                             advocating about land rights and getting abuses
                                                                                             bought to the attention of the public is to get a
                                                                                             story in the paper. The english language papers
                                                                                             (Cambodia Daily and Phnom Penh Post) are
                                                                                             both receptive to stories on land rights abuses.
                                                                                             Recent coverage of the Gbaal Spean evictions
                                                                                             at Poipet in which 5 locals were killed was very
Documentation and mapping of communities
                                                                                             well covered and led to international attention
Although NGOs are involved in certain cases                                                  and condemnation. Khmer language papers are
there seemed to be very little systematic                                                    also receptive to some issues but have more
documentation available. All NGOs interviewed                                                political ties and restrictions.
produced varying levels of documentation detail
but none really seemed to have a good overall
view or strategy. Most offices appeared to be
stretched on resources and in the circumstances
were ‘patching gaps’ but a coordinated strategy
and solid understanding of the situation were
missing.




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                Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005



recognise limited capacity                                                          to have significant impact for anyone who has had
It is perhaps an obvious statement but the                                          limited experience with these projects.
capacity of NGOs to assist is limited, the training
and experience of Government officers is limited                                    Future Initiatives
and the ability for the general population                                          This project has already fed into an initiative by the
(particularly in remote areas) to understand ‘legal’                                Urban Poor Development Fund (UPDF) to bring
or ‘western orientated’ information is limited. But                                 together communities and local authorities from 7
these limitations need to be incorporated into                                      provincial towns (including these 3). In the months
future plans and policies. For example it was                                       following this and up to the publication of this report
recently commented that the PLUP (Participatory                                     more than 5 community projects have been assisted by
Land Use Planning) rural document was an                                            UPDF and Teang Tnaut in these coastal towns. From
excellent document but in reality it was often                                      these small sparks of community based development we
very hard to implement on the ground because                                        hope to work with both Government (eg SEILA/Ex-
people simply couldn’t understand it. The                                           comm, LMAP) and Non-Government programmes and
document itself was excellent but there was little                                  help spark initiatives where none presently exist.
or no frame of reference for this type of                                           Communities have the skills and ability to develop
approach for either participants or facilitators.                                   themselves and combat hostile eviction but there
Many donor projects fall into this gap and shows                                    continues to be a large potential role for organisations
the need to appreciate the current capacity and                                     to encourage community based initiatives and assist
resources available. Even an extensive programme                                    negotiation with the authorities.
of training/workshops is unlikely




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             Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




Snapshot Survey: Summary                                                            Expenses
see Appendix for questionnaire
                                                                                    The largest expense for all families was on food

Age group & Gender                                                                  and water (57%). This was followed by education

Average age of interviewees was 43 and of these                                     of children (20%) and medicines (12%). Although

24 were male and 36 female.                                                         some mentioned that they are on the property of
                                                                                    relatives or unknown landowners very few

Occupation                                                                          mentioned rent payment as an expense indicating

Almost half were working in fishing, farming and                                    that most are living for free on their site.

selling small goods (46%). Others included manual
labourers (16%), housewife(14%) and a small                                         Water supply
number of Government employees reflecting a                                         Over half are buying water either via street
typical range of occupations in urban poor areas.                                   sellers or a piped system. The remainder are
                                                                                    either getting water free from a public well (45%)
Savings groups & NGO assistance                                                     or using both systems. In Koh Kong and
Only one person was involved in a savings group                                     Sihanoukville in particular the water supply is
(organised without NGO help). Some had heard                                        becoming an even larger issue as development
about the human rights organisations and In                                         increases consumption but the infrastructure is
Sihanoukville many mentioned that RACHA had                                         not keeping pace.
visited with information on HIV/Aids but
otherwise the direct input of NGOs in these
areas seemed minimal.


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               Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




Sanitation and Power supply
73% are without a working toilet and 34%
without electricity (supplied by private sources at
rates ranging from 600-1300 riel/Kwh). The local
price in Phnom Penh supplied by Electricity du
Cambodge (EdC) is from 350 riel/Kwh.


Preferences for upgrading
This question was aimed at seeing what
                                                                               Survey in Kampot
community projects people would like to see
realised. Many respondents were so unused to
being asked this type of question that they found
it difficult to imagine. 25% were in such dire
situations that notions of ‘community’ projects
were not appropriate. However of those that
were in a position to answer 45% referred to the
need for better services (electricity/water etc)
and better access (road, walkways). A small
number mentioned education and the need for
work opportunities which was not related
                                                                               Survey in Pak Long fishing community, Koh Kong
directly to the question but reflected their needs.


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                Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005


 Place of Birth                                                                               security reflected by a figure of 73% who have
 Very revealing results for each town. In Kampot                                              been in their location for over 20 years. In Koh
 80% came from that province whereas in Koh                                                   Kong on the other hand no one had been there
 Kong no one was originally from that province                                                longer
 and in Sihanoukville just 20% had their home                                                 than 20 years and 62% had been there under 10
 town there. This correlates strongly with the                                                years. In Sihnaoukville it was a similar story with
 overall situation of insecurity of land tenure,                                              12% there longer than 20 years and 40% for less
 landlessness and housing rights           problems1.                                         than 10 years.


 Duration of stay in current location                                                         Threat of eviction
 These statistics further highlight differences                                               Respondents were asked to rate their feeling of
 between Kampot and the other 2 towns. For                                                    the ‘threat of eviction’ on a scale of 1-5 (5 being
 instance Kampot has communities living in poor                                               highest). Kampot (average figure 2.4) appears to
 conditions but they have a sense of                                                          have a more stable environment than either Koh
                                                                                              Kong (2.9) or Sihanoukville (3.6). In the latter 85%
                                                                                              felt there was some threat of eviction and felt
                                                                                              ‘insecure’ about their current location. It should
                                                                                              also be remembered that most Cambodians over
                                                                                              the age of 30 have experienced some form of
                                                                                              ‘eviction’ and ‘insecure land tenure’ most
                                                                                              particularly during the KR era.

1 OXFAM/GB Landlessness Assessment report (2004)


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               Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




A closer look:
Sihanoukville
Background information
Sometimes referred to as Kampong Som,
Sihanoukville was named after the former King
Norodom Sihanouk and is the main ‘Port’ City of
Cambodia. It replaced Kampot as the country’s
main port in the 1950s due to its deep harbour
and was a main route for both US and Vietcong
supplies during the War 1965-75. It has an ‘urban‘
population in access of 70,000 (see Appendix)
which is mainly employed in the fishing industry,
Port activities, the Angkor brewery, Tourism and
in general trade. Although it is Cambodia’s third
largest city Sihanoukville still has very much a
provincial town feel to it. This is partly due to its
sprawling nature from the Port over to
Occheuteal beach which covers over 9 square
Kilometres


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Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




                                                                     Informal settlements
                                                                     In relation to this the informal settlements are not
                                                                     concentrated in large settlements but scattered along
                                                                     roadsides, water sources, around public buildings and
                                                                     on ‘undeveloped land’. A rough estimate indicates that
                                                                     there are more than 10,000 people living in these
                                                                     areas. Since 1979 people have been able to settle in
                                                                     the city in these areas without much controversy but
                                                                     in recent years the steep rise in property prices and
                                                                     land speculation has seen a sharp rise in harassment
                                                                     and eviction (see Cambodia Daily reports in
                                                                     Appendix).


                                                                     This is evident throughout Cambodia but more so in
                                                                     Sihanoukville where prices and pressures are greater.
                                                                     In addition the land titling system remains unclear and
                                                                     largely inaccessible to the poor in part due to opaque
                                                                     practices and in part due to a genuine lack of
                                                                     resources and capacity in the cadastral departments.




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Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




                                                                              Informal settlement mapping
                                                                              Methodology the numbers given in this mapping
                                                                              information are very much approximate.
                                                                              Information was gained either through casual
                                                                              observance or via a local source. As the
                                                                              settlements are scattered throughout the city it
                                                                              was not possible to map every neighbourhood
                                                                              and therefore we may well have missed many
                                                                              small clusters. In addition it was difficult to
                                                                              determine what constituted an informal
                                                                              settlement but generally it was defined as areas
                                                                              along roadside, railways, boeungs or on
                                                                              public/private property owned by others.


                                                                              The Port area is perhaps the largest area with
                                                                              over 1,500 families (approximately 9,000
                                                                              persons) and overall Sihanoukville is estimated
                                                                              to have over 2,000 families living in informal
                                                                              housing (12,000 persons) which represents 17%
                                                                              of the population.




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               Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




^ Sihanoukville Port:: Four billion Yen is slated for upgrades over                       ^ A small fishing community on the former Royal residence. It
                                                                                           is threatened with eviction and in the background lies Sokha
10 years but forcing change for villagers on the left of the photo                           beach, now a privately owned enterprise by sokimex, the
                                                                                                               national oil company




                ^ Large areas of Sihanoukville remain unurbansied and undeveloped. This is set to change with
                     many parcels being fenced off. Planning observers have commented though that the
                                   infrastructure including water supply is not keeping pace.


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              Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005



Housing Rights issues
                                                                                   people were imprisoned and the Governor of
Sokha Beach
There have been a number of high profile cases in                                  Sihanoukville, Say Hak, called for further arrests.
recent years including the recent ‘Sokha beach’                                    In 2003 the Japanese Government approved a 4.3bn
issue in which Okhna Kong Triv made claim to                                       Yen loan via JICA to fund a 10 year upgrading plan to
several hectares of a prime beach front                                            allow Sihanoukville to increase port capacity and
promontory and successfully evicted more than                                      challenge other regional ports. It includes the idea of a
20 families using bulldozers and armed police.                                     43 hectare ‘Special Economic Zone’ as part of a
The case continues to be disputed by other users                                   ‘Growth corridor’ between Sihanoukville and Phnom
on the beach front particularly a number of                                        Penh. On the site however many families have made
foreign and/or khmer run bars and guesthouses.                                     their homes. Port Authority (PAS) chairman, Lou Kim
For the evicted families however it seems to be                                    Chhun commented that ‘Port expansion is the key to
very much closed.                                                                  the health of the Cambodian economy. It cannot be
The Port and Tum Nop Dyke                                                          compromised by a few illegal shacks.’1 Needless to say
The Port is another area of the city that has been                                 JICA’s announcement fuelled increased speculation in
increasingly involved in land disputes. Families                                   the area and more families moved into the area leading
eager to make some form of business near the                                       to the standoff with Police in late 2004. ‘it’s not our
port have historically settled along the Tum Nop                                   responsibility to relocate….these people’ continued
dyke. However in November 2004 Police and                                          Lou,’ maybe it is something an NGO... should look
military Police began making arrests of families                                   into.’ 1
they said were ‘land grabbing’. A number of


                                                                                  1 Phnom Penh Post April, 2004


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           Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




                                                                                Golf course
                                                                                Another ongoing issue involves Ariston , the Malaysian
                                                                                developer and their construction of a golf course on
                                                                                the Occheuteal beach front in partnership with the
                                                                                Ministry of Tourism. Not only are they claiming land
                                                                                that is, according to the 2001 Land Law, not for private
                                                                                use but are also squeezing out some of the beach
                                                                                front operators by restricting road access (see below).
                                                                                The case continues.


Ariston Golf course extends onto the beach:
by Law this is public land




                                                                                Stung Haw District
                                                                                Although not in the city itself Stung Haw district,
                                                                                15kms north of the city, is home for many of the area’s
                                                                                poorer families.



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                                                                                      Government and Non Government assistance
                                                                                      Government assistance
                                                                                      SEILA is the Royal Cambodian Government’s main
                                                                                      body to ‘alleviate poverty’ and Mr Yam Saveung
                                                                                      described very clearly about their work in the city
                                                                                      which mainly involved road upgrading. He explained
                                                                                      that SEILA’s function was to assist the communes in
                                                                                      allocating funds (RGC provides USD5-10,000 per year)
                                                                                      and to provide some technical help. He added that
                                                                                      SEILA and Government offices still lacked qualified
                                                                                      staff and experience of working with ‘systems’. This
                                                                                      was alluded to in the 2004 review of SEILA Provincial
   The Military Police have a prime site on the beachfront at
  Occheuteal. They are often involved in implementing ‘court                          Investment Funds by DFID-Sida which indicated that
orders’ as in the recent dispute in November 2004 prompted by                         there seemed to be little correlation between the
                        Okhna Kong Triv
                                                                                      choice of SEILA projects and low income areas.
                                                                                      Other Government departments including Police,
                                                                                      Military and Judiciary are involved in housing rights and
                                                                                      urban poor issues but are often seen as agents in
                                                                                      bolstering the abuses.



    Even before this report was finished the Phnom Penh Post
     reported that this exact location had already been sold.

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Non Government (NGO) assistance
                                                                                  started through court decisions.’1
Non Government human rights offices include
                                                                                  In addition once authorities and developers know the
Legal Aid, ADHOC and Licadho all of whom are
                                                                                  personnel and office of the Human Rights
involved to varying extents in Land rights. In
                                                                                  organisations they avoid phone calls, meetings and at
particular Cheap Sothary at ADHOC has had
                                                                                  times threaten staff .
many years of experience with land abuses and
                                                                                  The Starfish project is also involved on the ground
dealing with the court system which she sees as
                                                                                  with families affected by eviction and land abuses.
open to corruption and abuse and also lacking in
                                                                                  Started in 2001its original remit was to create a
qualified personnel. She referred us to an ADHOC
                                                                                  bakery that trained and provided employment for
report which stated that ’…most lawyers
                                                                                  people with physical disability. Since then the Mlup
remarked that decisions were linked to corruption
                                                                                  Tapang project emerged for street children and the
in court proceedings….and led to violent evictions
                                                                                  Starfish project has found itself busier and caught up
                                                                                  in some of the eviction issues which have affected
                                                                                  their clients and their relatives.
                                                                                  However it is clear that the Starfish project and other
                                                                                  HR organisations have limited funds and ability to
                                                                                  react to these situations and are battling against local
                                                                                  authorities that at best display apathy and at worst
                                                                                  are directly involved.

                                                                                   1 ADHOC Human Rights situation report (2003)



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A closer look:
Koh Kong                                                                    Thailand


                                                                                                                         Koh Pao
Background information
Koh Kong has a population of almost 30,000 that has
grown steadily with the influx of migrants from
                                                                                                    Special Economic Zone
various parts of Cambodia. Largely made up of fishing
and trading communities Koh Kong has for many
centuries enjoyed trade with Thailand and the
building of the Mittapheap bridge in 2001 has
increased this.                                                                                                                       Koh Kong
However Koh Kong has also long been a haven for                               North
goods smuggling (during the Colonial era Pak Long
                                                                                                     Pak Long
was a thriving smuggling port and still is to a much
smaller degree) and prominent figures such as Ly
Yong Phat (alias Suphapha) have brought both
development and infamy to the town.




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Thai born Ly bought Cambodian citizenship (and with
it the title of ‘Okhna’) and is alleged to have contacts
with various mafia/trafficking rings in Thailand and
throughout SE Asia.


He part funded the Mittapheap bridge, owns large
parts of Koh Kong and most recently was implicated in
the direct or indirect eviction of families in Pak Long.
In addition he controls a lot of the land along the
border complete with casinos, hotels, the infamous
‘Safari world’ and more recently a new Special
Economic Zone.




                                                                                               The Thai military have funded much of the new road
                                                                                                     to Sre Ambel and are major investors




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Informal settlements                                                                       Phum 4: The Cham Community
Like both Kampot and Sihanoukville, Koh Kong’s urban                                       Descendents from the Champa Kingdom that once
poor are not gathered in large ‘slum’ areas but along                                      straddled the Khmer/Vietnam border the Cham
roads, waterways and unused public areas. Increasing                                       community in Koh Kong are traditionally, and remain
land prices and speculation have also led to pressure                                      to today, fisherfolk. Fishing and boat building creates
on these communities and with an ever growing                                              work for many but even here there is an increasing
landless population the problem has begun showing                                          influx of migrants from other parts of the country. In
itself in forced evictions and harrassment. In particular                                  addition are the problems with fishing in competition
the survey showed that not one respondent was                                              with the highly equipped (and often armed) Thai and
actually born in the Koh Kong province and that all                                        Vietnamese vessels. Finally there are rumours that the
had come through economic migration or some family                                         authorities want to evict the community which is
difficulty. Most respondents were without toilets and                                      viewed as illegal and an eye sore. ‘we haven’t heard
many lacked access to some form of electricity. Fear of                                    anything definite but there are rumours of eviction and
eviction varied widely with some families feeling                                          we feel insecure..’ Soh Sahya, aged 34
completely at ease and others facing immediate and
violent threats.
Main areas included roadside settlements in Phum 1
(centre of town), Cham villages in Phum 4, Pak Long in
Mondol Seima and also Koh Pao where around 100
families settled from Prey Veng in the 90s.




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                                                                              Informal settlement mapping
                                                                              The numbers given in this mapping information
                                                                              are very much approximate. Information was
                                                                              gained either through casual observance or via
                                                                              a local source. As the settlements are scattered
                                                                              throughout the city it was not possible to map
                                                                              every neighbourhood and therefore we may well
                                                                              have missed many small clusters. In addition it
                                                                              was difficult to determine what constituted an
                                                                              informal settlement but generally it was defined
                                                                              as areas along roadside, railways, boeungs or on
                                                                              public/private property owned by others.


                                                                              Koh Kong has approximately 1,400 families
                                                                              (8,400 persons) living in informal housing which
                                                                              represents around 25% of the population. Again
                                                                              the families are scattered over a wide area but
                                                                              the Phum 4 was clearly the largest single
                                                                              settlement. There is also Koh Pao with 100
                                                                              families located around 5 kms north of the
                                                                              town.




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^ There are many fish farms in Pak Long. attempts
at shrimp farming have generally failed along with
                                                                                  ^ The 3 families pictured above are currently living
destruction of the mangroves
                                                                                  5kms east of Koh Kong town. They are constantly
                                                                                  on the move, have no clean drinking water and
                                                                                  periodically have no rice.




     > This is the ‘Artists’ Community
   which was relocated last year from
       the town’s sports stadium. They
   have basic land tenure and can earn
   a living from their trade in the Arts
                     (mainly musicians).




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Housing Rights issues                                                                  Land Abuses
Pak Long                                                                               (exerpt from a Human Rights NGO document)
In 2002 Sam Rainsy visited Pak Long commune in Koh                                     ‘On 7th November 2004 at 9am seven soldiers with
Kong after hearing that local authorities were forcing                                 their wives led by (name withheld), from Smach
villagers to sell their land at 10baht per square metre                                Meanchey military division pulled down the boundary
having been given 100baht themselves by Ly Yong Phat                                   fence of 4 families and erected new posts at Prek Taman,
to purchase the land. This intervention was resolved in                                Toul Korki village. Some of these families lost all land and
favour of the villagers but in most cases there is not a                               some lost almost all their land and the soldiers destroyed
high profile figure to assist and human rights NGOs                                    all the crops. Both parties requested land titles and the
report many abuses, mainly involving the military.                                     soldiers said that these lands belonged to (name
                                                                                       withheld), deputy sub division commander of Koh Kong
                                                                                       province and he had authorised them to take this
Half of respondents in the survey had either an
                                                                                       land…..after the argument three soldiers went to
immediate threat of eviction or a feeling of insecurity,
                                                                                       confront the villager who blamed them for causing the
far higher than Kampot and even Sihanoukville. It is
                                                                                       problem, so they beat him with a wooden stick. ….. the
this type of uncertainty that means families can not
                                                                                       soldier allowed the families to stay temporarily on the
invest in the future, can not look forward and are
                                                                                       land but they can’t have ownership or sell it. He added
constantly saddled with concern for their future. In
                                                                                       that he had 4 land titles totalling 20 ha,, issued in 1992
particular Pak Long (Mondol Seima district), Phum 4
                                                                                       and signed by the Land Mangaement chief, Sim
Cham villages and Phum 1 riverfront (Smach
                                                                                       Buntheoun.’
Meanchey).



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 Pak Long with land for sale: but who owns it?



                                                                                          Pak Long high street: a mix of middle class Thai
                                                                                          (above) and backwater slum (below)




Pak Long fishermen face fierce (and sometimes
lethal) competition with the Thais and Vietnamese.




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Government and Non Government assistance                                                 are concerned with day to day survival. Police and
ADHOC and Licadho have offices in Koh Kong and                                           some people even accuse NGO’s of ‘protecting
Legal Aid has recently reopened a small office. These                                    thieves’. Many feel that if a ‘Godfather’ figure such as Ly
NGOs are faced with a range of human rights abuses                                       Yong Phat can bring jobs then the means to that end
of which land issues form just one part.Voeu Daya at                                     are acceptable.
Licadho also added that most villagers have little or no                                 Other NGOs include Partners for Development (PfD)
understanding of the concept of human rights as most                                     who have a mainly rural programme in HIV/health
                                                                                         training and awereness and CARE who also have a
                                                                                         similar rural based programme, Of all 3 towns Koh
‘Working in Koh Kong as a human rights organisation
                                                                                         Kong has the fewest NGO programmes mainly due to
is very difficult . People can know who you are and
                                                                                         its difficult access (until recently access was by boat or
where you are and if I try to call Government officers
                                                                                         plane in the wet season).
or developers they never answer the phone. Now
                                                                                         The SEILA office again explained that they were
even the people are unwilling to come to our
                                                                                         involved in providing assistance to local communes in
workshops because they realise that although
                                                                                         selecting projects and training (gender, agriculture
knowing about human rights is helpful there is no
                                                                                         methods, water issues etc) but it emerged that
direct benefit to them in a place that has no real rule
                                                                                         projects focussed on infrastructure projects such as
of Law. At the workshops the authorities agree to
                                                                                         roads and did not include a specific remit for housing
follow the Law but afterwards there is no change’.
                                                                                         rights or informal settlements. This pattern of SEILA
Ngourn Solina Adhoc (Koh Kong)
                                                                                         projects failing to focus on ‘poverty alleviation’ was




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highlighted in their recent appraisal of Provincial
Investment Funding (PIF) which commented that ‘it
was commonly found that the poorest communes
received fewer Temporary Agreements than better off
communes’. (Study on the performance of the SEILA
Provincial Investment Fund by Robin Biddulph/Oxford Policy
Management, 2004)
In addition the Governor of Koh Kong , Yuth Puthong,
has been implicated in many of the land abuse cases
himself and for many Koh Kong remains very much a
‘wild west’ of Cambodia on par with Poipet and Pailin
where the rule of Law is at best tenuous.




                                                                                                  ^ Aem Savoeun was soldier 55-833 in Lon Nol’s army in
                                                                                                  the early 1970s. He hid his profession during the KR era
                                                                                                  and changed his name to Vath Vorn. He now works the
                                                                                                  dump site with others (5kms east of the town) who pay
                                                                                                  1,000riel per truck to receive rubbish from the casinos




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A closer look:
Kampot
Background information
Kampot town is located in the SW coastal
province of Kampot, 148kms from Phnom Penh.
The town’s population is almost 30,000 (see
Appendix) which is mainly Khmer but with
significant ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese and Cham
communities working in trade and fishing. Many
of these communities date back to the French
Colonial era which can be seen clearly in the
architectural style of the town. Today Kampot’s
main industries are salt production, fishing,
pepper farms and tourism.
The town is separated in two by the Kampong
Bai river which is fed by the Elephant (Damrei)
mountains and is seasonally salt/fresh water.




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Informal settlements
Although it is clear from even a quick visit to
Kampot that although there are no ‘seething
slums’ the city is home to many families on the
poverty line. Currently spared some of the
property speculation of Koh Kong and
Sihanoukville, Kampot has largely been able to
avoid the evictions but similarly weak cadastral
and court systems mean that the situation could
be easily destabilised. An estimated 500 families
live in informal settlements but many have long
connections with Kampot and there are only
occassional signs of the Authorities or
developers forcing people from land violently.


Housing Rights
Road 3
One of the biggest impacts to Kampot has been
the widening of Road 3 both to Phnom Penh
and onto Sihanoukville. Recent legislation stated
                                                                                The Salt fields at Trauey Koh district, Kampot



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that national highways have a Right of Way 30-
50m across which means that many residents
have been evicted throughout the country from
their ‘illegal’ sites. Generally funded by
international donors or banks there has been
little provision for compensation which as in the
case of Road 1 has resulted in conflict with
residents and an enquiry into Japanese
Government/ADB funding of the project. The
Kampot District offices have certainly made
efforts to meet with various groups in the
province who have complained about loss of
livelihood.
                                                                                         ^ Kampot fisherwoman: Haht Aysah
15kms from Kampot, the area of Koh Slaa has
also been the subject                                                                    Aysah has lived in Andoang Khmer district of
                                                                                         Kampot since 1979. She is 40 and has 5
of ongoing eviction              Kampot’s 5 Khum
                                    Kampong Bai                                          children to support. This is a typical situation for
and ‘relocation under
                                  Kampong Kandal                                         many households in Cambodia that are not
duress’ involving                    Trauey Koh
                                                                                         located in ‘slums’ but are living on or below the
                                   Andong Khmer
former KR                                                                                poverty line.
                                    Krang Ampil
commanders and
unidentified developers.

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                                                                              Informal settlement mapping
                                                                              Methodology: the numbers given in this mapping
                                                                              information are very much approximate.
                                                                              Information was gained either through casual
                                                                              observance or via a local source. As the
                                                                              settlements are scattered throughout the city it
                                                                              was not possible to map every neighbourhood
                                                                              and therefore we may well have missed many
                                                                              small clusters. In addition it was difficult to
                                                                              determine what constituted an informal
                                                                              settlement but generally it was defined as areas
                                                                              along roadside, railways, boeungs or on
                                                                              public/private property owned by others.


                                                                              Kampot has no areas that are immediately
                                                                              identifiable as ‘informal settlements’ yet there
                                                                              are many poor families. We calculated that there
                                                                              were in the region of 500 families (3,000
                                                                              persons) in this category. It was noted that the
                                                                              widening of Road 3 has had a big impact for
                                                                              many families.



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Government & Non Government assistance                                                  has been actively involved in land dispute cases since
Kampot has a sizeable SEILA/Ex-comm. and GTZ                                            the 1990s. Vigilance and Licadho have a small
(German Aid) project which provides a useful                                            presence but indicated that they had very limited
resource for local Government in 7 of the 8                                             funding for all projects especially Land issues. This
districts, in particular a pioneering cadastral                                         seems understandable in the light that Kampot is
registration project in Kampong Trach. Roeun                                            not a ‘hotspot’ for land disputes but also shows that
Sophana (SEILA/Ex-comm.) provided useful                                                there are very limited resources available for those
information on statistics and the latest profiles but it                                who, in the first place, know how to contact the
appeared that again there is no focussed remit for                                      NGO offices. In addition a number of NGO listed
informal settlements within Kampot town. Most of                                        were uncontactable and either had closed their
the Provincial Investment Fund (PIF) projects                                           office or had a very small presence.
supported road improvements in ‘formal’ areas and
there seems to be no programme to support
community based upgrading initiatives although there
are signs that a Commune Investment plan (CIP)
will consider looking at this.


There are a number of NGO programmes in
Kampot (see Appendix) on a par with Sihanoukville.
ADHOC seemed to have the most active office run
by Try Chhoun who


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Appendix




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Appendix: Study Outline
Baseline Mapping & Survey
on general situation of urban poor communities in 3 coastal towns of Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot

1.0 Objectives: to provide baseline data (in both english and khmer) on urban poor situation in these 3 provincial towns to
assist dialogue, advocacy for urban poor and provide partners with basic information. Team leader is foreign but all staff will
be khmer and information will be fed back to wide range of organisations both NGO and Government. Study will be made
independently by Hallam Goad working freelance with funding support by ACHR.
2.0 Methodology:
Baseline mapping: mix of desk study using trained YPs and checking on site with local YPs. outline base maps (scaled at A3
size) of each town on AutoCAD will indicate location of urban poor settlements larger than approximately 5 families
Survey:
approximate number of urban poor families/communities in each city
families involved in Savings schemes
threat of eviction/security of tenure
length of tenure at current location
short term hopes/needs of families
list of NGOs/CBOs involved in urban poor issues and their interventions
Local Government attitudes/policies to urban poor
Interviews/discussions:
community leaders
community members (random selection)
Sangkat/Commune chiefs, local Government officials and SEILA
Local NGO/CBOs involved in urban poor infrastructure and advocacy issues
3.0 Duration:
approximately 3 months (March- May) with final report in June
4.0 Deliverables/outputs
baseline physical maps of urban poor communities in theses 3 towns
outline survey of the current situation of these communities
Information on NGOs working with urban poor
wide distribution of findings to partners, communities, Government etc.


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 List of NGOs/IOs/Governmnet offices involved in Development
 Sihanoukville


 GRET                         Jean-Marie Brun                 012 807817                                          irrigation
                                                              gret@camnet.com.kh
 AFSC                         Patricia DeBoer                 023 216400                                          rehab
                                                              AFSC@online.com.kh
 Cambodia Trust               Mary Steen                                                                          rehab

 Red Cross                    Anthony Spalton                 ifrckh01@ifrc.org                                   human rights
 handicap Int Fr/             Yvan Thebaud                    hif-cambodia@everyday.com.kh                        sanitation/mine/agri
 Belg                         Marc Hermant                    dp.hicambodge@online.com.kh
 FHI                          Chawalit Matpratan              impact@fhi.org.kh                                   HIV
 AoG                          Kenneth Huff                    aogoffice@bigpond.com.kh                            orphans
 Krousar Thmey                Cheam Kosal                     023 366184                                          child
                                                              krousar-thmey@bigfoot.com
 JIVC                         Yukiko Yonekura                 012 590092                                          technical school
                                                              jvcpp@online.com.kh
 Japan human power            Uma Kiyoshi                     023 362624                                          music/painting/education
                                                              jhp.pp@online.com.kh
 ADRA                         Ann Stickle                     012 903824                                          smoke free
                                                              Cambodia@adraasia.org
 Helen Keller                 Michelle Lang                   hki_cd@online.com.kh                                nutrition



source: CCC Directories 2004-5
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 List of NGOs/IOs/Governmnet offices involved in Development
 Sihanoukville

 World Vision                 Talmage Payne                   Cambodia@wvi.org                                child
 Legal Aid                    Ek Saravuth                     012 899785                                      child rights
                              Tep Sovann                      lac@online.com.kh
 ADHOC                        Cheap Sothary                   016 827512                                      advocacy/gender
                                                              adhoc@forum.org.kh
 RHAC                         Ouk Vong Vathiny                rhac@rhac.org.kh                                HIV
 Eau Potable                  Chea Vannak                     ans.deep.btg@online.com.kh                      water/sanitation
 Licadho                      Khim Sakhen                     016 893685                                      HR
 SEILA/Ex-comm                Yam Saveung                     016 914377                                      Govt programme
 Sanitation                                                   saveung@seila.gov.kh
 programme
 Mlup Tapang                  Maggie                          012 587407                                      street children
 Starfish Project             Erika Hilmersson                016 748211                                      disability
                              Meng                            info@starfishcambodia.org                       marginalized families




source: CCC Directories 2004-5
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 List of NGOs/IOs/Governmnet offices involved in Development
 Koh Kong
 AFSC                          Duong Vuthy                      Sre Ambel office                                   Comty Dev
                                                                012 694460
 Red Cross                     as above                                                                            human rights

 CARE                          Masaya Kato                      msykato@yahoo.com                                  training/health
                               Sokha                            012 663086
                                                                care.cam@care-cambodia.org
 WCS                           Colin Poole                      Cambodia@wcs.org                                   terrapins
 FHI                           as above                                                                            HIV

 Hagar                         Pierre Tami                      info@hagarproject.org                              child rights/club
 IRIS                          Roger Biggs                      iriscambodia@online.com.kh                         eye
 Handicap Int. B               as above                                                                            mine

 Legal Aid                                                      Call Phnom Penh office for info                    child right/legal assistance
                                                                012 775562 Rethy
 ADHOC                         Ngourn Solina                    016 876609                                         human rights/gender
                                                                035 936129




source: CCC Directories 2004-5
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 List of NGOs/IOs/Governmnet offices involved in Development
 Koh Kong

 Licadho                      Voeu Daya                       016 781013                                    HR
                              Un Thanann                      012 480587
 Partners for devpmt          Tup Ly                          012 991580                                    health/water
                                                              pfdkohkong@camintal.com
 Marie Stopes                 Ros Thoeun                      MSC@mariestopes.org.kh                        family planning
 SEILA/Ex-comm                Phoung Sopheap                  012 971298
                                                              sopheap@seila.gov.kh

 CZM/Danida                   Than Buntheth                   011 877750                                    coastal zone environment
                                                                                                            program
 Cadastral office             Hat Huern                       016 962399                                    LMAP/land registration
                              Kao Puthy                       012 733113




source: CCC Directories 2004-5




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 List of NGOs/IOs/Governmnet offices involved in Development
 Kampot
 Food for Hungry              Rikio Kimura                    fhicambodia@fhi.net                           agriculture/comty dev

 Swiss churches                                                                                             agriculture

 Enfants DÁngkor              Kelle Huon sary                                                               child

 red cross                    Uk Lay                          012 458928                                    comty dev/human rights/HIV
                              Lay Sopheak                     012 358619
 AFSC/CT                                                                                                    rehab

 Vigilance                    Chem Songvan                    012 972547                                    HR
                              Len Tannchry                    012569481
 Shanti volunteer             Naito Koryo                     sva.pnh@online.com.kh                         education
 ADRA                         as above                                                                      health/nutrition

 Helen Keller                 as above                                                                      eye

 GRET                         Jean Pierre Mahe                012 891156                                    Water supply

 Wild Aid                     Delphine Vann Roe               wildaid@online.com.kh                         Environment/ wildlife protection
                                                              012 905854
 VSO                          James Whitehead                                                               education

 FHI                          as above                                                                      HIV



source: CCC Directories 2004-5                                                                                                    Teang Tnaut Association 44
               Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005

List of NGOs/IOs/Governmnet offices involved in Development
Kampot

 GTZ Kampot                  Aernout Theunissen                  012 290625                               Mapping/Planning
                             Jean Yves Dekeister                 012 823400
 SE Asia Dev prog            Peter Swift                         sadp@online.com.kh                       gender/Comty dev
 Cam devpmt &                Leng Sothea                         cdrcp@online.com.kh                      human rights/HIV
 relief                                                                                                   Kampong trach
 KKKHRA                      Mom Sarin                           kkkhra@camintel.com                      HR minority grps
 ADHOC                       Try Chhoun                          012 820988                               child rights
 Licadho                     Ngeth Soseng (f)                    012 597216                               HR
 CADFP                       Ngeth Samoeun                       012496384@mobitel.com.                   health education/disability
                                                                 kh                                       Chhuk
 Assoc. jeunesse             Mao Kolbotr                         aja@forum.org.kh                         youth
 Cam health                  Chiv Bunthy                         chccambo@online.com.kh                   credit & sav/health
 committee
 Comm. Forestry              Amanda Bradley                      cfac@online.com.kh                       community forestry
 Alli.
 Kh Comm Agri                Ouk saren                           ouksaren@hotmail.com                     training
 devpmt
 SEILA/Ex-comm               Roeun Sophana                       012 582764                               Govt programme
 Sanitation prog.                                                sophanna@seila.gov.kh
 Coastal Zone                Ven Virak                           venvirak@czmcam.com                      environmnent
 Management


source: CCC Directories 2004-5 NGOs in italics were uncontactable

                                                                                                                                  Teang Tnaut Association 45
              Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005


Population statistics
Kampot



                                                                                                                                 FAMI       FEM_T    MAL_T
   Province             District                    Commune                                 Village                   Type
                                                                                                                                  LY          OT      OT

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Kampong Kandal                      Sovann Sakor                              Rural     796        2171    1976

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Kampong Kandal                      Phum Muoy Ousaphie                        Rural     710        2212    1696

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Krang Ampil                         Krang                                     Rural     509        1429    1328

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Krang Ampil                         Svay Thum                                 Rural     312        1127    829

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Kampong Bay                         Kampong Bay Khang Cheung                  Rural     651        1962    1721

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Kampong Bay                         Kampong Bay Khang Tboung                  Rural     506        1379    1303

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Andoung Khmaer                      Tvi Khang cheung                          Rural     418        1190    1112

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Andoung Khmaer                      Tvi Khang tboung                          Rural     521        1468    1304

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Andoung Khmaer                      Ou Touch                                  Rural     384        1030    1122

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Andoung Khmaer                      Andoung Khmaer                            Rural     254        539     581

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Andoung Khmaer                      Ta Deb                                    Rural     278        702     690

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Traeuy Kaoh                         Doun Taok                                 Rural     249        561     557

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Traeuy Kaoh                         Ta Angk                                   Rural     184        519     483

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Traeuy Kaoh                         Boeng Ta Pream                            Rural     339        985     907

 Kampot            Kampong Bay           Traeuy Kaoh                         Srae                                      Rural     269        717     655

                                                                             Totals                                              6380       17991   16264

                                                                             Total population                                                       34255



 Source: SEILA commune database 2004



                                                                                                                                 Teang Tnaut Association 46
             Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot          cambodia 2005


Population statistics
Koh Kong

                                                                                                                             Ty      FAMI          FEM_T       MAL_T
    Province               District                     Commune                                  Village
                                                                                                                             pe       LY             OT         OT


  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Smach Mean Chey                      Phum Ti Muoy                             Rural      446          1081        1240

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Smach Mean Chey                      Phum Ti Pir                              Rural      488          1358        1239

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Smach Mean Chey                      Phum Ti Bei                              Rural      782          2847        4036

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Smach Mean Chey                      Boeng Khun Chhang                        Rural      157          377         344

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Smach Mean Chey                      Smach Mean Chey                          Rural      211          551         543

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Dang Tong                            Phum Ti Muoy                             Urban      628          1465        1295

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Dang Tong                            Phum Ti Pir                              Urban      452          992         1142

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Dang Tong                            Phum Ti Bei                              Urban      170          542         590

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Dang Tong                            Phum Ti Buon                             Urban      1450         3584        3365

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Stueng Veaeng                        Stueng Veaeng                            Rural      353          1045        898

  Koh Kong          Smach Mean Chey          Stueng Veaeng                        Preaek Svay                              Rural      112          222         266

                                                                                  Totals                                              5249         14064       14958

                                                                                  Total population                                                             29022




 Source: SEILA commune database 2004




                                                                                                                                Teang Tnaut Association 47
             Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot         cambodia 2005


Population Statistics
Sihanoukville

                                                                                                                                       FAMI        FEM_T        MAL_T
     Province                District                   Commune                                  Village                    Type
                                                                                                                                        LY           OT          OT

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Muoy                         Mondol Muoy                              Urban      446         1190        1095

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Muoy                         Mondol Pir                               Urban      355         806         760

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Muoy                         Mondol Bei                               Urban      2433        5667        5863

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Pir                          Mondol Muoy                              Urban      797         2148        2063

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Pir                          Mondol Pir                               Urban      552         1595        1548

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Pir                          Mondol Bei                               Urban      925         1965        2209

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Bei                          Mondol Muoy                              Urban      522         1433        1182

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Bei                          Mondol Pir                               Urban      958         2586        2518

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Bei                          Mondol Bei                               Urban      1998        4880        4837

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Buon                         Mondol Muoy                              Urban      1173        3815        3452

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Buon                         Mondol Pir                               Urban      736         2087        2037

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Buon                         Mondol Bei                               Urban      718         2381        1779

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Buon                         Mondol Buon                              Urban      548         1494        1429

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Buon                         Mondol5                                  Urban      951         2469        2394

Krong Preah Sihanouk     Mittakpheap          Sangkat Buon                         Mondol6                                  Urban      119         316         272

                                                                                   Totals                                              13231       34832       33438

                                                                                   Total population                                                            68270




 Source: SEILA commune database 2004



                                                                                                                                Teang Tnaut Association 48
        Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




References


ADHOC                               Human Rights situation report (2003)

Ministry of Planning                Cambodia Inter-Censal Population Survey 2004, General Report
                                    National Institute of Statistics and sponsored by UNFPA

SEILA                               official website: commune population statistics

Phnom Penh Post                     various articles

Cambodia Daily                      various articles

New York Times                      6th November article

DFID-Sida                           Study on the performance of the SEILA Provincial Investment Fund
                                    Robin Biddulph/Oxford Policy Management (2004)

Oxfam GB                            Poverty and Social Impact Assessment of Social Land concessions in
                                    Cambodia: Landlessness Assessment
                                    Robin Biddulph (2004)




                                                                                                                           Teang Tnaut Association 49
         Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005




Acknowledgements


To the ACHR team in Bangkok especially Maurice. To all those who helped with interviews and providing
information, in particular Kek Galabru at Licadho, Gorm Jeppesen at CZM and his team, Ralf Zyman from the
DED team, the Ministry of Land use, Planning, Urbanism and Construction in Phnom Penh and Canby
publications for provision of excellent maps

Also to Ros Sokha at SEILA and the SEILA/Ex-comm teams in each province, Paul Rabe, Laurent Meillan at
UNCHR and the HRTF team, Meng and Erika Hilmersson at Starfish bakery for use of moto and other help,
Declan O’Leary for information on statistics and Try Chhoun at ADHOC in Kampot.




                                                                                                                            Teang Tnaut Association 50
              Land not for sale A brief study of informal settlements, landlessness and housing rights issues in Sihanoukville, Koh Kong & Kampot   cambodia 2005


The Asian Coalition for Housing Rights
ACHR is based in Bangkok, Thailand and has been working since the late 1980s in supporting community based
initiatives in credit, savings, infrastructure, education and Housing Rights throughout South and South East Asia.
They have a core team of 4. They produce a newsletter which reports on all these activities and helps bring them
to the attention of donors looking to support community based projects which range from the Orangi Pilot
Project (OPP) in Pakistan covering hundreds of thousands of families to clean water supply initiatives for 10 families
in Cambodia. For more information please contact their website : www.achr.com. ACHR provided funding for this
report.



Teang Tnaut Association
Teang Tnaut was formed in 2005 by Meas Kim Seng and Hallam Goad. It aims to bring together designers, artists
and community organisers to work with community based projects. The focus is on three (3) areas including;
technical assistance to community infrastructure, advocacy & housing rights and research on informal settlements.
It is based in Phnom Penh with a field office in Kampot.
Seng (coordinator) graduated from the Royal University of Fine Arts in 1999 in Architecture. From 1999-2005 he
worked with the NGO Urban Resource Centre working as an urban community planner with informal community
infrastructure upgrading and general advocacy for urban poor. Hallam (advisor) graduated from Edinburgh
University in 1995 with a Masters in Landscape Architecture. He worked at an urban design office in Kuala Lumpur
(Aspinwall Clouston 1995-97), at an urban issues NGO in Phnom Penh (Urban Resource Centre 1998-2000 &
2004-05) and in urban regeneration in London (Groundwork, 2000-03). For more information on Teang Tnaut
please contact hallam@camintel.com or seng@teangtnaut.com or visit the new website (available in March 2006)
on www.teangtnaut.com
                                                                                                                                 Teang Tnaut Association 51

				
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