How to write teaching cases How to write teaching cases - From Zheng Jinzhou &quot;teachers how to do research&quot; First, the use of the scope of case Case is not a new thing, the case of education reflected the fact that revealed the problems in education, listed examples of various forms of education is not there today, some are in the past several years to exist, but there is no a &quot;case&quot; of words to express, not with the &quot;Case&quot; form to express it. Patent cases is not the field of education, in law, medicine and business circles have become a norm. Second, cases of meaning Case is the case, is a description of the actual situation. Should be a case described in a story, narrative is the story of the emergence and development process, is the object or phenomenon to grasp the dynamic nature. Case is included with problems or difficult situations events. Case is typical of the event, to be able to solve this incident shows that a similar interpretation of events, to be able to give readers a way or another revelation and understanding. Case is generated by real events, which reflect real events, is an exact reproduction of the incident. In summary, the case is included with problems or difficult situations typical real events that occurred. What is an appropriate case is, good case? American scholars are discussed: 1, a good case should tell a story. To be able to time events, places, characters, etc. displayed by a certain structure, of course, the narrative of events and the comment is also necessary components. 2, a good case should focus on a central theme, we must highlight a theme. 3, a good description of the real life case scenario, should reflect what happened nearly 5 years. 4, a good case can make readers immersive feeling of the cases involved people who have empathy. 5, a good case to be reflected from the object case where the quoted material. 6, a good case needs to face difficult problems and propose solutions. 7, a good case needs to solve problems that have been made in making the evaluation. 8, a good case to have a complete from start to finish circumstances, to include a number of dramatic conflict. 9, a good case narrative should be specific, special, that is, cases should not be how things generally broad description should not be the things that have made the general characteristics of abstraction, and general description. 10, a good case the incident should be placed in a space-time framework, which is the time to explain the incident and location. 11, a good case to be able to reflect the complexity of the work of teachers, revealing the inner world of characters. Third, case writing A relatively complete case has the following contents: Title: In general, there are two ways to determine the title: First, set the event title, that is the case with the prominent events as the title, as reflected in classroom events &quot;after laughter&quot;; second title with the theme , the event included isolation of the subject out, as the case of the title, such as &quot;students gave me inspiration.&quot; Introduction: The main events are generally brief scenes, implicitly reflect the theme of the event may be involved. Background: The background of the narrative can be divided into two components: indirect and direct background background. Indirect background and event-related, but not directly associated with the background level, the so-called direct background events directly leading with the events closely linked to the background. Question: Case examples of the biggest differences between the general characteristics of the problem lies in a clear awareness around the issue to proceed. Need to clearly stating that the problem is how it happened, what the problem is, what causes the problem. Problem solving: the need for a detailed description, to show the process of problem solving, steps, and solve the problem appearing again, frustration will solve the problem related to the effectiveness of an initial description, which to some extent, is the case subject. Reflection and discussion: The main issues involved are: problem solving in which the advantages and disadvantages? Problem solving will occur or what new problems exist? Education and teaching in the future, how to solve these new problems? What experience in problem solving, inspiration? Appendix: (optional) Fourth, the role of case 1, case writing, a record for the teachers through their teaching opportunities. 2, case writing can encourage teachers to be more deeply aware of their important and difficult work. 3, case writing can encourage teachers to reflect on their own behavior to improve the professional level of teaching. 4, case writing for the sharing of experience among teachers, to strengthen communication provides an effective way. Attachment: China should be long &quot;reflection of self, beyond the self&quot; Beyond self-reflective teaching 【Case】 Compulsory curriculum standard textbook version of the new century (the Beijing Normal University) on the second grade math book have an initial understanding of probability - &quot;may, certainly.&quot; We are studying how to teach this lesson. Some of course I think it was a bit on the side, the main side where it? The main orientation bias in teaching. The preparation of this lesson is intended to enable students to experience some of the incident through the activities it is possible that some events are certain. Is an initial understanding of events and determine the case may be, nothing more. However, some teachers at the time this lesson, the possibility of some small and cited the possibility of several cases are entered into. This is mainly due to the clear teaching of the structural system is not created. I have the time this lesson, let the children from being equipped with three yellow balls and three white balls in the box to work out a ball, so that children experience &quot;possible&quot;: the yellow ball may also be white ball. Then let the child from the ball with six yellow (no white ball) in the box to work out a ball, so that children feel &quot;must&quot;: the ball must be yellow, not white ball. But do not tell children in advance in your box of what the ball, but ---- Teacher: Students have just touched the ball, and interesting? Beings: Interesting. (Sound is not high.) Teacher: Now would also like to touch it? Good, (come up with a prepared box) If you took out the white ball, will be the prize (to produce prize), a very fun thing. (Student&#39;s mood suddenly been mobilized, all raised their hands, many children have stood up.) Who touch it? See who is sitting upright! (Name of a male to touch the ball to come to the podium, the child&#39;s hand had just been out from the box and I hold.) Teacher: What is he touched the ball? Health 1: yellow ball. Health 2: is a white ball. Health 3: It may be yellow ball. Teacher: he used the &quot;likely&quot; the word, wonderful! Please come out. (Male ball out, the yellow ball, the children given a sorry voice. Another name for a girl, then took out a yellow ball, the children is a sorry sound. At this time students sentiment in the rush.) Teacher: (re-named for a girl) this time touch the white ball yet? (Pause, let the kids guess in my mind) is good, please tell us. Girl: (also touch the yellow ball, she laughed, the students laughed.) Teacher: (re-named a boy) he can get Chinese teachers prize it? (He touched the ball, or yellow. Children are some commotion.) Teacher: want to touch it? (Or a number of children raised their hands.) Teacher: Does anyone have any opinions? Have no idea? Woman: I think this box are all yellow balls. First, you fear that the students get prizes in the class play. Second, this prize is purchased, you have to use later. So, I think this box are all yellow balls. I am sure that the. Teacher: Really? You want to know what you really? Beings: to! (I opened the box, so that students can see six yellow ball, and the people uproar. Guess the joyful students. I get the ball out one by one, and finally over the box upside down, the children laughed. There is a male voice: &quot; fooled! &quot;) Teacher: fools? Is that it is Chinese teacher told us a joke, the box is installed inside the yellow ball, may have pulled out his white ball? Beings: impossible! Teacher: (writing on the blackboard: unlikely.) From inside the box to work out a ball ---- Health 1: 100% yellow ball! Health 2: Be sure the yellow ball! Teacher: (writing on the blackboard: certain.) Then, I see Creating a comic book, listening to stories of activities for students to spend has been formed &quot;may&quot; and &quot;certain&quot; to analyze and judge. To produce comic books, voice-over: There is such a company, the boss need to hire some staff. So, he posted the company&#39;s door with a particularly attractive ads. It read: &quot;to my company, the wage level, every day you might get eight gold.&quot; The advertisement posted out after a lot of people saw. It was so tempting a. So many people came to the company is really working. We worked hard dry month, the wages of time to take such a thing happened a bag gold ----- boss over, the working man just about to take, the boss said: &quot;Freeze! To take to gold, had to do one thing - you throw it up off the floor when all face up, you can take these bags of gold! &quot;working people who can get these coins it? Then let the students said the idea. ... ... ... ... Boys: If the box is the same, and if those people have only one answer, only negative. I guess gold on both sides are negative. If the words in the box, the box with the word, and you can guess. Teacher: Let me guess which two words? Boys: (nodding) in the box, you should be able to guess. View is invisible, but you should be able to think inside the brain. Teacher: very powerful! What is the word inside the box? Girl: (good reminder) did not. Boys: (heavy to say) Kengren. (Audience laughter.) Teacher: (after laugh) Yes, Chinese teachers is to let everyone know: just touch the ball game that is Kengren&#39;s! (Audience applause and knowing laughter.) ... ... ... ... 【Reflection】 To complete this lesson, I deeply for the children active participation, a unique experience, a bold expression of pleasure. &quot;Children under the new curriculum was not really!&quot; I. Review of &quot;yes&quot; girl - The girl turned out to judge the ball in the box are yellow, but she is past the four students to work out the situation of the ball to judge it? Unknown. Because she said the process is another judge: &quot;I think this box are all yellow balls. First, your students are afraid to play in class prizes. Second, this prize is purchased, you later have to use. So I think this box are all yellow ball. I&#39;m sure it was. &quot;Perhaps he thought that both girls, but her expression is out of her class from the accumulation of life The reasonable inference, not based on the work out of the ball made the situation might guess. Why do children say so? Since the implementation of the new curriculum, there is a very good trend that we mathematics classroom as much as possible and close to the child&#39;s life, drawing on children&#39;s life, the pursuit of &quot;mathematical life, life math&quot; and not only to mobilize the children&#39;s learning enthusiasm, but also to experience the value of mathematics. However, some teachers to encourage students to turn around their promise to cartoon toys awarded to students; some teachers let students apply their knowledge for teachers, for schools, the mayor, &quot;solve problems&quot;, &quot;advice to&quot; ... ... However, Figure poor dagger, forget cash, not cash, not cash. This accumulation of the students what emotion do next? I have heard in a hall that a &quot;design&quot; of course - the final link of course. The teacher said: We have just come by car, and now we work together to design a car back to the program, several people sit up carts, a few people sit up minibus, car ride up to a few people. Students are well designed, teachers organize and guide is also very good. Pro class before, we comment out the best plan. Class, I followed the students back together down the stairs. The results see the school students and teachers crowded into the class to do a bus. Our class is like a football game. Offensive and defensive programs have wonderful, smooth combination passes, they need to play well, &quot;paid off&quot; the awareness and effort! Second, the aftertaste &quot;Kengren&quot; word - &quot;Prize touched the ball,&quot; is by design. Design intent: first, to mobilize the enthusiasm of the children involved, touch the white ball with prizes, the children will be more exciting; Second, children have formed a &quot;possible&quot; concept, he would like to touch the white ball his desire to be more strongly , unable to do so would force him to make a guess. Original desire to touch the white ball more strongly, followed by accumulation of &quot;from a box out of touch the ball must be yellow,&quot; the more deeply the experience; third is to promote the child&#39;s socialization. Xi&#39;an &quot;BMW case&quot; is not that so? Street vendors on this trick often. However, I did not think students out of the intense cross-examination, &quot;Kengren&quot; word. Students, especially low-grade children&#39;s teachers are respected, they feel especially great teacher especially tall. But today, this event finished, they feel, &quot;the teacher as the&quot; they think the teacher &quot;Kengren.&quot; This negative impact for the image of teachers is very big. Parents believe their Road to its division, how to solve such a problem? If there is no prize, no such problems, students will not say that the teacher &quot;Kengren&quot;&#39;s. But there is no prize for students to participate in interest how high? Later thought: to work out a yellow ball, go on without letting go, then touching when the desire to touch the white ball also will become more intense. But then I think of: This design is not good, it will be mentioned later in the statistical probability of conflict rules of the game, touch the ball a class of rules of the game is still feeling out of place to touching their back. Tightly back, the sample is not the same. I do not want the &quot;prize&quot; to remove, then how should we do? Like two days later, my son&#39;s a nothing inspired me. I went to school back in the small shops and took a photo, a small store shelves is a dazzling array of merchandise. Commencement of class, deliberately do not wear jackets. To &quot;touch the ball with prizes&quot;, I wear the jacket, projecting that photo. Then said: &quot;I am the owner of the store, you see I&#39;ve got to eat, have drinks, have fun, winning the ball can touch it!&quot; Then, organize students to touch the ball ... ... When the children start feeling indignant , some time, say Kengren time teacher coat off. &quot;Students, teachers came, what would you say?&quot; The equivalent of an interview, to enable students to talk about my feelings. A coat protection up to the teacher, but also the real face of these games. The second time on this lesson, I did, really effective, no student say, &quot;the teacher became.&quot; Why so effective? This is a role-playing. Have no such role play, the effect is not the same. As we speak, &quot;the direction and the line&quot; when the situation will be designed to ask the way. If teachers do hand side of the phone while questioning the actions that once took a phone call to ask the way students into situations. Hand movements are called to do, you are a passerby asked; hand do not call the action, you are a teacher. Sometimes a small prop, the role of a small practice is quite amazing. Then I want to have no better way? If you can not wear jackets, are there other solutions? There is a saying &quot;There is no best, only better.&quot; Then think of a way: to touch the ball twice the order were reversed, or the prize, first touching the ball six yellow, touching their three white balls and three yellow balls. First touched the ball six yellow, when the child feels &quot;no white balls&quot;, &quot;fooled&quot; when the teacher has a good explanation is that &quot;I&#39;m sorry, the teacher took the wrong box.&quot; Is not a teacher but the teacher intentionally negligent. Analysis, reveals the &quot;must&quot; be followed by three yellow balls come three white touched the ball, feel &quot;may&quot; really off the prize award. &quot;Road to Jane. Did not think of how it started?&quot; Because I have experience in the adjustment of priorities, often will be Journey Into Amazing Caves. Say that the third class, I try a new design, the effect is not good! This is how going on? I think the main reason is that the order adjustment, the children without first touching the ball three white balls and three yellow boxes, not the formation of &quot;possible&quot; concept, touching a ball out of what would result? The hearts of countless students. Meanwhile, the prior case could not explain the situation in the ball, was rather &quot;a blind man riding a blind horse&quot; flavor. Therefore, the design of teaching effectiveness such a bad thing. It seems the three yellow ball first touched the three white balls, touching their six yellow balls. Touched the ball six prizes, but can not be yellow, if an activity later in the design again, so that students may get the prize enough. I think ... ... 3, stare four comics - Creating a look back to see comics listen to stories, very pleased. It was two days of work cost only compiled, and can reach a multitude of purposes: New Standard of changing the topic raised in the presentation of positive Chang Shi; provide students with interesting taste of the scene, the use of &quot;may, Yi Ding&quot; to analyze, judge; in challenging situations, and accumulated wisdom should. On further reflection, that such a story where there are not good. Gold fell to the ground there could not be fully face up? In theory there should be, but the possibility is very small. The remote possibility, let second-year students to understand it? One day, watching CCTV&#39;s &quot;Today, saying,&quot; The Story of a sudden realize Sa Beining can &quot;bring&quot; one use. So, I cut two videos. Sa Beining: Ancient to have a general defeat, he and his men were the enemy catch up with the river, desperate time, the generals decided to fight with, but the men who feel that ominous, show a general coins, said: &quot;If you throw to is positive then we will win, if the throw is negative, you will follow me run away himself.&quot; Play the story here, very tragic. Then organize students to express feelings: coins fall to the ground may face up, it may reverse side facing up; men who might win, might run away himself. Sa Beining: coin thrown out the results are positive, morale has been boosted, they have not killing 片甲不留 enemy. Finally, the general took out coins for everyone to see, both sides are positive. Let the laughter of children: If both sides are positive that happens? Must be positive. In this way, with a ready-made story, the &quot;may&quot;, &quot;definitely&quot; a good string together. 【Warrior 1, the face of changes in the classroom is not home, place the face classroom teaching events, when we experience-the method can not resolve just when the need to Fan Si to enhance our educational wisdom. At the same time, we will reflect on teaching, &quot;teaching day&quot; awaken. Professor Ye Lan said: &quot;The life of a teacher to write lesson plans may not become a teacher, if a teacher was three years may become a teacher reflection.&quot; Some scholars pointed out: on the teachers, whether of &quot;reflective teaching&quot; method to resolve education events that occur in teaching, teachers determine the degree of specialization which is a sign. Constant reflection, the wisdom of our education also will continue to grow. 2, reflection on practice when to re-test. Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth. Practice again later reflection, why some is OK, and some method does not work, then look for new solutions. In the cycle of this, we can enhance our professionalism. 3, after reflection to learn. Confucius said, &quot;Learning without thought is labor lost, thought without learning is perilous.&quot; Thinking and then studying and studying more effectively, think more deeply. Carefully read monograph is a study, ask colleagues are learning and watching TV is also a school day flowers. 4, practice, reflection, learning should be a continuous cycle of mutual integration. As &quot;Mean&quot;, &quot;chapter in politics,&quot; said: &quot;pundits, interrogation of, deliberation of, discernment, Dusing of. There Ephesians studying and studying the measures are unable to answer Vladimir; have Vladimir asked, and asked the Fu Zhi Front measures also; there Firth, thinking of mandrax Front measures are; have Vladimir identified, measures have also identified the Fuming Fu; the Front line, line of Vladimir Vladimir Benedict measures also. person, one can of, had 100 of; people 10 to the, has a thousand of. If we could achieve this for men, and are stupid will be out, though soft will be. &quot; 5, the vitality of our teaching is not &quot;copy&quot; but &quot;refresh.&quot; The new curriculum requires teachers to have skills not only operational skills, but also have face new situations, analyze new problems, ability to resolve new conflicts, at a higher starting point, keep the spirit of self-transcendence. ?