Han Yuhai: a development model representative of the Ming and Qing destroyed the
demise of food for thought
Interview Video - Peking University expert on the Ming and Qing Han Yuhai decline
and China in History
The best quotation:
We often say, Confucianism and Confucian culture is the mainstream of Chinese
culture, I think this is defective in the Confucian proud of the time is not very long,
because ancient China was mainly dominated by Buddhism, then, what medieval
Confucian Zuo what? Is basically a book by, so the core of Confucian culture is
carried around the Five Classics.
North expert Hanyu Hai: From the Fall of the Ming and Qing China in History
Moderator: Dear friends, Sina users Hello everyone, welcome to watch SINA
Online Auditorium show, I was host Anna (blog). Today, we have specially invited
Peking University Professor, History of Decline and Fall of the Ming and Qing Han
Yuhai a turning point in Chinese history and a new interpretation. First, users are
Korean teachers and say hello.
Han Yuhai: Distinguished Sina users Hello everybody, I am pleased to have this
opportunity to share and discuss with you.
Moderator: I would like to know this Korean teacher &quot;who built five
hundred years history - 1500 years of China and the world&quot;, why is the
record of 1500 years history of China, especially with the world mutual related?
Hanyu Hai: Because from the perspective of historical research, a general
consensus, 1500 is the world to be an important opportunity for the modern.
For China, I think, in this from around the Chinese society has undergone great
changes, this change can be said that, if we put the most common history is divided
into Gudai, medieval and modern times, then, very important change , that is, from
medieval to modern times, even longer than early 1500, probably around the 10th
century, China has undergone changes in medieval to modern times, we historians call
between the Tang to Song. China has a long history, from several points of view, a
perspective that is from the traffic in ancient China to the Middle Ages, when the core
of China&#39;s traffic should be in the west, Xi&#39;an is Chang, roads
lead to Xi&#39;an. In addition to the father in Xi&#39;an, there are five
main roads leading to the world, we are more familiar with the Silk Road, in addition,
there is the east to Luoyang, Luoyang in the Tang Dynasty is very important because
over the Yellow River from Luoyang, the after from the Bohai Bay off to the northeast,
north-east to North Korea, North Korea and then to Japan, the Japanese Imperial
Japanese embassies are walking this road. There is so five south road.
From medieval to modern times change, the role of the canal increased. When we
look at the Song Dynasty, the capital, set at Kaifeng, Kaifeng is the intersection of
Canal and Yellow River areas, still the capital on the southern tip of the Southern
Song Dynasty in Hangzhou, capital of the Ming and Qing regarded on the north side
of the canal, is Beijing. We study history, read a map is to see lines, this is a change.
Hanyu Hai: Chinese history, many factors in the development and changes in a
Moderator: We are talking about a city, the one country Ye Hao, development of the
most important sign is the level of development traffic.
Hanyu Hai: Yes, if we look at modern times, the changes in China, it is clear from
the west into the canal era. Into the modern, very obviously, is the coast. Changes
from the traffic can see big change in Chinese history key point, traffic is a very
Another, of course, the economy, the economy is very important. The change from
medieval to modern times, we see economic changes, first of all, I think from the late
Tang Dynasty, China would like to receive very difficult to land tax, land species
could not afford. After the mid-Tang Dynasty rely on to support, that is, salt, salt is a
state monopoly. Shanxi, Shanxi was able to reason together developed, Shanxi has a
place called solution state, the Emperor and Chi You fight wars is the place of salt to
eat. Salt from the late Tang Dynasty is the main source of state revenue, commodity
prices are 30 times production cost. State monopoly of salt monopoly, mainly by this.
So was a lot of rebellion is peddling salt from the beginning, for example, Shi-Cheng
After the Song dynasty, only a small part of the land tax, and mainly rely on salt is
one, then one is the business. There is a part of tariff, the percentage accounted for is
very important. In the Ming dynasty with land tax switch also sell salt. Song is a very
important change, the commodity economy and monetary economy, agriculture in the
Song is not dominated, can be seen from the state&#39;s revenue. Related to this
are many important cities developed, primarily along the canal. The late Tang Dynasty,
many changes have taken place in the world, the Persian Empire to exterminate Abbas,
first went to China to the Persians, Arabs chase, the canal formed a number of Muslim,
we Jiaohu people, such as Yangzhou city.
After development of the city, much of China&#39;s technology development
began, the most important the one is the so-called user coal for smelting, we often
said that the technology to use coal for smelting was Cheng Shu Yu Industrial
Revolution, in fact not the case, with coal Jinxing smelting technology mature in the
Song Dynasty Cizhou, the earliest use of coal for smelting, refining only the stone,
that is, porcelain, Chinese people why they like porcelain, the Chinese like jade, jade
from Xinjiang, two is not easy to get, the brains to do porcelain, which is a
Another change, of course, political changes, because in China before the Tang
Dynasty, Chinese society is into the clan nobility, before the old Wangxie Tang Yan,
Wang, Xie, high, etc. These are the generations County Cui Wang, Door No. Times
are busy, high to Gaozong time to prepare their daughters to marry Gaozong Cui.
Gaozong very laments, our home has the world in recent years for men not like Cui
almost to the point of such.
Song out of the elite force of the so-called scholar-officials, by the canal side of the
city&#39;s business or cultivating land to pay up by reading, of course, is not
hereditary, social, elite force great changes have taken place in the high gate into the
clan the literati, from medieval to modern times changed a lot.
Cultural change, is very simple to say, we say that there is an impression that
Confucianism and Confucian culture is the mainstream of Chinese culture, this
statement irregularities, Confucianism is not a very long time, proudly, in ancient
China are mainly Buddhist world, medieval Confucian do? Is basically a book by, so
the core of Confucianism is carried around the Five Classics. Hardware write a
biography, written in Spring and Autumn Annals of Confucius Lu&#39;s history
and wrote a biography, you comment on this thing, you inject me, note the many, all
the attention again turned into a book together This is the biography, note books,
basically Confucian culture around Cuba carried out.
In the Tang dynasty, as too many books, the Tang Dynasty imperial examination to
test this, a national communications on a series of teaching materials. By the Song
dynasty is not the case, do not attach importance to the Pentateuch, the main emphasis
on the Four Books, do not attach importance to study the knowledge, and attention to
your own feelings on this. Four books on the saints is mainly to express your feelings.
Song has an official there is a change in a recommended official Wang Fu-chih, he
laments, Song is the speech too much, too little of a real dynasty. You see the Tang
and Song of the article, all words, the emperor to listen to this truth, that makes sense,
you are on the surface is so, then behind the counter to open. Song has a problem, the
current Wo Lidou enemy, you can see, the importance he places on the.
Moderator: attached great importance to scholars.
Han Yuhai: 1935 China formally issued a so-called legal tender, the real fiscal
consolidation and monetary unification is the establishment of the PRC in 1949. For
the Ming and Qing dynasties, the monetary system issues are important, because these
two dynasties were of silver, which is the economy the most important reason for the
problem, the problem is less noticed in the past.
Han Yuhai: Seclusion is one of the factors of China&#39;s development lags
Han Yuhai: Confucian cultural change simply is changed from the Five Four Books.
From an artistic point of view, I went to New York&#39;s Metropolitan Museum
to see paintings where found, when medieval Europe is very dark, very little, to the
Renaissance was very bright out. The middle of a transition which is the Dunhuang
murals, European oil painting from Dunhuang murals Foundation, which is a great
influence in Europe.
After the Song Dynasty on the fine, and the paper has changed, artists began to
paint on paper, mounted reel in landscape painting, Chinese painting landscape is very
early. Changes in Europe are basically affected by the Dunhuang, such as large scenes,
the war in Europe is characterized by more, then be more wars in Europe. The
emergence of a genuine natural landscape in Europe is the Netherlands, the 15th
century, when seen, can be said that the world because Europe is because of the
Columbus sailing, so the pattern began to change the world. In fact the occurrence of
these changes earlier, for example, we see from the traffic, the canal from the inland
to Xian and then to the sea change, the change from aristocracy to the gentry. Money
from the commercial economy to economic changes, China is the place earlier,
around the 10th century, China had some of these changes. China earlier had these
Moderator: Han teachers are from the traffic, politics, economy, culture, art, etc. to
help us sort out various aspects of China&#39;s nearly 500 years, changes in
some of the key points. Many friends have such a doubt, we usually change much
earlier than in the West, why development has stagnated, and some say caused by
closed-door policy, some said that we might have seeds of capitalism, as we deeply
rooted in the feudal society was replaced, all. You have a new interpretation of what
Han Yuhai: can not say that the new interpretation, we have a saying that China has
long been a closed-door policy, that is the main performance of Song Ming and Qing,
Yuan dynasty, including the Boycott has problems, calling it too conservative. This
issue has been resolved long ago in fact, Chinese history has long been settled. 30
years in China, when a par with Guo historian, called the Tao Xi-sheng, Hubei
Huanggang, he worked at Beijing University professor, and later he became a
politician, and became the KMT&#39;s propaganda minister. His research is also
integrated to everyone and why China Boycott it? China is a copper and silver
production is very low, so the purpose of its policy of prohibiting what is forbidden?
Some Gold iron into the sea are not allowed. It is small, these things, for example,
caches up my family there, and then overseas to a flow, a great impact on the
domestic currency in circulation, this is the reason for the Boycott all Chinese
dynasties. There are other factors that had, for example, Emperor Hongwu Zhang
Shicheng peddling with the salt because the reasons, in general, is worried about
losing money problems. Why did China around the tenth century by a first instance
occurred in the transformation from medieval to modern times? Contrary to 1840, just
very sad, and beaten black and blue by the Western powers, and so we find many
reasons why? The problem here of course complicated, there are some problems now
is that we can see it very clearly. From the first example in 1334, the Ming Dynasty
did a sailing into seclusion after the start, and then do not go out, only to wait until
after 1840, Europe began to see the world, the Western powers play came in, and
forced to open up. In the middle of Europe from 1500 found sailing around the world,
the idea is all wrong. Since 1334, China not only failed to retreat from the world,
precisely because China&#39;s huge demand for silver, only then come in
volumes in Europe. In 1942, when Columbus sailed to America, sailing from more
than a short distance from Zheng, but also three ships, Columbus was in fact the
pirates, the extent to which his use of Arab and Chinese knowledge of navigation and
map, and now academia to discuss the important issue. But when he went, nothing
could have been found for the second time we got back, there is a good laugh, his
three ships out, came back with a few tattoos of indigenous, his chief of hat wearing,
but also captured Several monkey back, to invest in popularity dead, got nothing.
This was around 1530 something, we place the recent earthquake, close to where
the earthquake is that this place is called wave drag Bolivia West. Silver found this
place, that is the world&#39;s largest silver mine, this land is the third of earth,
seven silver, this is a very important point of Spain. 1550 found that silver production,
large-scale production of silver. So in 1562, when Spain occupied the Philippines,
today occupied by Su Wu, now a part of the Philippines, to this place called the
Philippines, why is the king of Spain, the royal family called the Philips, so the
Philippines is the name to Philips, when China have 20,000 people living there. This
place opened by the Americas from Spain, Brazil 阿卡布尔卡, large yacht operations,
Philips sent to the Philippines where, from this place with a Chinese sampan
transported to Guangzhou and Fujian, from the opening of the so-called world trade.
Spain cock ran it to, if you do not find silver, what Baipao, what use it is.
Moderator: They are lucky developed.
Han Yuhai: Currency Reform for China&#39;s development is significant
Hanyu Hai: This has elements of luck, it is important that, after China in the Ming
Dynasty in 1567 to determine the state abolished, there is a currency called the
original security Dynasty, Song Dynasty some banknotes, the Yuan are used. Ming
has been dragged in 1567 to completely destroy the state-issued currency notes. This
is a lot of people think that historians believe it was a great wrong, all wrong, say
downright wrong, Gu, xi, what was the contemporary people have Huangrun Yu is
well-known historian, Japan, under Bin military to, very well-known historian, now
go to the Sun Yat-sen, the elderly have already retired. They say China is very simple,
Bin Wu to say that this is the next deserted, Bank of China is the most lacking in the
State, Yunnan more, but he chose to do something sorely lacking money, may be the
shortage itself, a reason for the scarcity itself is more important because there is a
large-scale supply of Spanish silver, so I chose this.
This is why it is very erroneous, Bin Wu to say next is very important that we look
at 1630 when the Bank of Spain to the Philippines, shipped off by half a sudden, all
over the world know that down by half, Adam Smith that down by half, but no one
has said that he drop by half on what impact China. Because all the people who
engage in world history that this was a Chinese history, I give up. 1630, down by half
in 1644 the Ming Dynasty on the death, and dependent on foreign money supply,
suddenly gone, that a lot, do nothing. Of course, many people do this study. The
impact of the Opium War in China, but it is important that in 1832, when Britain
abandoned the silver standard lead, prepared to use the gold standard. First, a variety
of silver around the world do not, and what transport to China, Qing Dynasty, and
even China and China the worst of the currency, silver with ingot with a shell, there
are scattered and fragmentary fineness more different, there are official products, is
Customs are used, there are Korean products are used in court, library materials, this
is the best, the Treasury collected. First of all, the best bank in China occurred in the
treasury to use the full wages through the Guangdong businessmen collude with the
Indians, the fineness of the best out of silver speculative arbitrage, which is the
outflow is the outflow of silver, preferably silver outflow, while low-grade silver with
a large-scale flow in.. Since the Opium War, the monetary system boast the attack.
Moderator: the situation is completely passive.
Hanyu Hai: We know Sun Yat-sen revolution very important idea, raised money in
1912, Sun Yat-sen&#39;s revolution, took all the silver had it up to silver
reserves the laws issued by the State, which is Sun&#39;s most important
content , Sun Yat-sen say you do not. Until 1935, when the KMT four, when the
former university president Cai proposed that Japan would be invaded, our country
must issue the national currency, 1935, China formally issued a so-called legal tender,
the real fiscal consolidation, monetary unification in 1949 The PRC was established.
So the question is very important for the Ming and Qing dynasties, since they are both
silver, which is very important to them two dynasties, which is in the past relatively
Han Yuhai: a development model representative of the Ming and Qing destroyed
the demise of food for thought
Moderator: This is your book you mentioned in particular the root cause is the
demise of the Ming and Qing currency war. Our childhood reading history, you have
just written history, an important reason is that history is a cyclical process, seems to
always say that history will repeat itself, as we will see the original place of modern
possibilities, in the present process will be repeated We study history and write history,
even more important reason is that we want to strengthen the country, we want to
develop, through your writing, you think we should go to do nothing about it?
Han Yuhai: most simply, the so-called long in the 16th century is probably the
establishment of the Ming Dynasty from 1359 to 1850 almost 500 years this time,
there is a saying that from 1350 to 1650 from exactly the Ming demise of the time,
China has always represented the world the forefront of economic development and a
development model, so the decline of the Ming and Qing very important, not only the
decline of the two dynasties, the decline of a development model, what development
model? This model attaches great importance to production and trade, it is understood
as natural philosophy of the world the decision, less government intervention, the
Government has said and done is your treatment with the natural order, you little
intervention. This is almost the Ming and Qing approach to development, the Ming
government agencies is very small, we look is very fun, full of 16th Century state
officials have 20,400 people, and Ming have a fixed tax, the revenue of the fixed
charges can , tax revenue from small scale before the scale is 340 million dan, are less
than the Song dynasty, the Qing dynasty also known as &quot;the breeding of
man by man, and never add Fu.&quot; Looks like very little to interfere with the
government, how to do other things, to the folk of running, officials rarely blending,
so people take turns serving, so-called labor law, the Hall was turned into a stand, he
did not wages, how to do his work? Where to go plunder. Nominal tax small, national
spending much. Overall, become a good model, 1776 Adam Smith wrote
&quot;Wealth of Nations&quot;, he said that the Chinese than any country
in the rich world, China&#39;s production capacity is stronger than all of Europe,
this is &quot;The Wealth of Nations,&quot; the original words. Adam
Smith to the development of China as a model, never thought China would be the
British defeat. Adam Smith and Gu, Wang Fu-chih but all these people have a
common theory, production, trade, market is the most refined and vulgar economy,
while money is not that they do not think so. Indeed very unfortunate that the
so-called real economy, the history of Europe is not in accordance with the direction
of Adam Smith described, not by the direction of development in China, a bit like the
direction of Malthus, Malthus that the production, trade, market it is not absolute,
production re- developed, he says only a count-type growth, population growth is
geometric, always supply can not meet demand, how do? Elimination of the
population only by war. His idea is the core of what the economy? Brutal competition
for survival with the decision of supply and demand, the leading 19th-century later. In
this process, of course, extremely difficult in Europe, he met a lot of crisis, he had
created, they create such wars are frequent, then had a national tax, while giving
taxpayers the right system. At the same time in all of the revenue as collateral, borrow
a lot of preparing for war bonds. This system is Adam Smith hated, so he criticized
the British government, which is small, he is afraid of the British Government issued
bonds too, was 160 million pounds, he felt the British to step down.
But the Cha Cha Cha is a 19th century European capitalism we call the elements of
the final to beat China. In this sense, China&#39;s revolution, Dr. Sun
Yat-Revolution of much significance in this, this is the first in the overall situation
Kang book talk with the Emperor say, economic development, production
development, market development is not use, can not use fiscal means, there is a way
of tax, fiscal and financial means to gather together this wealth, there is no national
capacity, be broken up.
Moderator: So, Shirley, we feel that each topic there are still many, many stories
behind many of history&#39;s pivot. You made it very exciting today, I believe
that many users have not heard enough, so you give them to stay here a little suspense,
more friends more detailed reading of Han Yuhai welcome him to the
teacher&#39;s new book &quot;Five hundred years the history of who built
- 1500 years of China and the world &quot;and hope that Korean teachers have
the opportunity to come with us to interpret your book.
Hanyu Hai: Thank you, Anna.
Moderator: Thank you friends for watching the same time.