From the Toyota Production System to Lean Enterprise

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					From the Toyota Production System to Lean Enterprise
From the Toyota Production System to Lean Enterprise
--- Reading, "change the world of machines," "Lean
Thinking", "Lean Enterprise"

Today is September 18, 2005, in this day of learning Lean knowledge, not a good
feeling in their hearts. Because, I think, can not buy Japanese products, Japanese
management, technology can not help but learn!
Important to note that not all of this original reference to more network resources, are
unable to indicate the source!

Toyota Production System (TPS) is Toyota's initiative, but many of the
core Toyota technology in the Ford 【see "Lean Enterprise - an integrated
approach to waste minimization" (May 2005 edition of Finance and
Economics University Press) 】 been used, Toyota's largest contribution is
a summary of the previous, for the mass production methods of critical reflection and
perseverance; from the Toyota Production System to Lean thinking is the MIT
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) of the extract, summarize.
"Change the world machine" (The Machine That Changed the
World) to introduce lean production to the world. "Lean
Thinking" further concentrated, systematic exposition of a series on lean
principles and methods to make it more theoretical. "Lean
Enterprise" tells you how to implement lean, lean implementers called the

Toyota myth shocked the world
How can the Japanese economy in the rapid development in 30 years? How can
surpass the Japanese auto industry, auto power than the United States? Many of which
we should think and learn.
Turning to production management, we can not fail to mention Lean Manufacturing
(Lean Production), and its origin: the Toyota Production System.
World War II, the Japanese economy waits to move, the Japanese Government
formulated the "National Income Doubling Plan", the auto
industry as a key strategic industry, organizations are to the automotive industry to
power the USA. At that time Ford's car plant in Detroit can produce 7000
cars per day, compared with Toyota's production even more than a year.
However, representatives from Toyota, Taiichi Ohno after the visit of the U.S. The
plant, in the inspection report, it says: "production system where there is
the possibility of improvement."
Toyota's staff refers to a variety of plant waste, including: defective
products, excess production over demand, idle goods inventory, unnecessary
procedures, unnecessary mobilization of personnel, unnecessary transport of goods,
the kind of waiting, etc.. It is the existence of such waste, so they saw "the
possibility of improvement."
Toyota Toyota, Eiji and Ono held a series resistance to first-person exploration and
experiment, based on Japan's national conditions, a series of improved
production methods: the system in time production, total quality management,
concurrent engineering, and gradually created a unique more variety, small batch,
high quality, low consumption of production. These methods after 30 years of practice,
form a complete "Toyota Production System", (Toyota
Production System) to help the automotive industry in Japan later were more than the
car power the United States, production reached 13 million, accounting for the
world's total of 30 vehicles % or more.
In manufacturing, electronics, computers, aircraft manufacturing and other industries.
Toyota, Japan's industrial production has also become an important
component of competitive strategy in Japan's economic boom has played a
pivotal role.
Reflected in the Toyota production in Japan in the repetitive production process
management thought, the guiding idea is that by optimizing the whole production
process, improving technology, streamline the various flow (Flow), to eliminate
excess production, eliminate inefficiencies and waste, full and effective use of
resources, reduce costs, improve quality, achieved with the minimum input for
maximum output purposes.
The rapid rise of the Japanese economy and Japanese companies succeed in
international markets, greatly shocked the Western business community, especially
U.S. companies. 80 years in government and corporate financial support, the United
States the field of business management scholars have begun in-depth study of
Japanese business success tips, also began to reflect on the existing management of
the U.S. way of thinking and manufacturing deficiencies.

"Machine that changed the world": Lean Production freshly
Daniel T. Jones and other 50 experts, with a 5-year period, in 17 countries, more than
90 auto manufacturers were compared, and published in 1992 called "the
machine that changed the world" (The Machine That Changed the World)
famous report. The report summarizes the Toyota mode of production, that its historic
significance, that this is a revolution in manufacturing industry. Too cumbersome for
most of the report of U.S. companies, proposed the "streamlined,
swelling" approach, the success of the production in Japan is called Lean
Manufacturing (Lean Production).
The basic objective of lean production is also in a business where access to high
productivity, excellent quality and great production flexibility; in the organization of
production, it is different with Taylor, not stress meticulous division of labor, and
emphasizes close cooperation between enterprises of various sectors of
comprehensive integration. Comprehensive integration is not limited to the production
process itself, but also attach importance to product development, production
preparation and production cooperation and integration. Lean production requires not
only the technical realization of the manufacturing process and the automation of
information flow, more importantly, from the engineering point of view of business
activities and their social impact of a comprehensive, holistic optimization.
Lean production system from the enterprise's business concept,
management principles to the production organization, production planning and
control, Zuoye management and on human aspects of management of Deng Ge, Du
Yu Chuan Tong in Tai Liang Fang Shi a significant production of Bu Tong.
Lean Production and quality of products first in the pursuit of perfection and ensure
that users throughout the life cycle of the product are satisfied. Production within the
enterprise organization, give full consideration to human factors, flexible team
working and stressed the mutual cooperation of the parallel work. In materials
management, logistics and materials on time zero inventory objective is to
significantly reduce the product, saving working capital. Use of appropriate
technology in the production automation technology has significantly improved
productivity. All of this, all the resources of the enterprise can be fully rational
allocation and utilization.
Lean Production in Europe and the United States as the representative of a large
number of production than in the end what advantages do? According to the
report's conclusions, and a large number of production compared to the
Japanese lean production methods used in the superiority lies in the following areas:
First, the required human resources - both in product development, production
systems, or other parts of the factory, and factory mass production mode than can be
reduced to 1 / 2;
Second, the new product development cycle - could be reduced to l / 2 or 2 / 3;
Third, the production process of in-process inventory - can reduce the general level of
mass production mode 1 / 10;
Fourth, the factory space - could be reduced to a large number of production plants by
1 / 2;
Fifth, the finished goods inventory - a large number of production plants can be
reduced to the average inventory level of 1 / 4;
Sixth, the product quality - can be increased by 3 times.

"Lean Thinking": mass production mode again after the
management revolution
"Lean Thinking" is derived from James P. Womack and Daniel
T. Jones 1996 years of famous "Lean Thinking." The book in
the "machine that changed the world", based on further
concentration, the system elaborated a series of lean principles and methods to make it
more theoretical.
Lean thinking require the enterprises to find the best way to establish the value
provided to customers clearly value stream for each product, so products from initial
concept to reach the customer's process flow smoothly into the production
of the pull customers who excellence in production management, perfect. Value, value
stream, flow, pull and perfection as used in the further development of the concept of
product development, manufacturing, procurement and customer service in all aspects
of lean (Lean Techniques).
The five lean principles:
1 values (Value)
Lean thinking that the enterprise product (service), which can only be determined by
the end user, value, only to meet specific user needs only the meaning of existence.
Lean thinking to re-define the values and principles of modern enterprises, which
manufacture with traditional thinking, that is subjective efficient mass production of
established products to sell to customers, is completely opposite.
2 Value Stream (Value Stream)
Value stream from raw material to finished product is given the value of all the
activities. Identify the value stream is the starting point for the implementation of lean
thinking, and in accordance with the position of the end user to find the whole process
in the overall best. Lean thinking, including corporate value creation process: from
concept to production of the design process; from ordering to delivery of the
information process; from raw material to product conversion process; full life cycle
support and service process.
3 mobile (Flow)
Lean thinking required to create value in all activities (steps) movement, emphasizing
that "move." Traditional concept of "division of
labor and a lot to high-efficiency", but lean thinking is that the bulk, mass
production often means waiting and stagnation. Lean all the stagnant as corporate
Lean thinking called "All the people must and sectoral, and mass
production to combat the idea, because if the product from raw materials to finished
products in accordance with the continuous production process, we almost always
able to complete the work is even more accurate and efficient."
4 pull (Pull)
"Pull" the essential meaning is to allow users to boost
production as needed, rather than forcing the user do not want to push the product to
the user. Pull through the correct values and compression lead to ensure that the user
needs in the required time to obtain the product. Implementation of the Pull De
enterprises where the need when the user can immediately design, plan and create the
user really need the products; finally realize aside forecast, simply press the
user's actual needs Jinxing production.
Pull method is implemented to achieve JIT production (Just-in-time) and single-piece
flow (One-Piece Flow). JIT and the realization of single-piece flow manufacturing
process must be done on the original radical transformation. Flow and will pull the
product development cycle, order cycle, production cycle by 50 ~ 90%.
5 perfect (Perfection)
Lean thinking is the basic objective of the definition of business: value creation
process with perfect perfect value for the user. James P. Womack described lean
manufacturing aims to "create value through perfect process (including
design, manufacturing and product or service throughout the life cycle support) to
provide users with perfect value." Lean Manufacturing's
"perfect" has three meanings: user satisfaction, error-free
production and continuous improvement of the enterprises themselves.

"Lean          Enterprise":      lean     implementers        of     the
"Whether you are a CEO, business owner, or manufacturer, it does not
matter - no matter what your sense of great responsibility, Just imagine: What a way
to enterprise productivity in just a few weeks to improve 25-40%? In addition, the
methods used can reduce 50% of the production sites, and reduced inventory levels
from the current two to three days, nor to return to the failed product.
"... ..." It sounds incredible, but this is author real personal
experience. ... .... "
This is a "Lean Enterprise" at the beginning of the book, then
the method described here is lean.
"Lean Enterprise" by Bruce "A"
Henderson and George "L" raco with senior management of the
two companies to complete. Bruce "A" Hand hygiene is the
controller for the company's general manager of Invensys, a former
consultant Mike Kinsey stock company, has managed several companies such as TRW.
George "L" lako Spain 帕姆波路纳 former general manager
of TRW management, and in Italy, France, Brazil, Britain, Australia, New Zealand
and the United States on a number of successful lean enterprise transformation.
"Lean Enterprise", two of the book that lean production should
be a corporate business strategy, describes the realization of the six basic principles of
lean plant and how to extend lean manufacturing to the whole company from the
factory The book's final chapter is called "experienced
change", indicating lean transformation for enterprises is a management
revolution. Particularly worth mentioning that two of the implementation of lean
based on their experience, not only describes the steps and methods to achieve lean,
also highlighted the realization of the difficulties faced by lean, this is the book and
other introduced The biggest difference between lean production and the advantages
of books. Therefore, the "lean enterprise" Lean practitioners
called the "Bible."
Lean Way
? Lean Enterprise is a business strategy ---- whether Toyota or Dell Computer
(1) the idea of Lean Enterprise - to become a champion (and still keeps going);
(2) leadership team is an integral part, which also describes the difficulties of
implementing lean and countermeasures;
(3) communication and training is the key, up and down smoothly and communication
through training so that all (or most) employees who become Lean thinking is the key
to achieving lean. "On this point, what Dell is doing? ... ... Finance director
of Thomas" J "Meilidisi said: 'We spent 15 months
talking to staff return on investment, so they believe this will affect the
company's future' . their efforts were not wasted. first quarter of
1997, the shareholders of each into one U.S. dollar, the recovery of 1.54 U.S. dollars
of profits of 59 cents Compaq, IBM only 47 cents. "
(4) customers and value. From "cost + profit = price" to
"Cost = Price - Profit" changes.

? six basic principles of lean factory ---- the implementation of lean production and
requirements of the six main areas:
(1.) In the workplace should be safe, orderly and clean. The basis of these facts are
lean, mainly achieved through 5S activities.
(2.) JIT production. When the customer needs, according to customer need, and
provide the products. By a series of tools to enable enterprises to achieve JIT
production, and they are: ⑴ single production time (TAKT Time), ⑵ continuous
improvement, ⑶ a stream of production, ⑷ unit, ⑸ U-type arrangement, etc., ⑹
value stream analysis, ⑺ Process, ⑻ Pull and Kanban, ⑼ visual management, ⑽
to reduce production cycle, ⑾ Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), ⑿ quick die
(3.) 6σ quality management principles, to carry out with the whole process of product
development and production. Include: ①                     the responsibility of the
operator's quality, ② the operator concept of active stop line of work, ③
error proofing, ④ standard operation, ⑤ FIFO control, ⑥ find the root cause (5
(4.) Play a labor initiative. The book emphasizes that "to play the
team's initiative is the basic operation mode of Lean Enterprise."
To encourage team spirit, tear down the walls between departments of an enterprise.
(5.) Visual management, not just managers, the sky to make all employees of the
company's situation at a glance. Information to fully communicate the best
way is to put all the processes are on the table, visual, rather than black-box operation.
(6.) Constantly striving for perfection. Enterprise management philosophy and critical
thinking of staff, even if only believe never reach the perfect ideal, we must continue
to move forward, even if waste is negligible, progress is bit by bit!
? alone do not make Lean Lean Factory Lean Enterprise ---- extended to the whole
(1) design department, through the team to shorten the design cycle and consider the
design of the workability (DFM) to achieve the lean transformation of the sector;
(2) process, in accordance with the basic principles of Lean thinking, making
manufacturing processes, equipment and layout of production to meet the time
(3) quality assurance department, quality assurance department is the exclusion of
quality inspection department of the old concepts, quality assurance departments to
really    play      through    the     management        rather     than    through     the
"caliper" to ensure product quality and quality management
should extend to the entire enterprise supply chain.
(4) financial sector, to change the traditional standard cost calculation, it gives a great
obstacle to lean production, the book presents a lean cost accounting.
(5) human resources, the implementation of the lean conversion process, managers
must give up "command and control" approach, participatory
式 leadership methods, which need to change the employment, training, assessment,
Jiang Li mode, to match the new situation.
(6) sales, marketing shift from lean sales driven by the market system, while
stimulating the development of the entire company.
(7) the purchasing department, "Lean Enterprise is one of the most critical
functions", with economic globalization and the introduction of the value
chain, most of the factory cost of 35-65% or more used in the procurement, the book
a) Suppliers should be seen as an integral part of the value chain;
b) suppliers must also be decreasing cost (cost = Price - Profit)
c) the supply of production must be achieved on time;
d) the use of global purchasing leverage;
e) deal with long lead time items.
(8) lean organizational structure to meet modern business principle of flat
organizations, such information to facilitate communication within the organization
and work efficiency.
"Why should realize and achieve this (Lean Transformation) purpose
would be so difficult to do ?---- self-interest, personal schedule, lack of understanding,
things always blindly cling to traditional methods and past practices."
Lean Enterprise ? five key factors of success experienced ----" change
(1.) Strategic vision. Only the lean transformation of up to enterprise development
strategy, can the staunch efforts of all staff to achieve this goal;
(2.) Strong line management. No stable production line, quality capabilities,
everything will be castles in the air;
(3.) From the training of experts and obtain the support of experts, a good contest can
also defeated every team in the case of out of Asia and the world;
(4.) Challenges to the performance objectives and achieve challenging goals are the
source of power;
(5.) Sense of urgency, the slow progress, it will lose valuable momentum and

"If you really want to master a subject, we should try to teach this course,
if you really want to learn to overcome the problem, try to dry as to see!" If
you really want to start your Lean process, I suggest you see "value stream
map analysis", which is considered the best tool for the industry.
"The machine that changed the world," brought us the concept
of lean production and the great advantage, so we recognize that lean production
methods than the traditional mass production, in the current market competition will
bring much more sustained the development, "lean thinking"
provides the basic principles of implementing lean and important concepts.
"Lean Enterprise" the two authors as senior corporate managers
and consultants, to own the process of implementing Lean major work and problems
were presented one by one in the book, especially the implementation of the problems
encountered during the and their solution for our domestic Lean practitioners explore
new ideas, the implementation of lean production as a business development strategy
and continue to provide useful depth of inspiration, so in a sense, "Lean
Enterprise"       is     really      Lean      implementers      of      the

Ready? The road!


1) "the machine that changed the world," London and New York
James p Womack and Daniel T Jone was
Shen Xi Jin Li Jingsheng Zhang Wenjie Commercial Press edition translated 1999.11
2) "Lean Thinking" London and New York James p Womack
and Daniel T Jone was
Shen Xi Jin Zhang Wenjie Li Jingsheng translation 1999.1 version of the Commercial
Press 22.70
3) "Lean Enterprise - Lean of the Road," London and New York
blues. A. Henderson Jog. L. raco with
Sun Yiqiang, M. Shanghai Science Press 2000.9 Edition 20.00
4) "Value Stream Mapping Analysis of" Mike. Ruth book Du
Hongsheng Translation Transportation Research 1999 Edition 60.00