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					eAppendix 1 Percentage missing across study variables in the 2002 World Health Survey

                    Total N   N age <   N after listwise   Self-rated    Years of      Age (%)       Gender (%)
                   (age≥25)    25*         deletion        health (%)   schooling*
                                                                           (%)
Australia             1621        133             1619              0          0.062     0.062                0
Austria                943        112              902          0.212          4.242     0.318                0
Bangladesh            4528       1024             4499          0.177          0.442     0.044                0
Belgiu m               883        129              794          1.586          7.928     0.906                0
Bosnia                 917                                                                   0
                                                    917             0             0                           0
Herzegovina                       111
Brazil                4209        791             4167          0.024         0.974          0                 0
Burkina Faso          3608       1217             3545          0.166         1.524      0.055                 0
Chad                  3640       1021             3379          0.934         6.044      0.440             0.137
China                 3674        319             3665              0         0.245          0                 0
Co moros              1411        348             1407          0.142         0.142          0                 0
Congo                 1939        558              911         11.140        50.284      0.206                 0
Cote d’Ivoire         2403        781             1827          2.372        22.471      0.208                 0
Croatia                932         58              929          0.107         0.205          0                 0
Czech Rep.             828        107              811          0.242         1.932          0                 0
Den mark               959         44              956          0.104         0.209          0                 0
Do min ican Rep.      3758        776             3733          0.399         0.373          0                 0
Ecuador               3873        787             3526          1.394         7.668      0.180             0.077
Estonia                928         84              924              0         0.323      0.108                 0
Ethiopia              3775       1163             3750          0.256         0.318      0.079                 0
Fin land               944         69              935          0.212         0.742          0                 0
France                 890        118              768              0        13.596      0.112                 0
Georgia               2441        314             2436              0         0.205          0                 0
Germany               1147        112             1090          0.436         4.621          0                 0
Ghana                 3304        634             3194          0.393         2.603      0.363                 0
Greece                 916         84              914              0         0.218          0                 0
Guatemala             3836        934             3749          0.156         1.773      0.365                 0
Hungary               1262        157             1254          0.634             0          0                 0
India                 8140       1854             7560          1.192         6.351      0.012                 0
Ireland                867        147              521         25.029        20.415      0.115                 0
Israel                1079        157             1059          1.297         0.741      0.463             0.093
Italy                  908         92              891          0.330         1.432      0.110                 0
Kazakhstan            4111        385             4102              0         0.195      0.024                 0
Kenya                 3449        968             3339          0.232         2.783      0.232                 0
Lao                   4060        829             4053          0.074         0.098          0                 0
Latvia                 764         92              745              0         2.356      0.131                 0
Lu xembourg            620         80              601              0         3.065          0                 0
Malawi                3766       1540             3647          0.212         1.062      2.018             0.053
Malaysia              5250        790             5133          0.400         2.019      0.019                 0
Mali                  3291        994             2642          5.530        10.210      5.895             0.972
Mauritania            3051        791             2778          1.147         6.260      1.409             0.754
Mauritius             3385        503             3362          0.089         0.591          0                 0
Mexico               32130       6616            32129              0             0      0.003                 0
Morocco               4184        816             4163              0         0.502          0                 0
Myanmar               4996        890             4996              0             0          0                 0
Namibia               3288        962             3014          5.779         6.022      0.152                 0
Nepal                 6979       1709             6970              0         0.129          0                 0
Netherlands            825        266              757          0.485         8.000          0                 0
Norway                 884        100              866          1.697         1.810      1.357             1.357
Pakistan              5031       1348             4884          0.179         2.663      0.080                 0



                                                                                                 1
Paraguay            4063       1080          4057        0.098          0.025     0.025        0
Philippines         8381       1697          8355        0.012          0.262     0.036        0
Russia              4070        352          3900        0.147          4.005     0.049        0
Senegal             2581        645          1981       10.500         15.033     2.092    0.697
Slovakia            1950        569          1324       29.744         30.256     1.692    0.154
Slovenia             514         71           507        0.389          0.973         0        0
South Africa        1877        475          1864        0.320              0     0.426    0.053
Spain               5960        404          5827        0.319          1.896     0.017        0
Sri Lanka           5642       1090          5098        0.177          9.500         0        0
Swaziland           2403        718          1496       34.207         18.519     1.540        0
Sweden               908         92           893        0.220          1.432         0        0
Tunisia             4214        855          4057        0.854          3.037         0        0
Turkey              9681       1539          9664        0.155              0     0.031    0.010
UAE                  984        196           962        0.102          2.134         0        0
UK                  1072        128          1047        0.466          1.586     0.280        0
Ukraine             2522        330          2475        0.119          1.467     0.198    0.079
Uruguay             2689        299          2674        0.409          0.521     0.335    0.335
Vietnam             2983        509          2954        0.067          0.905     0.034        0
Zamb ia             2848        964          2799            0          1.404     0.316        0
Zimbabwe            3024       1076          2966        1.157          0.860     0.364        0
Total             228993      47003        219713        1.352          3.163     0.267    0.049

* NOTE:

1) The column ‘N age < 25’ represents respondents who were excluded because of being
younger than 25, not because of missing information. These respondents have not been
included in calculating the percentages of missing information.

2) Missing on years of education AFTER substitution for those who did not get formal
schooling (missing = 0 years of education).




                                                                                       2
eAppendix 2 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reporting poor
health by 1 year increase in years of education in the pooled sample across 69 countries
by gender, adjusted for age.


                                    Men                               Women
                                     OR            95%     CI           OR            95%      CI
All countries pooled                0.933          0.927   0.939       0.927          0.922    0.932
Europe and Central Asia
High-income countries
Austria                             0.921          0.753   1.127       0.840          0.679    1.039
Belgiu m                            0.912          0.808   1.030       0.920          0.830    1.021
Den mark                            0.799          0.665   0.960       0.909          0.789    1.046
Fin land                            0.976          0.889   1.071       0.955          0.851    1.071
France                              0.911          0.789   1.052       0.921          0.820    1.033
Germany                             0.856          0.737   0.994       1.016          0.933    1.107
Greece                              0.901          0.793   1.023       0.930          0.855    1.012
Ireland                             1.001          0.819   1.223       0.812          0.675    0.976
Israel                              0.880          0.786   0.985       0.835          0.777    0.898
Italy                               0.931          0.826   1.050       0.920          0.837    1.012
Lu xembourg                         0.940          0.813   1.086       0.968          0.845    1.109
Netherlands                         0.973          0.792   1.196       0.863          0.779    0.957
Norway                              0.876          0.803   0.955       0.977          0.891    1.072
Slovenia                            0.920          0.799   1.060       0.793          0.694    0.907
Spain                               0.912          0.879   0.946       0.895          0.869    0.922
Sweden                              0.923          0.833   1.023       0.997          0.932    1.066
United Kingdom                      0.863          0.746   0.999       0.939          0.845    1.043
Upper middle-income countries
Croatia                             0.827          0.759   0.902       0.856          0.806    0.909
Czech Republic                      0.856          0.748   0.979       0.797          0.702    0.905
Estonia                             0.863          0.784   0.951       0.914          0.848    0.986
Hungary                             0.939          0.882   1.000       0.894          0.837    0.954
Latvia                              0.949          0.870   1.036       0.932          0.873    0.995
Slovakia                            0.973          0.845   1.120       0.898          0.821    0.982
Lower middle-income countries
Bosnia Herzegovina                  0.950          0.874   1.034       1.005          0.949    1.065
Kazakhstan                          0.942          0.868   1.021       0.951          0.905    1.001
Russian Federation                  0.912          0.870   0.957       0.941          0.913    0.970
Turkey                              0.840          0.807   0.873       0.843          0.821    0.866
Ukraine                             0.964          0.917   1.014       0.908          0.875    0.943
Low-income countries
Georgia                             0.939          0.894   0.987       0.931          0.898    0.964
Mi ddle East and North Africa
High-income countries
United Arab Emirates                0.896          0.786   1.022       0.973          0.884    1.069
Lower middle-income countries
Morocco                             0.955          0.931   0.979       0.964          0.942    0.986
Tunisia                             0.920          0.885   0.956       0.879          0.837    0.922
South Asia



                                                                                           3
Lower middle-income countries
Sri Lanka                       0.898   0.852   0.947   0.948   0.909   0.989
Low-income countries
Bangladesh                      0.918   0.891   0.947   0.913   0.885   0.942
India                           0.945   0.926   0.964   0.922   0.901   0.944
Nepal                           0.993   0.963   1.025   0.998   0.964   1.034
Pakistan                        0.943   0.904   0.984   0.953   0.895   1.014
East Asia and Pacific
High-income countries
Australia                       0.835   0.701   0.995   1.059   0.959   1.169
Upper middle-income countries
Malaysia                        0.918   0.864   0.975   0.877   0.834   0.923
Lower middle-income countries
China                           0.904   0.860   0.951   0.904   0.867   0.942
Philippines                     0.949   0.906   0.993   0.957   0.918   0.998
Low-income countries
Lao                             0.911   0.848   0.978   0.868   0.801   0.941
Myanmar                         1.050   0.981   1.124   0.942   0.889   0.999
Vietnam                         0.879   0.819   0.944   0.897   0.846   0.952
Sub-Saharan Africa
Upper middle-income countries
Mauritius                       0.857   0.814   0.903   0.892   0.861   0.924
Lower middle-income countries
Namibia                         0.964   0.916   1.016   0.916   0.877   0.957
South Africa                    0.897   0.850   0.947   0.935   0.897   0.974
Swaziland                       0.944   0.911   0.979   0.943   0.913   0.974

Low-income countries
Burkina Faso                    0.951   0.889   1.016   1.036   0.988   1.085
Chad                            0.992   0.953   1.032   1.001   0.937   1.071
Co moros                        0.911   0.849   0.977   0.990   0.937   1.046
Congo                           0.963   0.912   1.017   1.007   0.952   1.065
Cote d’Ivoire                   0.953   0.911   0.997   0.980   0.932   1.030
Ethiopia                        0.960   0.904   1.018   0.975   0.913   1.043
Ghana                           0.996   0.956   1.037   0.958   0.918   0.999
Kenya                           0.893   0.842   0.948   0.905   0.868   0.944
Malawi                          0.955   0.900   1.013   0.978   0.928   1.031
Mali                            0.895   0.775   1.033   1.001   0.894   1.121
Mauritania                      0.953   0.881   1.031   0.964   0.885   1.050
Senegal                         0.982   0.932   1.036   0.956   0.896   1.020
Zamb ia                         0.951   0.897   1.009   0.983   0.932   1.035
Zimbabwe                        0.958   0.908   1.010   0.932   0.896   0.969
Latin America & Cari bbean
Upper middle-income countries
Mexico                          0.942   0.925   0.959   0.938   0.925   0.952
Uruguay                         0.976   0.875   1.088   0.888   0.825   0.957
Lower middle-income countries
Brazil                          0.822   0.776   0.871   0.864   0.831   0.897
Do min ican Republic            0.913   0.870   0.958   0.946   0.915   0.979
Ecuador                         0.900   0.859   0.943   0.920   0.891   0.949



                                                                   4
Guatemala   0.939   0.902   0.978   0.945   0.915   0.975
Paraguay    0.994   0.922   1.070   0.932   0.881   0.987




                                               5
eAppendix 3(a) Country specific adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reporting poor health by quintiles

of years of education, adjusted for age and gender (Overall)


                                  5th quintile vs. 1st quintile     5th quintile vs. 2nd quintile     5th quintile vs. 3rd quintile     5th quintile vs. 4th quintile
                                  OR             CI (95%)           OR             CI (95%)           OR             CI (95%)           OR             CI (95%)
All countries pooled            2.292       (0.165. 2.426)        1.751      (1.642. 1.868)         1.611            (1.505. 1.726)   1.35             (1.264. 1.442)

Europe and Central Asia
High-income countries
Austria                         ∞           (0.000 . )             ∞             (0.000 . )         ∞                (0.000 . )        ∞              (0.000 . )
Belgiu m                         1.902      (0.714 . 5.067)        0.554         (0.161 . 1.908)     0.833         (0.277 . 2.502)     1.031         (0.322 . 3.305)
Den mark                         3.151      (0.849 . 11.693)       2.870         (0.785 . 10.489)    1.407         (0.306 . 6.460)     0.297         (0.030 . 2.901)
Fin land                         1.826      (0.694 . 4.803)        1.351         (0.470 . 3.881)     2.233         (0.800 . 6.233)     2.046         (0.734 . 5.706)
France                          ∞           (0.000 . )             ∞             (0.000 . )         ∞                (0.000 . )        ∞              (0.000 . )
Germany                          1.749      (0.858 . 3.567)        0.960         (0.449 . 2.057)     -                -                1.201         (0.538 . 2.679)
Greece                           2.214      (0.825 . 5.944)         -             -                  1.504         (0.533 . 4.244)      -              -
Ireland                          2.897      (0.758 . 11.070)       0.813         (0.175 . 3.771)     0.609         (0.099 . 3.735)     1.384         (0.269 . 7.110)
Israel                          17.636      (2.355 . 132.080)      6.838         (0.840 . 55.667)   10.953        (1.426 . 84.164)     6.196        (0.630 . 60.893)
Italy                            2.775      (0.886 . 8.695)        2.372         (0.741 . 7.589)     0.850         (0.243 . 2.978)     1.012         (0.109 . 9.440)
Lu xembourg                      1.356      (0.347 . 5.293)        2.046         (0.519 . 8.065)     0.933         (0.213 . 4.088)     0.886         (0.172 . 4.554)
Netherlands                      2.562      (0.678 . 9.686)        1.892         (0.493 . 7.254)     0.700         (0.071 . 6.941)     1.571         (0.394 . 6.263)
Norway                           2.256      (0.883 . 5.766)        1.042         (0.336 . 3.234)     0.650         (0.203 . 2.078)     0.671         (0.220 . 2.052)
Slovenia                         2.768      (1.051 . 7.288)        0.587         (0.179 . 1.921)     1.105         (0.380 . 3.210)     0.675         (0.158 . 2.881)
Spain                            3.819      (2.540 . 5.741)        2.417         (1.624 . 3.598)     1.872         (1.042 . 3.364)     1.257         (0.787 . 2.007)
Sweden                           1.312      (0.698 . 2.466)        1.094         (0.602 . 1.988)     0.846         (0.455 . 1.574)     1.455         (0.771 . 2.748)
United Kingdom                   2.764      (1.275 . 5.995)         -             -                  1.335         (0.585 . 3.049)     1.519         (0.660 . 3.496)

Upper middle-income countries
Croatia                           6.668     (3.205 . 13.875)        4.009        (1.918 . 8.382)      1.876        (0.910 . 3.866)      -              -
Czech Republic                    3.881     (1.587 . 9.489)         3.316        (1.307 . 8.414)      -               -                1.908         (0.691 . 5.267)
Estonia                           5.574     (2.278 . 13.640)        4.451        (1.800 . 11.011)     4.620       (1.820 . 11.728)     3.212         (1.192 . 8.653)
Hungary                           2.126     (1.251 . 3.612)         1.227        (0.679 . 2.215)      1.053        (0.529 . 2.096)     1.106         (0.574 . 2.130)




                                                                                                                                                                   6
Latvia                           1.862   (1.025 . 3.381)    2.259   (1.279 . 3.988)    1.358   (0.663 . 2.781)   1.518   (0.721 . 3.197)
Slovakia                         2.176   (1.038 . 4.563)    -        -                 1.589   (0.690 . 3.661)   1.020   (0.380 . 2.742)

Lower middle-income countries
Bosnia Herzegovina               2.039   (0.741 . 5.608)    1.629   (0.587 . 4.520)    0.939   (0.294 . 3.001)   2.503   (0.925 . 6.772)
Kazakhstan                       1.874   (1.188 . 2.955)    1.265   (0.757 . 2.115)    1.636   (1.009 . 2.654)   1.031   (0.608 . 1.747)
Russian Federation               2.395   (1.687 . 3.401)    1.367   (0.963 . 1.941)    1.482   (1.043 . 2.106)   0.953   (0.640 . 1.419)
Turkey                          11.514   (6.784 . 19.543)   4.858   (2.883 . 8.186)    -          -              2.795   (1.610 . 4.851)
Ukraine                          1.868   (1.314 . 2.655)    1.904   (1.192 . 3.042)    1.434   (0.987 . 2.083)   0.846   (0.571 . 1.253)

Low-income countries
Georgia                          1.811   (1.302 . 2.518)    -        -                 1.038   (0.709 . 1.519)   1.275   (0.884 . 1.838)

Mi ddle East and North Africa
High-income countries
United Arab Emirates             2.049   (0.405 . 10.379)   1.786   (0.353 . 9.025)    0.740   (0.066 . 8.332)   1.020   (0.168 . 6.214)

Lower middle-income countries
Morocco                          1.647   (1.302 . 2.084)    -        -                 1.475   (0.754 . 2.884)   1.175   (0.899 . 1.538)
Tunisia                          5.322   (2.930 . 9.667)    6.122   (3.132 . 11.969)   2.956   (1.595 . 5.481)   2.142   (1.120 . 4.097)

South Asia
Lower middle-income countries
Sri Lanka                        3.322   (1.818 . 6.070)    3.740   (2.054 . 6.808)    2.359   (1.277 . 4.359)   1.973   (0.926 . 4.202)

Low-income countries
Bangladesh                       2.785   (2.107 . 3.682)    -        -                 2.172   (1.584 . 2.978)   1.919   (1.390 . 2.650)
India                            2.696   (2.161 . 3.364)    -        -                 2.427   (1.899 . 3.102)   1.890   (1.452 . 2.460)
Nepal                            1.005   (0.781 . 1.292)    -        -                 -          -              1.152   (0.861 . 1.540)
Pakistan                         2.295   (1.398 . 3.767)    -        -                 -          -              1.824   (1.032 . 3.223)

East Asia and Pacific
High-income countries
Australia                        1.083   (0.394 . 2.974)    1.152   (0.409 . 3.240)    0.841   (0.233 . 3.027)   0.797   (0.240 . 2.647)

Upper middle-income countries
Malaysia                         3.665   (1.974 . 6.802)    2.145   (1.158 . 3.975)    1.513   (0.777 . 2.948)   0.940   (0.468 . 1.886)




                                                                                                                                      7
Lower middle-income countries
China                           3.328   (2.112 . 5.243)    2.065   (1.305 . 3.268)    1.458   (0.895 . 2.376)   1.332   (0.628 . 2.825)
Philippines                     1.484   (1.001 . 2.200)    -        -                 1.146   (0.753 . 1.743)   1.496   (0.900 . 2.489)

Low-income countries
Lao                             4.631   (1.964 . 10.918)   4.124   (1.664 . 10.220)   3.146   (1.324 . 7.477)   2.476   (0.975 . 6.290)
Myanmar                         1.313   (0.705 . 2.445)    1.574   (0.860 . 2.883)    1.242   (0.659 . 2.343)   1.283   (0.679 . 2.423)
Vietnam                         3.316   (1.847 . 5.951)    2.473   (1.398 . 4.373)    2.182   (0.973 . 4.892)   1.055   (0.507 . 2.196)

Sub-Saharan Africa
Upper middle-income countries
Mauritius                       4.947   (2.965 . 8.255)    2.971   (1.786 . 4.942)    3.566   (2.136 . 5.956)   1.297   (0.755 . 2.229)

Lower middle-income countries
Namibia                         1.938   (1.069 . 3.516)    2.201   (1.208 . 4.011)    1.124   (0.595 . 2.124)   0.798   (0.413 . 1.541)
South Africa                    4.520   (2.172 . 9.406)    3.437   (1.632 . 7.240)    3.304   (1.561 . 6.991)   0.953   (0.373 . 2.439)
Swaziland                       2.296   (1.626 . 3.243)    2.097   (1.488 . 2.955)    2.109   (1.484 . 2.996)   1.658   (1.177 . 2.336)

Low-income countries
Burkina Faso                    0.905   (0.616 . 1.329)    -        -                 -          -               -        -
Chad                            0.962   (0.721 . 1.285)    -        -                 -          -               -        -
Co moros                        1.707   (1.011 . 2.882)    -        -                 -          -              1.749   (0.955 . 3.202)
Congo                           1.910   (0.921 . 3.959)    -        -                 1.003   (0.449 . 2.240)   2.094   (1.002 . 4.376)
Cote d’Ivoire                   1.910   (1.055 . 3.460)    -        -                 -          -              2.123   (1.149 . 3.924)
Ethiopia                        1.333   (0.863 . 2.060)    -        -                 -          -              1.007   (0.588 . 1.726)
Ghana                           1.639   (0.928 . 2.895)    -        -                 1.396   (0.744 . 2.620)   1.372   (0.746 . 2.524)
Kenya                           6.125   (2.877 . 13.039)   5.075   (2.433 . 10.587)   3.208   (1.384 . 7.436)   2.290   (1.033 . 5.079)
Malawi                          1.491   (0.881 . 2.525)    0.981   (0.553 . 1.740)    1.194   (0.695 . 2.052)   0.985   (0.550 . 1.764)
Mali                            1.391   (0.755 . 2.561)    -        -                 -          -               -        -
Mauritania                      1.465   (0.836 . 2.569)    -        -                 -          -              1.151   (0.515 . 2.570)
Senegal                         1.244   (0.766 . 2.021)    -        -                 -          -              1.202   (0.638 . 2.266)
Zamb ia                         1.659   (0.939 . 2.933)    2.096   (1.213 . 3.623)    1.599   (0.915 . 2.794)   1.859   (0.991 . 3.487)
Zimbabwe                        2.195   (1.197 . 4.025)    1.640   (0.912 . 2.949)    1.825   (0.905 . 3.681)   0.989   (0.543 . 1.802)

Latin America & Cari bbean
Upper middle-income countries




                                                                                                                                     8
Mexico                          2.581   (2.147 . 3.103)    2.011   (1.683 . 2.403)   2.812     (1.879 . 4.208)   1.589    (1.297 . 1.946)
Uruguay                         2.061   (0.930 . 4.571)    1.925   (0.625 . 5.928)   1.231     (0.503 . 3.015)   1.025    (0.412 . 2.548)

Lower middle-income countries
Brazil                          8.481   (4.834 . 14.882)   4.026   (2.285 . 7.093)   3.537     (1.905 . 6.569)   1.972    (1.071 . 3.630)
Do min ican Republic            2.819   (1.818 . 4.371)    2.295   (1.452 . 3.625)   2.416     (1.549 . 3.770)   1.971    (1.236 . 3.143)
Ecuador                         3.751   (2.432 . 5.787)    2.184   (1.426 . 3.345)   2.246     (1.326 . 3.805)   1.128    (0.676 . 1.882)
Guatemala                       2.223   (1.576 . 3.136)    -        -                1.794     (1.223 . 2.632)   1.667    (1.124 . 2.471)
Paraguay                        1.830   (.969 . 3.454)     1.245    (.605 . 2.561)   2.262     (1.215 . 4.213)   1.780    (0.859 . 3.686)
Note: all estimates are adjusted for gender and age; additionally, estimates in the pooled analyses were adjusted for country dummies
- = no quintiles computed (for instance. over 40% of respondents had the same number of years of education)




                                                                                                                                        9
eAppendix 3(b) Country specific adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reporting poor health by quintiles

of years of education (Men)

                                5th quintile vs. 1st quintile   5th quintile vs. 2nd quintile   5th quintile vs. 3rd quintile   5th quintile vs. 4th quintile
                                OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)
All countries pooled            2.357     (2.144 . 2.591)       1.850 (1.659 . 2.062)           1.644 (1.475 . 1.831)           1.394 (1.246 . 1.558)
Europe and Central Asia
High-income countries
Austria                         ∞         (0.000 . )             -       -                      ∞         (0.000 . )            ∞        (0.000 . )
Belgiu m                        3.057     (0.591 . 15.821)      2.113    (0.369 . 12.093)       1.185     (0.191 . 7.347)       1.944    (0.343 . 11.013)
Den mark                        8.009     (0.961 . 66.768)      2.945    (0.322 . 26.906)       0.000     (0.000 . )            1.182    (0.072 . 19.319)
Fin land                        2.092     (0.544 . 8.048)       1.504    (0.323 . 7.008)        2.597     (0.617 . 10.936)      3.029    (0.747 . 12.281)
France                          ∞         (0.000 . )            ∞        (0.000 . )             ∞         (0.000 . )            ∞        (0.000 . )
Germany                         3.656     (1.020 . 13.102)      1.669    (0.429 . 6.490)         -        -                     1.719    (0.411 . 7.183)
Greece                          ∞         (0.000 . )             -       -                      ∞         (0.000 . )            1.026    (0.000 . )
Ireland                         0.974     (0.156 . 6.086)       0.419    (0.055 . 3.193)        0.000     (0.000 . )            0.802    (0.066 . 9.740)
Israel                          6.019     (0.713 . 50.837)      3.701    (0.361 . 37.982)       3.283     (0.320 . 33.700)      0.000    (0.000 . )
Italy                           2.387     (0.498 . 11.434)      1.355    (0.116 . 15.886)       0.802     (0.129 . 4.977)       0.000    (0.000 . )
Lu xembourg                     2.540     (0.246 . 26.215)      5.201    (0.545 . 49.595)       1.721     (0.149 . 19.897)      1.023    (0.062 . 16.904)
Netherlands                     1.321     (0.108 . 16.187)      0.796    (0.046 . 13.644)       2.837     (0.243 . 33.085)      0.988    (0.059 . 16.417)
Norway                          4.542     (0.959 . 21.522)      1.933    (0.329 . 11.362)       0.911     (0.146 . 5.687)       0.552    (0.076 . 4.026)
Slovenia                        1.413     (0.388 . 5.143)       0.179    (0.019 . 1.722)        0.841     (0.185 . 3.817)       0.355    (0.035 . 3.618)
Spain                           3.659     (1.806 . 7.413)       2.534    (1.272 . 5.047)        1.640     (0.740 . 3.638)       1.225    (0.521 . 2.883)
Sweden                          1.775     (0.588 . 5.358)       1.192    (0.413 . 3.438)        1.997     (0.621 . 6.419)       0.470    (0.112 . 1.965)
United Kingdom                  4.058     (1.112 . 14.807        -       -                      0.724     (0.141 . 3.721)       2.527    (0.640 . 9.978)

Upper middle-income countries
Croatia                         5.619     (1.858 . 16.991)       1.996   (0.562 . 7.086)        2.275     (0.718 . 7.206)        -       -
Czech Republic                  2.400     (0.828 . 6.954)        2.093   (0.705 . 6.210)        -         -                     1.069    (0.288 . 3.972)
Estonia                         7.977     (1.760 . 36.157)      10.224   (2.126 . 49.174)       8.093     (1.750 . 37.435)      3.400    (0.584 . 19.805)
Hungary                         1.865     (0.871 . 3.993)        1.187   (0.534 . 2.641)        1.188     (0.428 . 3.299)       1.386    (0.585 . 3.286)
Latvia                          2.069     (0.661 . 6.475)        2.584   (0.771 . 8.661)        1.430     (0.430 . 4.751)       2.070    (0.593 . 7.234)
Slovakia                        1.280     (0.261 . 6.282)        -       -                      0.659     (0.089 . 4.874)       2.356    (0.451 . 12.308)




                                                                                                                                                            10
Lower middle-income countries
Bosnia Herzegovina              2.426   (0.513 . 11.473)    0.966   (0.164 . 5.673)     2.925   (0.628 . 13.617)    -      -
Kazakhstan                      2.589   (1.028 . 6.524)     0.852   (0.253 . 2.873)     1.913   (0.772 . 4.741)     -      -
Russian Federation              2.068   (1.151 . 3.715)     1.782   (0.823 . 3.856)     1.277   (0.670 . 2.433)    0.558   (0.252 . 1.232)
Turkey                          6.349   (2.965 . 13.596)    -       -                  11.780   (3.928 . 35.325)   2.469   (1.081 . 5.639)
Ukraine                         1.410   (0.789 . 2.518)     1.204   (0.532 . 2.724)     0.993   (0.498 . 1.980)    1.147   (0.599 . 2.199)

Low-income countries
Georgia                         1.465   (0.869 . 2.470)     0.661   (0.339 . 1.290)     2.107   (1.081 . 4.109)    0.668   (0.338 . 1.320)

Mi ddle East and North Africa
High-income countries
United Arab Emirates            2.273   (0.236 . 21.932)    1.011   (0.062 . 16.536)    0.000   (0.000 . )         1.028   (0.062 . 16.898)

Lower middle-income countries
Morocco                         2.029   (1.330 . 3.095)     -       -                   1.641   (1.023 . 2.634)    1.331   (0.825 . 2.149)
Tunisia                         4.409   (1.913 . 10.161)    4.260   (1.858 . 9.769)     2.567   (1.077 . 6.120)    1.918   (0.765 . 4.807)

South Asia
Lower middle-income countries
Sri Lanka                       5.059   (1.982 . 12.914)    3.512   (1.260 . 9.789)     2.466   (0.919 . 6.613)    2.755   (0.860 . 8.826)

Low-income countries
Bangladesh                      3.539   (2.033 . 6.160)     -       -                   2.186   (1.219 . 3.920)    1.678   (0.917 . 3.071)
India                           2.296   (1.623 . 3.250)     2.425   (1.562 . 3.766)     2.356   (1.624 . 3.416)    1.446   (0.980 . 2.135)
Nepal                           1.440   (0.788 . 2.632)     -       -                   1.242   (0.638 . 2.417)    1.765   (0.958 . 3.253)
Pakistan                        1.638   (0.889 . 3.021)     -       -                   1.157   (0.527 . 2.541)    0.675   (0.291 . 1.567)

East Asia and Pacific
High-income countries
Australia                       ∞       (0.000 . )          ∞       (0.000 . )         ∞        (0.000 . )         1.000   (0.000 . )

Upper middle-income countries
Malaysia                        3.277   (1.254 . 8.563)     1.813   (0.343 . 9.574)     1.562   (0.571 . 4.270)    -       -

Lower middle-income countries
China                           3.658   (1.542 . 8.674)    1.974    (0.741 . 5.255)     1.994   (0.797 . 4.993)    1.366   (0.487 . 3.834)




                                                                                                                                              11
Philippines                     1.659   (0.878 . 3.135)    1.260   (.653 . 2.432)      1.050    (0.547 . 2.014)    1.457   (0.664 . 3.198)

Low-income countries
Lao                             3.632   (1.226 . 10.759)   3.079   (0.999 . 9.491)     3.305    (1.080 . 10.115)   2.498   (0.785 . 7.952)
Myanmar                         0.554   (0.208 . 1.478)    0.909   (0.358 . 2.307)     0.737    (0.186 . 2.922)    0.945   (0.353 . 2.529)
Vietnam                         4.192   (1.591 . 11.047)   3.360   (1.242 . 9.092)     1.703    (0.539 . 5.378)    1.696   (0.500 . 5.757)

Sub-Saharan Africa
Upper middle-income countries
Mauritius                       3.925   (1.848 . 8.338)    4.418   (1.860 . 10.494)    3.120    (1.366 . 7.125)    0.823   (0.312 . 2.172)

Lower middle-income countries
Namibia                         3.660   (0.823 . 16.272)   6.957   (1.584 . 30.551)    4.002    (0.893 . 17.926)   3.729   (0.829 . 16.763)
South Africa                    8.682   (2.000 . 37.684)   5.750   (1.264 . 26.163)    6.102    (1.352 . 27.554)   0.937   (0.130 . 6.744)
Swaziland                       2.591   (1.508 . 4.449)    2.456   (1.448 . 4.166)     2.655    (1.508 . 4.672)    2.405   (1.419 . 4.076)

Low-income countries
Burkina Faso                    1.248   (0.688 . 2.265)    -       -                     -      -                   -      -
Chad                            1.006   (0.656 . 1.543)    -       -                     -      -                  1.359   (0.674 . 2.740)
Co moros                        2.736   (1.095 . 6.833)    -       -                     -      -                  2.202   (0.811 . 5.978)
Congo                           1.886   (0.732 . 4.861)    0.947   (0.288 . 3.118)      0.686   (0.216 . 2.178)    0.746   (0.237 . 2.353)
Cote d’Ivoire                   2.705   (1.034 . 7.074)    4.019   (1.458 . 11.078)      -      -                  2.203   (0.757 . 6.412)
Ethiopia                        1.394   (0.717 . 2.710)    -       -                  1.011     (0.415 . 2.465)    0.901   (0.390 . 2.082)
Ghana                           1.048   (0.519 . 2.117)    0.306   (0.066 . 1.431)      1.082   (0.534 . 2.194)     -      -
Kenya                           3.512   (1.279 . 9.648)    4.210   (1.576 . 11.247)     1.728   (0.588 . 5.075)    0.230   (0.027 . 1.993)
Malawi                          1.996   (0.861 . 4.627)    1.193   (0.486 . 2.927)      1.332   (0.553 . 3.209)    1.854   (0.680 . 5.056)
Mali                            1.848   (0.786 . 4.347)    -       -                     -      -                   -      -
Mauritania                      1.917   (0.662 . 5.549)    -       -                     -      -                  2.394   (0.701 . 8.169)
Senegal                         1.398   (0.635 . 3.080)    -       -                     -      -                  1.793   (0.741 . 4.338)
Zamb ia                         3.094   (1.240 . 7.722)    2.369   (0.955 . 5.880)      2.532   (0.598 . 10.727)   2.126   (0.767 . 5.897)
Zimbabwe                        1.491   (0.641 . 3.470)    1.462   (0.633 . 3.377)      1.085   (0.454 . 2.590)    1.112   (0.474 . 2.609)

Latin America & Cari bbean
Upper middle-income countries
Mexico                          2.594   (1.825 . 3.689)    2.003   (1.419 . 2.828)     1.621    (1.104 . 2.380)    1.425   (0.917 . 2.216)
Uruguay                         0.634   (0.176 . 2.279)    1.130   (0.246 . 5.189)     0.532    (0.117 . 2.428)    0.313   (0.057 . 1.732)




                                                                                                                                              12
Lower middle-income countries
Brazil                          20.784   (5.015 . 86.147)   10.450   (2.502 . 43.651)   6.302   (1.363 . 29.151)   4.055   (0.906 . 18.150)
Do min ican Republic             3.114   (1.521 . 6.378)    2.300    (1.078 . 4.908)    2.065   (0.964 . 4.426)    1.503   (0.663 . 3.404)
Ecuador                          5.231   (2.391 . 11.444)   2.988    (1.386 . 6.439)    1.643   (0.479 . 5.629)    1.596   (0.650 . 3.920)
Guatemala                        2.542   (1.419 . 4.556)    1.512    (0.730 . 3.133)    1.815   (0.906 . 3.634)    1.814   (0.899 . 3.658)
Paraguay                         1.216   (0.474 . 3.118)    0.484    (0.143 . 1.643)    0.692   (0.248 . 1.932)    1.283   (0.475 . 3.468)
Note: all estimates are adjusted for age; additionally, estimates in the pooled analyses were adjusted for country dummies
- = no quintiles computed (for instance. over 40% of respondents had the same number of years of education)




                                                                                                                                              13
eAppendix 3(c) Country specific adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reporting poor health by quintiles

of years of education (Women)



                                 5th quintile vs. 1st quintile   5th quintile vs. 2nd quintile   5th quintile vs. 3rd quintile   5th quintile vs. 4th quintile
                                 OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)
All countries pooled             2.227     (2.076 . 2.389)       1.669 (1.541 . 1.807)           1.560 (1.427 . 1.705)           1.345 (1.237 . 1.462)
Europe and Central Asia
High-income countries
Austria                         5.845      (0.598 . 50.301)      2.769    (0.302 . 25.381)       2.672     (0.291 . 24.504)      3.467    (0.351 . 34.266)
Belgiu m                        1.282      (0.351 . 4.677)       0.531    (0.126 . 2.247)        0.376     (0.092 . 1.541)       0.552    (0.096 . 3.169)
Den mark                        1.216      (0.204 . 7.243)       2.298    (0.448 . 11.792)       1.517     (0.261 . 8.827)       0.000    (0.000 . )
Fin land                        1.541      (0.375 . 6.326)       1.110    (0.253 . 4.876)        1.727     (0.386 . 7.723)       1.258    (0.272 . 5.820)
France                          ∞          (0.000 . )            ∞        (0.000 . )             ∞         (0.000 . )            ∞        (0.000 . )
Germany                         1.094      (0.455 . 2.632)       0.686    (0.268 . 1.756)         -        -                     1.002    (0.376 . 2.675)
Greece                          1.536      (0.531 . 4.446)        -       -                      0.736     (0.232 . 2.337)        -       -
Ireland                         5.683      (0.654 . 49.419)      1.292    (0.112 . 14.875)       1.494     (0.131 . 16.979)      1.641    (0.144 . 18.690)
Israel                          ∞          (0.000 . )            ∞        (0.000 . )             ∞         (0.000 . )            ∞        (0.000 . )
Italy                           2.128      (0.554 . 8.172)       1.628    (0.413 . 6.428)        0.533     (0.103 . 2.751)        -       -
Lu xembourg                     1.941      (0.216 . 17.408)      3.063    (0.285 . 32.967)       1.445     (0.139 . 15.008)      2.963    (0.330 . 26.616)
Netherlands                     3.074      (0.779 . 12.130)      2.260    (0.576 . 8.869)        0.000     (0.000 . )            1.737    (0.375 . 8.051)
Norway                          1.395      (0.415 . 4.691)       0.803    (0.215 . 2.995)        1.007     (0.237 . 4.273)       0.251    (0.027 . 2.341)
Slovenia                        5.370      (1.129 . 25.535)      1.326    (0.206 . 8.538)        1.859     (0.355 . 9.738)       1.354    (0.177 . 10.339)
Spain                           4.231      (2.516 . 7.114)       2.556    (1.538 . 4.247)        2.504     (1.231 . 5.092)       1.211    (0.647 . 2.264)
Sweden                          1.065      (0.490 . 2.317)       1.051    (0.506 . 2.183)        0.768     (0.365 . 1.612)       1.585    (0.769 . 3.269)
United Kingdom                  2.111      (0.797 . 5.589)       1.591    (0.597 . 4.238)         -        -                     1.106    (0.382 . 3.205)

Upper middle-income countries
Croatia                          5.559     (2.147 . 14.391)      4.758    (1.867 . 12.127)       1.767     (0.687 . 4.548)        -       -
Czech Republic                  12.664     (1.626 . 98.641)      8.105    (1.059 . 62.032)       5.531     (0.667 . 45.896)      5.531    (0.667 . 45.896)
Estonia                          3.422     (1.250 . 9.367)       3.113    (1.013 . 9.566)        2.832     (0.964 . 8.317)       3.112    (1.044 . 9.277)
Hungary                          3.116     (1.469 . 6.611)       2.535    (0.602 . 10.671)       1.491     (0.659 . 3.376)       1.652    (0.585 . 4.662)
Latvia                           2.126     (0.962 . 4.697)       2.582    (1.230 . 5.420)        1.849     (0.768 . 4.452)       1.522    (0.603 . 3.843)
Slovakia                         3.003     (1.234 . 7.309)       -        -                      2.257     (0.864 . 5.892)       0.681    (0.132 . 3.523)




                                                                                                                                                             14
Lower middle-income countries
Bosnia Herzegovina              1.603   (0.437 . 5.879)    1.452   (0.394 . 5.354)    0.932   (0.197 . 4.416)    2.222   (0.596 . 8.283)
Kazakhstan                      1.652   (0.973 . 2.805)    1.362   (0.768 . 2.416)    1.276   (0.723 . 2.250)    1.032   (0.557 . 1.913)
Russian Federation              2.298   (1.501 . 3.518)    1.227   (0.801 . 1.879)    1.560   (1.024 . 2.377)    1.142   (0.715 . 1.826)
Turkey                          7.615   (5.097 . 11.378)   3.083   (2.070 . 4.593)    -       -                  3.040   (1.818 . 5.080)
Ukraine                         2.182   (1.401 . 3.399)    1.889   (1.186 . 3.008)    1.677   (0.993 . 2.834)    0.762   (0.466 . 1.246)

Low-income countries
Georgia                         2.065   (1.350 . 3.159)    -       -                  1.199   (0.738 . 1.949)    1.486   (0.932 . 2.369)

Mi ddle East and North Africa
High-income countries
United Arab Emirates            2.185   (0.228 . 20.962)   2.815   (0.306 . 25.944)   1.096   (0.097 . 12.390)   1.159   (0.102 . 13.109)

Lower middle-income countries
Morocco                         1.498   (1.148 . 1.953)    -       -                  -       -                  1.061   (0.727 . 1.549)
Tunisia                         8.296   (3.308 . 20.803)   -       -                  5.640   (2.108 . 15.089)   4.664   (1.770 . 12.288)

South Asia
Lower middle-income countries
Sri Lanka                       2.626   (1.212 . 5.690)    3.448   (1.578 . 7.533)    2.249   (1.037 . 4.877)    1.526   (0.561 . 4.149)

Low-income countries
Bangladesh                      2.185   (1.595 . 2.992)    -       -                  2.286   (1.467 . 3.562)    1.770   (1.231 . 2.545)
India                           2.498   (1.900 . 3.283)    -       -                  -       -                  1.872   (1.372 . 2.555)
Nepal                           0.937   (0.698 . 1.258)    -       -                  -       -                  1.609   (0.938 . 2.760)
Pakistan                        1.459   (0.846 . 2.516)    -       -                  -       -                  3.267   (0.687 . 15.538)

East Asia and Pacific
High-income countries
Australia                       0.601   (0.194 . 1.865)    0.496   (0.147 . 1.675)    0.942   (0.228 . 3.891)    0.584   (0.175 . 1.952)

Upper middle-income countries
Malaysia                        3.757   (1.693 . 8.335)    1.890   (0.878 . 4.067)    1.438   (0.623 . 3.323)    0.625   (0.246 . 1.587)

Lower middle-income countries




                                                                                                                                            15
China                           3.708   (1.941 . 7.084)    2.416   (1.236 . 4.724)        1.447   (0.690 . 3.033)   1.755   (0.852 . 3.616)
Philippines                     1.514   (0.900 . 2.547)    -       -                      1.211   (0.700 . 2.096)   1.530   (0.785 . 2.983)

Low-income countries
Lao                             4.191   (1.628 . 10.792)   -       -                      3.594   (1.368 . 9.448)   1.857   (0.628 . 5.490)
Myanmar                         1.925   (0.896 . 4.137)    2.273   (1.091 . 4.374)        1.484   (0.672 . 3.281)   1.490   (0.626 . 3.547)
Vietnam                         3.491   (1.597 . 7.632)    1.790   (0.760 . 4.216)        2.078   (0.895 . 4.824)   1.362   (0.560 . 3.313)

Sub-Saharan Africa
Upper middle-income countries
Mauritius                       4.844   (2.767 . 8.479)    2.908   (1.698 . 4.982)        3.679   (2.080 . 6.507)   1.487   (0.828 . 2.669)

Lower middle-income countries
Namibia                         1.677   (0.856 . 3.285)    1.518   (0.768 . 3.000)        0.695   (0.328 . 1.473)   0.391   (0.172 . 0.888)
South Africa                    3.253   (1.368 . 7.734)    2.720   (1.146 . 6.459)        2.491   (1.037 . 5.987)   0.965   (0.330 . 2.823)
Swaziland                       2.385   (1.490 . 3.818)    2.125   (1.323 . 3.411)        1.994   (1.249 . 3.181)   1.507   (0.953 . 2.383)

Low-income countries
Burkina Faso                    0.696   (0.421 . 1.152)    -       -                      -       -                  -      -
Chad                            1.063   (0.670 . 1.685)    -       -                      -       -                  -      -
Co moros                        1.011   (0.618 . 1.654)    -       -                      -       -                  -      -
Congo                           0.890   (0.396 . 2.001)    -       -                      0.565   (0.194 . 1.642)   0.920   (0.400 . 2.113)
Cote d’Ivoire                   1.355   (0.692 . 2.653)    -       -                      -       -                 1.500   (0.684 . 3.290)
Ethiopia                        1.212   (0.750 . 1.959)    -       -                  -           -                  -      -
Ghana                           3.584   (1.106 . 11.614)   -       -                      2.979   (0.909 . 9.762)    -      -
Kenya                           5.481   (2.525 . 11.899)   5.763   (2.630 . 12.627)       2.367   (1.056 . 5.306)   3.069   (1.320 . 7.132)
Malawi                          1.205   (0.611 . 2.375)    1.038   (0.465 . 2.314)        0.985   (0.476 . 2.040)   0.952   (0.452 . 2.001)
Mali                            0.911   (0.380 . 2.188)    -       -                      -       -                  -      -
Mauritania                      1.388   (0.699 . 2.754)    -       -                      -       -                 0.710   (0.215 . 2.342)
Senegal                         1.406   (0.756 . 2.615)    -       -                      -       -                 1.285   (0.392 . 4.208)
Zamb ia                         1.368   (0.646 . 2.896)    1.196   (0.550 . 2.598)        1.309   (0.624 . 2.744)   1.501   (0.628 . 3.589)
Zimbabwe                        2.357   (.968 . 5.743)     1.817   (0.748 . 4.415)        1.805   (0.741 . 4.399)   1.144   (0.476 . 2.751)

Latin America & Cari bbean
Upper middle-income countries
Mexico                          2.717   (2.160 . 3.417)    2.126   (1.704 . 2.652)        -        -                1.881   (1.464 . 2.417)
Uruguay                         3.267   (1.069 . 9.990)    1.986   (0.485 . 8.130)        1.700   (0.534 . 5.418)   0.996   (0.246 . 4.030)




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Lower middle-income countries
Brazil                          6.460   (3.459 . 12.066)   2.964   (1.582 . 5.552)   3.316   (1.646 . 6.681)    1.661   (0.851 . 3.242)
Do min ican Republic            2.646   (1.425 . 4.915)    2.310   (1.223 . 4.363)   2.647   (1.432 . 4.893)    2.042   (1.096 . 3.802)
Ecuador                         3.056   (1.798 . 5.194)    1.958   (1.174 . 3.265)   2.198   (1.173 . 4.119)    1.061   (0.583 . 1.932)
Guatemala                       1.954   (1.311 . 2.913)    -        -                1.691   (1.072 . 2.668)    1.638   (1.019 . 2.632)
Paraguay                        3.088   (1.160 . 8.821)    2.645   (0.928 . 7.535)   5.153   (1.984 . 13.385)   2.723   (0.901 . 8.230)
Note: all estimates are adjusted for gender and age; additionally. estimates in the pooled analyses were adjusted for country dummies
   - = no quintiles computed (for instance. over 40% of respondents had the same number of years of education)




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eAppendix 4a Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for a 1 category increase in poor health by 1 year increase in
schooling by World Bank’s classification of countries by income levels and regions, adjusted for age and country fixed effects, by
gender based on a ordered multinomial regression model

                                                               All                                    Men                               Women
                                                  OR                  95% CI            OR              95% CI              OR             95% CI

All Countries                                     0.961   (   0.959     ,   0.962   )   0.964   (   0.962   ,   0.966   )   0.958   (   0.955    ,   0.961   )

National inco me   High                           0.938   (   0.932     ,   0.944   )   0.940   (   0.931   ,   0.949   )   0.936   (   0.929    ,   0.945   )
                   Upper middle                   0.960   (   0.956     ,   0.963   )   0.960   (   0.954   ,   0.966   )   0.959   (   0.954    ,   0.965   )
                   Lower middle                   0.946   (   0.944     ,   0.949   )   0.951   (   0.946   ,   0.956   )   0.945   (   0.940    ,   0.948   )
                   Low                            0.978   (   0.975     ,   0.981   )   0.979   (   0.975   ,   0.983   )   0.976   (   0.972    ,   0.981   )

Region             Europe and Central Asia        0.927   (   0.923     ,   0.931   )   0.935   (   0.929   ,   0.942   )   0.924   (   0.919    ,   0.930   )
                   Middle East and North Africa   0.978   (   0.970     ,   0.985   )   0.980   (   0.970   ,   0.991   )   0.975   (   0.965    ,   0.985   )
                   South Asia                     0.967   (   0.962     ,   0.970   )   0.969   (   0.963   ,   0.974   )   0.963   (   0.956    ,   0.970   )
                   East Asia and Pacific          0.974   (   0.969     ,   0.980   )   0.975   (   0.968   ,   0.983   )   0.976   (   0.969    ,   0.984   )
                   Sub-Saharan Africa             0.971   (   0.968     ,   0.975   )   0.976   (   0.970   ,   0.981   )   0.966   (   0.960    ,   0.970   )
                   Latin A merica and Caribbean   0.957   (   0.954     ,   0.961   )   0.956   (   0.951   ,   0.961   )   0.957   (   0.953    ,   0.962   )




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eAppendix 4b Pooled adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 1 category increase in poor health by quintiles
of years of education, adjusted for age and country fixed effects, by gender based on a ordered multinomial regression model.

                              5th quintile vs. 1st quintile   5th quintile vs. 2nd quintile   5th quintile vs. 3rd quintile   5th quintile vs. 4th quintile
                              OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)         OR             CI (95%)
All                           1.603     1.564 , 1.644         1.459 1.420 , 1.501             1.354 1.314 , 1.395             1.225 1.194 , 1.259
Men                           1.606     1.547 , 1.669         1.452 1.391 , 1.516             1.349 1.294 , 1.406             1.231 1.179 , 1.284
Women                         1.586     1.534 , 1.639         1.445 1.392 , 1.499             1.320 1.276 , 1.385             1.224 1.178 , 1.270




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