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									   International Aspects of Patents
             Registration


The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and its Advantages

                              Li Maor
            Legal Consultant, PCT Legal Affairs Section


   August 2007
   OAC IP International Aspects
International Registration- what for?




           August 2007
           OAC IP International Aspects
International Registration- what for?




           August 2007
           OAC IP International Aspects
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (IL March 24, 1950)

                                             :)Art. 2( -‫1. שוויון בין נתיני המדינות החברות‬
 “ (1)    Nationals of any country of the Union shall, as regards the protection of
 industrial property, enjoy in all the other countries of the Union the advantages
 that their respective laws now grant, or may hereafter grant, to nationals; all
 without prejudice to the rights specially provided for by this Convention.


                                                 :)Art. 2( -‫2. עצמאות דין מדינות חברות‬
 (3)      The provisions of the laws of each of the countries of the Union relating
 to judicial and administrative procedure and to jurisdiction… are expressly
 reserved.”




           August 2007
           OAC IP International Aspects
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (IL March 24, 1950)

                                                 :)Art. 4bis( -‫3. עצמאות חיי הפטנט‬
 “ (1) Patents applied for in the various countries of the Union… shall be
 independent of patents obtained for the same invention in other countries…”

                                                           :)Art. 4( -‫4. זכות בכורה‬
 “A.(1) Any person who has duly filed an application for a patent… in one of the
 countries of the Union… shall enjoy, for the purpose of filing in the other
 countries, a right of priority…

 (2) Any filing that is equivalent to a regular national filing under the domestic
 legislation of any country of the Union… shall be recognized as giving rise to the
 right of priority…

 C.(1) The periods of priority referred to above shall be twelve months for
 patents…”




           August 2007
           OAC IP International Aspects
TRIPs Agreement- basics for IP protection (IL 1999)

 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

 Article 1 - Nature and Scope of Obligations
 “ Members shall give effect to the provisions of this Agreement.
 Members may, but shall not be obliged to, implement in their law more
 extensive protection than is required by this Agreement, provided that
 such protection does not contravene the provisions of this Agreement...”


 Article 27 - Patentable Subject Matter
 “ … patents shall be available for any inventions, whether products or
 processes, in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, involve
 an inventive step and are capable of industrial application…”




          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
Paris Convention and TRIPs Agreement


     Local patent application followed within 12 months by multiple
     foreign applications claiming priority under Paris Convention:

      • multiple formality requirements/searches/publication

      • multiple examination and prosecution of applications

      • translations and national fees required at 12 months




         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
PCT- Outline




         1. What is the PCT *
         2. Why use the PCT **
         3. Israel and the PCT ***
         4. Recent PCT Developments      ****




          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
                1. What is the PCT?




August 2007
OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?

 •A mainly procedural international treaty facilitating certain
  steps in the process of obtaining patents internationally

 •More specifically- the PCT establishes a procedure for the
  filing and processing of a single application for a patent
  which has legal effect in the countries which are Treaty
  members

 •Simplifies the procedure for obtaining patent protection in
  many countries, making it more efficient and economical
  for:
    -users of the patent system (applicants and inventors);
    and
    -patent Offices


         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?



    •Signed in June 1970, in Washington, D.C., and became
     operational in June 1978 with 18 States

    •As of 1 March 2007, the PCT has 138 Contracting States

    •The decision on granting patents is made exclusively by
     national or regional Offices in the national phase




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?

       =PCT




                            Costa Rica
Albania                     Côte d'Ivoire
Algeria                     Croatia
Angola (27 December 07)     Cuba
Antigua and Barbuda         Cyprus                                                                                               St. Kitts and Nevis
Armenia                     Czech Republic                   Guinea-Bissau                                                       Sweden
Australia                   Democratic People's              Honduras                 Malawi               Poland                Switzerland
Austria                       Republic of Korea              Hungary                  Malaysia             Portugal              Syrian Arab Republic
Azerbaijan                  Denmark                          Iceland                  Mali                 Republic of Korea     Tajikistan
Bahrain (18 March 07)       Dominica                         India                    Malta (1 March 07)   Republic of Moldova   The former Yugoslav
Barbados                    Dominican Republic (28 May 07)   Indonesia                Mauritania           Romania                   Republic of Macedonia
Belarus                     Ecuador                          Ireland                  Mexico               Russian Federation    Togo
Belgium                     Egypt                            Israel                   Monaco               Saint Lucia           Trinidad and Tobago
Belize                      El Salvador                      Italy                    Mongolia             Saint Vincent and     Tunisia
Benin                       Equatorial Guinea                Japan                    Montenegro               the Grenadines    Turkey
Bosnia and Herzegovina      Estonia                          Kazakhstan               Morocco              San Marino            Turkmenistan
Botswana                    Finland                          Kenya                    Mozambique           Senegal               Uganda
Brazil                      France,                          Kyrgyzstan               Namibia              Seychelles            Ukraine
Bulgaria                    Gabon                            Lao People’s Dem Rep.    Netherlands          Sierra Leone          United Arab Emirates
Burkina Faso                Gambia                           Latvia                   New Zealand          Singapore             United Kingdom
Cameroon                    Georgia                          Lesotho                  Nicaragua            Slovakia              United Republic of Tanzania
Canada                      Germany                          Liberia                  Niger                Slovenia              United States of America
Central African Republic    Ghana                            Libyan Arab Jamahiriya   Nigeria              South Africa          Uzbekistan
Chad                        Greece                           Liechtenstein            Norway               Spain                 Viet Nam
China                       Grenada                          Lithuania                Oman                 Sri Lanka             Yugoslavia
Colombia                    Guatemala                        Luxembourg               Papua New Guinea     Sudan                 Zambia
Comoros                     Guinea                           Madagascar               Philippines          Swaziland             Zimbabwe
Congo




                      August 2007
                      OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
      Growth in PCT member States over last 10 years
1996            1997           1998 1999                2000          2001 2002                  2003 2004              2005             2006
Turkey          Yugoslavia     Cyprus    United Arab    Algeria       Colombia Saint Vincent     Papua New San Marino   Comoros          Honduras
Israel          Ghana          Croatia    Emirates      Antigua and   Ecuador       and the         Guinea              Nigeria          El Salvador
Cuba            Zimbabwe       Grenada   South Africa     Barbuda     Equatorial    Grenadines   Syrian Arab            Libyan           Malaysia
Saint Lucia     Sierra Leone   India     Costa Rica     Mozambique    Guinea      Seychelles        Republic                Arab         Lao People’s
Bosnia and      Indonesia                Dominica       Belize        Philippines                Egypt                      Jamahiriya      Democratic
  Herzegovina   Gambia                   United                       Oman                       Botswana               St. Kitts           Republic
                Guinea-                   Republic of                 Zambia                                                and          Guatemala
                  Bissau                  Tanzania                    Tunisia                                               Nevis
                                         Morocco




                                                                                                                                     2007
                                                                                                                                     Malta
                                                                                                                                     Bahrain
                                                                                                                                     Dominican
                                                                                                                                      Republic
                                                                                                                                     Angola




                    August 2007
                    OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?

 160000
                              Growth in PCT Filings

 140000


 120000       6.4% increase in 2006

 100000
              145,300 (est.) total
              filings in 2006
  80000


  60000


  40000


  20000


      0
          78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06



            August 2007
            OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?

                 International applications received by
                       country of origin in 2006

   50,000
   45,000

   40,000

   35,000

   30,000

   25,000

   20,000

   15,000

   10,000

    5,000
       0
            US   JP    DE    KR   FR       UK   NL   CN   CH   SE   IT   CA   AU   FI   IL




            August 2007
            OAC IP International Aspects
Filing Trends
                   Country of Origin           2002      2003      2004      2005      2006       Change
                                                                                       (est.)    Compared
                                                                                                 with 2005
  United States of America                      41,296    41,028    43,350    46,697    49,555      6.1%
  Japan                                         14,063    17,414    20,263    24,841    26,906      8.3%
  Germany                                       14,326    14,662    15,218    16,000    16,929      5.8%
  Republic of Korea                              2,520     2,949     3,558     4,688     5,935     26.6%
  France                                         5,089     5,171     5,185     5,741     5,902      2.8%
  United Kingdom                                 5,376     5,206     5,026     5,085     5,045     -0.8%
  Netherlands                                    3,977     4,479     4,285     4,516     4,393     -2.7%
  China                                          1,018     1,295     1,706     2,493     3,910     56.8%
  Switzerland                                    2,755     2,861     2,899     3,277     3,403      3.8%
  Sweden                                         2,990     2,612     2,850     2,873     3,123      8.7%
  Italy                                          1,982     2,163     2,189     2,345     2,723     16.1%
  Canada                                         2,260     2,270     2,105     2,320     2,532      9.1%
  Australia                                      1,759     1,680     1,837     1,998     2,139      7.0%
  Finland                                        1,762     1,557     1,672     1,890     1,915      1.3%
  Israel                                         1,174     1,130     1,227     1,458     1,725     18.3%
  All Others                                    8,045     8,722     9,254    10,278     9,165     -10.8%
  Total                                        110,392   115,199   122,624   136,500   145,300      6.4%
  Source: WIPO Statistics Database



                  Highest increases from China, Rep. of Korea, Israel & Italy


                August 2007
                OAC IP International Aspects
Filing Trends
Ranking Based on Population - 2005
                                         Applications       Applications
                                                        per million population
                 Switzerland                3,096               413
                 Finland                    1,866               357
                 Sweden                     2,784               309
                 Netherlands                4,435               270
                 Israel                    1,438                227
                 Japan                     25,145               197
                 Germany                   15,870               193
                 USA                       45,111               152
                 Australia                 2,022                100
                 Republic of Korea         4,747                 97
                 France                    5,522                 91
                 United Kingdom            5,115                 85
                 Canada                    2,315                 70
                 Italy                     2,309                 40
                 China                     2,452                  2




          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
PCT Income/WIPO Income

                          PCT Income as % of total WIPO Income

         800
                                                                           75%
         700
                                                          75%

         600                       78%      75%
                     74%
         500


         400


         300


         200


         100


           0
                    '02-'03       '04-'05   '06-'07   '08-'09 (Est.)   '10-'11 (Est.)
               Non-PCT
               PCT




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
  The PCT System- so… what is it really?
                                        Enter
Traditional                            national
              0                         phase
                                 12
       File local                                                                            Enter
      application                                                                           national
                                                                                             phase
                                                       International
          (months)                                      publication
              0                  12               16         18        22             28     30
          File local          File PCT       International          (optional)      (optional)
          application        application     search report             File       International
                                               & written           demand for      preliminary
                                                opinion           International     report on
                                                                   preliminary    patentability
                                                                  examination
      Typically a national
     patent application in
     the home country of
         the applicant




              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
  The PCT System- so… what is it really?
                                          Enter
Traditional                              national
              0                           phase
                                   12
       File local                                                                              Enter
      application                                                                             national
                                                                                               phase
                                                         International
          (months)                                        publication
             0                     12                 16       18        22             28          30

          File local           File PCT        International          (optional)      (optional)
          application         application      search report             File       International
                                                 & written           demand for      preliminary
                                                  opinion           International     report on
                                                                     Preliminary    patentability
                          Typically filed in same                   examination
                        national patent office--one
                        set of fees, one language,
                            one set of formality
                         requirements--and legal
                          effect in all PCT States




              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
  The PCT System- so… what is it really?
                                      Enter
Traditional                          national
              0                       phase
                               12
       File local                                                                           Enter
      application                                                                          national
                                                                                            phase
                                                     International
          (months)                                    publication
             0                  12                16       18         22             28          30

          File local        File PCT         International         (optional)      (optional)
          application      application       search report            File       International
                                               & written          demand for      preliminary
                                                opinion          International     report on
                                                                  Preliminary    patentability
                                                                 examination
                                          Report on state of
                                           the art (prior art
                                         documents and their
                                          relevance) + initial
                                         patentability opinion



              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
  The PCT System- so… what is it really?
                                      Enter
Traditional                          national
              0                       phase        Disclosing to world
                               12                 content of application
       File local                                  in standardized way                      Enter
      application                                                                          national
                                                                                            phase
                                                     International
          (months)                                    publication
             0                  12                16       18          22            28          30

          File local        File PCT         International         (optional)      (optional)
          application      application       search report            File       International
                                               & written          demand for      preliminary
                                                opinion          International     report on
                                                                  Preliminary    patentability
                                                                 examination




              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
  The PCT System- so… what is it really?
                                      Enter
Traditional                          national
              0                       phase
                               12
       File local                                                                                     Enter
      application                                                                                    national
                                                                                                      phase
                                                     International
          (months)                                    publication
             0                  12                16       18          22                      28          30

          File local        File PCT         International        (optional)                 (optional)
          application      application       search report           File                  International
                                               & written         demand for                 preliminary
                                                opinion         International                report on
                                                                 Preliminary               patentability
                                                                examination

                                                             Request an additional
                                                         patentability analysis on basis
                                                            of amended application




              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
  The PCT System- so… what is it really?
                                      Enter
Traditional                          national
              0                       phase
                               12
       File local                                                                                  Enter
      application                                                                                 national
                                                                                                   phase
                                                     International
          (months)                                    publication
             0                  12                16       18        22                     28       30

          File local        File PCT         International        (optional)            (optional)
          application      application       search report           File             International
                                               & written         demand for            preliminary
                                                opinion         International           report on
                                                                 Preliminary          patentability
                                                                examination

                                                                                  Additional patentability
                                                                                analysis, designed to assist
                                                                                in national phase decision-
                                                                                           making



              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
What is the PCT?
  The PCT System- so… what is it really?                                                 Express intention
                                                                                         and take steps to
                                                                                         pursue to grant in
                                      Enter                                               various states
Traditional                          national
              0                       phase
                               12                              18 months
       File local                                                                           Enter
      application                                                                          national
                                                                                            phase
                                                     International
          (months)                                    publication
             0                  12                16       18        22             28       30
          File local        File PCT         International        (optional)      (optional)
          application      application       search report           File       International
                                               & written         demand for      preliminary
                                                opinion         International     report on
                                                                 Preliminary    patentability
                                                                examination




              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
The International Application- to sum it up

     1.   Only one application filed, containing, by default, the designation of all
          States (for every kind of protection available) and usual priority claim(s)

     2.   Has the effect of a regular national filing (including establishment of a
          priority date) in each designated State: the international filing date is
          the filing date in each designated State

     3.   Filed in one language

     4.   Filed with one office- Receiving Office („RO‟)

     5.   One set of formality requirements

     6.   Delays national processing until 30 months from the priority date




          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
International Application Date- minimum requirements (Art. 11)

     1.   At least one of the applicants must have the right to file with the RO

     2.   The application must be in a language accepted by the RO

     3.   The application must contain at least:

          •    an indication that it is intended as an international application

          •    a request which has the effect of making all possible designations
               (Article 4 and Rules 3 and 4.9)

          •    the name of the applicant (Rule 4.5)

          •    a description (Rule 5)

          •    a claim (Rule 6)



          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
acquiring International filing Date- not required

     • payment of fees

     • translation into language of search or publication

     • applicant’s signature

     • title of the invention

     • abstract

     • drawings (attention should be given to the question of whether the
       drawings are necessary for the understanding of the invention)




          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
Where to file the International Application (Rule 19)

   •    with the national Office of the Contracting State of which the applicant
        (or at least one of the applicants) is a national or resident, or
   •    with the International Bureau of WIPO, or
   •    where applicable, with an Office acting for a Contracting State of which
        the applicant (or at least one of the applicants) is a national or resident
        in particular, the following regional Offices:
             European Patent Office for the States party to the EPC
             Eurasian Patent Office for the States party to the EAPC
             ARIPO Office for the States party to the Harare Protocol
             OAPI Office for the States member of OAPI
                                                                        ...   




          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
               2. Why use the PCT?




August 2007
OAC IP International Aspects
Benefits from using the PCT: a unique procedure

  1.   One application, in one language, filed with one Office, replaces
       multiple foreign filings until entry into the national phase

  2.   Permits last minute foreign filing (before expiration of priority year)

  3.   International filing date has the effect of national filing date in all
       designated Offices

  4.   Uniform formal requirements accepted by all designated Offices

  5.   Greater home control of the prosecution

  6.   Decision on foreign filings can be postponed up to 30 months from the
       priority date at minimal cost

  7.   Enables assessment of economic value of the invention and the
       chances of obtaining a patent before entering national phase




         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
Benefits from using the PCT: greater flexibility

   1. Keep options open by making all possible designations for all types of
      protection
   2. Various possibilities for withdrawal
   3. International publication can be prevented or postponed until as late
      as 15 days before the actual publication date – conditional withdrawal
      possible
   4. Further expenses can be avoided simply by no longer prosecuting the
      application or not entering the national phase
   5. Amendments made during the international phase have effect in all
      designated/elected States
   6. More time for better quality translation for the national phase
   7. Better planning of the expenditures for the national phase




          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?

  1. Brings the world within reach




 How?
 PCT application = Legal effect of a regular national patent
                   application in all PCT States




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?

 2. Postpones the major costs associated with internationalizing a
 patent application


   1. Translations of the patent applications (which are
      highly technical documents) into various national
      languages
   2. Official fees for payment to national/regional patent
      offices (for example, filing fees, claims fees, etc.)
   3. Fees for the services of local patent agents/attorneys
      in the designated states




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
 When are these costs incurred?
                                                                            Traditional patent system
                                   Fees for:                                            vs.
                                   --translations
                                   --Office fees                                   PCT system
                                   --local agents       File
                (months)                            applications
                                                      abroad
                  0              12
 Traditional
                                                                                                              Fees for:
                File local                                                                                    --translations
               application                                                                                    --Office fees
                                                                                                              --local agents

                                                                                                          Enter
                                                                                                         national
                                                                   International                          phase
                (months)
                                                                    publication
 PCT              0                   12                  16           18          22             28          30

               File local        File PCT            International              (optional)      (optional)
               application      application         search report &                File       International
                                                    written opinion            demand for      preliminary
                                                                              International     report on
                                                                              preliminary     patentability
                                                                              examination




               August 2007
               OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
  PCT Costs - in perspective
 How do PCT fees fit into the overall costs of patenting?

 July 2004 calculation of estimated percentage which the PCT filing fees
 represent in the overall budget of a PCT applicant seeking patents in several
 countries (using “IP Global Estimator®”* software):

        hypothetical PCT application filing was:
               filed in the USPTO as RO by a US large-entity applicant contained
              46 pages and 12 claims (3 independent) International Search and
              Preliminary Examination to be carried out by the EPO entry into
              national/regional stage in the US, Canada, Australia, Mexico,
              Japan, and the EPO (and in the EPO designating France, Germany,
              Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK)
              ----
 *“IP Global Estimator software ®”(www.globalip.com) is a useful tool for calculating overal patent-related expenses,
 including fees and annuities, translations, photocopying and other misc. costs, as well as minimum attorney fees that
 are based on standard country-by-country charges for the basic prosecution of a straightforward application




             August 2007
             OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
  PCT Costs - in perspective

 According to IP Global Estimator, the total cost of hypothetical
 application
 (RO/US, ISA/EP, 46 pages/12 claims w/3 independent, national phase in US, CA, AU, MX, JP, EPO, and EP validation in FR, DE, IT, NL,
 SE & GB, + maintenance fees--from filing until expiration of 10 national phase patents at 20 years from the filing date)

 would be USD $201,322

 Thus, the PCT filing fees, including the international search by the EPO,
 (total: USD $3,354) represented 1.7% of what the PCT applicant could
 expect to pay throughout the full life of this patent family!

 If the payment of annual maintenance fees is eliminated from the above
 calculation, the total amount that the applicant would expect to pay to
 see his/her patents granted is reduced to USD $85,183. PCT filing fees
 would then represent 3.9% of this amount



               August 2007
               OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
The PCT System
          Together with the time gained and the
postponement of the significant costs, it is the                                                             Chapter I
information about the potential patentability
of the invention that is received during the PCT                                                                         30          Enter
process which is the most valuable for the PCT                                                                                      national
applicant                                                                                                                            phase
                                                                             International
              (months)                                                        publication
                 0                           12                      16          18                                    IPRP (Chapter I)
                                                                                               or
             File local                File PCT              International                  File demand
             application              application            search report
                                                              and written                                              IPRP (Chapter II)
                                                             opinion of the
                                                                ISA ***
                                                                                                     International
                                                                                                      preliminary        30         Enter
 ** If
     the applicant wants to receive an international preliminary report on patentability            examination**                  national
 (Chapter II), he must file a demand                                                                                                phase
 *** A written opinion of the ISA will only be established for international applications
 filed on or after January 1, 2004                                                                        Chapter II



                  August 2007
                  OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
 What does this potential patentability information
 consist of?


 •International Search Report ((Ch. I) ISR)


 •Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority


 •International Preliminary Report on Patentability ((Ch. II) IPRP)




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?




     Symbols indicating
       which aspect of
                                                                     The claim numbers
         patentability
                                            Documents relevant to   in your application to
    the document cited is
                                             whether or not your    which the document is
   relevant to (for example,
                                                                           relevant
             August step,
   novelty, inventive 2007                    invention may be
             etc.) IP International Aspects
             OAC                                 patentable
Example: content of the written opinion of the ISA




           Reasoning
                                                     Patentability
         supporting the
                                                     assessment
          assessment
                                                      of claims
          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
Example: content of the international preliminary report on patentability (Ch. II)




           Reasoning                                                 Patentability
         supporting the                                              assessment
          assessment                                              of claims (usually,
          August 2007                                                as amended)
          OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
 What does the applicant do with the information from the ISR, ISO
 and IPRP Ch. II?
  a basis for patenting decisions:
  • whether to enter the national phase
  • where to enter the national phase


  P&G:
  Based on the information received during both Chapters I and II, the
    Procter & Gamble company found that it:
  • abandoned 20% of PCT filings at national phase (did not enter national
    phase at all anywhere)
  • when it did enter national phase, it did so in only 70% of the States it
    had originally intended to patent in




         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?




   Is used by the world’s major corporations,
      universities and research institutions
  when they seek international patent protection




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
Top Applicants
                                                                                   PCT
                                                                                                Change
   2006     Position                                               Country of   Applications
                                         Applicant's Name                                      Compared
  Ranking   Changed                                                  Origin     Published in
                                                                                               with 2005
                                                                                   2006
     1          0      KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N.V.           NL               2,495           3
     2          0      MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.       JP               2,344         324
     3          0      SIEMENS AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT                     DE               1,480          81
     4          0      NOKIA CORPORATION                               FI              1,036         137
     5          0      ROBERT BOSCH GMBH                              DE                 962         118
     6          +2     3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY               US                 727         122
     7          0      BASF AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT                        DE                 714          58
     8         +11     TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA                JP                 704         305
     9          -3     INTEL CORPORATION                              US                 690           -6
    10          -1     MOTOROLA, INC.                                 US                 637          57
    11          +6     MITSUBISHI DENKI KABUSHIKI KAISHA              JP                 616         178
    12          +9     QUALCOMM INCORPORATED                          US                 608         229
    13         +24     HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.                  CN                 575         326
    14          -1     TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL)         SE                 572          61
    15          +9     FUJITSU LIMITED                                JP                 571         213
    16         +12     LG ELECTRONICS INC.                            KR                 567         238
    17          +1     E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY             US                 523         100
    18          +5     HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, L.P.      US                 509         150
    19          -7     HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.                   US                 508          -11
    20          -6     SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.                  KR                 505          22
 Source: WIPO Statistics Database


            No change to top 5 applicants--increased usage by Matsushita, Toyota,
                                 Huawei and several others


              August 2007
              OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
Other PCT users
IBM (US)                Nestle (CH)              Shell (NL)                Daimler Benz (DE)
Hitachi (JP)            Novartis (CH)            Elf (FR)                  Volvo (SE)
British Telecom (GB)    Colgate Palmolive (US)                             Ford (US)
MCI (US)                L’Oreal (FR)             Salomon (FR)              Nissan (JP)
                        Rhone Poulenc (FR)                                 Renault (FR)
AT&T (US)               Hoechst (US y DE)        CNRS (FR)                 Honda (JP)
Microsoft (US)          Glaxo (GB)                                         Kawasaki (JP)
                        Leica (CH)               MIT (US)
Boeing (US)                                      University of Texas (US)
McDonnell Douglas (US)                           CalTech (US)
                                                 Johns Hopkins(US)
                                                 University of Michigan (US)
                                                 Columbia University (US)
                                                 Wisconsin Alumni Research
                                                    Foundation (US)
                                                 University of Florida (US)
                                                 Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IL)
                                                 Stanford University (US)


           August 2007
           OAC IP International Aspects
Why use the PCT?
Highest ranked IL users

 -TEVA Pharmaceutical Industries LTD.         -Applied Materials Israel
 -YEDA R&D CO. LTD. (Weizmann Institute       -Given Imaging LTD. (Diagnostic
 of Science)                                  System)
 -YISSUM R&D (THE Hebrew University of        -Elbit Systems Electro- Optics Elop
 Jerusalem)                                   LTD.
 -The R&D Authority BGU of the Negev          -Rafael-Armament        Development
 -RAMOT at Tel Aviv University LTD.           Authority
 -State of Israel, Ministry of Agriculture,   -M-Systems Flash Disk Pioneers
 Agricultural    Research    Organization,    -Creo IL
 Vulcani Center                               -Orbotech
 -Israel Atomic Energy Commission             -Iscar
 -HADASIT R&D LTD. (Hadassah Medical
 Organization)
 -Technion Research & Development
 Foundation
 -Bromine Compounds LTD.                                    ...


          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
              3. Israel and the PCT




August 2007
OAC IP International Aspects
‫‪Israel and the PCT‬‬
       ‫• הסכם הטריפס -מדינת ישראל חתמה בשנת 5991 והתחייבה ליישם עד סוף שנת 9991‬
   ‫)‪• PCT -Signatory to Treaty in 1970 (Washington Conference‬‬
     ‫‪Instrument of ratification by Israel deposited on March 1, 1996, entry into‬‬
     ‫6991 ,1 ‪force on June‬‬
                                                        ‫• חוק הפטנטים, תשכ"ז-7691:‬
                                                                    ‫01. דין קדימה‬
   ‫הגיש בעל-אמצאה בקשת פטנט בישראל על אמצאה שכבר הגיש עליה... בקשה קודמת‬
   ‫לפטנט במדינה חברה, רשאי הוא לדרוש כי לענין הסעיפים 4, 5 ו- 9 יראו את תאריך‬
   ‫הבקשה הקודמת כתאריך הבקשה שהוגשה בישראל (להלן - דין קדימה), אם נתמלאו כל‬
                                                                             ‫אלה:‬
   ‫(1)הבקשה בישראל הוגשה תוך שנים-עשר חודש לאחר הגשת הבקשה הקודמת, ואם‬
   ‫הוגשו יותר מבקשה קודמת אחת לאותו ענין - לאחר המועד שבו הוגשה המוקדמת שביניהן;‬
                                                        ‫84ב. הגשת בקשה בינלאומית‬
   ‫(א)הלשכה תשמש משרד מקבל לגבי בקשות בינלאומיות שמגישים אזרחי ישראל ותושביה,‬
    ‫תטפל בבקשות האמורות וכן תגבה את האגרות שנקבעו באמנה, הכל לפי הוראות האמנה.‬
                                                                  ‫84ג. הוראות לענין בקשה‬
                                        ‫(3)תאריך בקשה בינלאומית ייקבע לפי הוראות האמנה;‬



         ‫7002 ‪August‬‬
         ‫‪OAC IP International Aspects‬‬
Israel and the PCT

                    INTERNATIONAL APPLICATIONS RECEIVED SINCE 1996

      1513                                                                               1600




                                                                                                no. of INTERNATIONAL APPLICATIONS
             1401
                                                                                         1400

                     1191                      1222
                            1124                                                         1200
                                        1065
                                                                                         1000
                                                      874
                                                             710                         800
                                                                    636
                                                                                         600
                                                                           449
                                                                                         400

                                                                                  197
                                                                                         200


                                                                                         0

      2006   2005    2004   2003        2002   2001   2000   1999   1998   1997   1996




         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
Israel and the PCT


                              YEARLY NATIONAL PHASE ENTRIES
                                                                                     7000




                                                                                            no. of INTERNATIONAL APPLICATIONS
     5795                                                                            6000

              5290
                       4777                       4780                               5000
                                           4640
                                 4360                    4390

                                                                3700                 4000




                                                                       2660          3000




                                                                                     2000




                                                                                     1000
                                                                              540

                                                                                     0

    2006      2005     2004     2003       2002   2001   2000   1999   1998   1997                                          ...


            August 2007
            OAC IP International Aspects
   4. Recent PCT Developments




August 2007
OAC IP International Aspects
Recent PCT Developments




     1. April 1, 2007 Amendments to the PCT Regulations


     2. Upcoming PCT Meetings and Issues


     3. Other challenges




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
Recent PCT Developments

April 1, 2007 Amendments to the PCT Regulations


   • restoration of the right of priority (IL- Due care Criterion)

   • missing elements and parts of the application

   • rectification of obvious mistakes- Office/Authority sets the
     standard

   • addition of patent documents of the Republic of Korea (KR) to the
     PCT minimum documentation




        August 2007
        OAC IP International Aspects
Recent PCT Developments
Missing elements and parts of the international application (Rule 20.6)
 • enables inclusion of missing elements or parts that are contained in
   priority application without affecting the international filing date

 Essential features:
 • priority application contains the element or part

 • statement of (conditional) incorporation by reference (Rule 4.18)
   (similar approach as with former “precautionary designation”
   procedure)

 • possible invitation by RO though applicant may submit without one

 • DOs may, to a limited extent, review decision allowing the
   incorporation by reference and may require evidence

 • Transitional reservations for ROs and DOs possible



         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
Recent PCT Developments
Restoration of the right of priority (Rule 26bis)
 • Possible remedy to allow priority claim to an earlier filed application
   even if the international application is filed outside the priority year

 • Restoration either by RO during the international phase or by the DO
   during the national phase

 • Two different criteria might be applied: “due care” and/or
   “unintentional”; all ROs and DOs must apply one of those criteria and
   may apply both

 • Any priority claim of up to 14 months from the priority date will remain
   in application even if priority is not restored by RO and will serve as
   basis to calculate time limits during the international phase; validity of
   such a priority claim in national phase is not assured

 • ROs and DOs may require declaration or other evidence, and fee



          August 2007
          OAC IP International Aspects
Recent PCT Developments
 Restoration of the right of priority (2)

 • Effect of RO restoration in national phase

 • RO restoration based on “due care” criterion is effective in all
   Dos

 • RO restoration based on “unintentional” criterion is effective in
   those DOs which apply that criterion (or a more lenient one)

 • RO restoration is not conclusively binding on DOs: limited review
   by DOs possible

 • RO refusal to restore is not binding on Dos

 • Transitional reservations by ROs and DOs possible


         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
Recent PCT Developments
Rectification of obvious mistakes (Rule 91)


  • former “obvious error” becomes “obvious mistake”

  • error must now only be obvious to “the competent Authority” and no
    longer to “anyone”

  • new time limit: request for rectification must be submitted within 26
    months from the priority date

  • DOs may disregard a rectification “if it finds that it would not have
    authorized the rectification if it had been the competent authority”
    (Rule 91.3(f))




         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
‫‪Recent PCT Developments‬‬
‫‪Restoration of the right of priority- IL aspects‬‬
 ‫חוזר רשם מ.נ. 35- קריטריון "‪( "Due Care‬אמצעים סבירים) בבקשות להארכת מועד‬   ‫•‬
                                                         ‫לתביעת דין קדימה‬

 ‫עש 60/1821.‪ Amgen Fremount Inc‬נ. רשם הפטנטים, המדגמים וסימני המסחר‬         ‫•‬
                                        ‫השאלה: מהו מבחן ה- ”‪“Due Care‬‬       ‫•‬
 ‫‪ ‬בקשה להארכת מועד להגשת בקשה לכניסה לשלב הלאומי בישראל של בקשת‬
                                                                ‫‪.PCT‬‬
                                      ‫‪ ‬סגן רשם הפטנטים דחה את הבקשה‬
                           ‫‪ ‬הש' שרה דותן (מחוזי ת.א.) דחתה את הערעור:‬
 ‫‪‬האם המבקש נקט בפעולות שאדם סביר הרוצה להגיש בקשתו גם בישראל‬
 ‫היה נוקט על מנת להבטיח כי בקשתו תוגש ורק בשל תקלה שאדם סביר לא היה‬
                                 ‫צופה כסבירה לא הוגשה הבקשה במועד‬

 ‫‪‬חובה היה על המערערת לקיים מנגנון פיקוח ומעקב אחר רישום פטנטים, וזאת‬
 ‫לאור העובדה שמועד הגשת הבקשה הינו בעל חשיבות עקרונית גם על פי‬
 ‫האמנה המפנה לחוקי המדינות המתקשרות. מי שבחר להתעלם מעובדה זו, אין‬
                                                   ‫לו להלין אלא על עצמו.‬


         ‫7002 ‪August‬‬
         ‫‪OAC IP International Aspects‬‬
Recent PCT Developments

Current PCT Meetings and Issues
 • Working Group on PCT Reform April 23-27, 2007:

     – International publication in multiple languages


     – Supplementary international searches


     – Use of earlier national search results by Office other than ISA


     – Swiss proposal re disclosure requirements

     – Proposed amendments on withdrawals


         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
Recent PCT Developments
 Things we‟re working on

  • Priority Document- digital access service

  • extension of national phase entry information availability- 27
    countries currently providing data, with 1.2 million national phase
    notifications, updated monthly

  • patent landscaping tools

  • private file inspection

  • XML processing




         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
PCT- Multilateral System
 Other challenges

   Differences among industrialized countries- treaty vs. regulations
  - how far can we go?, national practice conflicts

  Concerns of developing countries- fear of “TRIPS-plus”, links with
  certain policy issues (First to file, Prior art, Sovereignty)


           PCT Membership                           Filings 2005
                                 79%                           7%




        21%                                   93%
  Industrialized Countries   Others




            August 2007
            OAC IP International Aspects
PCT Contact Information


    • For further information about the PCT, see
               http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/


    • For general questions about the PCT, contact
     the PCT Information Service at:

             Telephone: (+41-22) 338 83 38
             Facsimile: (+41-22) 338 83 39
             E-mail: pct.infoline@wipo.int



         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects
PCT Contact Information



                               Thank you




         August 2007
         OAC IP International Aspects

								
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