Natural Hazards Assessment Facilities in any geographic location by jlhd32

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									SHAI
Natural Hazards Assessment                                                             location, how it can affect the facility,
Facilities in any geographic location      It is common for different organizations    and what the potential losses could be,
are subject to a wide variety of natural   to use varying nomenclature to refer to     remains essentially the same from
phenomena such as windstorms,              the components of risk assessment.          application to application. Only after
floods, earthquakes, and other             For example, terrorism and foreign          the overall risk is fully understood
hazards. While the occurrence of some      military power are referred to as           should mitigation measures be
of these events cannot be precisely        "threats" by the intelligence               identified, prioritized, and
predicted, their impacts are well          community, while hurricanes and             implemented. There are four types of
understood and can be managed              floods are referred to as "hazards" by      actions that can be taken to deal with
effectively through a                                                                                        the threat of natural
comprehensive program                                                                                        hazards: mitigation,
of hazard mitigation                                                                                         preparedness,
planning.                                                                                                    response, and
                                                                                                             recovery.
Mitigation refers to
measures that can                                                                                           Mitigation refers to
reduce or eliminate the                                                                                     long-term actions
vulnerability of the built                                                                                  that reduce the risk
facility to hazards,                                                                                        of natural disasters,
whether natural or man                                                                                      such as the use of
made. The fundamental                                                                                       flood gates, dams,
goal of mitigation is to                                                                                    wind resistant
minimize loss of life,                                                                                      building construction,
property, and function                                                                                      seismic bracing, etc.
due to disasters.
Designing to resist any                                                                                     Preparedness
hazard(s) should always                                                                                     involves planning for
begin with a                                                                                                disasters and putting
comprehensive risk                                                                                          in place the
assessment. This                                                                                            resources needed to
process includes identification of the     emergency managers; however, both           cope with them when they happen.
hazards present in the location and an     are simply forces that have the             Examples include stockpiling essential
assessment of their potential impacts      potential to cause damage, death, and       goods and preparing emergency plans
and effects on the built facility based    injury, and loss of function in the built   to follow in the event of a disaster.
on existing or anticipated                 facility. The fundamental process of
vulnerabilities and potential losses.      identifying what can happen at a given
Response refers to actions taken after       construction type of a proposed            diaphragms, base isolation, energy
a disaster has occurred. The activities of   building or facility, and the specific     dissipating devices such as visco-
police, firefighters, and medical            performance requirements for the           elastic dampers, elastomeric dampers,
personnel during and immediately after       building, the structure can be designed    and hysteretic-loop dampers, and
a disaster fall into this category. This     to resist hazard effects such as           bracing of nonstructural components.
also includes communication with             induced loads. Later in the building's
employees.                                   life cycle, additional opportunities to    Hurricanes, Typhoons, and
                                             further reduce the risk from natural       Tornadoes
Recovery encompasses longer-term             hazards may exist when renovation
activities to rebuild and restore the        projects and repairs of the existing       The key strategy to protecting a
community to its pre-disaster state. This    structure is undertaken. When              building from high winds caused by
is also a good time to engage in             incorporating disaster reduction           tornados, hurricanes, and gust fronts is
activities that reduce vulnerability and     measures into building design, some        to maintain the integrity of the building
mitigate future disasters, such as           or all of the issues outlined below        envelope, including roofs and
strengthening building codes or              should be considered in order to           windows, and to design the structure to
modifying procedures and corporate           protect lives, properties, and             withstand the expected lateral and
policies.                                    operations from damages caused by          uplift forces. For example, roof trusses
                                             natural hazards.                           and gables should be braced;
Recommendations                                                                         hurricane straps should be used to
                                             Earthquakes                                strengthen the connection between the
Design professionals agree that the                                                     roof and walls; and doors and windows
most successful way to mitigate losses       Building design will be influenced by      should be protected by covering and/or
of life, property, and function is to        the level of seismic resistance desired.   bracing. When planning renovation
design buildings that are disaster           This can range from prevention of          projects, designers should consider
resistant. This approach should be           nonstructural damage in frequent           opportunities to upgrade the roof
incorporated into the project planning,      minor ground shaking to prevention of      structure and covering and enhance
design, and development at the               structural damage and minimization of      the protection of fenestration.
earliest possible stage so that design       nonstructural damage in occasional
and material decisions can be based          moderate ground shaking, and even          Flooding
on an integrated a whole building            avoidance of collapse or serious
approach.                                    damage in rare major ground shaking.       Flood mitigation is best achieved by
                                             These performance objectives can be        hazard avoidance—that is, proper site
A variety of techniques are available to     accomplished through a variety of          selection away from floodplains.
mitigate the effects of natural hazards      measures such as structural                Should buildings be sited in flood-
on the facility. Depending on the            components like shear walls, braced        prone locations, they should be
hazards identified, the location and         frames, moment resisting frames, and       elevated above expected flood levels
to reduce the chances of flooding and      organic soil drainage and oxidation.
to limit the potential damage to the       Subsidence mitigation can best be          •   Earthquakes (ground movement,
building and its contents when it is       achieved through careful site selection,       liquefaction of sands, landslides)
flooded. Flood mitigation techniques       including geotechnical study of the        •   Volcanic eruptions and related
include elevating the building so that     site. In subsidence-prone areas,               events
the lowest floor is above the flood        foundations should be appropriately        •   Landslides, rock-falls
level; dry flood-proofing, or making the   constructed, basements and other           •   Fast floods and mudflows in
building watertight to prevent water       below-ground projections should be             mountain areas, floods in river
entry; wet flood-proofing, or making       minimized, and utility lines and               valleys, plains and coast
uninhabited or non-critical parts of the   connections should be stress-resistant.    •   Erosion, causing loss of
building resistant to water damage;        When retrofitting structures to be more        productive land
relocation of the building; and the        subsidence-resistant, shear walls, geo-    •   Soil problems (shrinking and
incorporation of levees and floodwalls     fabrics, and earth reinforcement               swelling of clays, quick clays,
into site design to keep water away        techniques such as dynamic                     collapsing soils)
from the building.                         compaction can be used to increase         •   Dissolution features (caves,
                                           resistance to subsidence damage and            pipes)
Rainfall and Wind-Driven Rain              to stabilize collapsible soils.
                                                                                      •   Deterioration of abandoned
                                                                                          mines (collapsed shafts,
One of the primary performance             Landslides and Mudslides
                                                                                          subsidence, water rise, gases)
requirements for any building is that it
                                                                                      •   Coastal erosion
should keep the interior space dry. All    Gravity-driven movement of earth
roofs and walls must therefore shed        material can result from water
rainwater, and design requirements         saturation, slope modifications, and
are the same everywhere in this            earthquakes. Techniques for reducing
respect. For example, roof drainage        landslide and mudslide risks to
design should minimize the possibility     structures include selecting non-
of ponding water, and existing             hillside or stable slope sites;
buildings with flat roofs should be        constructing channels, drainage
inspected to determine compliance          systems, retention structures, and
with this requirement.                     deflection walls; planting groundcover;
                                           and soil reinforcement using geo-
Differential Settlement (Subsidence)       synthetic materials, and avoiding cut
                                           and fill building sites.
Ground subsidence can result from
mining, sinkholes, underground fluid       The main natural hazards that affect
withdrawal, hydrocompaction, and           the United States are;

								
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