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Chapter I General remarks
1, Accounting Overview
(A) the accounting is based on the currency as the main units of measurement, and
monitoring of a unit reflects the economic activities of an economic governance.
(B) the basic accounting functions including accounting and implementation of
accounting supervision.
Accounting is the accounting function as the main measure in monetary units, by
identifying, recording, calculating, reporting and other aspects, the subject of specific
economic activities are recorded afterwards, reimbursement for all parties involved to
provide the functions of accounting information.
Accounting oversight function is the accounting officer accounting during the same
time, the legitimacy of certain of the main economic activity, rationality review.
(C) the object of accounting refers to accounting by the accounting and monitoring of
the content. Any money given to the performance of the main economic activity,
accounting and supervision of all content, that is the ob ject of accounting. Economic
activities in monetary terms the value is usually known as exercise or movement of
Second, the basic premise of accounting accounting entity, going concern, accounting,
and monetary measures four phases.
(A) the accounting by the accounting entity accounting and monitoring of specific
units or organizations, which defines the accounting and the provision of accounting
information in spatial extent.
Accounting subject and legal subject (legal entity) is not the concept of reciprocity,
corporate accounting as a subject, but the accounting entity is not necessarily legal.
(B) continuing operations (c) Accounting period
Into the annual accounting period, semi-annual, quarterly and monthly. Annual,
semi-annual, quarterly and monthly calendar start and end dates to determine Junan.
(D) the accounting of the main currencies used in the course in the accounting
currency as the common unit of measurement.
Accounting units shall be RMB as its functional currency. Business inco me and
expenditure in foreign currency-based unit can also choose a foreign currency as its
functional currency, but the preparation of the financial accounting report shall be
translated into reflected. Set up an overseas Chinese enterprises to the domest ic
financial accounting reports submitted, shall be converted into RMB.
Third, the accounting elements and accounting equation
(A) the accounting elements of the basic classification of accounting objects, a
specific accounting object.
Assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses, profits referred to as the six companies
accounting elements. Among them, the assets, liabilities and equity elements of the
three accounting performance relative stationary movement of funds that reflect the
financial situation; income, expenses and profit performance of the three elements of
financial accounting exercise significant change in status, that reflect the
company's business results.
(B) Accounting equation
1, assets = liabilities equity
The capital investment of capital from owners and creditors of the borrowing of funds
and resulting in the production and operation efficiency, are attributed to owners and
creditors. Part attributable to the formation of owners equity; part attributable to the
formation of creditor rights and interests of creditors (the company's
liabilities). Assets from equity (including equity and creditor rights), assets and equity
must equal.
Assets and rights of the identity relationship is the theory of double-entry
bookkeeping foundation for business based on the balance sheet.
Four cases of economic business: Asset growth Asset with an internal one with less
assets, minus interest minus the internal one
2, Revenue - Cost = Profit
Income, expenses and profits of the relationship between the income statement is the
basis for enterprise establishment.
3, all have interest in the assets = liabilities (Revenue - Cost)
Chapter II the specific content of accounting and general requirements
First, the specific content of accounting
(A) receipt and payment of funds and securities
Amount of money as a means of payment of funds, including cash, bank deposits and
other deposits treated as cash and bank drafts bank deposits, bank deposits,
promissory notes, credit card deposits, letters of credit deposits. Securities is that a
certain property ownership or control over the securities, such as Treasury bills, stocks,
corporate bonds.
(B) the acceptance, delivery, change and use
Property is property, supplies short, business property is the enterprise production and
business activities and has a physical form of economic resources in general,
including raw materials, fuel, packaging, Audit & in the product, stock
merchandise and other current assets, and housing, buildings, machinery, equipment,
facilities, transportation and other fixed assets.
(C) claims, and settlement of debt
Claims the right to receive payment of enterprise generally include a variety of other
receivables and prepayments. Debt is yes that due to p ast trade and transactions to
form business assets or services, etc. need to pay current obligations Yibanbaokuo the
loans payable, and advance monies and such funds shall be deposited.
(D) changes in capital
Capital is the investor to carry out production and business activities of their funds.
(E) income, expenses, costs, cost calculation
Income refers to the enterprises in selling products, providing services and
transferring the right to use assets such as daily activities in the economic interest o f
the total inflow. Expenditure is the actual business of the expenditure, as well as
outside the normal production and operation expenses and losses. Overhead refers to
selling goods, providing services such as routine activities outflow of economic
benefits. Refers to the cost for the production of products, providing service to a
variety of cost is based on a certain product or service costs Guiji object is the object
of the cost.
Income, expenses, costs, expenses are calculated and determined the outco me of
business operations and inventory loss, the main basis for the situation.
(Vi) financial results of the calculation and handling
Financial results mainly refer to enterprises engaged in production in a given period
by operating activities in the financial results achieved, the specific performance of
the profit or loss. Financial results of the calculation and processing of general,
including the calculation of profit, income tax calculation, distribution of profits or
losses to make up for such.
Second, the general requirements for accounting
Accounting records shall be Chinese. In the autonomous region, accounting records
can use a national language common ground. In the PRC's foreign- invested
enterprises, foreign enterprises and other foreign organizations in the accounting
records, you can also use a foreign language