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					Mission Aircrew Course

G1000 Search Patterns
       (APR 2010)

                         1
                   Objective and Plan

        five visual search patterns with
 Execute
 G1000 avionics
  • Route, Parallel Track, Creeping Line, Expanding
    Square and Sector
  • Three G1000 methods for each pattern
 Use   (F)AA (I)ndustry (T)raining (S)tandards
  • Describe
  • Explain
  • Practice
  • Perform
  • Manage/Decide

                                                      2
           Current Aircraft Mix




Gippsland GA-8 (21)
                        Cessna 206 (19)




   Cessna 182
     (306)              Cessna 172 (203)
              CAP Fleet Usage
               1st Half FY 10

Type           % Number % Hours   Index, Hrs/Nbr


C172           36       33        91
C182 Round Dial 28      24        88
C182 G1000     27       35        133
C206           3        3         97
GA8            4        3         71
All other      2        2         63
                                                   4
                       GX55 versus G1000 GPS
                          search patterns
                               (included in software)

      GX55                   G1000                      G1000
                           SAR software            non-SAR software
Parallel line - with    Parallel line - no CAP
  CAP Grid #s                  Grid #s
  Creeping Line          Creeping Line (Parallel
                                 Line)
Expanding square         Expanding square

                            Sector search

  Route search              Route search             Route search
                                                                    5
                       G1000 overview
 The G1000 (even with SAR software) lacks a
  grid database
 Flying by reference to real time Lat/Long is
  not recommended (loss of SA)
 3 methods for Parallel Line, Creeping Line
  and Expanding Square.
    • Method 1 - GARMIN SAR software
    • Method 2& 2a - User waypoints & OBS/bar data
    • Method 3 - Referencing Lat/Long gridline display
      and/or MFD data bar parameters



                                                         6
            Assumptions

 MP  & MO have good working knowledge of
  the C182T G1000 software
 MP is proficient in use of autopilot
 MO has some knowledge of Garmin SAR
  software




                                            7
                         Basic philosophy
   MO leads the work and the MP flies the plane
   Choice of method depends on:
     • Availability of GARMIN SAR software
     • G1000 Proficiency (flt plans, OBS, user waypoints)
     • Crew Experience
     • Autopilot proficiency
     • Winds
     • Familiarity with search area
     • Urgency/tempo
     • Terrain
                                                            8
                  G1000 Initial setup

 Many   user options can be changed
 Assume previous crew made changes
 Restore to factory settings, delete all flight
  plans and user waypoints
 Avoid the “what's it doing?” & “why does it
  look like that?” syndrome




                                                   9
                             G1000 Initial setup cont….

Task Description                             Functions
 1 Restore MAP setup to factory settings     Select MAP - MENU - Map Setup
                                                                  MENU - Restore All Defaults

 2   Restore MFD AUX to factory settings     Select Auxiliary page
                                                                     select page 4, System Setup
                                                                    Press FMS to activate cursor
                                                        Press DFLTS soft key to restore all defaults

 3   Delete all user Flight Plans and user   Select FPL page 2
     waypoints
                                                                                  Menu - Delete All
                                                                                 Select WPT page
                                                                    Select page 5 – User Waypoints
                                                                 Menu - Delete All User Waypoints




                                                                                               10
                             G1000 Initial setup cont….

4   Map display setting                                       Select MAP SETUP - MAP group
                                                                                 select ORIENTATION - North Up
                                                                                         select AUTO ZOOM – Off
                                                                                          select LAND DATA – On
                                                                                     select TRACK VECTOR - On
                                                                                       select WIND VECTOR - On
                                                                                   select NAV RANGE RING - On
                                                                                           select TOPO DATA - On
                                                                                         select TOPO SCALE - Off
                                                                                    select OBSTACLE DATA - On
5   Setup map to display Lat/Long grids                       Select MAP SETUP - LAND group
                                    (makes it easier to read)                       select LAT/LON - TEXT – Med
     (grid lines will display at 1 min intervals at 5 NM map                       select LAT/LON - RNG – 10NM
                                             scale)




                                                                                                      11
G1000 Initial setup cont….




                  Preferred
                   Setup


                              12
G1000 Initial setup cont….



         Preferred
          Setup




                         13
                           G1000 Initial setup cont….

6   AUX page group settings                                 Select AUX page group select AUX - SYSTEM
                                                            SETUP page 4
                                                            Select DATE/TIME group
                   (preferred by most mission base staff)                              set TIME FORMAT to UTC
                                                            Select DISPLAY UNITS group
                 (Patterns will be aligned with true North)                       change NAV ANGLE to TRUE
       (grid lines will display at 1 min intervals at 10 NM             change position to HDDD MM SS.S format
                                           range)
                                                       Select MFD DATA BAR FIELDS group
                                      (mimics GX55)                               change FIELD 1 to GS
                                      (mimics GX55)                                change FIELD 2 to DIS
                                      (mimics GX55)                               change FIELD 3 to XTK
                                      (mimics GX55)                               change FIELD 4 to BRG
                                                       Select GPS CDI group
                    (more accurate autopilot tracking)                      Change SELECTED to 0.30 NM




                                                                                                    14
G1000 Initial setup cont….



           Setup
          Changes




                         15
              All Methods – G1000 Core
                        Skills
The MP and MO should master the following core skills in
  order to fly the search patterns:
 Entering user waypoints by lat/long, by using
  reference waypoints (radial and distance) and by
  using “joystick” with map panning feature
 Entering and activating a flight plan using multiple
  waypoints
 Autopilot flying in NAV & HDG mode and seamless
  transitions in and out of autopilot (KAP140) and CWS
  operations (GFC700)
 Activating various legs of flight plan
 Using the OBS & course selector




                                                           16
                         All Methods – tips
   Hand plot the pattern - record waypoint names,
    lat/longs and offsets (radial and distance), desired
    tracks to be flown
   Haste makes waste – verify the lat/long and offsets
    before saving
     • Waypoints can’t be edited once they they are in a flight
       plan
   Write down the lat/long of any important ground
    targets before leaving the aircraft since they may be
    deleted by the next crew
   Build flight plans by selecting them from the RECENT
    waypoint window
   Practice, practice, practice…
     • use ground power and/or GARMIN PC trainer

                                                                  17
                  Flying with the KAP140 &
                      GFC700 autopilots
   KAP140 A/P is operationally limited to 80 - 160 KIAS,
    the GFC700 is limited to 70 - 165 KIAS
   Monitor airspeed as power changes are made
      • The autopilot will command pitch to maintain the
        set altitude regardless of airspeed impact, it will fly
        the aircraft into a stall if power is not managed
        accordingly
   Autopilot turns are made at standard rate, turns may
    need to be made manually:
      • KAP140 - disengage then reengage the A/P when
        re-established on the next segment of the search
        pattern
      • GFC700 - the CWS button can be used to make the
        turns


                                                                  18
                 Flying with the KAP140
                        autopilot
 Altitude will not automatically ARM and
  capture after disengagement
 Captures the VS at the moment the A/P
  engaged
 The altitude must be ARMed for the A/P to
  capture the altitude in VS mode
 Press ALT to capture current altitude after A/P
  engagement
    • use VS mode to maneuver the aircraft back to the
      search pattern altitude
    • or use UP DN keys to adjust ALT in 20ft increments


                                                           19
                           Turns

 90 Kts, standard rate = 1nm per 180 degrees
 90 kts 30 degrees = ½ nm per 180 degrees
 Add wind and 1 nm track spacing requires
  hand flying




                                                20
                    Turns with the KAP140
The general sequence for autopilot operations for faster than standard
   rate turns is as follows. It is assumed that the A/P is in NAV mode
   tracking a GPS course line in OBS mode:
KAP140 autopilot
1) Synchronize the HDG bug
2) Select HDG mode on A/P
3) Activate next leg of flight plan (OBS mode is automatically
   cancelled)
4) Press OBS soft key
5) Change course using CRS knob to direction of next leg
6) Disconnect the A/P
7) Turn to intercept the next leg (magenta line)
8) Engage A/P
9) Press ALT to capture current altitude
10) ARM NAV mode
11) Adjust altitude (UP or DN keys 20ft increments as reqd)
                                                                 21
                  Turns with the GFC 700
GFC700 autopilot
1. Synchronize the HDG bug
2. Select HDG mode on A/P
3. Activate next leg of flight plan (OBS mode is
  automatically cancelled)
4. Press OBS soft key
5. Change course using CRS knob to direction of next
   leg
6. Hold CWS button and make the turn to intercept the
   next course line
7. Synchronize the HDG bug on the intercept heading
8. Release CWS button
9. Select NAV mode on A/P
10. Hold CWS button and maneuver the aircraft to the
   desired search altitude, then release CWS button
                                                        22
               Flying the grid line display
 Set up the gridline display as summarized in
  the MFD Setup
 One minute gridlines will be displayed at the
  5NM map range.
    • Note that the grid lines will not display if the MFD
      soft key DCLTR is set to 2 or higher
 Requiresa higher level of situational
  awareness
 Other options to improve display clarity:
    •   Using large font for the lat/long
    •   Turn off TOPO display – improves contrast



                                                             23
Flying the grid line display




                          24
             G1000 search patterns

  Search     Method 1   Method 2    Method 3
   Type
  Parallel     SAR      WPT & FPL   Gridlines
   Line      software
 Creeping      SAR      WPT & FPL
   Line      software
Expanding      SAR      WPT & FPL   Gridlines
  Square     software
 Sector        SAR      WPT & OBS
 Search      software
  Route        FPL
 Search

                                                25
                              Route Search
          Using flight plan with parallel track option

   Enter and activate a flight plan for the route using a
    combination of Airports, VORs, NDBs and user
    waypoints as appropriate.
   Within FPL select the Parallel track option from the
    Menu and input the direction (LEFT or RIGHT) and
    Distance (offset) from the flight plan course line and
    activate. Note that the minimum offset allowed is 1.0
    NM.
   Fly the track in A/P NAV mode
   Note: parallel track will not work with if there is a turn
    >120 deg in the flight plan or if the parallel tracks
    overlap


                                                                 26
                            Route Search
             Using flight plan and MFD data bar

   Enter and activate a flight plan for the route using a
    combination of Airports, VORs, NDBs and user
    waypoints as appropriate. Note the true course for
    each leg of the flight plan
   Fly the required parallel track offset by using the MFD
    data bar for cross track information (XTK) relative to
    the flight plan route
   Fly the parallel track in A/P HDG mode, use the
    current track bug on the PFD HSI to assist maintaining
    the parallel track




                                                              27
Route Search




               28
Route Search




               29
                Parallel Line (Grid) Search
                                  method 1
                   GARMIN SAR Software

   Input user waypoint for grid entry point by Lat/Long
   Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan
    page
   Select Parallel Line Search and add appropriate
    parameters, note that only 0.1 NM increments can be
    used for leg spacing
   A flight plan will be automatically generated and
    activated from aircrafts present position
   When within 5 NM of the entry waypoint the MP then
    either hand flies or uses HDG or OBS NAV mode to
    establish the aircraft position and heading to intercept
    the entry waypoint on the correct ground track (TRK),
    search speed (GS) & altitude. The grid track lines
    should be flown in A/P HDG or NAV mode
                                                               30
                Parallel Line (Grid) Search
                                 method 1
               GARMIN SAR Software (Cont.)

   If the winds are light or turns can be made into the
    wind the Parallel line parameters could be adjusted to
    start and end 1 NM outside the grid and the entire
    pattern can be flown in A/P NAV mode without the
    need to use CWS for turns
   Turns with the wind - sequence to each subsequent
    track line using the FPL window in the PFD. To activate
    the next leg of the grid, press the FMS knob to
    highlight the cursor then turn the large FMS knob to
    highlight the appropriate waypoint, press MENU and
    press <enter>/<enter> to activate the leg. Then set the
    OBS to the track line true course



                                                              31
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
         Method 1




                          32
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
         Method 1




                         33
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
     turns outside the grid




                              34
                Parallel Line (Grid) Search
                                 method 2
                   User waypoints, flight plan & OBS
   Input user waypoints for grid entry point by Lat/Long and the
    grid end points along the entry edge of the grid by
    reference waypoint, true radials and distance (NM) from the
    grid entry waypoint. (The G1000 only accepts distance
    offsets in multiples of 0.1 NM)
   Enter a flight plan from the departure airport to the user
    waypoints in order & activate the flight plan.
   When ~5 NM from the entry waypoint, activate the OBS
    mode, rotate the course line to 360 or 180 degrees true (N-S
    tracks or 270 or 090 degrees true E-W tracks). Fly in A/P HDG
    or NAV mode
   Sequence to each subsequent track line using the FPL
    window in the PFD. Select the next waypoint & activate the
    leg. Then set the OBS to the track line true course
   Turns will usually need to be hand flown in order not to
    overshoot the next track line. Disconnect the A/P outside the
    grid (KAP140) or hold the CWS button (GFC700).
   Repeat until the grid is complete.                         35
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
         method 2




                          36
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
         method 2




                          37
                 Parallel Line (Grid) Search
                                  method 2a
                  Single User waypoint & XTK and OBS
   Input user waypoint at grid entry point by Lat/Long
   Enter a flight plan from the departure airport to the user
    waypoint or load a “direct to”
   When ~5 NM from the entry waypoint, activate the OBS mode,
    rotate the course line to the direction of the first track Fly the
    track in A/P HDG mode. This first track will establish the “base
    line” for subsequent parallell tracks
   At the end of the first track, DIS=7.5 NM, input a user waypoint
    “on the fly” using the panning arrow to mark the end of the grid
   Turn to establish a new track in the opposite direction at a
    distance XTK= track spacing (e.g. 1 nm for the second track
    and 2 nm for the third track etc.)
   Fly each track in A/P HDG mode adjusting HDG to achieve the
    desired true track while maintaining desired XTK from the base
    line
   Turns will usually need to be hand flown in order not to
    overshoot the next track line.
                                                                     38
   Repeat until the grid is complete.
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
         method 2a




                          39
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
                method 2a
   Note user
   waypoint
  added “on
    the fly”
   marking
  end of grid




                            40
                Parallel Line (Grid) Search
                                method 3
                   MFD gridline display

   Input user waypoint for grid entry point by Lat/Long
   Turn on the gridline display (5NM map range)
   East/West tracks - activate the OBS mode, rotate the
    course line to 090, monitor DIS from course line
   North/South tracks - activate the OBS mode, rotate the
    course line to 360, monitor DIS from course line
   Fly tracks in A/P HDG mode




                                                             41
Parallel Line (Grid) Search
         method 3




                          42
                   Creeping Line Search
                                 method 1
                   GARMIN SAR software

   Construct a flight plan to beginning point of search to
    end point of search
   Determine true desired track (DTK) between beginning
    point and end point of search from flight plan window
    on MFD as you enter the flight plan
   Input a second user waypoint by reference to the
    starting waypoint +90 degrees relative to the course
    line at a distance equal to the offset
   Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan
    page




                                                              43
                    Creeping Line Search
                                 method 1
               GARMIN SAR software (Cont.)

   Select Parallel Line Search and add appropriate
    parameters, The waypoint input should be the second
    user waypoint , the initial desired track should be set
    to the course line – 90 degrees and the initial turn set
    to RIGHT
   A flight plan will be automatically generated and
    activated from aircrafts present position
   When ~5 NM from the entry waypoint the MP then
    either hand flies or uses HDG or NAV mode to establish
    the aircraft position and heading to intercept the first
    user waypoint. The grid track lines should be flown in
    A/P HDG or NAV mode



                                                               44
Creeping Line Search
      method 1




                       45
Creeping Line Search
      method 1




                       46
Creeping Line Search
            method 1




 User WPT




                       47
                   Creeping Line Search
                                 method 2
            User waypoints flight plan and OBS

   Construct a flight plan to beginning point of search to
    end point of search
   Determine true desired track (DTK) between beginning
    point and end point of search from flight plan window
   Construct a User Waypoints in sequence each at
    distance “S” relative to the previous point along the
    Major Axis until enough points are constructed to
    cover the entire search course
   Construct a Flight Plan from the Mission Base to the
    beginning of the creeping line search and to each
    successive waypoint



                                                              48
                    Creeping Line Search
                                   method 2
         User waypoints flight plan and OBS (Cont.)

   As the aircraft approaches the beginning point of the
    creeping line select OBS mode & set the CRS to the
    Left Offset track. Desired track (TRK) for left offset of
    creeping line is DTK – 90°. Desired track (TRK) of right
    offset of creeping line is DTK + 90°
   Continue flying outbound along the OBS line until the
    aircraft has reached the desired offset from the
    creeping line course as determined by DIS= desired
    offset
   Select and activate the next waypoint, set the OBS to
    the Right Offset track Turn the aircraft to intercept the
    new inbound track.



                                                                49
Creeping Line Search
      method 2




                       50
Creeping Line Search
      method 2




                       51
                     Creeping Line Search
                                  method 2a
            Two User waypoints, OBS, XTK, DIS, DTK data
   Determine true course between beginning point and end
    point of search from flight plan window
   Insert a waypoint ~100 miles beyond the end point of the
    search and create a flight plan from start to “end”
   Desired track for left offset of creeping line is DTK – 90°,
    Right offset of creeping line is DTK + 90°.
   Approach the beginning point from the right side of the
    search course so that aircraft is established on creeping
    line track prior to crossing search course.
   When the Cross Track Error (XTK) readout indicates that
    the aircraft is at the Offset + 1 NM from the course line,
    perform a turn to intercept the reciprocal track
   Adjust the turn as necessary so that the aircraft is closer to
    the course end point by distance equal to track spacing
    and on a ground track perpendicular to the course line
   Continue this process until the search pattern is
    completed.                                                   52
Creeping Line Search
      method 2a




                       53
Creeping Line Search
      method 2a




                       54
               Expanding Square Search
                               method 1
                     GARMIN SAR Software
   Input user waypoint for center of expanding square
    pattern by Lat/Long
   Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan
    page
   Select expanding Square Search and add
    appropriate parameters, note that only 0.1 NM
    increments can be used for leg spacing and up to 60
    legs can be specified
   A flight pan will be automatically generated and
    activated from aircraft present position
   Navigate to the entry waypoint. Fly in HDG mode or
    OBS NAV mode to a position and heading to intercept
    the entry waypoint
   The expanding square track lines should be flown
    manually using the MFD flight plan display until the
    legs are 2 NM in length then the A/P HDG or NAV
    mode can be used                                       55
Expanding Square Search
        method 1




                      56
Expanding Square Search
        method 1




                      57
                Expanding Square Search
                                 method 2
                  User waypoints & flight plan
   Input user waypoint for center of expanding square
    pattern by Lat/Long and the successive corner points
    by reference waypoints, true radials and distance
    (NM) from the previous waypoint
   Enter and activate a flight plan from the departure
    airport or present position to the user waypoints in
    order.
   Navigate to the entry waypoint, hand fly or use
    OBS/NAV mode to intercept the entry waypoint
   The expanding square track lines should be flown
    manually using the MFD map display until the legs are
    2 NM in length then the A/P HDG or NAV mode can be
    used. This method results in a flight plan and MFD/PFD
    displays that looks very similar to method 1 except
    that al the waypoints are generated by the user
                                                             58
                Expanding Square Search
                                 method 3
                   Using MFD gridline display
   The expanding square pattern is possible but difficult
    to implement with the gridlines alone.
   Two issues:
      • A minute of Longitude does not equal a minute of
        latitude in nautical miles
      • It becomes difficult to retain where you are on the
        pattern – potential for excessive heads down time
        – safety issue
   The recommended approach is:
      • Create a user waypoint at the start so a visual
        reference for the start remains on the map
      • Map it on paper so you have a sense for turn points
      • Get AOBD agreement to fly minute legs vs NM.
      • Recommend that map is set to North Up otherwise       59
        MP may loose S.A.
                          Sector Search
                                Method 1
                   GARMIN SAR Software

   Input user waypoint for center of Sector Search
    pattern by Lat/Long
   Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan
    page
   Select Sector Search and add appropriate
    parameters, add 0.5 NM to the search radius to allow
    for A/P turns. Make the initial DTK to be closest to
    current direction of flight to the sector
   Note: the G1000 SAR software will only build a three
    track pattern (60 degree spread) regardless of the
    search radius. This will only have the desired search
    coverage out to approx 2 NM. For search radius >2
    NM a second or third search pattern should be flown
    rotated by an appropriate angle relative to the first
                                                            60
                           Sector Search
                                 Method 1
               GARMIN SAR Software (Cont.)

   A flight plan will be automatically generated and
    activated from aircraft present position
   Navigate to the entry waypoint using A/P in NAV or
    HDG mode. Position aircraft to intercept and fly
    inbound to the search center on the DTK closest to the
    direction of fight. Select this desired track using the
    OBS function. The aircraft should be on speed and
    altitude and aligned with the first track approx. 1 NM
    outside the search radius. Fly in A/P NAV mode




                                                              61
Sector Search
   Method 1




                62
Sector Search
   Method 1




                63
                           Sector Search
                                 Method 2
                     user waypoint and OBS
   Input user waypoint for center of sector search by
    Lat/Long.
   Enter a flight plan from the departure airport or present
    position to the center of the sector search, position
    aircraft to intercept and fly inbound to the search
    center on the radial closest to the direction of fight.
    Select this radial using the OBS function. Fly in A/P
    HDG or NAV mode.
   After arrival at the search center continue to fly the
    same track out to the search radius on the other side
    of the center using DIS to verify position from the
    center and the OBS line for course guidance
   When DIS > search radius, synch the HDG bug,
    engage the A/P in HDG mode select next radial using
    OBS, D/C A/P and turn right to intercept the next
    inbound radial track. The next radial bearing –90
    degrees is a good heading to fly to intercept the next
    radial inbound. Synch the HDG bug Re-engage the
    A/P in HDG then NAV mode.                                   64
Sector Search
   Method 2




                65
Sector Search
   Method 2




                66
                            Links

 GARMIN manuals including the SAR manual
http://www8.garmin.com/support/userManual.jsp?mark
  et=1&subcategory=59&product=All




                                               67
Questions?

				
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