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Human Trafficking

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 the practice of people being tricked, lured,
  coerced or otherwise removed from their
  home or country
 then compelled to work with no or low
  payment or on terms which are highly
  exploitative.
 The practice is considered to be trade or
  commerce in people, which has many
  features of slavery and which is illegal in
  most countries.


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 TheInternational Labor Organization (ILO)
 says there are eight main forms of forced
 labor in the world today.




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 Workers  see all their wages go to paying for
  transportation, food and shelter because
  they've been "locked into debt" by
  unscrupulous job recruiters and landowners -
  and they can't leave because of force,
  threats or the remote location of the
  worksites.
Countries involved:
 Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Cote d'Ivoire,
  Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti,
  Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Togo

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 Another  form of debt bondage
 often starts with the worker agreeing to
  provide labor in exchange for a loan, but
  quickly develops into bondage as the
  employer adds more and more "debt" to the
  bargain.

Countries involved:
 Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistán, Sri Lanka




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 Maidsand other domestic servants are sold
 to their employers or bonded to them by
 debts.

Countries involved:
 Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, France, Haiti, the
  Middle East




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 The contracting out of prison labor or forcing
 of prisoners to work for profit-making
 enterprises.

Countries involved:
 Australia, Austria, China, Cote d'Ivoire,
  France, Germany, New Zealand, Madagascar,
  Malaysia, USA




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 Peopleare required by law to work on public
 construction projects such as roads and
 bridges.

Countries involved:
 Cambodia, the Central African Republic,
  Kenya, Burma (also known as Myanmar),
  Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Vietnam




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        are forced to do work for
 Civilians
 government authorities or the military.

Country involved:
 Burma (also known as Myanmar)




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A "physical abduction" followed by forced
 labor.

Countries involved:
 Congo, Liberia, Mauritania, Sierra Leone and
  Sudan




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 Individuals are forced or tricked into going
  somewhere by someone who will profit from
  selling them or forcing them to work against
  their will
 most often in sexual trades
 The sale of babies and children for
  international adoption is also considered to
  be trafficking in those children.
 Many countries are both "origins" and
  "destinations" for victims.

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 Albania,  Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
  Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Cote
  d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic,
  Ecuador, France, Ghana, Haiti, Honduras,
  Hungary, Israel, Italy, Republic of Korea,
  Laos, Latvia, Malaysia, Moldova, Myanmar,
  the Netherlands, Nepal, Nigeria, Philippines,
  Poland, Romania, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine,
  United Kingdom, USA, Vietnam, Yugoslavia
 THIS IS JUST A SNAPSHOT!



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 Internationallegal instruments take the form
 of a treaty (also called agreement,
 convention, or protocol) that binds the
 contracting states to the negotiated terms.

The following international instruments
 determine standards for the abolition of and
 protection against slavery, forced labour and
 slavery-like practices:



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   Slavery Convention of 1926 (Assembly of Nations)
   ILO Convention (No. 29) concerning Forced or Compulsory
    Labour (1930)
   Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
   Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons
    and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949)
   Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the
    Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to
    Slavery (1956)
   ILO Convention (No. 105) Concerning the Abolition of
    Forced Labour (1957)
   ILO Convention (182) concerning the Prohibition and
    Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of
    Child Labour(1989)
   Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the
    Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child
    pornography (2000)


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 Each year the United States Government
  published the Trafficking in Persons Report
 The TIP Report serves to expose these despicable
  aspects of trafficking. It provokes, lauds, and
  challenges. Countries including the United
  States, which is dealing with its own trafficking
  problem, have been inspired to greater action
  against human trafficking as a result of this
  unique compendium. By reading it, we hope you
  are joining with us in the abolitionist movement
  of the 21st century to advance freedom for the
  world's most vulnerable citizens." -- Secretary of
  State Condoleezza Rice

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 Assessing each governments anti-trafficking
 efforts involves a two-step process:

 SignificantNumbers of Victims
 Tier Placement




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 First, a country must be determined as "a
  country of origin, transit, or destination for a
  significant number of victims of severe forms
  of trafficking," generally on the order of 100
  or more victims




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 Countries  placed into one of the three lists,
  described here as tiers dictated by the
  Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000)
 This placement is based on the extent of a
  governments actions to combat trafficking.




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Tier 1
 whether the government fully complies with the
  TVPAs minimum standards for the elimination of
  trafficking
Tier 2
 Governments that are making significant efforts
  to meet the minimum standards
Tier 2 Watch List
 Countries that fail to show evidence of increased
  efforts to combat trafficking from the previous
  year
Tier 3
 countries whose governments do not fully
  comply with the minimum standards and are not
  making significant efforts to do so

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Regardless  of tier placement,
 every country can do more,
 including the United States. No
 country placement is
 permanent. All countries must
 maintain and increase efforts to
 combat trafficking.



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   The government of the country should prohibit
    severe forms of trafficking in persons and punish
    acts of such trafficking.

   For the knowing commission of any act of sex
    trafficking involving force, fraud, coercion, the
    victim is a child incapable of giving meaningful
    consent, or trafficking includes rape or
    kidnapping or which causes a death, the
    government of the country should prescribe
    punishment commensurate with that for grave
    crimes, such as forcible sexual assault.

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 For the knowing commission of any act of a
  severe form of trafficking in persons, the
  government of the country should prescribe
  punishment that is sufficiently stringent to
  deter and that adequately reflects the
  heinous nature of the offense.
 The government of the country should make
  serious and sustained efforts to eliminate
  severe forms of trafficking in persons.



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You will be responsible for the following:
 A brief but thorough explanation of one
  United Nations legal instrument
 A full explanation involving overview,
  prosecution, protection and prevention for a
  country of your choosing from the tiered
  countries




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 United Nations legal instrument
 Tiered placements
http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/4
  6610.htm




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