The 1920s (PowerPoint)

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					 The 1920s
       The Jazz Age
 Normalcy and Good Times
The Great Depression Begins
  continued
on next slide
            The Jazz Age
•rise in racism and nativism
•clash of values
•changing status of women
•explosion of art and literature
•popular culture: sports, movies, radio, and music
•Harlem Renaissance
•increase in African American political activism
                Why It Matters
The 1920s was an era of rapid change and
clashing values. Many Americans believed
society was losing its traditional values, and they
took action to preserve these values. Other
Americans embraced new values associated
with a freer lifestyle and the pursuit of individual
goals. Writers and artists pursued distinctively
American themes, and the Harlem Renaissance
gave African Americans new pride.
             The Impact Today
The 1920s left permanent legacies to American
culture.
• National celebrities in sports and film
  emerged.
• Jazz music became part of American culture.
• F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway
  wrote classics of American literature.
         Section Theme: Culture

The rapid changes of the early 1900s
 challenged Americans who wanted to
 preserve traditional values. American culture
 in the 1920s saw a rise in both the arts and
 popular entertainment. African Americans
 played stronger political and cultural roles in
 the 1920s than they had in previous decades.
              Nativism Resurges
• In the 1920s, racism and nativism increased.
• Immigrants, demobilized military men, and
  women competed for the same jobs during a
  time of high unemployment and an increased
  cost of living.
• Ethnic prejudice was the basis of the Sacco
  and Vanzetti case, in which two immigrant
  men were accused of murder and theft.
           Nativism Resurges (cont.)
• They were thought to be anarchists, or
  opposed to all forms of government.
• Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to death,
  and in 1927 they were executed still
  proclaiming their innocence.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1921)
            Nativism Resurges (cont.)
• Nativists used the idea of eugenics, the false
  science of the improvement of hereditary traits,
  to give support to their arguments against
  immigration.
• Nativists emphasized that human inequalities
  were inherited and said that inferior people
  should not be allowed to breed .
• This added to the anti-immigrant feeling of the
  time and further promoted the idea of strict
  immigrant control.
            Nativism Resurges (cont.)

• The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) led the movement to
  restrict immigration.
• This new Klan not only targeted African-
  Americans but also Catholics, Jews,
  immigrants, and other groups believed to have
  “un-American” values.
• Because of a publicity campaign, by 1924 the Ku
  Klux Klan had over 4 million members and
  stretched beyond the South into Northern cities.
Ku Klux Klan pamphlet:
“America for Americans”

This image is from a Ku Klux
Klan pamphlet published in
the mid-1920s, when the Klan
claimed as many as five
million members nationwide.
The Klan portrayed itself as
defending traditional, white,
Protestant America against
Jews, Catholics, and African
Americans.
Ku Klux Klan Rally
           Nativism Resurges (cont.)
• Scandals and poor leadership led to the decline
  of the Klan in the late 1920s.
• Politicians supported by the Klan were voted
  out of office.
Ku Klux Klan parade
in Washington, D.C.,
September 13, 1926

In a brazen display of
power, the Ku Klux Klan
organized a march in the
nation's capital in 1926.
By this time, the Klan
was already in decline.
          Controlling Immigration

• In 1921 President Harding signed the
  Emergency Quota Act, limiting immigration to
  3 percent of the total number of people in any
  ethnic group already living in the United
  States.
• This discriminated heavily against southern and
  eastern Europeans.
Sheet music: O! Close
the Gates
Anti-immigrationists used
songs, as well as speeches
and posters, to promote
their cause. This 1923
tune urges the
government to "Close the
Gates" lest foreigners
betray the hard-won
rights of Americans and
"drag our Colors down."
         Controlling Immigration (cont.)

• The National Origins Act of 1924 made
  immigrant restriction a permanent policy.
• The act lowered the quotas to 2 percent of
  each national group living in the U.S. in 1890 .
• This further restricted immigrants from
  southern and eastern Europe.
• The act exempted immigrants from the Western
  Hemisphere from the quotas.
• The immigration acts of 1921 and 1924 reduced
  the labor pool in the United States.
        Controlling Immigration (cont.)
• Employers needed laborers for agriculture,
  mining, and railroad work .
• Mexican immigrants began pouring into the
  United States between 1914 and the end of the
  1920s.
• The immigrants fled their country in the
  aftermath of the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
                          Mexican workers in California
This photo, taken around 1920, depicts Mexican American workers laying irrigation
pipe in Ventura County, California. Immigration from Mexico increased significantly
during the 1910s and 1920s, due to improvements in transportation within Mexico
and to the social and economic dislocations produced by revolution and civil war in
Mexico. By the 1920s, Mexicans made up much of the workforce in California
agriculture.
  Click the Speaker button
to listen to the audio again.
              The New Morality
• A “new morality” challenged traditional ideas
  and glorified youth and personal freedom.
• New ideas about marriage, work, and pleasure
  affected the way people lived.
• Women broke away from families as they
  entered the workforce, earned their own
  livings, or attended college.
• The automobile gave American youth the
  opportunity to pursue interests away from
  parents.
Margaret Sanger
leaving court of
Special Sessions after
arraignment
Margaret Sanger is seen here in
1916, leaving court after being
charged with distributing birth
control information illegally.
During the Progressive Era,
women worked to remove legal
barriers to obtaining information
on preventing conception.
Life cover, July 1, 1926
On the one hundred and fiftieth
anniversary of the Declaration of
Independence, Life magazine presented
this cover, which parodied the famous
painting, the Spirit of '76. The Spirit of
‘26 depicts an uninhibited flapper, a jazz
saxophonist and drummer, and banners
with the snappy sayings of the day. The
caption reads: "One Hundred and Forty-
three Years of LIBERTY and Seven Years
of PROHIBITION."
Women’s Changing Roles
             The New Morality (cont.)
• Women’s fashion drastically changed in the
  1920s.
• The flapper, a young, dramatic, stylish, and
  unconventional woman, exemplified the change
  in women’s behavior.
• Professionally, women made advances in the
  fields of science, medicine, law, and literature.
Flapper sheet music:
Oh! You Have No Idea

This 1928 novelty song, arranged for
the newly popular Hawaiian ukulele,
included the lyrics: "Has she the lips
the boys adore? Does she know
what she's got'm for? Oh! You have
no idea."
Two flappers dancing the
Charleston on the roof of
Chicago’s Sherman Hotel
(1926).
      The Fundamentalist Movement
• Some Americans feared the new morality and
  worried about America’s social decline.
• Many of these people came from small rural
  towns and joined a religious movement called
  Fundamentalism.
• Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson
  were two popular fundamentalist preachers of
  the 1920s.
The Fundamentalist Movement               (cont.)
• Charismatic preacher Aimee Semple
  McPherson gained added notoriety for a five-
  week disappearance she claimed was a
  kidnapping and for the many lawsuits filed
  against her in the following years, often for
  libel or slander.
Prayer during a revival meeting at a Pentecostal Church in Cambria, Illinois.
    The Fundamentalist Movement (cont.)
• The Fundamentalists rejected Darwin’s theory
  of evolution, which suggested that humans
  developed from lower forms of life over
  millions of years.
• Instead, Fundamentalists believed in
  creationism–that God created the world as
  described in the Bible.
• In 1925 Tennessee passed the Butler Act,
  which made it illegal to teach anything that
  denied creationism and taught evolution
  instead.
  The Fundamentalist Movement (cont.)
• The debate between evolutionists and
  creationists came to a head with the Scopes Trial.
• Answering the request of the ACLU, John T.
  Scopes, a biology teacher, volunteered to test
  the Butler Act by teaching evolution in his class.
• After being arrested and put on trial, Scopes
  was found guilty, but the case was later
  overturned.
• After the trial, many fundamentalists withdrew
  from political activism.
• Tennessee’s law against teaching evolution
  remained on the books until 1967.
Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan
         1925 Scopes’ Monkey Trial




  Clarence Darrow        William Jennings Bryan
Clarence
Darrow at
the Scopes
evolution
trial




Clarence Darrow's (at left) passionate devotion to freedom of thought led him to the
courtroom pictured here in defense of John T. Scopes, a teacher accused of teaching the
theory of evolution.
Attorney Clarence Darrow raises his fist while making a speech at the Scopes Trial (1925).
                  Prohibition
• Many people felt the passage of the Eighteenth
  Amendment, which prohibited alcohol, would
  reduce unemployment, domestic violence, and
  poverty.
• The Volstead Act made the enforcement of
  Prohibition the responsibility of the U.S.
  Treasury Department.
• Until the 1900s, police powers–a government’s
  power to control people and property in the
  public’s interest, had been the job of the state
  governments.
Detroit police
inspecting equipment
found in a hidden
underground brewery
during the prohibition
era.
               Prohibition (cont.)
• Americans ignored the laws of Prohibition.
• They went to secret bars called speakeasies,
  where alcohol could be purchased.
• Crime became big business, and gangsters
  corrupted many local politicians and
  governments.
Al Capone
Al Capone Police Photo
Eliot Ness
Income Tax Evasion
                  Prohibition     (cont.)
• Prohibition expanded the American vocabulary. It also
  gave new meaning to the words wet and dry.
• Bootlegger- someone who sells illegal liquor.
• Dead soldier - an empty beer bottle.
• Giggle Water; Hooch - an intoxicating beverage; alcohol.
• Speakeasy; Gin Mill; Juice Joint - an establishment where
  hard liquor is sold; bar.
• Hair of the Dog - a shot of alcohol.
• Hood – hoodlum.
• Moll - a gangster's girl.
• On the lam - fleeing from police.
• Ossified - drunk.
               Prohibition (cont.)
• In 1933 the ratification of the Twenty-first
  Amendment ended Prohibition.
• It was a defeat for supporters of traditional
  values and those who favored the use of
  federal police powers to achieve moral
  reform.
               Art and Literature
• During the 1920s, American artists, writers,
  and intellectuals began challenging traditional
  ideas as they searched for meaning in the
  modern world.
• The main themes of artists and writers during
  the 1920s were disenchantment, isolation,
  disillusionment, and emptiness.
• World War I led many writers to portray
  disillusionment and to reevaluate the myths of
  American heroes.
             Art and Literature (cont.)
• The artistic and unconventional, or Bohemian,
  lifestyle of Manhattan’s Greenwich Village and
  Chicago’s South Side attracted artists and
  writers.
• These areas were considered centers of
  creativity, enlightenment, and freedom from
  conformity to old ideas.
• The European art movement influenced
  American modernist artists.
• The range in which the artists chose to express
  the modern experience was very diverse.
  Click the Speaker button
to listen to the audio again.
Blues by Archibald Motley, 1929
This painting by the African American artist Archibald Motley represented the "Ash-Can"
style, which considered no subject too undignified to paint, as well as the sensual
relationship between jazz music and dancing within African American culture.
  Georgia O’Keeffe,
        1923
She is chiefly known for
paintings in which she
synthesizes abstraction
and representation in
paintings of flowers,
rocks, shells, animal
bones and landscapes.
Georgia O’Keeffe, Untitled (Two Pears), 1921
Georgia O’Keeffe
   Old Maple,
  Lake George
      1926
Thomas Hart
Benton, painter
His fluid, almost
sculpted paintings
showed everyday
scenes of the
contemporary Midwest,
especially images of pre-
industrial farmlands.
Thomas Hart
Benton

Industry (Women
Spinning)

1924–27
Thomas Hart Benton
The Lord is my
Shepherd, 1926

Benton knew these
people. In real life they
were deaf-mutes who
lived near him on
Martha's Vineyard. Here
they become symbols of
the old-fashioned rural
values he championed.
Edward Hopper,
painter, is best
remembered for his
eerily realistic
depictions of solitude
in contemporary
American life.
Edward Hopper’s House by the Railroad, 1925, was the
first work by any artist accepted for the Museum of
Modern Art collection.
Edward Hopper
Automat (1927)
Art critics often
cite this work as
an example of
urban alienation.
            Art and Literature (cont.)
• Writing styles and subject matter varied.
  Chicago poet Carl Sandburg used common
  speech to glorify the Midwest and the
  expansive nature of American life.
• Playwright Eugene O’Neill’s work focused on
  the search for meaning in modern society.
• F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby exposed
  the emptiness and superficiality of modern
  society as the characters spent much of their
  lives chasing futile dreams.
F. Scott and Zelda
Fitzgerald on the
Riviera, 1926
While Fitzgerald
chronicled the
1920s in his fiction,
he and Zelda lived
the high life in New
York and in Europe.
U.S. writer
Ernest
Hemingway
and Sylvia
Beach in front
of her Paris
bookstore,
Shakespeare
and Company
(1928).
Sinclair Lewis was an
American novelist and
playwright. In 1930 he
became the first
American to win the
Nobel Prize in Literature.
His works are known for
their insightful and
critical views of American
society and capitalist
values. His style is at
times droll, satirical, yet
sympathetic.
                 Popular Culture
• The economic prosperity of the 1920s
  afforded many Americans leisure time for
  enjoying sports, music, theater, and
  entertainment.
• Radio, motion pictures, and newspapers gave
  rise to a new interest in sports.
• Sports figures, such as baseball’s Babe Ruth
  and heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey,
  were famous for their sports abilities but
  became celebrities as well.
The Chicago “Black” Sox
                      During the
                      1919 World
                      Series, eight
                      members of
                      the Chicago
                      White Sox
                      threw
                      (intentionally
                      lost) games.
                      They were
                      caught during
                      the 1920
                      season.
    Babe Ruth
• Sport: Baseball (1914-
  1935)
• Stats: 60 home runs
  in 1927
• Other Facts: Loved to
  eat hot dogs, drink
  beer, and go out for
  late nights . . . Was
  named the number
  one player of all time
  in 1998 by the
  Sporting News.
Babe Ruth
Babe Ruth had
widespread appeal
as one of the
country's first sports
superstars. Here a
photograph of his
mighty home run
swing appears on a
school notebook,
showing the new link
between sports and
consumerism.
    Lou Gehrig
• Sport: Baseball (1923-
  1939)
• Stats: Played in 2,130
  consecutive games
• Other Facts:
  Nicknamed “The Iron
  Horse” . . . Batted .340
  over the course of his
  career . . . The disease
  ALS is sometimes
  called “Lou Gehrig’s
  Disease”
                   The Negro Leagues
• In 1920, Rube Foster formed
  the Negro National Leagues.
• African-American players were
  not allowed to play in Major
  League Baseball.
• Rube Foster wanted black
  owners to have control of the
  finances of the new league, and
  for the most part, they did.
• Many of the most talented
  baseball players of the 1920’s
  played in the Negro Leagues.
Leroy “Satchel” Paige
• Sport: Baseball (1926-
  1953)
• Stats: Inducted into the
  Baseball Hall of Fame in
  1971
• Other Facts: Had over
  300 shutouts in his
  career . . . Won over
  1500 games over the
  course of his career . . .
  Pitched until he was
  almost 50 years old
Negro Leagues

   • At first, Negro League teams
     would play exhibition games
     against the Major League teams
     during the off-season.
   • Many times, the Negro League
     teams were victorious.
   • At the end of the 1920’s, Major
     League Baseball stopped playing
     these games because they were
     too embarrassed to lose.
       Knute Rockne
• Sport: Football Coach
  (1918-1930)
• Stats: Coaching record of
  105-12-5
• Other Facts: Won 6
  National Championships
  at Notre Dame . . .
  Coached “The Four
  Horsemen” while at
  Notre Dame . . . Killed in
  a plane crash at Bazaar,
  Kansas
      Red Grange
• Sport: Football (1929-
  1934)
• Stats: Helped the Chicago
  Bears win the ’32 & ’33
  Championships.
• Other Facts: Nicknamed
  “The Galloping Ghost” . .
  . Attended the University
  of Illinois and played for
  the Chicago Bears . . .
  Helped start the NFL
    Bobby Jones
• Sport: Golf (1916-1930)
• Stats: Won 13 Major
  Championships – Tiger
  Woods has won 15
• Other Facts: Retired at
  the age of 28 . . . The
  best sportsman of all
  during the 1920’s . . .
  Served as an officer in
  WWII
       Jack Dempsey
• Sport: Boxing (1914-1927)
• Stats: Heavyweight
  Champ from 1919-1926
• Other Facts: Of Irish and
  Choctaw heritage . . .
  Finished his career at 62-
  6-9 . . . His fights would
  draw crowds of 100,000 . .
  . “I can’t sing, and I can’t
  dance, but I can lick any
  SOB in the house”
                                     Helen Wills




•   Sport: Tennis (1920-1938)
•   Stats: Won 31 Grand Slam Titles
•   Other Facts: From 1927-1932 never lost a set . . . Won 14 Wimbledon titles . . . A
    very distinguished painter . . . Left $10 million to UC-Berkeley after her death in
    1998
Gertrude Ederle,
swimmer, became the first
woman to swim the English
Channel in 1926, at the age of
19. Her time broke the
previous men’s record and
stood as the women's record
for 35 years. From 1921 to
1925, Ederle set 29 U.S. and
world records for swimming
races ranging from the 50-
yard to the half-mile race. In
the 1924 Summer Olympic
Games, she won a gold medal
and two bronze medals.
               Popular Culture (cont.)
• Motion pictures became increasingly popular.
• The first “talking” picture, The Jazz Singer, was
  made in 1927.
• The golden age of Hollywood began.
• The mass media–radio, movies, newspapers,
  and magazines–helped break down the focus
  on local interests.
• Mass media helped unify the nation and
  spread new ideas and attitudes.
Dolly making radio history, 1925
In 1925, to promote the Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus, radio
station WJZ in New York City offered an hour-long broadcast of circus
sounds, including the bellowing of Dolly, a 2-year-old elephant.
Moviemaking at Warner Brothers
Pioneering in sound films in a movie-mad decade, Warner
Brothers Pictures earned profits of more than $17 million in 1929.
Poster: Birth of a
Nation
D. W. Griffith's epic film
glorified the racist Ku
Klux Klan. President
Woodrow Wilson
called it "history
written with lightning."
Valentino in Son of the Sheik
Rudolph Valentino, the leading
male movie star of the 1920s,
starred in such costume epics as
The Sheik and Son of the Sheik.
This poster advertises Son of the
Sheik, which appeared after
Valentino's death in 1926, at the
age of 31, from complications
following the removal of his
appendix.
Rudolph Valentino as The Sheik
      Silent Movie Star
            The Harlem Renaissance
• The Great Migration occurred when hundreds of
  thousands of African Americans from the rural
  South headed to industrial cities in the North with
  the hope of a better life.
         The Harlem Renaissance (cont.)
• In large northern cities, particularly New York
  City’s neighborhood of Harlem, African
  Americans created environments that
  stimulated artistic development, racial pride, a
  sense of community, and political organization,
  which led to a massive creative outpouring of
  African American arts.
• This became known as the Harlem Renaissance.
Survey Graphic
cover, March, 1925
This was the cover of a special
issue of Survey Graphic
published in March of 1925. A
popular magazine of the period,
Survey Graphic devoted the
entire issue to Harlem and the
emergence of a new
consciousness among its African-
American residents.
        The Harlem Renaissance (cont.)
• Writer Claude McKay became the first
  important writer of the Harlem Renaissance.
• His work expressed defiance and contempt of
  racism, which were very strong writing
  characteristics of this time.
• Langston Hughes became the leading voice of
  the African American experience in the United
  States.
The Weary Blues
This is the original cover for The Weary
Blues, the first book of poetry by
Langston Hughes, published in 1926.
Hughes later wrote that the book
included some of the first blues that
he had ever heard, dating to his
childhood in Lawrence, Kansas. Both
the reference to the blues in Hughes's
poetry and the cover design for the
book evoke the connection between
music and poetry that was part of the
Harlem Renaissance.
Langston Hughes   Zora Neale Hurston
James Weldon
Johnson,
writer and
educator
Paul Robeson
playing Brutus
Jones in the film
Emperor Jones
(c. 1933)
       The Harlem Renaissance (cont.)
• Louis Armstrong introduced jazz, a style of
  music influenced by Dixieland music and
  ragtime.
• He became the first great cornet and trumpet
  soloist in jazz music.
Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong, born in 1900,
first began to play the trumpet in
New Orleans but emerged as a
leading innovator in jazz after
1924, when he joined Fletcher
Henderson's orchestra in New
York. Some of his recordings
from the 1920s are among the
most original and imaginative
contributions to jazz.
       The Harlem Renaissance       (cont.)

• A famous Harlem nightspot, the Cotton Club,
  was where some famous African American
  musicians, such as Duke Ellington, got their
  start.
Duke Ellington,
musician and
composer
A doorman standing outside the famous Cotton Club in Harlem
        The Harlem Renaissance (cont.)
• Bessie Smith sang about unrequited love,
  poverty, and oppression, which were classic
  themes in blues style music.
• This soulful style of music evolved from African
  American spirituals.
Bessie Smith earned
the title of "Empress of
the Blues." She was an
all-around entertainer
who danced, acted and
performed comedy
routines with her
touring company. She
was the highest-paid
black performer of her
day and reached a level
of success greater than
that of any African-
American entertainer
before her.

				
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