In 1998, when presenting a paper on degumming at the AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo in Chicago, Illinois, I rectified this statement by describing the EnzyMax process as an "acid refining process in disguise." [...] the porcine phospholipase (PLA2) used in the original EnzyMax process has been replaced by microbial enzymes such as the phospholipase Al (PLAl) enzymes Lecitase Novo and Ultra (Novozymes, Bagsvserd, Denmark) and the PLA2 enzyme Rohalase MPL (AB Enzymes, Darmstadt, Germany), and additional microbial enzymes have been developed.
428 inform July 2010, Vol. 21 (7) Degumming revisited 2 010 PHO ENIX 101st AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo Albert J. Dijkstra The use of PlC as a degumming agent can increase the oil yield, especially for The following article is based on the address given by Albert J. Dijkstra, the 2010 Timothy L. Mounts Award winner. His address high-phosphatide oils such as soybean oil was given at the 101st AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, held in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, May 16–19. that has not yet been water-degummed. MPL (AB Enzymes, Darmstadt, Germany), and additional microbial In 1992, during the AOCS World Conference in enzymes have been developed. One of these is Purifine®, a phospho- Budapest (Dijkstra, 1993), I launched the enzy- lipase C (PLC; Verenium Corp., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA). matic degumming process EnzyMax® on behalf As indicated in Figure 1, it catalyzes the hydrolysis of the phosphate/ glyceryl bond in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidyletha- of lurgi, the company that had developed this nolamine (PE), the major phosphatides in most vegetable oils. This process. I reported that I had measured low resid- hydrolysis yields diglycerides and phosphate esters of choline and ual phosphorus and iron contents in the enzymat- ethanolamine, respectively. These diglycerides are not removed during subsequent refining processes, and since the phosphate esters ically degummed oil samples lurgi had given me. do not retain any triglyceride oil, the use of PLC as a degumming So I could not but conclude that the oil would yield agent can increase the oil yield, especially for high-phosphatide oils good quality oil on physical refining and that the such as soybean oil that has not yet been water-degummed. For these oils, the yield increase amounts to 1% of oil for every 500 ppm of EnzyMax process would therefore compete with phosphorus present in the crude oil. Purifine PLC does not catalyze my own acid refining process TOP (Dijkstra and the hydrolysis of other phosphatides than PC and PE, so it is not Van Opstal, 1989). however, by repeating in this capable of providing an oil that is so low in residual phosphorus and iron that it can be physically refined. presentation what lurgi had told me, I also misled Another enzyme that is used in degumming is LysoMax®, a lipid the audience by stating that the citrate buffer was acyl transferase with PLA2 activity (LAT; Danisco AS, Copenhagen, added to the oil as such, whereas in actual practice, a concentrated citric acid solution was added first and a dilute caustic soda solution was added quite some time later. In 1998, when presenting a paper on degumming at the AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo in Chicago, Illinois, I rectified this statement by describ- ing the EnzyMax process as an “acid refining process in disguise.” Since that time, the porcine phospholipase (PLA2) used in the original EnzyMax process has been replaced by microbial enzymes such as the phospholipase A1 (PLA1) enzymes Lecitase® Novo and Ultra (Novozymes, Bags- værd, Denmark) and the PLA2 enzyme Rohalase® FIG. 1. Chemical structure of various phosphatides. inform JULY 10.indd 428 7/6/10 5:14:33 PM inform July 2010, Vol. 21 (7) 429 Award Address coalesces and the rate of reaction at the interface decreases. For an
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