Carbon dioxide

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					Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
?Carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide molecules basic information model
【】 Molecular weight or atomic weight of 44.01

】 【Density 1.977g / L (relative density of 1.53 (in air density (1.29g / L) as the base)

【Melting point (℃)】 -56.6 (5270 Pa)

【Boiling point (℃)】 -78.48 (sublimation)

【Properties】

Colorless, odorless gas.

Situation】 【dissolved

Soluble in water (1:1), part of the carbonate formation.

【Uses】

Gas carbon dioxide for the soda industry, sugar industry, and for the quenching of
steel castings and manufacturing of lead white.

【Source】 preparation or

Excess carbon in the air by burning or to marble, limestone, dolomite, calcined or
with acid derived. Lime, industrial by-product of fermentation.

【Structural formula】 O = C = O

【Other】 represent a carbon atom and two oxygen atoms are combined.

C atoms with sp hybrid orbitals form σ bond. Linear molecular shape. Non-polar
molecules.

Carbon dioxide can be liquefied into a liquid, relative density 1.101 (-37 ℃), boiling
point -78.5 ℃ (sublimation). Evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide absorbs heat and
cemented a lot of solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as ice.

Carbon dioxide, the chemical formula CO2, carbon oxides is one of a kind of
inorganic, room temperature, is a colorless, odorless gas, slightly larger density than
air and can dissolve in water, and generate carbonate. (The basic principles of
carbonated drinks) can make changes to clarify the lime water cloudy, do so on the
product of respiration produces carbon dioxide, the test can be used.

Scale model of carbon dioxide is widely used in welding, such as: carbon dioxide gas
welding, is the most widely used method of production

Solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice sublimation may absorb a large
number of heat, so as refrigerants, such as the artificial rainfall, and is often used to
make smoke in the stage art in.

Carbon dioxide generally do not burn or support combustion, slightly larger than the
air density at normal temperature, heat will be gathered at the top of the
post-expansion. Are often used as a fire extinguishing agent, but can not be used
during Mg combustion CO2 to fire, because: 2Mg + CO2 = 2MgO + C (light)

Carbon dioxide is an indispensable raw material of photosynthesis of green plants,
carbon dioxide, a greenhouse used for fertilizer.

The air contains about 0.03% carbon dioxide, but due to human activities (such as
fossil fuel combustion) the impact of carbon dioxide levels soared in recent years,
leading to the greenhouse effect, global warming, melting glaciers, rising sea
level ....... excessive carbon dioxide emissions to curb the "Kyoto
Protocol" has entered into force, expected to curb the greenhouse effect
through international cooperation.

Carbon dioxide density of 1.977g / L, melting point -56.6 ℃ (226.89 kPa - 5.2 atm),
boiling point -78.5 ℃ (sublimation). Critical temperature 31.1 ℃. 7092.75 kPa at
room temperature (70 atm) into a colorless liquid liquid. Liquid carbon dioxide
density 1.1 g / cm 3. Evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide or in the pressure cooling
can cemented solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice, is a low temperature
refrigerant, a density of 1.56 g / cm 3. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, 20 ℃
water soluble when the volume of 88 per 100 volume of carbon dioxide, part of the
water reacts with the carbonate. Chemical stability, no flammability, generally do not
support combustion, but the active metals in carbon dioxide in the combustion, such
as the burning of magnesium can be generated in the combustion of carbon dioxide in
magnesium oxide and carbon. Carbon dioxide is acidic oxides, alkali or alkaline oxide
with the reaction of carbonate. Ammonia reacts with ammonium bicarbonate.
Non-toxic, but too high levels of carbon dioxide in the air, people will occur due to
hypoxia and asphyxia. Carbon dioxide with plants can photosynthesis under water in
the synthesis of organic compounds. Carbon dioxide can be used to make ammonium
bicarbonate, baking soda, soda ash, urea, lead white pigment, drinks, fire
extinguishers and pieces of hardened steel. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, about
0.03% of total volume, the gas exhaled carbon dioxide of about 4%. Often used in
hydrochloric acid with marble laboratory reaction to take carbon dioxide, industrial
use of calcined limestone or fermented wine to get the carbon dioxide gas.
Carbon dioxide and water generated by reaction of carbonic acid, can red purple
litmus. After heating red purple litmus can change back to purple.

H2O + CO2 = H2CO3

H2CO3 = H2O + CO2 ↑

Make changes to clarify the cloudy limewater carbon dioxide to produce calcium
carbonate precipitate, can use this to judge whether the carbon dioxide gas cylinder
assembly. The following reaction:

Ca (OH) 2 + CO2 = CaCO3 ↓ + H2O
Carbon dioxide can change liquid fuel
Global technology group ABB announced the famous Tsinghua University and
Tianjin University in Beijing to build two greenhouse gases, chemical laboratory, they
will purchase about 150-200 million worth of equipment, and sent the relevant
research and staff to help improve the technological level of China to reduce
increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, especially in the energy,
industrial and transportation fields caused by greenhouse emissions.

At ABB Switzerland, under the guidance of research and development center, the
subject initially converted mainly on greenhouse gas plasma Cui Hua Gao Pinzhi
synthetic liquid fuels Deng launched Shenru of related issues. Carbon dioxide is the
main greenhouse gas troubled Earth, and China because coal-fired and other factors,
may become one of the largest carbon dioxide emissions, and therefore the study by
some of the technology to convert carbon dioxide into high-quality liquid fuel, will
not only eliminate pollution Also an increase in energy, beneficial to the good.

8 years ago, ABB signed a "ICC sustainable business official
seal." In the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research
and development projects, ABB Switzerland as the agency on behalf of the members
actively involved in the work. In the World Energy Council (WEC) of the previous
international conferences, ABB President and CEO Mr. Lin Dao mediates a global
project to the world by 10 million tonnes per year of greenhouse gas emissions. And
the cooperation with Chinese scientists to advance an important step in the project.

ABB Group Executive Vice President and Executive Committee Member Marcus Mr.
Bai Yegong said: "ABB is very concerned about the global issue of global
warming gases, and well aware that the future of all mankind to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions in the face significant challenges. "

ABB in the next 10 years, will energetically develop the Chinese market, making it
one of the world's three major markets. R & D, 1999, ABB has
invested 20 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for about 8% of turnover. ABB funds are
focused on not only satisfy the needs of today's technology,
communications, power systems, manufacturing technology are key inputs in the field,
are gradually transition to high technology, microelectronics, nanotechnology, radio
technology, the traditional ABB Centre, 7 In Europe, three in the United States, and
now the apparent eastward. Because photosynthesis of plants require large amounts of
carbon dioxide, water and sunlight as an energy source to glucose synthesis in plants.
Human factors which can not control the sun, water it is not a rare thing, sources, and
therefore people use carbon dioxide as a gas fertilizer.
Peculiar fertilizer - Gas Fertilizer
At present the development of mainly carbon dioxide gas fertilizer, because carbon
dioxide is an essential raw material of plant photosynthesis. Within a certain range.
The higher the concentration of carbon dioxide, the greater the photosynthesis of
plants, so carbon dioxide gas is the best fertilizer. U.S. scientists on a farm in New
Jersey, the use of carbon dioxide on different growth stages of different crops have
done a lot of experimental research, they found that carbon dioxide in the crop
growing period and the maturity to use, the most significant effect. In both periods, if
the carbon dioxide gas twice a week injection, spray 4 to 5 times, the vegetables can
increase production 90%, 70% yield of rice, soybeans yield 60%, sorghum and even
increasing production 200%.

Gas Fertilizer very promising, but scientists still difficult to determine how much
carbon dioxide each crop actually taken after the best. In addition to carbon dioxide,
are there any other gas can be used for gas fertilizer?

Recently, the German geologist Ailunsite found that where there was an underground
natural gas came out of place, growth was particularly lush plants. So he will be given
away liquefied natural gas pipeline through the special soil, results in two years, this
particular gas fertilizers have been effective. The original is the main component of
natural gas in the role of methane, methane is used to help microbial reproduction,
which micro-organisms to improve soil structure, helps the plant to fully absorb the
nutrients.
The accumulation of carbon dioxide
An investigational new synthetic materials to carbon dioxide as a raw material
monomer in the pair of metal coordination PBM-type catalyst was activated to a
higher degree, the occurrence of copolymerization with epoxides to produce aliphatic
polycarbonate ( PPC), through post-processing, the resin materials are carbon dioxide.
In the polymerization reaction by adding other materials, can be a variety of different
chemical structure of carbon resin. Carbon dioxide has a flexible copolymer chain,
easily by changing its chemical structure to adjust its performance; easily across
tropical catalyst, or micro-organisms under the action of Fen Jie, but can also be
controlled by some measures: on the oxygen and other gases very low permeability.
Can be used to develop the following products: 1. From aliphatic polycarbonate
preparation and multi-isocyanate polyurethane material, better than ordinary polyester
polyurethane hydrolysis resistance. 2. With a maleic anhydride copolymer as the third
monomers; product is a carbon-based esters and unsaturated ester resin can be
crosslinked, and also work with fiber like solid compound, is similar to the
unsaturated polyester in general use a new material. 3. Aliphatic polycarbonate
polymer blend can be obtained with a variety of different performance. Can be used as
epoxy resin, PVC plastic, etc. toughening agents, plasticizers or processing aids. 4.
Dioxide, ethylene oxide copolymers such as carbon dioxide, propylene oxide and
succinic anhydride copolymer can be micro-organisms to break down, leaving no
residue, is a class of promising biodegradable materials. 5. Dioxide copolymers have
excellent biological compatibility. Copolymer is expected to be used specially
designed materials or used as anticoagulant drug delivery agent. 6. Some of the
copolymers can be used as solid carbon dioxide pigment or filler surface treatment
agent, and oxygen barrier material, surface active agent, ceramic adhesives, hot melt
adhesive, etc.. 7. Poly propylene carbonate and nitrile rubber blends with good heat
aging properties of oil, better than ordinary mechanical properties of nitrile rubber, is
an excellent new oil resistant rubber. The project cost per ton of carbon dioxide resin
is about the price of raw material propylene oxide, equivalent to 3-30% of foreign
technology, a good chance of development in foreign based. .PPC / NBR rubber type
oil costs lower than with pure nitrile 10%, the cost per ton of product can be reduced
more than 1,000 yuan.

Common name: carbon dioxide

English name: Carbon Dioxide

Chinese alias: carbonic acid gas

English Synonyms: Carbonic Acid Gas, Carbonic Anhydride
Other carbon dioxide
Ⅱ .2.10 carbon dioxide (CO2)

CAS Registry Number [124-38-9]

English name of CARBON DIOXIDE

Also known as carbonic acid gas

Carbon dioxide is a colorless under normal temperature and pressure, somewhat
pungent and slightly sour odor of gas. CO2 molecule has 16 valence electrons, the
ground state for the linear elements, is D ∞ h point group. CO2 molecules in the
carbon and oxygen bond length of 116pm, ranging from carbon-oxygen double bond
(aldehyde C = O bond length 124pm) and carbon-oxygen triple bond (CO molecules
in the C ≡ O bond length 112.8pm) between indicates that it has a certain degree of
triple bond characteristics. Therefore, some people think that CO2 molecules may
exist delocalized π-bond, which carbon atoms and oxygen atoms in addition to the
two keys, but also the formation of two three-center four-electron π-bond. Another
said molecular structure is shown below:

The early 17th century, the Belgian chemist JB Van. Helmont (1577 ~ 1644) in the
detection of charcoal burning and gas by-product of the fermentation process, found
the carbon dioxide. 1757, J. Black first application of quantitative methods of the gas.
1773, AL Lavoisier oxygen to carbon on heating, are what he called
"carbonic acid" carbon dioxide gas and measuring the quality
and composition of carbon 23.5 ~ 28.9%, 71.1 ~ 76.5% oxygen. 1823, M. Faraday
discovered that pressure can be liquefied carbon dioxide gas. 1835, M. Thilorier
obtained solid carbon dioxide (dry ice). In 1884, in Germany built the first factory
production of liquid carbon dioxide.

Abundant in nature, carbon dioxide, as part of atmospheric composition. Carbon
dioxide is also included in some of the natural gas or oil and associated gas in the
formation of carbonate ores. The atmosphere with carbon dioxide, 0.03 ~ 0.04% (by
volume), total amount of about 2.75 × 1012t, mainly by the burning of carbon
metabolism of the animals. In the national economy, carbon dioxide has a very wide
range of applications. The main products are carbon dioxide, hydrogen from the
ammonia system, the process gas, fermentation gas, lime-kiln gas, acid gas, ethylene
oxide gas and flue gas side effects such as gas extraction and recovery, at present,
commercial products, not less than 99% purity ( volume).

How to make carbon dioxide and the chemical formula of carbon dioxide

Laboratories of carbon dioxide: 2HCl + CaCO3 ==== CaCl2 + H2CO3 carbonic acid
is unstable because, easy decomposition: H2CO3 == H2O + CO2 ↑

So 2HCl + CaCO3 ==== CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 ↑

Carbon dioxide dissolved in water to form carbonic acid: CO2 + H2O = H2CO3

To clarify the lime water in carbon dioxide will form white calcium carbonate: CO2 +
Ca (OH) 2 == CaCO3 ↓ + H2O

Industrial manufacturing method: high-temperature calcination of limestone

CaCO3 ====== CaO + CO2 ↑ (high temperature)

Harmful carbon dioxide

Increasing temperature on Earth now, because increased carbon dioxide caused.
Because carbon dioxide has an insulating effect, and now a member of this little force
more and more, so that temperature, nearly 100 years, global temperatures 0.6 ℃,
according to this continues, the expected mid-21st century, global temperatures will
rise 1.5 - 4.5 ℃.

Sea-level rise is caused by increased carbon dioxide, nearly 100 years, sea level rose
14 cm to the mid-21st century, sea level will be increased by 25 - 140 cm, sea level
rise, the Amazon rainforest will disappear, polar sea The ice will melt. All of these
changes in terms of wild animals is tantamount to disaster.
Principles of carbon dioxide dry cleaning
The most common dry cleaning technology is the use of hydrocarbons (oil),
chlorinated hydrocarbons (such as PCE) as the solvent. However, the low flash point
petroleum solvent, explosive flammable, dry slowly; pungent smell of chlorinated
hydrocarbons, toxicity is high (generally limit the air content of 50ppm or less). Dry
cleaning industry in particular, some European and American countries have been
both in the search for a clean safe and efficient cleaning solvent, is introducing are
green earth (Greenearth), RYNEX, and liquid carbon dioxide and other new cleaning
agent. Greenearth is a clear odorless liquid, KB value (cleaning rate) and petroleum
solvent similar to but lower than PCE, but also expensive; RYNEX the KB value of
PCE is almost, but the higher water content and evaporation too slow, not easy
regeneration and recovery, dry-cleaning cycle is long; liquid carbon dioxide than
petroleum solvent high KB value, slightly lower than the PCE, but the bleeding,
anti-fouling materials such as re-aggregation better than the PCE.

Carbon dioxide as a metabolite of life activities and industrial by-products found in
nature, mainly from thermal power, building materials, steel, chemicals, vehicle
exhaust and natural carbon dioxide gas, which is caused by "greenhouse
effect" of the main gas. Liquid carbon dioxide dry cleaning solvent is an
industrial by-products, only to be used before its return to the natural look, and no
increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. China's carbon
dioxide emissions for the world's second (about 30 million tons), in order
to take full advantage of this resource, we have established a number of research
projects.

Physical properties of liquid carbon dioxide

Surface tension of about 3.0dyn/cm, density 0.8g/cm3, viscosity 0.082mm2 / s
(12 ℃). Viscosity than the PCE O.88mm2 / s (20 ℃) is much lower, so more liquid
carbon dioxide through fiber.

Carbon dioxide is very stable molecular structure and chemical nature of the inactive
and will not react chemically with the fabric. In addition, it low boiling point
(-78.5 ℃), is a gas under normal temperature and pressure. Liquid carbon dioxide gas
through the vacuum into the fabric is easy and isolated, completely eliminating the
traditional solvent, the complex process of post-processing.
Liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2 can be used as solvents, although supercritical
CO2 is higher than the solubility of liquid CO2 (liquid with similar density and with
high solubility, and the mix of gases, low viscosity and high penetration). But its
equipment requirements than liquid CO2 high. Considering the cost of the machine
and for CO2 as solvent, temperature controlled at about 15 ℃, the pressure around
the 5MPa.

Its characteristics are: no flash point, flammable; colorless, odorless, non-toxic.
Carbon dioxide - Medicinal
Pharmacology

Low concentration for a living rational suction aspiration stimulant. When the air
content of the product over normal (0.03%), the can breathe deeply and fast; such as
the content of 1%, normal breathing can increase 25%; content of 3% to 2-fold
increase in respiration. But when the content is 25%, will enable the paralysis of
respiratory center and cause acidosis, it is not more than 10% of the inhaled
concentration.

Indications

Clinical mostly the product 5 to 7% and 93 ~ 95% oxygen mixture inhalation, for first
aid drowning, morphine, or carbon monoxide poisoning, neonatal asphyxia. Ether
anesthesia, such as the increase containing 3 to 5% of the products of oxygen
inhalation, anesthesia can increase efficiency and reduce respiratory tract irritation.

Dosage

Was prescribed inhaled high concentrations of .25% paralysis of respiratory center
can, causing acidosis. Inhalation concentration of not more than 10%.

Adverse reactions

25% of the inhalation of high concentration can paralyze the respiratory center,
causing acidosis. Respirable concentration of not more than 10%.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher
To use carbon dioxide fire extinguisher

Just when the fire extinguisher referred to or came through fire, at about 5 meters
away from the burning object, the pin is pulled down fire extinguishers, first-hand
grip megaphone root handle, one hand grasping the pressure to open and close valves.
The absence of carbon dioxide fire extinguisher spray hose, should be 70-90 degrees
megaphone up board. Use, can not directly hand to seize the megaphone outside wall
or metal connection pipe to prevent the hand was freezing. Fire, when the flammable
liquid was flowing like combustion, carbon dioxide fire extinguishing agent users jet
flame from near and far to the jet. If burning flammable liquids in containers, the user
should bring a megaphone. From the upper side of the container to spray the burning
container. But not the direct impact of carbon dioxide jet fuel surface to prevent
flammable liquids out of containers and expand the fire, causing fire fighting difficult.

Trolley-style carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are generally two operations, when
used together they will push or pull combustion fire extinguisher Department, in
about 10 meters away from the combustion products to stop quickly removed one
megaphone and start spraying hoses, the holding megaphone handles the roots,
another quick counter-clockwise rotation by hand wheel, and open to the maximum
position. Portable fire fighting methods and the same way.

When using carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, in outdoor use, and should be chosen in
the upwind direction of spray. Within the narrow space in outdoor use, the operator
shall promptly after the fire left, to prevent suffocation.

				
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