Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide ?Carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide molecules basic information model 【】 Molecular weight or atomic weight of 44.01 】 【Density 1.977g / L (relative density of 1.53 (in air density (1.29g / L) as the base) 【Melting point (℃)】 -56.6 (5270 Pa) 【Boiling point (℃)】 -78.48 (sublimation) 【Properties】 Colorless, odorless gas. Situation】 【dissolved Soluble in water (1:1), part of the carbonate formation. 【Uses】 Gas carbon dioxide for the soda industry, sugar industry, and for the quenching of steel castings and manufacturing of lead white. 【Source】 preparation or Excess carbon in the air by burning or to marble, limestone, dolomite, calcined or with acid derived. Lime, industrial by-product of fermentation. 【Structural formula】 O = C = O 【Other】 represent a carbon atom and two oxygen atoms are combined. C atoms with sp hybrid orbitals form σ bond. Linear molecular shape. Non-polar molecules. Carbon dioxide can be liquefied into a liquid, relative density 1.101 (-37 ℃), boiling point -78.5 ℃ (sublimation). Evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide absorbs heat and cemented a lot of solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as ice. Carbon dioxide, the chemical formula CO2, carbon oxides is one of a kind of inorganic, room temperature, is a colorless, odorless gas, slightly larger density than air and can dissolve in water, and generate carbonate. (The basic principles of carbonated drinks) can make changes to clarify the lime water cloudy, do so on the product of respiration produces carbon dioxide, the test can be used. Scale model of carbon dioxide is widely used in welding, such as: carbon dioxide gas welding, is the most widely used method of production Solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice sublimation may absorb a large number of heat, so as refrigerants, such as the artificial rainfall, and is often used to make smoke in the stage art in. Carbon dioxide generally do not burn or support combustion, slightly larger than the air density at normal temperature, heat will be gathered at the top of the post-expansion. Are often used as a fire extinguishing agent, but can not be used during Mg combustion CO2 to fire, because: 2Mg + CO2 = 2MgO + C (light) Carbon dioxide is an indispensable raw material of photosynthesis of green plants, carbon dioxide, a greenhouse used for fertilizer. The air contains about 0.03% carbon dioxide, but due to human activities (such as fossil fuel combustion) the impact of carbon dioxide levels soared in recent years, leading to the greenhouse effect, global warming, melting glaciers, rising sea level ....... excessive carbon dioxide emissions to curb the &quot;Kyoto Protocol&quot; has entered into force, expected to curb the greenhouse effect through international cooperation. Carbon dioxide density of 1.977g / L, melting point -56.6 ℃ (226.89 kPa - 5.2 atm), boiling point -78.5 ℃ (sublimation). Critical temperature 31.1 ℃. 7092.75 kPa at room temperature (70 atm) into a colorless liquid liquid. Liquid carbon dioxide density 1.1 g / cm 3. Evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide or in the pressure cooling can cemented solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice, is a low temperature refrigerant, a density of 1.56 g / cm 3. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, 20 ℃ water soluble when the volume of 88 per 100 volume of carbon dioxide, part of the water reacts with the carbonate. Chemical stability, no flammability, generally do not support combustion, but the active metals in carbon dioxide in the combustion, such as the burning of magnesium can be generated in the combustion of carbon dioxide in magnesium oxide and carbon. Carbon dioxide is acidic oxides, alkali or alkaline oxide with the reaction of carbonate. Ammonia reacts with ammonium bicarbonate. Non-toxic, but too high levels of carbon dioxide in the air, people will occur due to hypoxia and asphyxia. Carbon dioxide with plants can photosynthesis under water in the synthesis of organic compounds. Carbon dioxide can be used to make ammonium bicarbonate, baking soda, soda ash, urea, lead white pigment, drinks, fire extinguishers and pieces of hardened steel. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, about 0.03% of total volume, the gas exhaled carbon dioxide of about 4%. Often used in hydrochloric acid with marble laboratory reaction to take carbon dioxide, industrial use of calcined limestone or fermented wine to get the carbon dioxide gas. Carbon dioxide and water generated by reaction of carbonic acid, can red purple litmus. After heating red purple litmus can change back to purple. H2O + CO2 = H2CO3 H2CO3 = H2O + CO2 ↑ Make changes to clarify the cloudy limewater carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate precipitate, can use this to judge whether the carbon dioxide gas cylinder assembly. The following reaction: Ca (OH) 2 + CO2 = CaCO3 ↓ + H2O Carbon dioxide can change liquid fuel Global technology group ABB announced the famous Tsinghua University and Tianjin University in Beijing to build two greenhouse gases, chemical laboratory, they will purchase about 150-200 million worth of equipment, and sent the relevant research and staff to help improve the technological level of China to reduce increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, especially in the energy, industrial and transportation fields caused by greenhouse emissions. At ABB Switzerland, under the guidance of research and development center, the subject initially converted mainly on greenhouse gas plasma Cui Hua Gao Pinzhi synthetic liquid fuels Deng launched Shenru of related issues. Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas troubled Earth, and China because coal-fired and other factors, may become one of the largest carbon dioxide emissions, and therefore the study by some of the technology to convert carbon dioxide into high-quality liquid fuel, will not only eliminate pollution Also an increase in energy, beneficial to the good. 8 years ago, ABB signed a &quot;ICC sustainable business official seal.&quot; In the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and development projects, ABB Switzerland as the agency on behalf of the members actively involved in the work. In the World Energy Council (WEC) of the previous international conferences, ABB President and CEO Mr. Lin Dao mediates a global project to the world by 10 million tonnes per year of greenhouse gas emissions. And the cooperation with Chinese scientists to advance an important step in the project. ABB Group Executive Vice President and Executive Committee Member Marcus Mr. Bai Yegong said: &quot;ABB is very concerned about the global issue of global warming gases, and well aware that the future of all mankind to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the face significant challenges. &quot; ABB in the next 10 years, will energetically develop the Chinese market, making it one of the world&#39;s three major markets. R &amp; D, 1999, ABB has invested 20 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for about 8% of turnover. ABB funds are focused on not only satisfy the needs of today&#39;s technology, communications, power systems, manufacturing technology are key inputs in the field, are gradually transition to high technology, microelectronics, nanotechnology, radio technology, the traditional ABB Centre, 7 In Europe, three in the United States, and now the apparent eastward. Because photosynthesis of plants require large amounts of carbon dioxide, water and sunlight as an energy source to glucose synthesis in plants. Human factors which can not control the sun, water it is not a rare thing, sources, and therefore people use carbon dioxide as a gas fertilizer. Peculiar fertilizer - Gas Fertilizer At present the development of mainly carbon dioxide gas fertilizer, because carbon dioxide is an essential raw material of plant photosynthesis. Within a certain range. The higher the concentration of carbon dioxide, the greater the photosynthesis of plants, so carbon dioxide gas is the best fertilizer. U.S. scientists on a farm in New Jersey, the use of carbon dioxide on different growth stages of different crops have done a lot of experimental research, they found that carbon dioxide in the crop growing period and the maturity to use, the most significant effect. In both periods, if the carbon dioxide gas twice a week injection, spray 4 to 5 times, the vegetables can increase production 90%, 70% yield of rice, soybeans yield 60%, sorghum and even increasing production 200%. Gas Fertilizer very promising, but scientists still difficult to determine how much carbon dioxide each crop actually taken after the best. In addition to carbon dioxide, are there any other gas can be used for gas fertilizer? Recently, the German geologist Ailunsite found that where there was an underground natural gas came out of place, growth was particularly lush plants. So he will be given away liquefied natural gas pipeline through the special soil, results in two years, this particular gas fertilizers have been effective. The original is the main component of natural gas in the role of methane, methane is used to help microbial reproduction, which micro-organisms to improve soil structure, helps the plant to fully absorb the nutrients. The accumulation of carbon dioxide An investigational new synthetic materials to carbon dioxide as a raw material monomer in the pair of metal coordination PBM-type catalyst was activated to a higher degree, the occurrence of copolymerization with epoxides to produce aliphatic polycarbonate ( PPC), through post-processing, the resin materials are carbon dioxide. In the polymerization reaction by adding other materials, can be a variety of different chemical structure of carbon resin. Carbon dioxide has a flexible copolymer chain, easily by changing its chemical structure to adjust its performance; easily across tropical catalyst, or micro-organisms under the action of Fen Jie, but can also be controlled by some measures: on the oxygen and other gases very low permeability. Can be used to develop the following products: 1. From aliphatic polycarbonate preparation and multi-isocyanate polyurethane material, better than ordinary polyester polyurethane hydrolysis resistance. 2. With a maleic anhydride copolymer as the third monomers; product is a carbon-based esters and unsaturated ester resin can be crosslinked, and also work with fiber like solid compound, is similar to the unsaturated polyester in general use a new material. 3. Aliphatic polycarbonate polymer blend can be obtained with a variety of different performance. Can be used as epoxy resin, PVC plastic, etc. toughening agents, plasticizers or processing aids. 4. Dioxide, ethylene oxide copolymers such as carbon dioxide, propylene oxide and succinic anhydride copolymer can be micro-organisms to break down, leaving no residue, is a class of promising biodegradable materials. 5. Dioxide copolymers have excellent biological compatibility. Copolymer is expected to be used specially designed materials or used as anticoagulant drug delivery agent. 6. Some of the copolymers can be used as solid carbon dioxide pigment or filler surface treatment agent, and oxygen barrier material, surface active agent, ceramic adhesives, hot melt adhesive, etc.. 7. Poly propylene carbonate and nitrile rubber blends with good heat aging properties of oil, better than ordinary mechanical properties of nitrile rubber, is an excellent new oil resistant rubber. The project cost per ton of carbon dioxide resin is about the price of raw material propylene oxide, equivalent to 3-30% of foreign technology, a good chance of development in foreign based. .PPC / NBR rubber type oil costs lower than with pure nitrile 10%, the cost per ton of product can be reduced more than 1,000 yuan. Common name: carbon dioxide English name: Carbon Dioxide Chinese alias: carbonic acid gas English Synonyms: Carbonic Acid Gas, Carbonic Anhydride Other carbon dioxide Ⅱ .2.10 carbon dioxide (CO2) CAS Registry Number [124-38-9] English name of CARBON DIOXIDE Also known as carbonic acid gas Carbon dioxide is a colorless under normal temperature and pressure, somewhat pungent and slightly sour odor of gas. CO2 molecule has 16 valence electrons, the ground state for the linear elements, is D ∞ h point group. CO2 molecules in the carbon and oxygen bond length of 116pm, ranging from carbon-oxygen double bond (aldehyde C = O bond length 124pm) and carbon-oxygen triple bond (CO molecules in the C ≡ O bond length 112.8pm) between indicates that it has a certain degree of triple bond characteristics. Therefore, some people think that CO2 molecules may exist delocalized π-bond, which carbon atoms and oxygen atoms in addition to the two keys, but also the formation of two three-center four-electron π-bond. Another said molecular structure is shown below: The early 17th century, the Belgian chemist JB Van. Helmont (1577 ~ 1644) in the detection of charcoal burning and gas by-product of the fermentation process, found the carbon dioxide. 1757, J. Black first application of quantitative methods of the gas. 1773, AL Lavoisier oxygen to carbon on heating, are what he called &quot;carbonic acid&quot; carbon dioxide gas and measuring the quality and composition of carbon 23.5 ~ 28.9%, 71.1 ~ 76.5% oxygen. 1823, M. Faraday discovered that pressure can be liquefied carbon dioxide gas. 1835, M. Thilorier obtained solid carbon dioxide (dry ice). In 1884, in Germany built the first factory production of liquid carbon dioxide. Abundant in nature, carbon dioxide, as part of atmospheric composition. Carbon dioxide is also included in some of the natural gas or oil and associated gas in the formation of carbonate ores. The atmosphere with carbon dioxide, 0.03 ~ 0.04% (by volume), total amount of about 2.75 × 1012t, mainly by the burning of carbon metabolism of the animals. In the national economy, carbon dioxide has a very wide range of applications. The main products are carbon dioxide, hydrogen from the ammonia system, the process gas, fermentation gas, lime-kiln gas, acid gas, ethylene oxide gas and flue gas side effects such as gas extraction and recovery, at present, commercial products, not less than 99% purity ( volume). How to make carbon dioxide and the chemical formula of carbon dioxide Laboratories of carbon dioxide: 2HCl + CaCO3 ==== CaCl2 + H2CO3 carbonic acid is unstable because, easy decomposition: H2CO3 == H2O + CO2 ↑ So 2HCl + CaCO3 ==== CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 ↑ Carbon dioxide dissolved in water to form carbonic acid: CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 To clarify the lime water in carbon dioxide will form white calcium carbonate: CO2 + Ca (OH) 2 == CaCO3 ↓ + H2O Industrial manufacturing method: high-temperature calcination of limestone CaCO3 ====== CaO + CO2 ↑ (high temperature) Harmful carbon dioxide Increasing temperature on Earth now, because increased carbon dioxide caused. Because carbon dioxide has an insulating effect, and now a member of this little force more and more, so that temperature, nearly 100 years, global temperatures 0.6 ℃, according to this continues, the expected mid-21st century, global temperatures will rise 1.5 - 4.5 ℃. Sea-level rise is caused by increased carbon dioxide, nearly 100 years, sea level rose 14 cm to the mid-21st century, sea level will be increased by 25 - 140 cm, sea level rise, the Amazon rainforest will disappear, polar sea The ice will melt. All of these changes in terms of wild animals is tantamount to disaster. Principles of carbon dioxide dry cleaning The most common dry cleaning technology is the use of hydrocarbons (oil), chlorinated hydrocarbons (such as PCE) as the solvent. However, the low flash point petroleum solvent, explosive flammable, dry slowly; pungent smell of chlorinated hydrocarbons, toxicity is high (generally limit the air content of 50ppm or less). Dry cleaning industry in particular, some European and American countries have been both in the search for a clean safe and efficient cleaning solvent, is introducing are green earth (Greenearth), RYNEX, and liquid carbon dioxide and other new cleaning agent. Greenearth is a clear odorless liquid, KB value (cleaning rate) and petroleum solvent similar to but lower than PCE, but also expensive; RYNEX the KB value of PCE is almost, but the higher water content and evaporation too slow, not easy regeneration and recovery, dry-cleaning cycle is long; liquid carbon dioxide than petroleum solvent high KB value, slightly lower than the PCE, but the bleeding, anti-fouling materials such as re-aggregation better than the PCE. Carbon dioxide as a metabolite of life activities and industrial by-products found in nature, mainly from thermal power, building materials, steel, chemicals, vehicle exhaust and natural carbon dioxide gas, which is caused by &quot;greenhouse effect&quot; of the main gas. Liquid carbon dioxide dry cleaning solvent is an industrial by-products, only to be used before its return to the natural look, and no increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. China&#39;s carbon dioxide emissions for the world&#39;s second (about 30 million tons), in order to take full advantage of this resource, we have established a number of research projects. Physical properties of liquid carbon dioxide Surface tension of about 3.0dyn/cm, density 0.8g/cm3, viscosity 0.082mm2 / s (12 ℃). Viscosity than the PCE O.88mm2 / s (20 ℃) is much lower, so more liquid carbon dioxide through fiber. Carbon dioxide is very stable molecular structure and chemical nature of the inactive and will not react chemically with the fabric. In addition, it low boiling point (-78.5 ℃), is a gas under normal temperature and pressure. Liquid carbon dioxide gas through the vacuum into the fabric is easy and isolated, completely eliminating the traditional solvent, the complex process of post-processing. Liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2 can be used as solvents, although supercritical CO2 is higher than the solubility of liquid CO2 (liquid with similar density and with high solubility, and the mix of gases, low viscosity and high penetration). But its equipment requirements than liquid CO2 high. Considering the cost of the machine and for CO2 as solvent, temperature controlled at about 15 ℃, the pressure around the 5MPa. Its characteristics are: no flash point, flammable; colorless, odorless, non-toxic. Carbon dioxide - Medicinal Pharmacology Low concentration for a living rational suction aspiration stimulant. When the air content of the product over normal (0.03%), the can breathe deeply and fast; such as the content of 1%, normal breathing can increase 25%; content of 3% to 2-fold increase in respiration. But when the content is 25%, will enable the paralysis of respiratory center and cause acidosis, it is not more than 10% of the inhaled concentration. Indications Clinical mostly the product 5 to 7% and 93 ~ 95% oxygen mixture inhalation, for first aid drowning, morphine, or carbon monoxide poisoning, neonatal asphyxia. Ether anesthesia, such as the increase containing 3 to 5% of the products of oxygen inhalation, anesthesia can increase efficiency and reduce respiratory tract irritation. Dosage Was prescribed inhaled high concentrations of .25% paralysis of respiratory center can, causing acidosis. Inhalation concentration of not more than 10%. Adverse reactions 25% of the inhalation of high concentration can paralyze the respiratory center, causing acidosis. Respirable concentration of not more than 10%. Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher To use carbon dioxide fire extinguisher Just when the fire extinguisher referred to or came through fire, at about 5 meters away from the burning object, the pin is pulled down fire extinguishers, first-hand grip megaphone root handle, one hand grasping the pressure to open and close valves. The absence of carbon dioxide fire extinguisher spray hose, should be 70-90 degrees megaphone up board. Use, can not directly hand to seize the megaphone outside wall or metal connection pipe to prevent the hand was freezing. Fire, when the flammable liquid was flowing like combustion, carbon dioxide fire extinguishing agent users jet flame from near and far to the jet. If burning flammable liquids in containers, the user should bring a megaphone. From the upper side of the container to spray the burning container. But not the direct impact of carbon dioxide jet fuel surface to prevent flammable liquids out of containers and expand the fire, causing fire fighting difficult. Trolley-style carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are generally two operations, when used together they will push or pull combustion fire extinguisher Department, in about 10 meters away from the combustion products to stop quickly removed one megaphone and start spraying hoses, the holding megaphone handles the roots, another quick counter-clockwise rotation by hand wheel, and open to the maximum position. Portable fire fighting methods and the same way. When using carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, in outdoor use, and should be chosen in the upwind direction of spray. Within the narrow space in outdoor use, the operator shall promptly after the fire left, to prevent suffocation.