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Basic Accounting Lecture 1


									Basic Accounting Lecture 1

Chapter I General Theory
1, Accounting Overview
(A) the accounting is based on the currency as the main units of measurement, and
monitoring of a unit reflects the economic activities of an economic management.
(B) the basic accounting functions including accounting and implementation of
accounting supervision.
Accounting functions of accounting refers to accounting for the currency as the main
units of measurement, by identifying, recording, calculation, reporting links to
specific subjects of economic activity accounted for, afterwards, reimbursement for
all parties involved to provide accounting information function.
Accounting oversight function is the accounting officer accounting during the same
time, the legitimacy of certain of the main economic activity, rationality review.
(C) the object of accounting refers to accounting by the accounting and monitoring of
the content. Any money given to the performance of the main economic activity,
accounting and supervision of all content, that is the object of accounting. Economic
activities in monetary terms the value is usually known as exercise or movement of
Second, the basic premise of accounting accounting entity, going concern, accounting,
and monetary measures four phases.
(A) the accounting by the accounting entity accounting and monitoring of specific
units or organizations, which defines the accounting and the provision of accounting
information in spatial extent.
Accounting subject and legal subject (legal entity) is not the concept of reciprocity,
corporate accounting as a subject, but the accounting entity is not necessarily legal.
(B) continuing operations (c) Accounting period
Into the annual accounting period, semi-annual, quarterly and monthly. Annual,
semi-annual, quarterly and monthly calendar start and end dates to determine Junan.
(D) the accounting of the main currencies used in the course in the accounting
currency as the common unit of measurement.
Accounting units shall be RMB as its functional currency. Business income and
expenditure in foreign currency-based unit can also choose a foreign currency as its
functional currency, but the preparation of the financial accounting report shall be
translated into reflected. Set up an overseas Chinese enterprises to the domestic
financial accounting reports submitted, shall be converted into RMB.
Third, the accounting elements and accounting equation
(A) the accounting elements of the basic classification of accounting objects, a
specific accounting object.
Assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses, profits referred to as the six companies
accounting elements. Among them, the assets, liabilities and equity elements of the
three accounting performance relative stationary movement of funds that reflect the
financial situation; income, expenses and profit performance of the three elements of
financial accounting exercise significant change in status, that reflect the
company's business results.
(B) Accounting equation
1, assets = liabilities + owner's equity
The capital investment of capital from owners and creditors of the borrowing of funds
and resulting in the production and operation efficiency, are attributed to owners and
creditors. Part attributable to the formation of owners equity; part attributable to the
formation of creditor rights and interests of creditors (the company's
liabilities). Assets from equity (including equity and creditor rights), assets and equity
must equal.
Assets and rights of the identity relationship is the theory of double-entry
bookkeeping foundation for business based on the balance sheet.
Four cases of economic business: Asset growth Asset with an internal one with less
assets, minus interest minus the internal one
2, Revenue - Cost = Profit
Income, expenses and profits of the relationship between the income statement is the
basis for enterprise establishment.
  ?3, all of the assets = liabilities + equity + (Revenue - Cost)
Chapter II the specific content of accounting and general requirements
First, the specific content of accounting
(A) receipt and payment of funds and securities
Amount of money as a means of payment of funds, including cash, bank deposits and
other deposits treated as cash and bank drafts bank deposits, bank deposits,
promissory notes, credit card deposits, letters of credit deposits. Securities is that a
certain property ownership or control over the securities, such as Treasury bills, stocks,
corporate bonds.
(B) the acceptance, delivery, change and use
Property is property, supplies short, business property is the enterprise production and
business activities and has a physical form of economic resources in general,
including raw materials, fuel, packaging, Audit & in the product, stock
merchandise and other current assets, and housing, buildings, machinery, equipment,
facilities, transportation and other fixed assets.
(C) claims, and settlement of debt
Claims the right to receive payment of enterprise generally include a variety of other
receivables and prepayments. Debt refers to the past transactions, matters of business
formation and other assets, or services need to pay the current obligations, including
the loans payable and advance payments, and dues and so on.
(D) capital increase or decrease in capital investors to carry out production and
business activities of their funds.
(E) income, expenses, costs, cost calculation
Income refers to the enterprises in selling products, providing services and
transferring the right to use assets such as daily activities in the economic interest of
the total inflow. Expenditure is the actual business of the expenditure, as well as
outside the normal production and operation expenses and losses. Overhead refers to
selling goods, providing services such as routine activities outflow of economic
benefits. Refers to the cost for the production of products, providing service to a
variety of cost is based on a certain product or service costs Guiji object is the object
of the cost.
 ?Income, expenses, costs, expenses and judgments are calculated results and the
shortage, the situation of enterprises the main basis.
(Vi) financial results of the calculation and handling
Financial results mainly refer to enterprises engaged in production in a given period
by operating activities in the financial results achieved, the specific performance of
the profit or loss. Financial results of the calculation and processing of general,
including the calculation of profit, income tax calculation, distribution of profits or
losses to make up for such.
Second, the general requirements for accounting
Accounting records shall be Chinese. In the autonomous region, accounting records
can use a national language common ground. In the PRC's foreign-invested
enterprises, foreign enterprises and other foreign organizations in the accounting
records, you can also use a foreign language.

Chapter III of accounts and account
1, Accounts refers to the specific details of the accounting classification elements of
the project accounts.
(B) the classification of accounts
Of accounts to provide information according to its level of detail and the relationship
of the exercise was divided into the total breakdown of classification of subjects and
courses. The former is a summary of accounting elements of the specific content of
the classification of accounts to provide summary information; the latter is a general
classification of subjects for further classification, to provide more detailed
accounting information more specific subjects. For more general ledger detail subjects
subjects subjects in the general classification of subjects and detail set between the
two or more grade subjects.
Ownership of accounts by the accounting elements of their differences into assets
classes, Liabilities, equity category, cost type, income class top-five.
(C) set the principles of accounting subjects
(1) the principle of legality, (2) the principle of relevance, (3) practical principles.
Second, account set up under the accounting subjects, have certain format and
structure of the elements of change in accounting for the classification changes and
the results of the carrier. Set account is an important method of accounting.
(B) the classification of accounts
With the corresponding classification of accounts, accounts are divided into the
general ledger accounts and details of accounts.
General ledger account is set up under the general classification of subjects for
specific elements of the content of the accounting classification of accounting
summary accounts, referred to as general ledger accounts or general ledger. According
to accounts reflect the economic content, it can be divided into two categories account
for assets, liabilities class accounts, equity type account, the cost of class accounts,
profit and loss account five categories.
Details of accounts are set up under the breakdown of subjects, for the content of the
accounting breakdown of the specific factors account for the account, referred to as a
breakdown. General ledger accounts as an accounts ledger accounts as the following
account details.
(C) the basic structure of accounts
Account is divided into left, right in two directions, one registered an increase,
reduction of the other register. As to which party registration increase, which party
registration less, depending on the records and accounts of the nature of economic
business. Increase the amount of current registration as the amount of current increase
occurs; registration to reduce the amount of current, called the amount of current to
reduce the occurrence; The net difference, called the balance. Different according to
the time that the balance is divided into the beginning balance and ending balance, the
basic relations are as follows:
Account the amount of four elements: Ending balance = beginning balance + amount
of current increase occurs - the amount of current to reduce the incidence
The basic structure of the specific accounts including account name (of accounts),
record the date of financial services, accounting certificate number on the basis of
economic business summary, increase or decrease the amount of balances.
(D) account and the accounting and differences between subjects
Of accounts and account details are on the accounting object of scientific
classification, both the same caliber, the same nature. Of accounts is the name of the
account is set up based on accounts; account the concrete application of the
accounting subjects. No accounting items, account will lose its basis set; not have an
account, you can not play the role of accounts. The difference is: Accounting Subject
only account name, there is no structure; the account is with a certain format and
structure. In practice, the accounting subjects and accounts without strict distinction,
but are universal.
Chapter double-entry bookkeeping
First, double-entry bookkeeping to balance between assets and equity accounting
basis as for an economy every business should be in two or more interrelated accounts
to register and systematically reflect the changes in the results of a capital campaign
kind of accounting method. Double bookkeeping is mainly debit and credit
Second, debit and credit accounting debit and credit accounting refers to
"borrow", "credit" for the accounting sign
of a double-entry bookkeeping method.
(B) debit and credit accounting method accounting symbols
Debit       and       credit     accounting      to     "borrow",
"credit" for accounting symbols, respectively, left and right as
the account. As for the "use" means to increase or
"credit" for increases, depending on the nature and structure of
(C) under the account debit and credit accounting structure
Asset classes that increase the debit account, the lender said the reduction in both
opening and closing balances in the borrower; equity credit class of accounts that
increase, the borrower said reduced opening and closing balances are in credit.
Asset class accounts closing balance = beginning balance + current debit the amount -
the amount of current credit occurred
Rights class account opening balance + ending balance = occurrence of current credit
amount - the amount of current debit
Cost (cost) class structure and asset class accounts account the same account structure
and interest income class the same class of accounts.
(D) the accounting rules of debit and credit accounting: there must have borrowed
loans, loans will be equal.
(5) debit and credit accounting method Shisuanpingheng
(1) the amount of Shisuanpingheng law occurred.
All current debit account Total amount of all accounts of the current period = Total
amount of credit
(2) balance Shisuanpingheng law.
All account opening balance debit account Total = all credit opening balance of total
All together, account debit closing balance = ending balance of all accounts of the
credit total
Third, accounting entries refers to a mark of its economic and business transactions
should be by the amount of credit accounts and records, referred to as entries.
(B) the classification of accounting entries
In accordance with the number of accounts involved, accounting entries are divided
into simple and complex accounting entries and accounting entries. Simple
accounting entry that involves only one account to another account debit and credit
accounting entries, that is, by a margin of accounting entries; complex accounting
entries refer to two or more (excluding 2) composed of the corresponding account
accounting entries, that is to take more loans, a credit to spend or borrow more loans
accounting entries.
(C) the preparation steps accounting entries
(1) determine the economic sector and the nature of the subjects involved (2)
determine the increase or decrease;
(3) to determine the direction of account (4) to determine the amount of the borrower
Fourth, general ledger accounts with the breakdown of the parallel register
(A) general ledger accounts with the breakdown of the relationship between
General ledger accounts of the breakdown of the exercise was controlled with the role;
breakdown of general ledger accounts on the role of a supplement. General ledger
accounts with their breakdown should equal the total amount.
(B) general ledger accounts with the breakdown of the parallel register
Registration is parallel to what happened on each of economic and business matters
are to accounting documents, based on the one hand, credited to the appropriate
general ledger account, on the other hand recorded breakdown of the respective
general ledger accounts method.
General ledger accounts with the breakdown of the parallel registration required: the
same basis, in the same direction, in the same period, the same amount.
Chapter accounting documents
First, the concept of accounting documents, significance and types
(A) of the accounting documents are records of economic and business transactions
occur or written proof of completion is based on the registration books.
(B) the significance of accounting documents
(1) The record of economic operations, providing the basis for entries; (2) a clear
economic responsibility, and strengthen internal controls;
(3) oversight of economic activity, control the economy.
(C) the types of accounting documents
The preparation of accounting documents in accordance with the procedures and use
different certificates into original documents and accounting.
Second, the original certificate
(A) of the original document, also known as documents, took place in the economy or
the completion of business acquired or filled in to record or prove the occurrence or
completion of economic and business conditions in the text credentials. (Purchase and
sales contracts, a variety of application form, bank statements, credit and debt and can
not be a single original document)
(B) the types of original documents
1. According to different sources Categories
(1) outside the original certificate. Outside the original certificate means the
occurrence or completion of economic business from other units or individuals direct
access to original documents.
(2) made the original certificate. Made the original certificate means the Internal
handling operations by the departments and personnel, in the execution or completion
of an economic business fill in, and only for its internal use of original documents.
2. In accordance with the procedures and content filled in different categories
(1) a certificate. Fill in a certificate that a complete record of an economic business
only original documents. A certificate is a valid certificate.
(2) The cumulative evidence. Cumulative evidence that several records that occurred
during a given period of economic operations with the type of original documents.
(3) summary of evidence. Summary of evidence refers to the same period of time to
reflect the contents of a number of economic and business Zhang original documents,
fill in according to certain standards of the original certificate integrated.
3. In accordance with the format of different categories
(1) General certificate. General evidence that printed by the department concerned, in
a certain range using a uniform format and use the original documents.
(2) special certificate. Special certificate from the unit to produce their own means, its
internal use only original documents.
(C) the basic content of the original documents
(1) the name of the original documents; (2) fill in the date of original documents; (3)
Name of receiving the original certificate;
(4) economic and business content (including quantity, unit price, amount, etc.); (5)
filled in units of signature;
(6) The officer signature; (7) certificate annex.
(D) fill in the original certificate requirements
(1) records to be true. (2) the content to be complete. (3) The procedures must be in
place. (4) written to clear
(5) number to be continuous. If the original certificate has been given pre-printed
number, bad writing aside, we should stamp "void" stamp, good
care, not torn.
(6) may not be altered, scratch, Patching. Original document contains errors, should
be reopened by the issuing unit or corrections, corrections Department issued the
official seal shall be affixed. Wrong amount of the original certificate should be
re-opened by the issuing unit shall not be corrected in the original certificate on. (7)
filled in a timely manner.
(E) review the contents of the original certificate
The contents of the original audit documents include: original documents of
authenticity, legitimacy, rationality, integrity, accuracy and timeliness.
The original documents should be audited according to different circumstances:
(1) full compliance with the requirements for original documents shall be promptly
recorded, according to the preparation of accounting documents;
(2) For real, legitimate, reasonable, but the contents are incomplete, filled with errors
of the original documents shall be returned to the handler, to be responsible for Jiang
added that the evidence complete, correct the error or re-opened, then go through
formal accounting procedures ;
(3) true, original documents are not legal, accounting bodies and accounting personnel
have the right not to accept the report to the person in charge.
Third, accounting certificate
(A) accounting certificate, also known as accounting vouchers, accounting officer
under review and correct the original certificate in accordance with the contents of
economic and business matters to be classified, and established the accounting entries
filled in after the accounting documents. It is the direct basis for the registration
(B) the types of accounting documents
1. By the content classification
(1) receiving vouchers. Payment certificate is used to record cash and bank
receivables of accounting documents.
(2) proof of payment. Proof of payment is used to record the payment in cash and
bank deposits, business accounting documents.
(3) Transfer Certificate. Transfer certificate is used to record non-cash and bank
deposits of accounting documents.
2. Fill out the form according to classification
(1) double certificate. Compound documents refer to an economic and business
transactions each involved in all accounting items and place an account in the same
amount of evidence are reflected in a certificate.
(2) single-type documents. Every single type certificate is a certificate only to fill out
the economic and business accounting issues involved in an accounting course and the
amount of accounting documents. Fill out the debit subjects as debit vouchers, fill out
the credit subject called credit voucher.
(C) the basic content of accounting documents
(1) the name of the certificate account; (2) fill in the date of accounting documents;
(3) accounting certificate number; (4) Summary of economic and business matters;
(5) economic and business issues involved in the direction of Accounts and
(6) the amount of economic and business matters; (7) accounting mark;
(8) the number of sheets attached to original documents; (9), accounting supervisor,
accounting, audit, treasury, the system lists and other related personnel signature.
(D) the preparation of accounting documents required
1. The basic requirements
(1) accounting of the contents of documents must be complete.
(2) The accounting documents should be numbered consecutively. A need to fill in
two or more economic business accounting certificate, can use fractional numbers
method number.
(3) The account certificate for each piece of the original documents can be completed,
or under the same number of sheets are prepared by the original documents can also
be filled in accordance with the original evidence summary; but not different types of
original content and fill in the certificate summary an account on the certificate.
(4) In addition to billing and accounting documents to correct errors may not be
attached to original documents, other accounting documents must be accompanied by
original documents.
(5) accounting certificate, fill in the event of an error, it should be filled in again.
Registration certificate has been recorded in the accounting year was found in the
complete wrong, you can fill in with red ink the same piece of content with the
original accounting documents, in the summary column marked "cancel a
certificate dated but a good number," words, while re- re-filled in with blue
ink, a correct accounting documents, marked "revised a number of a
certificate on a particular day," the words. If no error of accounts, but the
amount of error, and it can correct the error number and the difference between the
figures compiled an adjustment of the other accounting documents, the amount
transferred by use of blue, red reduced the amount of use. Accounting certificate
found errors in previous years, it shall be filled in with blue ink, a correction of
accounting documents.
(6) If the empty row, last column should be the amount of amount of money from the
number of blank lines under the total number of office to office on the blank line
crossed off.
2. Receipt by the preparation of requirements
Receipt by the upper left corner of the "debit subjects,"
according to the nature of the receivable fill out the "cash" or
3. Proof of payment of the preparation of requirements
Proof of payment the upper left corner from "credit course"
according to the nature of the receivable fill out the "cash" or
Involving "cash" and "bank" between the
economic business, generally the preparation of payment certificates, payment
vouchers not compiled.
4. Transfer certificate of establishment requirements
(E) the content of accounting audit certificate
Accounting audit certificates should include: content is true; projects are complete;
subjects are correct; amount is correct; writing is correct.
Cashier in the process of collection or payment business, the certificate should be
stamped "received" or "paid" stamp in
order to avoid re-entry re-pay.
Fourth, the transmission and storage of accounting documents
(A) the transfer of accounting documents
Transfer accounting certificate is obtained from the accounting documents of the
archive or fill in custody until the process when, in the Internal transfer between the
relevant departments and personnel procedures.
Accounting documents of transfer to be able to meet the requirements of the internal
control system, so that reasonable and effective delivery process, while saving as
much as possible delivery time, reduce the workload transfer. (B) the accounting
documents in the custody of

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