Analysis of Toyota (TOYOTA) soft power YOUCOH CIMS · excellent optical and electrical Chairman / Pan Fangsong People wonder: Toyota is the only &quot;black box&quot;! Toyota is the home incredible company! Toyota has the magic to (super-competitive), not the Toyota production system itself (hard power), but he&#39;s soft power, that is the endless improvement culture. The former can be said that the form of TPS, which is a TPS of God, they complement each other. It is because of improved culture that makes Toyota became the incredible &quot;black box.&quot; System and method for tangible, more experts and scholars have commented on this will not repeat. I will focus on Toyota&#39;s soft power (taking root everywhere to improve the philosophy and the improvement of culture) and how to build soft power and other issues described. TPS Why is it so difficult to learn? 1, copy the practices of the Toyota specific ineffective In Japan, a story circulated. Chrysler before the U.S. Big Three Luoboteyi Tung, former CEO at a press conference in early 1994 with pride that &quot;we have reached the same with the Japanese car production efficiency, not from fear, and Toyota competition! &quot;The reason is to spend huge amounts of money in 1993, Chrysler asked the United States,&quot; known &quot;Toyota TPS of a consultant introduced the Toyota Production System, production efficiency has been improved significantly. Six months later, Chrysler sent a cadre to go Toyota visit, observe and learn a whole day&#39;s end, the cadres and marvelous, simply concluded that Chrysler did not learn the real thing. Such stories are taking place in China. According to media reports, Toyota, TPS 1978, shortly after the release, the then director Liu Shou FAW Toyota on led to the study, after the Organization of two cadres of the workshop for learning, then please Taiichi Ohno, founder of TPS to plant lecture and to engage in pilot production line, built TPS model line. 1:00 off the factory TPS craze to learn, but soon disappeared. In the 1990s, FAW transmission plant to try again to introduce TPS, no increase in the number of equipment, personnel and financial resources, the production capacity from 80,000 up to 120,000, but was not the wind. The next step is 2002, FAW formed the leading group for the introduction of Toyota Production System. Year in September, FAW Car Company led by the deputy general manager Liu Shuhua and production of more than 20 key leadership workshop took more than a month to go to Japan to learn TPS. Seem to learn the corresponding results obtained, FAW Car final efficient use of existing resources to produce high-quality Mazda 6 sedan, FAW has become a model for studying TPS. But the insider said: &quot;We have learned, only scratched the surface of the Toyota Production System.&quot; 2, Toyota recognized the hard power and soft power One wonders why Toyota TPS so difficult to learn? Answer this question requires a deep understanding of the competitiveness of both the Toyota, a tangible hard power, soft power the other is invisible. So far, Toyota just announced a near-perfect system of thought and methods of architecture, and for improving the philosophy and gradually improve the culture and how it reached in 1978 and how the problem into the future, Toyota people did not or do not want to make clear. In my opinion, Toyota&#39;s external hard power is the &quot;end&quot;, within the soft power is &quot;the.&quot; Toyota in the study, people consciously or unconsciously, the cart before the horse a serious phenomenon. Toyota paid more attention to external things, such as efficient production line, dedicated staff, low defect rate of products, clean and tidy and smart and convenient on-site tools, equipment, etc., and was touched by these wonderful things. Toyota said a study, people first thought is to learn, imitate or copy these wonderful &quot;results&quot;, few people see through the appearance of nature. Few people know that these good &quot;results&quot; is what was created, Toyota, the number of employees paid a sweat and wisdom. There is also little research, Toyota&#39;s philosophy of how to improve the formation and was deeply implanted in vivo employees, improve employee culture, and Toyota is how to improve cultivation practices, and Toyota&#39;s leadership and staff how they have gone through a difficult process. Toyota TPS in learning when to improve construction of philosophy and to improve the cultural issues, people, or not paid enough attention, or do nothing. We should be clear, by imitating or copying the practices of a number of TPS did get the improvement of production efficiency, but such a study can only bring temporary results, but does not give companies the ability to bring sustainable, that is not the final form full participation in the improvement of culture. Bartering is the obvious consequences, and most enterprises have learned only superficial, but not learn the essence. Chrysler is the case, more enterprises as well. We should also clearly seen in the Toyota, all the eyes in the Toyota is not the best, even if you can copy all of today&#39;s Toyota tangible things, you can not compete with them, because Toyota is constantly every day people improve with everything here. Toyota have to improve the philosophy of science One of Toyota&#39;s soft power is taking root improvement philosophy. Improve understanding and learning philosophy is that we start the first step in learning activities. 1, the problem will always exist, to improve the open-ended Toyota people have a belief that &quot;there is always a better way&quot;, that the improvement is endless. This allows everyone convinced that this is Toyota and nurture high-level long-term adherence results. This improvement philosophy, the first inquiry is a law, the pursuit of perfection, attention to detail ways of thinking, followed by a course in the pursuit of the best Castle Peak does not relax insist the &quot;professionalism.&quot; Each of them willing and active position and from the customer requirement external competition starting, objective, clear and detailed exposure and analysis of their own problems, explore truth, to find a reasonable solution to details and sustained improvements, both to improve operational efficiency, but also enhance its capacity. Based on this philosophy of continuous improvement and eventually become a source of competitive Toyota is Toyota&#39;s core and essence of production. Toyota, continuous improvement is a &quot;job activities&quot;, is organized to ensure the staff involved in the post, and not people think of personal freedom and independence of the amateur acts; it is persistent in pursuit of perfect targeting long-term behavior instead of intermittent long-term objective of short-term behavior; it is the employees, through their own wisdom and paid labor, the accumulation of achievements and experiences, &quot;organizational memory&quot; of the process, rather than spontaneous and not the accumulation of knowledge of rash behavior . In short, the &quot;continuous improvement&quot; after long-term accumulation, inheritance and innovation, has become the staff&#39;s habits and character, is a ubiquitous organizational climate and culture. 2, the staff is not good, is the manager&#39;s fault Westerners think that only 20% of the staff is excellent, 70% -80% is mediocre, there may be 10% is poor, the so-called 28 rule. The Toyota people think that 10% of the staff is excellent, 80% of the staff is excellent, only 10% or even less than the staff is relatively poor. Even worse is that 10% of the employees because of poor management is not taught well or manager failed to create conditions for them to do so on. A situation, they believe that employees work more than 90% bad or mistakes are &quot;unconscious error&quot;, that is unintentional mistake (forgot to install the screw, such as recording errors, scratch products, etc.), would like to bundle through the system staff to to avoid such mistakes is unwise. Only managers use their brains or their staff to explore the wisdom, come up with no errors in the &quot;heart touching&quot; or &quot;correction&quot; approach is the case. Another situation is not good for staff to follow some systems, managers reflect on whether the system easy to implement. For example, managers require employees to be back in the toolbox used tool, the implementation of a bad experience when we should reflect on the appropriateness of the toolbox style or location of the problem and make improvements based on actual needs. The best practice is, managers and staff with the decision or the decision by the employees own toolbox of styles and display location. Based on this thinking, the way managers can work from a &quot;management and supervision&quot; to &quot;services, counseling,&quot; the radical changes, this change is not only shortened the distance between managers and the managed, more importantly, can train staff to improve self-management and self-awareness and ability. Reflect the extreme philosophy that has a strong oriental flavor, this philosophical conflict of the decision of the European business practices in Japan is difficult to learn. Thousands of years in a Confucian cultural heritage of China, the experience has proven that our manager is completely possible. 3 people-oriented staff development is more important than performance Toyota advocate &quot;people-oriented&quot; thinking, stressing that &quot;respect for human beings&quot;, &quot;pay attention to the role of man&quot; and &quot;the pursuit of self-management.&quot; Toyota-style &quot;people first&quot; and Western &quot;people-oriented&quot; both similarities are different. Things in common is that emphasize respect for human beings. Western &quot;people-oriented&quot;, focusing on the idea of employee rights and freedom of environment and climate protection. Toyota&#39;s &quot;people first&quot;, mainly in the emphasis on employee development, that is, to enhance staff awareness and capacity; and to the competitiveness of enterprises and each employee&#39;s awareness and ability to lift. We say that the biggest waste of corporate intelligence is a waste of staff, talking is the truth. You light the author in the successful practice and now supporting client companies to do to improve the process, have realized the significance of this thinking. Toyota and Ricoh and other manufacturers of some good in the performance appraisal area is very extensive, and they think that the most important role in performance appraisal is to improve the direction of staff tips. They kind of based on &quot;precise number&quot; of the performance appraisal and reward system not agree. The Chinese enterprises to &quot;Performance Assessment&quot; Most are enthusiastic, mainly because of this &quot;American-style management&quot; look quick, easy, managers feel relaxed. The competency center human resources development, to assessment than simply the management model for the center is much more difficult. It requires managers with respect, caring human nature and breadth of vision, enterprise and down is a community awareness and state, and &quot;preaching, Tuition, FAQ,&quot; the quality and capacity. Enterprise also for the staff, &quot;ability&quot; to create a good organization continuously improve conditions (promotion system) and display their stage (improved and published various mechanisms). Should be said that Japanese individual capacity building is difficult and gradual, orderly and managers have enough patience. But as long as the competition between manufacturing companies exist, so Chinese companies can not expect to jump on this difficult and slow to open. 4 to the poor thinking, to achieve the rich cycle Toyota were made to eliminate all waste, which is obviously a &quot;poor&quot; mentality. Toyota&#39;s management is positioning itself as a &quot;poor&quot;, and strive to be able to &quot;do without rice (or less meters) of straw&quot; and thrifty &quot;housewife.&quot; However, people who&#39;ve been to Toyota Toyota people had to recognize employees, customers and suppliers generous. Shows that Toyota&#39;s frugal and generous is the principle. Against this idea, two aspects need to correct the reader from thinking. On the one hand, entrepreneurs from Toyota and Taiichi Ohno, the successor to the back, &quot;the poor&quot; position remains unchanged. Throughout to imbue the staff continued to pursue lean thinking, and mobilize employees to act to eliminate all waste management. All along, the Toyota people always concentrate on quality, efficiency, cost, delivery and so relentless pursuit. They know, who would reduce the variable costs to do, such as lowering prices of materials or components, to seek lower-cost labor, etc., but the objective conditions determine these efforts are limited. Therefore, the focus is on eliminating waste practices, production processes, logistics methods, production and information cycle that is highly effective research and improvement. On the other hand, the specific operation in the process of eliminating waste, but also play a good &quot;housewife&quot; role, that is trying to achieve &quot;the rich cycle.&quot; In other words, managers can not themselves as &quot;poor&quot;, on any &quot;squeeze&quot; production site, as they are poor as the poor, no time and human resource management improvement. Managers also can not regard themselves as &quot;poor&quot;, they have no principles to squeeze profit margins of suppliers, take advantage of them, let them struggling in the loss of the edge, or even whether they live or die. The correct approach is that &quot;generously&quot; to the production site (all departments) have the appropriate &quot;surplus (mainly manpower and time)&quot;, and asked them to put them through &quot;surplus&quot; to improve access than the &quot;surplus&quot; more improvement in income; &quot;generously&quot; for suppliers to maintain the appropriate &quot;surplus&quot; (profit margin), and through the input of these &quot;surplus&quot; for management improvement, so that the entire supply chain and stronger, gain more space for development. In the deteriorating business environment today, our business manager should be willing to &quot;poor&quot; positioning, but is easy to forget the other as a &quot;housewife&quot; role of the target. Managers must carefully consider how to become a &quot;housewife&quot; of the problem, Jiyu sales, She Ji, Xian Chang Sheng Chan and logistics, and supply departments and other relevant Fang Shang appropriate &quot;surplus (ability)&quot; in order to achieve the management and improvement in rich loop.