AP POETRY PACKET—BAKER
50 POETRY TERMS
Types of Poems:
2. Blank Verse:
3. Dramatic Monologue:
5. Epic Poetry:
6. Free Verse:
7. Haiku: Japanese verse in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, often depicting a delicate image.
8. Light Verse: A general category of poetry written to entertain, such as lyric poetry, epigrams, and limericks. It can also have
a serious side, as in parody or satire.
9. Limerick: Humorous nonsense verse in five anapestic lines rhyming aabba, a-lines being trimeter and b-lines being dimeter.
10. Lyric Poetry:
11. Narrative: Non-dramatic, objective verse with regular rhyme scheme and meter that relates a story or narrative.
13. Pastoral (also referred to as Idyll):
18. Enjambment: A poetic expression that spans more than one line. Lines exhibiting enjambment do not end with grammatical breaks,
and their sense is not complete without the following line(s). This differs from end-stopped lines, that stop at the end (through
caesura or a full stop indicated by punctuation)
19. Inversion: Reversing the normal order of sentence parts.
Meter & Rhyme:
27. Dissonance/ Cacophony (include Euphony):
28. End Rhyme: Rhyme occurring at the ends of verse lines; most common rhyme form.
29. Internal Rhyme (see Rhyme):
32. Rhyme: The repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem.
Rhyme scheme: Pattern of rhymes within a unit of verse; in analysis each end rhyme-sound is represented by a letter. (ex.
ABBA ABBA CDCDCD)
Poetic Devices & Figurative Language:
42. Juxtaposition: A poetic or rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed nest to one
another, creating an effect of surprise and wit.
Meter is poetry's rhythm, or its pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Meter is measured in units of feet; the seven basic
kinds of metric feet are indicated below. Accent marks indicate STRESSED (') or unstressed (˘) syllables.
Type of Metric Foot Accent
Like words make up sentences in prose, metrical units (feet) are the building blocks of lines of verse; lines are named
according to the number of feet they contain:
Number of Metric Feet Type of Line
one foot MANOmeter
two feet DImeter
three feet TRImeter
four feet TETRAmeter
five feet PENTAmeter
six feet HEXAmeter
seven feet HEPTAmeter
eight feet ODOmeter (rare)
Scansion is the analysis of these mechanical elements within a poem to determine meter. Feet are marked off with
slashes ( / ) and accented appropriately ('-stressed, ˘-unstressed).
Emily Dickinson's "Because I Could Not Stop for Death" is scanned here:
Because/ I could/ not stop/ for Death
He kindly stopped for me
The Carriage held but just ourselves
In prose, words make up sentences, and sentences make up paragraphs. In poetry, metric feet make up lines, which
make up stanzas. A stanza is to a poem what a paragraph is to a narrative or an essay. Stanzas are identified by the
number of lines they contain.
Number of Lines Type of Stanza
8 octet (octave)
9 (or more) x-lined stanza (example: 9-lined stanza, 10-lined stanza)
Rhyme: Repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem.
End Rhyme: Occurs at the end of lines
Internal Rhyme: Occurs within the lines
Masculine Rhyme—rhyming single syllable words (shade/blade) or words that rhyme in the last syllable
of a multi-syllable word (defend/contend)
Feminine Rhyme--rhyme stressed syllables followed by one or more rhymed unstressed syllables
(gratitude/attitude)…words are longer and more syllables rhyme
Off rhyme/Slant Rhyme/Near Rhyme/Approximate Rhyme: The sounds are almost but not exactly alike.
The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free;
We were the first that ever burst
Into that silent sea.
FROM ―RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER‖ SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE
The pattern of rhymed lines in a poem is called rhyme scheme. A rhyme scheme is indicated by giving each new rhyme
a new letter of the alphabet. For example, the rhyme scheme for Coleridge’s stanza above is abcb. Poetry without any
regular rhyme scheme is called free verse. For the following poem, determine rhyme scheme.
THE HAND THAT SIGNED THE PAPER (1936)
BY DYLAN THOMAS
SYNECDOCHE The hand that signed the paper felled a city; CONCEIT
Five sovereign fingers taxed the breath,
Doubled the globe of dead and halved a country;
These five kings did a king to death.
The mighty hand leads to a sloping shoulder,
The finger joints are cramped with chalk;
METONYMY A goose's quill has put an end to murder ENJAMBMENT
That put an end to talk.
The hand that signed the treaty bred a fever,
And famine grew, and locusts came;
Great is the hand that holds dominion over
Man by a scribbled name.
The five kings count the dead but do not soften
The crusted wound nor pat the brow;
A hand rules pity as a hand rules heaven;
Hands have no tears to flow.
Alliteration: Consonance: Assonance: Internal Rhyme
The repetition of Repetition of final Repetition of similar vowel
consonant sounds in words consonant sounds after sounds followed by different
consonant sounds in words
that are close one different vowel sounds:
that are close together
another. Usually at the East—West, Dig—Dog,
(different from exact rhyme
beginning of words—can Turn—Torn, Struts— in that it does not repeat the
be within (baby blue). Frets. consonant sound following the
TROPES RHETORICAL FIGURES
Trope comes from a word that literally means ―turning‖; to trope (with figures of speech) is, figuratively speaking, to turn or twist
some word or phrase to make it mean something else.
A metaphor is described as a figure of speech which makes an implied comparison. More specifically a trope, a metaphor compares
two unlike things. Metaphor comes from the Greek meaning ―carry out a change.‖ Tenor and vehicle classify the relationship
between a writer’s ideas and the descriptive terms used to describe them. The image used to represent is called a vehicle of the
metaphor, the object represented is called the tenor. In ―the road was a ribbon of moonlight…‖ the tenor is ―road,‖ and the vehicle
is the ―ribbon of moonlight.‖
Unlike tropes, which turn one word or phrase into a representation of something else, rhetorical figures involve a less radical use of
language to achieve special effects.
Antithesis: two ideas directly opposed
Apostrophe: speaker directly and often emotionally addresses a person who is dead of otherwise not physically present.
Chiasmus: certain words, sounds, concepts, or syntactic structures are reversed or repeated in reverse order.
FAIR IS FOUL, FOUL IS FAIR.
Parallelism: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, etc…are consciously organized into grammatically similar structures.
Rhetorical questions: What is a rhetorical question?
Syllepsis grammatical structure in which one word or phrase governs or is otherwise related to two or more different words
or phrases, but in a strikingly or suggestively different way.
Zeugma HE LEANED ON HIS LECTURN AND HIS STALE JOKES.
Amplification: dramatic ordering of words emphasizing an expansion or progression
Anaphora: exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of successive lines or sentences.
Antonomasia: involves the regular substitution of an epithet for a proper name.
Aposiopesis: individual sentences left suggestively incomplete or otherwise involving a dramatic breaking off of discourse—
suggesting the speaker has been rendered speechless.
Asyndeton: deliberate omission of conjunctions to create a concise, terse, and often memorable statement. VENI, VIDI, VICI.
Hyperbaton (Anastrophe): reversal of word order to make a point.
THIS IS THE SORT OF ENGLISH UP WITH WHICH I WILL NOT PUT.
Paralipsis (Praeteritio): speaker’s assertion that he or she will not discuss something that he or she in fact goes on to discuss.
Occultatio: attempts to conceal the speaker’s true motive in speaking
Occupatio: if the speaker claims he or she is otherwise too occupied or is too busy to address a topic.
Peripharasis (Pleonasm): involves elevated language, redundancy or circumlocution; alternatively, speaking or writing that is
intentionally and unnecessarily wordy.
Pun (Paranomasia): play on words that capitalizes on a similarity of spelling and/ or pronunciation between words that have
different meanings, or a word with multiple meanings.
Aspects of a Poem
1. Dramatic Situation: the circumstances of the speaker
2. Tone: the author's attitude toward his/her audience and subject
3. Theme: the author's major idea or meaning
When looking for other things that contribute to meaning:
F Figurative language (words that are not to be taken literally) include imagery (using the senses to create
an effect). Look for comparisons (simile, metaphor, and personification), hyperbole (gross exaggeration),
wonderful description, precise nouns, vivid verbs...
Rhythm (how the words—sentences flow. Are they choppy, smooth, pulsing, short, long...)? What did you
see that was special and/or clearly used by the author for effect? Discuss what was done and what you
believe the purpose was (For tension? To create a sense of calm? To mislead the reader?). Look for
sentence structure—short, long—broken up with lots of punctuation or very little. Is there enjambment?
Look at syllabication of words, rhyme scheme, and interplay between sounds (hard, soft, etc…).
Emphasis (placing importance on something—stressing an idea)—what did you see that was special and/or
clearly used by the author for effect? Discuss what was done and what you believe the purpose was—(For
tension? To create a sense of calm? To mislead the reader? To contribute to the rhythm of the writing?).
Look for things like underlining, bolding, italics, punctuation (exclamation points, sometimes dashes), using
capital letters, changing font size, and REPETITION.
Diction (Word Choice) – What did you see that was special and/or clearly used by the author for effect?
Discuss what was done and what you believe the purpose was—(For tension? To create a sense of calm? To
mislead the reader? To contribute to the rhythm of the writing?). Look for things like alliteration,
onomatopoeia, precise nouns (the PERFECT one), vivid verbs (they clarify the image), sounds—hard, soft,
MY PAPA’S WALTZ (1948)
BY THEODORE ROETHKE
The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We romped until the pans 5
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
Could not unfrown itself.
The hand that held my wrist
Was battered on one knuckle; 10
At every step you missed
My right ear scraped a buckle.
You beat time on my head
With a palm caked hard by dirt,
Then waltzed me off to bed 15
Still clinging to your shirt.
PASSIONATE SHEPHERD TO HIS LOVE (1599) THE NYMPH’S REPLY (1600)
BY CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE BY SIR WALTER RALEIGH
Come live with me and be my love, If all the world and love were young,
And we will all the pleasures prove And truth in every shepherd's tongue,
That valleys, groves, hills, and fields, These pretty pleasure89s might me move
Woods, or steepy mountain yields. To live with thee and be thy love.
And we will sit upon rocks, 5 Time drives the flocks from field to fold 5
Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks, When rivers rage and rocks grow cold,
By shallow rivers to whose falls And Philomel becometh dumb;
Melodious birds sing madrigals. The rest complains of cares to come.
And I will make thee beds of roses The flowers do fade, and wanton fields
And a thousand fragrant poises, 10 To wayward winter reckoning yields; 10
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle A honey tongue, a heart of gall,
Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle; Is fancy's spring, but sorrow's fall,
A gown made of the finest wool Thy gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of roses,
Which from our pretty lambs we pull; Thy cap, thy kirtle, and thy posies
Fair lined slippers for the cold, 15 Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten-- 15
With buckles of the purest gold; In folly ripe, in reason rotten.
A belt of straw and ivy buds, Thy belt of straw and ivy buds,
With coral clasps and amber studs; Thy coral claps and somber studs,
And if these pleasures may thee move, All these in me no means can move
Come live with me, and be my love. 20 To come to thee and be thy love. 20
The shepherds' swains shall dance and sing But could youth last and love still breed,
For thy delight each May morning: Had joys no date nor age no need,
If these delights thy mind may move, Then these delights my mind might move
Then live with me and be my love. To live with thee and be thy love.
SONNET 130 (~1609)
BY WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damask'd, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare.
BY PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY
I met a traveler from an antique land
Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,
Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read,
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed,
And on the pedestal these words appear:
―My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:
Look upon my works, ye Mighty, and despair!‖
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.
LA BELLE DAME SANS MERCI (1819)
BY JOHN KEATS
Oh what can ail thee, knight-at-arms, She found me roots of relish sweet, 25
Alone and palely loitering? And honey wild, and manna-dew,
The sedge has withered from the lake, And sure in language strange she said -
And no birds sing. 'I love thee true'.
Oh what can ail thee, knight-at-arms, 5 She took me to her elfin grot,
So haggard and so woe-begone? And there she wept and sighed full sore, 30
The squirrel's granary is full, And there I shut her wild wild eyes
And the harvest's done. With kisses four.
I see a lily on thy brow, And there she lulled me asleep
With anguish moist and fever-dew, 10 And there I dreamed - Ah! woe betide! -
And on thy cheeks a fading rose The latest dream I ever dreamt 35
Fast withereth too. On the cold hill side.
I met a lady in the meads, I saw pale kings and princes too,
Full beautiful - a faery's child, Pale warriors, death-pale were they all;
Her hair was long, her foot was light, 15 They cried - 'La Belle Dame sans Merci
And her eyes were wild. Hath thee in thrall!' 40
I made a garland for her head, I saw their starved lips in the gloam,
And bracelets too, and fragrant zone; With horrid warning gaped wide,
She looked at me as she did love, And I awoke and found me here,
And made sweet moan. 20 On the cold hill's side.
I set her on my pacing steed, And this is why I sojourn here 45
And nothing else saw all day long, Alone and palely loitering,
For sidelong would she bend, and sing Though the sedge is withered from the lake,
A faery's song. And no birds sing.
ODE ON A GRECIAN URN (1819)
BY JOHN KEATS
Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness, Who are these coming to the sacrifice?
Thou foster-child of silence and slow time, To what green altar, O mysterious priest,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies,
A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme: And all her silken flanks with garlands drest?
What leaf-fring'd legend haunts about thy shape 5 What little town by river or sea shore, 35
Of deities or mortals, or of both, Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel,
In Tempe or the dales of Arcady? Is emptied of this folk, this pious morn?
What men or gods are these? What maidens loth? And, little town, thy streets for evermore
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape? Will silent be; and not a soul to tell
What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy? 10 Why thou art desolate, can e'er return. 40
Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard O Attic shape! Fair attitude! with brede
Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on; Of marble men and maidens overwrought,
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd, With forest branches and the trodden weed;
Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone: Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought
Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave 15 As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral! 45
Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare; When old age shall this generation waste,
Bold lover, never, never canst thou kiss, Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe
Though winning near the goal -- yet, do not grieve: Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st,
She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, `Beauty is truth, truth beauty, -- that is all
For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair! 20 Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.' 50
Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed
Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu;
And, happy melodist, unwearièd,
For ever piping songs for ever new;
More happy love! more happy, happy love! 25
For ever warm and still to be enjoy'd,
For ever panting, and for ever young;
All breathing human passion far above,
That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloy'd,
A burning forehead, and a parching tongue. 30
BY LORD ALFRED TENNYSON
It little profits that an idle king, This labor, by slow prudence to make mild
By this still hearth, among these barren crags, A rugged people, and through soft degrees
Matched with an aged wife, I mete and dole Subdue them to the useful and the good.
Unequal laws unto a savage race, Most blameless is he, centered in the sphere
That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me. 5 Of common duties, decent not to fail 40
I cannot rest from travel; I will drink In offices of tenderness, and pay
Life to the lees. All times I have enjoyed Meet adoration to my household gods,
Greatly, have suffered greatly, both with those When I am gone. He works his work, I mine.
That loved me, and alone; on shore, and when There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail;
Through scudding drifts the rainy Hyades 10 There gloom the dark broad seas. My mariners, 45
Vest the dim sea. I am become a name; Souls that have toiled, and wrought, and thought with me,-
For always roaming with a hungry heart That ever with a frolic welcome took
Much have I seen and known,—cities of men The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed
And manners, climates, councils, governments, Free hearts, free foreheads,—you and I are old;
Myself not least, but honored of them all; 15 Old age had yet his honor and his toil. 50
And drunk delight of battle with my peers, Death closes all; but something ere the end,
Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy. Some work of noble note, may yet be done,
I am part of all that I have met; Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods.
Yet all experience is an arch wherethrough The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks;
Gleams that untravelled world, whose margin fades 20 The long day wanes; the slow moon climbs; the deep
Forever and forever when I move. Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends,
How dull it is to pause, to make an end, ’Tis not too late to seek a newer world.
To rust unburnished, not to shine in use! Push off, and sitting well in order smite
As though to breath were life! Life piled on life The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds
Were all to little, and of one to me 25 To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths 60
Little remains; but every hour is saved Of all the western stars, until I die.
From that eternal silence, something more, It may be that the gulfs will wash us down;
A bringer of new things; and vile it were It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,
For some three suns to store and hoard myself, And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.
And this gray spirit yearning in desire 30 Though much is taken, much abides; and though 65
To follow knowledge like a sinking star, We are not now that strength which in the old days
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought. Moved earth and heaven; that which we are, we are;
This is my son, mine own Telemachus, One equal-temper of heroic hearts,
To whom I leave the scepter and the isle,- Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfill 35 To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. 70
WHEN I WAS ONE-AND-TWENTY (1896)
BY A.E. HOUSMAN
When I was one-and-twenty
I heard a wise man say,
'Give crowns and pounds and guineas
But not your heart away;
Give pearls away and rubies 5
But keep your fancy free.'
But I was one-and-twenty,
No use to talk to me.
When I was one-and-twenty
I heard him say again, 10
'The heart out of the bosom
Was never given in vain;
'Tis paid with sighs a plenty
And sold for endless rue.'
And I am two-and-twenty, 15
And oh, 'tis true, 'tis true.
MUSÉE DES BEAUX ARTS (1939)
BY W.H. AUDEN
About suffering they were never wrong,
The Old Masters; how well, they understood
Its human position; how it takes place
While someone else is eating or opening a window or just walking dully along;
How, when the aged are reverently, passionately waiting 5
For the miraculous birth, there always must be
Children who did not specially want it to happen, skating
On a pond at the edge of the wood:
They never forgot
That even the dreadful martyrdom must run its course 10
Anyhow in a corner, some untidy spot
Where the dogs go on with their doggy life and the torturer's horse
Scratches its innocent behind on a tree.
In Breughel's Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away
Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may 15
Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry,
But for him it was not an important failure; the sun shone
As it had to on the white legs disappearing into the green
Water; and the expensive delicate ship that must have seen
Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky, 20
had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on.
DO NOT GO GENTLE INTO THAT GOOD NIGHT (1951)
BY DYLAN THOMAS
Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they 5
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, 10
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light. 15
And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
ELEGY FOR JANE (1953)
(MY STUDENT, THROWN BY A HORSE)
BY THEODORE ROETHKE
I remember the neckcurls, limp and damp as tendrils;
And her quick look, a sidelong pickerel smile;
And how, once startled into talk, the light syllables leaped for her,
And she balanced in the delight of her thought,
A wren, happy, tail into the wind, 5
Her song trembling the twigs and small branches.
The shade sang with her;
The leaves, their whispers turned to kissing,
And the mould sang in the bleached valleys under the rose.
Oh, when she was sad, she cast herself down into such a pure depth, 10
Even a father could not find her:
Scraping her cheek against straw,
Stirring the clearest water.
My sparrow, you are not here,
Waiting like a fern, making a spiney shadow. 15
The sides of wet stones cannot console me,
Nor the moss, wound with the last light.
If only I could nudge you from this sleep,
My maimed darling, my skittery pigeon.
Over this damp grave I speak the words of my love: 20
I, with no rights in this matter,
Neither father nor lover.