Establishing sound Assessment Practices - Developing Marking by edg21115


									Establishing sound Assessment
Practices – Developing Marking
Guidelines for Assessment Tasks

    In this bulletin                                                    Bulletin No. 3

Why are marking guidelines important?                                                      1
Assessment task design and the development of marking guidelines                           2
Examples of marking guidelines                                                             2
Sample models of marking guidelines for assessment tasks                                   3-4


The first bulletin in this series provided an     Marking guidelines are important because
overview of the standards-referenced              they can:
approach to assessment to be introduced in        •   provide a link between the assessment
the New HSC. The second bulletin                      task and the outcomes being assessed
explored the role of internal assessment, and     •   assist in the process of communicating
provided information about the design of              to students before the task about the
assessment programs and individual                    criteria on which they will be judged
assessment tasks.                                 •   support consistency in marking during
                                                      the time taken to assess student
In this bulletin, the focus is on the design of       responses, and where there is more than
marking guidelines for internal assessment            one marker involved
                                                  •   provide a clear basis for distinguishing
tasks. It will:
                                                      between different levels of achievement
•    outline key features of marking              •   provide valuable information for
     guidelines                                       feedback to students on the standard of
•    explain the process of developing                their achievement, and indicate areas in
     marking guidelines                               need of improvement
•    illustrate the features of different types   •   support the gathering of specific
     of marking guidelines.                           information about student performance
                                                      that can be used to monitor ongoing
                                                      performance and inform teaching and
Why are marking                                       learning programs.
guidelines important?

Marking guidelines play an important role
in assessment in the New HSC. The
alignment of marking guidelines to
standards helps to give marks meaning in
relation to those standards.

Assessment Task Design and
the development of marking

The establishment of marking guidelines is an integral part        Before applying the marking guidelines it is a good idea to
of the whole process of task design. The design of the             trial them with a sample of student responses to ensure their
assessment task and the drawing up of marking guidelines           feasibility. Some adjustments may be necessary to
are processes that inform and reflect upon each other and          accommodate unanticipated responses that nevertheless
cannot be seen as discrete parts of the process. As the task       demonstrate achievement of the standards of the course in
is developed it is helpful to think about the criteria that will   the context of the task.
be used to distinguish between student responses.

Good assessment tasks focus on specific outcomes and                          No one model exists for developing marking
content and allow for students to demonstrate achievement                     guidelines for assessment tasks. A variety of
at different levels. Marking guidelines set out the criteria for              models could be developed for a task;
                                                                              however, what is important is that the model
assessing achievement of the outcomes and content at                          developed reflects the nature and purpose of
different levels, and they identify the marks or mark ranges                  the task.
to be awarded at each level.

There is no set model for developing marking guidelines.
                                                                   Examples of marking
They vary depending upon the intention of the task and the
nature of the subject area. For example, they may be
constructed to focus on responses to the task as a whole or
they may focus separately on responses to different aspects        The development of marking guidelines for internal
or components of a task. However, when developing a                assessment tasks comes from current sound practices and
marking guideline, some key features need to be kept in            teachers building on their experiences over time.

Marking guidelines should:                                         The following examples of marking guidelines represent
                                                                   how guidelines can be constructed for examination-type
•   be linked to standards with reference to course                tasks for the New HSC. The examples, from Design and
    outcomes and content and, in HSC courses, to words             Technology and from Food Technology, demonstrate
    from the performance descriptions if appropriate               marking guidelines that focus on the student response as a
•   have clear criteria to distinguish between the different       whole. Both examples demonstrate guidelines in which the
    levels of achievement demonstrated in student responses        structure recognises and rewards students who show a higher
•   use criteria that match the information given to students      level of achievement in their response to the task.*
    about what they will be assessed on when the task is
    given to them                                                  When developing marking guidelines for assessment tasks it
•   reflect the quality of student responses in the marks          is useful to reflect on your current practice and to seek
    awarded                                                        assistance from the information provided in the The New
•   where tasks consist of a number of parts, have mark            Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document for
    allocations to each part that reflect the relative             your subject area and in other Board of Studies support
    importance and difficulty of what students have been           documents.
    asked to do
•   allow for a range of student achievement in the context
    of the expected standards for the course
•   accommodate harder to define characteristics, where            *based on 2001 HSC Specimen Papers for Design and Technology and
    appropriate, such as originality and flair                     Food Technology from the Board of Studies
•   be consistent with definitions of key words from the
    glossary of terms in the New Higher School Certificate
    Assessment Support Document.

       Sample Models of Marking Guidelines for
       Assessment Tasks

       Design and technology HSC COURSE

       This question is based on the 2001 HSC Design and Technology Specimen Paper. The following marking guidelines will
       assist teachers and students to understand how marking criteria may be applied in the New HSC examinations.

       Question based on syllabus content – Ethical Considerations for Design (10 marks)

       Outcomes assessed:
       • H1.1 critically analyses the factors affecting design and the development and success of design projects
       • H2.2 evaluates the impact of design and innovation on society and the environment

       A company is investigating the development of a new hand-held electronic game for 8 to 12 year olds.

       (b) Analyse and discuss TWO ethical considerations that may influence the development and marketing
           of the game.
                                                                                                                    Question is
                                                                                                                    closely related
                                                     Marking Criteria                                 Marks         to outcomes

                               • Identifies two ethical considerations
                               • For each, explains the ethical conflicts and relates them to
Aspects of ‘analyse’             possible decisions about the development and marketing of            9 - 10
are reflected in the             the game
descriptions                   • Discusses possible implications of these decisions

                               • Identifies two ethical considerations
                               • Relates each possible decision about the development and             7-8
                                 marketing of the game
                               • Recognises there may be implications of these decisions                               Equal mark
Descriptions                                                                                                           ranges
show increasing
quality of                     • Identifies two ethical considerations
response gains                 • Discusses each in relation to development and marketing of           5-6
more marks                       the game

                               • Identifies two ethical considerations                                3-4
                               • States why these are considerations

                               • Identifies two ethical considerations, with no relevant discussion   1-2

       Note: If only one ethical consideration is identified, a maximum of 5 marks is available.

             Food Technology HSC Course
             This question is based on the 2001 HSC Food Technology Specimen Paper. The following marking guidelines
             will assist teachers and students to understand how marking criteria may be applied in the new HSC

             Question based on syllabus content – Contemporary Food Issues – Nutrition (15 marks)

             Evaluate TWO programs used in Australia to promote optimum health through good nutrition.

             Outcomes assessed:
             • H2.1 evaluates the relationship between food, its production, consumption, promotion and health

                                                Marking Criteria                                                       Marks

                              • Clearly explains the nature of the two identified programs                             13 - 15                   Definition of
                              • Explains why the programs were developed                                                                         ‘evaluate’ from
                              • Weighs up the effectiveness of the programs and makes an overall                                                 Assessment
                                judgement about their effect on Australians’ health                                                              Support
                              • Describes two programs in detail                                                       10 - 12
                              • Explains why the programs were developed
                              • Considers both the success and failure of each program and only
                                comments on their effectiveness

                              • Describes two programs in detail, without considering why they were                    7-9                        Clear criteria
                                developed                                                                                                         to distinguish
                              • Briefly refers to the success and failure of each program
                                                                                                                                                  between the
                              • Does not make any judgement about the effectiveness of the
                                                                                                                                                  different levels
                              • Briefly describes one or two programs                                                  4-6                        achievement
                              • Considers only the success or failure of the program (not both)

                              • Describes one program, OR                                                              1-3
                              • Simply lists the programs

             Examples of programs:
             AGHE - Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
             Heart Foundation
             Australian Dietary Guidelines
             ANF Healthy Eating Pyramid

             • If only one program is treated in the question, then the maximum mark is 7.

                     NSW Department of School Education, 1996. Principles for assessment and reporting in NSW government schools, Ryde.
                                       Securing Their Future. Board of Studies NSW, 1999. Newsletter No. 14, Sydney.
                                 Board of Studies, The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document, 1999.
                               New HSC Cross-sectoral Bulletin No. 1 - Assessment - A Standards-Referenced Approach, 1999.
                           New HSC Cross-sectoral Bulletin No. 2 - Internal Assessment in the New Higher School Certificate, 1999.
                                                                    For further information contact

Department of Education and Training     Catholic Education Commission                    Association of Independent Schools       Office of the Board of Studies
Peter Lorking                            Rosalie Nott                                     Julie Thompson                           Carol Taylor
Ph: (02) 9886 7683 Fax: (02) 9886 7479   Ph: (02) 9287 1549 Fax: (02) 9264 6308           Ph: (02) 9299 2845 Fax: (02) 9290 2274   Ph: (02) 9367 8300 Fax: (02) 9367 8486
Email:      Email:       Email:           Email:


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