"SAMPLE MICROECONOMIC QUESTIONS - DOC"
REQUEST FOR APPLICANTS TO PARTICIPATE IN THE TRAINING OF TRAINERS PROGRAM 2001-2002 PROGRAM DEVELOPED BY: NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION 1140 AVENUE OF THE AMERICAS NEW YORK, NY 10036 WITH FUNDING FROM: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT AND IN COOPERATION WITH UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE National Council on Economic Education Internati onal Education Exchange Program Trai ning of Teacher Trainers Program Criteria for 2001-2002 Program Partici pati on The National Council on Economic Education (NCEE) plans to train up to 110 teacher tra iners fro m the former Soviet Union, the Central Asian Republics, the Baltic states, and central Europe, in two Training of Trainers programs comprising a series of four one-week seminars to be offered in 2001-2002. English and Russian will be the working languages of these programs. After co mp leting the program, trainers will be expected to conduct programs in economic education for pre -university teachers in their own countries. Th is program is subject to continued funding by the U.S. Depart ment of Education, Office of Educational Research and Imp rovement, and is conducted in cooperation with United States Depart ment of State. The NCEE is seeking outstanding educators fro m higher education, schools, and non -governmental organizat ions (NGOs), who have the commitment and long-term institutional support to offer training programs in economic education for school teachers after completing this series of seminars . In particular, we encourage applications from employees of institutions for re -certifying teachers and NGOs who are responsible for training teachers in economics. Accommodations and meals (during the seminars) and travel expenses will be covered by NCEE. An honorariu m will be provided to participants at the end of each seminar, provided all p rogram requirements are met. An overview of the program, its objectives, and its content, is attached. Selection Criteria Participants in the Training of Trainers program will be expected to: (1) Offer evidence of personal co mmit ment and institutional support to ensure that the applicant will deliver teacher training programs for school (pre-university) econo mics teachers upon complet ion of the program. Applicants must describe in detail how they will provide these training opportunities for teachers in their countries. (2) Enter the program with significant prior knowledge of market-based economics. Before the program begins, participants should have seriously studied economics at least through the principles course level, as represented by such textbooks as McConnell and Brue, Samuelson and Nordhaus, Dolan and Lindsey, or their equivalent. Ideally, applicants will have read upper-level undergraduate economics textbooks by western economists, and will have taught market-based principles of economics to university or secondary students. The attached sample questions are indicative of the level of economic understanding expected of participants. (3) Co mmit to attend and fully participate in the co mplete series of four 7 -day training sessions (including a 1-day break in each program) and to comp leting additional assignments between sessions. Continued participation in the program, the honorariu m, and part icipation in future programs are contingent upon attendance at all sessions and completion of all assignments. (4) Provide letters of support from school ad min istrators, colleagues, and/or other educational or sponsoring agencies, such as Soros Foundation offices, ministries of education, etc. These letters should address the individual’s qualifications for this program and should indicate available financial and in -kind support that will enable the applicant to offer training programs and materials for teachers after the Training of Trainers program is co mpleted. (5) Be fluent in either Russian or English, the working languages of this program. Part icipants must provide evidence of mastery of English or Russian. Candidates with fluency in English should submit official TOEFL or TWE score reports or equivalent evidence of English language skills. (6) Have previous experience in conducting teacher training programs, developing instructional materials, using formal testing and evaluation methods, and/or working with national or local educational administrators to imp lement programs (this is a highly desirab le criterion). (7) Offer assurances of having financial support for travel necessary to obtain visas (NCEE will not pay costs related to obtaining a visa, i.e., t ravel to embassy in capital city, hotel stay, etc). Travel expenses to the seminar site and the cost of the visa itself will be reimbursed by the NCEE. Candidates should already have a valid passport or should be in the process of applying for one. Passport expenses, and costs incurred in obtaining one, are the responsibility of the applicant. 2 DEADLINE FOR S UB MISS ION OF APPLICATION: J ULY 8, 2001 APPLICATION FOR TRAINING OF TRAINERS PROGRAM 2001 -2002 National Council on Economic Education Internati onal Education Exchange Program Funded by United States Department of Educati on In Cooperati on with United States Department of State APPLICANT MUST COMPLETE AND RETURN THIS PAGE AND COMPLETE ALL QUESTIONS ON THIS APPLICATION. (Use additional pages to answer questions. Do not delete any part of this form, or use an older version. Answers to questions 1-5 must be typed.) DEADLINE FOR S UB MISS ION OF APPLICATIONS: J ULY 8, 2001 First name: ____________________________________(Print) Family name: __________________________________(Print) (All names as they appear in your international passport) Country of residence:__________________________ City of residence: ________________________ Gender: ________________ Date of birth: ____________________________ Place of birth : _______________________________(Print) Nationality: _____________________________ International passport number: ___________________ Place of issue: ___________________________ Date of issue: ___________________________ Exp iration date: __________________________ Job title: ___________________________________(Print) Name of organization: ___________________________________________________________________(Print) Business address: _______________________________________________________________________(Print) Business phone number: __________________________ Business fax nu mber: _______________________ (Please include country and city codes) E-mail address: _________________________________ Ho me address: _______________________________ Ho me phone number: _______________________ _______________________________ (Please include country and city codes) _______________________________ _______________________________ On the chart below, please provide information on the teachers to whom you have taught economics during the September 2000-June 2001 academic year. Whom you trained No. of No. of Hours of Date(s) Location(s) programs participants instruction Primary school teachers Secondary school teachers Post-secondary technical teachers University/Institute/Academy faculty Other educators (please specify) 3 Questions 1-5 must be typed on separate pages. 1. COMMIT MENT TO TRAINING TEACHERS AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE Please indicate your co mmit ment to training teachers in economics in the future. Describe your teaching experience (in any subject areas or levels), and summarize your skills as a teacher (includ ing numbers of teachers trained, when, and where). Please co mment on your experience with a variety of materials and teaching methods, e.g., lecture, discussion, small g roup exercises, and simu lations. Finally, indicate your readiness to expand your repertoire of teaching methods and deepen your understanding of pedagogy. 2. ECONOMIC KNOWLEDGE Please provide (a) a brief description about the market-based economics you have studied and (b) a brief assessment of your current level of understanding of economics. With respect to (a), provide a list of economics courses you have taken, their length and level, where and when and by who m they were taught, and the titles and authors of texts you studied. If you have studied economics independently, please specify the level and overall content of economics textbooks you have read on your own. If you have taught economics, please indicate what general concept areas you have taught and at what level. 3. OTHER EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE Discuss any relevant experiences you have had in developing standards or curriculu m frameworks, developing instructional materials (for teachers or students), developing tests or other evaluation tools, and/or working with educational admin istrators. 4. EVIDENCE OF S UPPORT FOR FUT URE TRAINING ACTIVITIES Attach letters of institutional support as indicated in the Criteria for Program Participation. Summarize here the kind of support you expect fro m your institution or agency: (a) during your participation in the Train ing of Trainers program, and (b) after the program. (Specifically, what plans do you have to train school teachers in economics, and what resources will be available for this training?) 5. COMMIT MENT TO ATTEND ALL TRAINING S ESSIONS Please state your commit ment to attend all days of all four seminars of the Training of Trainers program listed below. (Seminar dates will be announced no later than July 15th on EconomicsInternational’s web page: www.economicsintl.o rg. Applicants will be informed of seminar dates in their letters of acceptance, or this informat ion can be e-mailed or faxed to you by contacting <email@example.com>, or faxing to the U.S. +1 212-768-7894.) A tentative schedule for the series of Train ing of Trainers Seminars is: #1 November 2001 #2 January 2002 #3 March/April 2002 #4 June 2002 6. CHOICE OF LANGUAGE _____ I am fluent in English and will receive all seminar and evaluation instruments in English. _____ I am fluent in Russian and will receive all seminar and evaluation instruments in Russian. 4 7. LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Using the scale (1-6) below, rate your proficiency in English and Russian languages. Listening Speaking Reading Writing English --------- -------- -------- -------- Russian --------- -------- -------- -------- 1. No knowledge of the language. 2. Some general knowledge of the language: Some understanding of spoken language but cannot speak. Some understanding of written language but cannot write. 3. Limited working proficiency: Able to satisfy routine social demands and limited work requirements. Sufficient co mprehension to read simple, authentic written material in a form equivalent to usual printing or typescript on familiar subjects. 4. General professional proficiency: Able to speak the language with sufficient structural accuracy and vocabulary to participate effect ively in most formal and in formal conversations. Able to read within a normal range of speed and with almost complete co mprehension. 5. Advanced professional proficiency: Able to use the language fluently and accurately on all levels Nearly native ability to read and understand extremely difficult o r abstract prose, colloquialis ms, and slang. 6. Functional native proficiency: Speaking proficiency is functionally equivalent to that of a highly articulate, well -educated native speaker. Reading proficiency is functionally equivalent to that of the well-educated native reader. Please provide any additional co mments that describe your level of co mpetency in English. English speakers only: Describe your level of English language proficiency (p lease submit TOEFL o r TW E scores). Please indicate any economics texts you have read in English. On average, how much speaking, reading, and writing do you do in English in a week? Have you ever, or do you currently, teach in English? You will be informed by mail, e-mail, fax, or phone if you have been accepted to the program. Pending confirmati on of continued funding for the program, you can expect to be notified with seminar dates during the last week of August. Please ensure that all communications informati on, phone/fax number, city codes, and e-mail address listed in your application are accurate and functioning. To confirm your agreement to the terms and conditions above, sign and date the application below, and return to NCEE. Signed:……………………………………………… Dated:……………………………… Please return applicati on to: Mark Dempsey NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION 1140 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10036, U.S.A. telephone: +1 212-730-6586 fax: +1 212-768-7894 or +1 212-730-1793 e-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org> 5 SAMPLE MICROECONOMIC QUESTIONS These sample questions are illustrative of the content you should be familiar with prior to attending the Training of Trainers Program and are for you to assess your knowledge of economics. Please do not return this section. 1) An upward sloping supply curve can be explained by the fact that: I. Higher prices mean greater profits for a producer. II. Eventually costs rise as production increases. III. Consumers find goods more valuable at higher prices. a. I only b. II only c. III only d. I and II only e. I, II, and III 2) What effect would decrease in the price of silicon chips and a greater production of user-friendly software have on the price and quantity of computers? Price Quantity a. Increase Decrease b. Increase Increase c. Decrease Cannot be determined d. Cannot be Increase determined e. Decrease Decrease 3) The price of coal fell and the quantity sold also fell. Which of the following events is consistent with this observation (everything else equal)? a. The price of oil fell. b. Large wage increase to coal miners. c. Installation of more efficient coal mining equipment. d. Consumers incomes rose. e. The demand curve was inelastic 4) The term “diminishing marginal utility,” as used in explaining dow nward sloping demand curves, other things constant, is best described by which of the following statements? a. As you consume more of a good, the total satisfaction you obtain from consuming this good tends to fall. b. As you consume more of a good, the average satisfaction you obtain from consuming this good tends to fall. c. As you consume more of a good, the extra or additional satisfaction you obtain from each extra or additional unit of this good consumed tends to fall. d. As you consume more of a good, your satisfaction tends to diminish in inverse proportion to the increase in the price of the good consumed. e. As you consume more of a good, the total satisfaction you obtain from the good tends to rise. 6 5) What will happen if a legal price floor is placed on a good below its free market equilibrium price? a. Surpluses will develop. b. Shortages will develop. c. Black markets will develop. d. The equilibrium price will ration the good. e. Both b and c will occur. 6) If the price of lunch at the school cafeteria increases and revenues of the cafeteria remain constant, we can conclude that the elasticity of demand for a school lunch is: a. Elastic. b. Perfectly elastic. c. Unit elastic. d. Inelastic. e. Perfectly inelastic. 7 SAMPLE MACROECONOMIC QUESTIONS 1) There will be a shift in aggregate demand when: a. The price of consumer goods changes. b. The price of inputs changes. c. Consumers expectations change. d. Productivity changes. e. Energy prices cha nge. 2) The aggregate supply curve will shift to the right when: a. Energy prices increase. b. Input prices decrease. c. Productivity levels decrease. d. Investment spending decreases. e. The value of the dollar decreases. 3) According to Keynesian economists, the level of output and employment are determined by: a. Economic stability that maintains a full-employment economy. b. Supply creating its own demand. c. Price-wage flexibility. d. The level of aggregate demand (C + I + G + Net Exports). e. The application of Say’s Law. 4) What would be the effect of a large increase in labor productivity on real GDP and the price level? Real GDP Price level a. Increase Increase b. Increase Decrease c. Decrease Decrease d. Decrease Increase e. Increase No change 5) If aggregate demand decreases and, as a result, real national output and employment decrease but the price level remains unchanged, we can assume that: a. Aggregate demand intersects aggregate supply in the intermediate range of the aggregate supply curve. b. Aggregate demand intersects aggregate supply in the classical range of the aggregate supply curve. c. Aggregate demand intersects aggregate supply in the Keynesian range of the aggregate supply curve. d. Aggregate supply decreases to accommodate the change in aggregate demand. e. The marginal propensity to consume is 1. 8 6) Which of the following fiscal policy actions would be most effective in combating a recession? a. Tax cut of $25 billion and cut in government purchases of $25 billion. b. Tax increases of $25 billion and an increase of $25 billion in government purchases. c. Tax increase of $25 billion and a cut of $25 billion in government purchases. d. Tax cut of $25 billion and an increase of $25 billion in government purchases. e. There is not enough information to answer this question. 7) Which of the following represent(s) problems with discretionary fiscal policy in the United States? I. Special interests in Congress. II. Time lags in recognition, decision, and implementation of solutions to fiscal problems. III. Imprecise knowledge of current economic conditions. a. I only b. II only c. III only d. I and II only e. I, II, and III 8) Assume the economy is in a severe recession. Which set of fiscal policies would be consistent and designed to cure the recession? Taxes Government spending a. Lower Lower b. Lower Raise c. Raise Raise d. Raise Lower e. Lower Lower 9 Training of Trainers: Program Overview National Council on Economic Education International Education Exchange Program Overview. NCEE’s guiding philosophy is that well-prepared teachers are the cornerstone of educational excellence. However, direct training of teachers is a relatively small co mponent of our international program. Our main focus is on the training of teacher trainers. Research in the U.S. reveals that a min imu m of 120-150 hours of teacher training is required before measurable results are observed in students’ economic understanding. Rationale and description. To achieve greater independence from outside assistance with economic education, a nucleus of highly skilled, well-trained local teacher trainers must be established. While many of the steps are similar, the training of teacher trainers is a much larger and more co mp lex undertaking than the direct training of teachers. Trainers require deeper and broader knowledge of economics content, pedagogy and instructional materials (across many grade levels), school curriculu m issues and practices, administrative practices, and evaluation techniques. To qualify as a trainer in the U.S., indiv iduals must have a solid grasp of economic content (usually developed in a minimu m of 8-10 co llege level courses, and often acquired in a Ph.D. program) and be able to apply it to many problems. They must have skills in teaching this content and way of thinking to others, be familiar with a large pool of instructional materials, and be in a position to devote some portion of their time t o working with teachers. Trainers lacking in any of the prerequisite knowledge or skills run the risk of spreading poor teaching to large numbers of teachers and even larger numbers of students. Goals. The goals of the program are to prepare trainers to: Train school teachers in basic economics content; Beco me experts in using a variety of instructional techniques and have a solid working knowledge of their pedagogical underpinnings; Show teachers how to convey basic economics content through a variety of instructional techniques; Address common teaching problems, including content errors that those with limited train ing in economics are likely to make (as they do in the U.S. as well); Apply economic concepts to local economic conditions; Beco me knowledgeable about a large pool o f materials for different curricu lu m contexts and grade levels. Content. The economic concepts covered include: Seminar 1: Fundamental concepts (scarcity, choice, opportunity cost, voluntary exchange, types of economic systems, and an introduction to supply and demand and price determination); Seminar 2: Microeconomic concepts (review o f supply and demand, price determination, shifts in supply and demand, production and costs, competition and market structure, factor markets, market failu res, the economic role of government, public choice); Seminar 3: Macroeconomic concepts (contrasting micro supply and demand with aggregate supply and aggregate demand, national inco me determination, monetary and fiscal policies, measurement issues, competing schools of macroeconomic thought); Seminar 4: International concepts (comparative advantage and international trade, free trade vs. protectionism, supply and demand in foreign exchange markets, balance of trade and balance of pay ments, international co mparisons of economic gro wth and productivity, the convergence hypothesis). The pedagogy component of the Training of Trainers program is significant. In the second seminar, part icipants are videotaped teaching a short lesson. In the fourth seminar, participants and the faculty review the videotapes and debrief the lessons that were taught. As a result of these exercises, participants demonstrate marked impro vement in their teaching, and they develop their capacity to give and receive constructive feedback. 10 Impact. As a result of this program, graduates are helping teachers in their ho me countries prepare to teach economics to students. In the first four years, over 500 trainers have completed this program and as many as 1.2 million students have been reached by teachers trained by graduates of the Training of Trainers Program. Graduates of the program have demonstrated statistically significant, meaningfu l gains in their knowledge of both macroeconomic and microeconomic content. All groups have entered the program with generally favorable attitudes toward market economics, and several groups have made important positive attitude changes as a result of the seminars. A ll groups have identified self-perceived gains in teaching skills. Major strengths of the program, as identified by the participants themselves, include the demonstration of pedagogic methods, the NCEE faculty, and the spirit of cooperation between faculty and participants. For further information about the Training of Trainers program, p lease contact Mark Dempsey at: telephone : +1 212-730-6586 fax: +1 212-768-7894 e-mail: <email@example.com> M:\Training of Trainers (5)\Materials\ToT 2001-2002 ( English version)-fourth draft.rtf 11