Slide #7 History of Holistic Nursing

Document Sample
Slide #7 History of Holistic Nursing Powered By Docstoc

Slide #7 History of Holistic Nursing
Understanding the concept of holistic nursing requires the knowledge of the development of
holistic nursing thought in the discipline.
Holistic nursing has been present since the beginning. The roots of our nursing pro fession lie in
the works of Florence Nightingale, and her philosophy of health and healing. Light 1997 states
that this philosophy is holistic, in which she describes health in the holistic terms and viewed
people as multidimensional beings inseparable from their environment. Nightingale’s beliefs did
not correspond with those of the scientific medical establishment with which nursing has become
It wasn’t until the 1970’s that the words “holistic nursing” appeared in nursing literature.

Slide #8 Nurse Leaders in the 20th Century
“Nurse-theorist Myra Levine is credited with being the first person to use the words in her
writings” in 1971 she wrote: “the logic of all human experience tells us that we are whole, and
yet the concept of holism is labeled esoteric, elusive and even impractical”. Her developing
nursing theory that was presented recognized that modern scientific thought brought a
reductionist view to the holistic phenomena.
Levine was not alone in calling attention to a holistic parad igm that refused to define nursing as a
science of sickness and disease. In 1970, Martha Roger’s stated that “human beings are more
than and different from the sum of their parts”. She believed that the world is a single whole in
which every element is interconnected with others. Jean Watson is yet another nurse-theorist of
the time that described the holistic paradigm shift from nurses helping doctors practice medicine
to nurses practicing the distinct art and science of nursing. This change in focus has d irected
nursing’s return to the philosophy and teachings of Nightingale, emphasizing that the nurse must
use the hands, hearts and head in creating healing environments to care for the patient’s body,
mind, and spirit.
These nursing theorists took a clearly holistic view different from the prevailing scientific view
held by many nurses, physicians, and scientists of the time.

Slide #9 Diffusion of Holistic Practice
Johnson (1990) described the diffusion of Holistic nursing practice over the previous two
decades as:
“the integration, harmony, and balance of body, mind, and spirit; a focus on wholeness of the
individual with emphasis on the process of self- healing rather than on disease; illness as an
opportunity for growth and increased self-awareness; and the reciprocal relationship between
nurse and patient with emphasis on self-responsibility, health promotion, and lifestyle”

Slide #10 20th Century Developments
The 1970s and 80s marked a dramatic turning point in the development of nursing as a
discipline, as there were four simultaneous movements that later would have huge impacts on
holistic nursing. These developments were: 1) presentation of holistically oriented nursing
theories, 2) development of nursing language and classification systems, 3) writing by
practitioners that guided holistic nursing interventions in actual practice setting, and 4) the
establishment of a number of nursing organizations committed to advancing the profession.
These developments were followed in the 90s by the popular discovery of holism- holistic,
alternative, and complementary care.

Slide #13 The Basic Principles of Holistic health
Suzan Walter, President of the American Holistic Health Association defines the basic principle
as follows:
“Holistic health is based on the law of nature that a whole is made up of interdependent parts.
The earth is made up of systems, such as air, land, water, plants and animals. If life is to be
sustained, they cannot be separated, for what is happening to one is also felt by all of the othe r
systems. In the same way, an individual is a whole made up of interdependent parts: which are
the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual. When one part is not working at its best, it impacts
all of the other parts of that person. Furthermore, this who le person, including all of the parts, is
constantly interacting with everything in the surrounding environment. For example, when an
individual is anxious about an exam or a job interview, his or her nervousness may result in a
physical reaction- such as a headache or stomach ache.”

Slide #24 American Holistic Nurses Association
The American Holistic Nurses Association was founded by Charlotte McGuire in 1981, partly as
a response to major changes in health care delivery that were transforming the work of nurses in
hospital settings. Many felt that nursing care was suffering due to changes in staffing patterns as
well as a nursing shortage exacerbated by these dramatic changes in focus. Nursing care was
becoming less and less patient and wellness centered and the founding of AHNA was a response
and the call for a solution.
The AHNA is a non-profit membership association for nurses and other holistic healthcare
professionals, serving more than 4,100 members across the U.S.
The AHNA focus is to serve as a bridge between conventional healthcare and
complementary/alternative healing practices.
In December of 2006, due to the efforts of AHNA, holistic nursing was recognized as an
“official nursing specialty” by the American Nurses Association, with its own defined scope and
standards of practice. The standards of holistic nursing practice provided a foundation for
certification in holistic nursing as a specialty.

Slide #25 Holistic Practices Down Under
Nurses in Australia have had a longstanding interest in and commitment to holistic nursing. They
have established two organizations: Australian College of Holistic Nurses, Inc. and the Holistic
Nurses Association of New South Wales. These organizations are no longer active, but did
attract, support and launch holistic nurses in their work and quest for knowledge about Holism
and complementary modalities.
The Australian college of holistic nurses, inc. was devoted to education and support of nurses
performing holistic practices. The college sponsored annual conferences that included speakers
on theory, complementary modalities, and self care practices. In collaboration with Southern
Cross University, t he organization supported the Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, a
biennial, peer-reviewed publication, printed from 1994 to 2005. The mission of the journal
reflected the mission of the organization: to document the trends and issues that emerged from
contemporary nursing practice.

Inspired by a national conference in natural therapies, the Holistic Nurses Association of New
South Wales was founded in 1995. The organization grew out of “disenchantment” and was
founded with intent to support nurses wishing to undertake holistic practices.
The fact that these two organizations are no longer active does not necessarily mean that their
interests are no longer relevant or valued in Australia. Nurses in Australia have not sought to
make holistic nursing a specialization as their counterparts in Canada and the United States.
Many holistic nurses in Australia carry certification in various complementary modalities and
continue to build nursing practice on holistic theory.

Slide #26 International Comparisons
The holistic nursing movements across the world represent differing perspectives and differing
views about holistic nursing.
Understanding the divergent views may bring nurses to a better understanding of the
complexities of determining “what is holistic” and may, in turn, stimulate nurses to consider their
personal and professional need to confront the difference. All of the perspectives are legitimate
and each brings value in nursing practice

Slide #29 Challenges to Holistic Nursing Practice
If nurses are to continue to serve as front line client contact, holistic nurses must be in a position
to provide care true to the “art” of nursing practice: being focused on the caring and comforting
aspects of nursing (the aspects that the profession inherited from Florence Nightingale) just as
the work of early holistic nurses who refused to accept nursing as a science of disease and
There are three important developments in current practice that should be addressed as one
considers the role of holistic nursing today. These are the use of holistic principles in the
evidence-based practice environments, the use of holistic principles with the computerized
patient care record, and the need for nurse self care to sustain professionalism throughout a 21st
century nursing career.

Challenge 1: Evidence Based Practice

McIntyre & McDonald state “The challenge is for holistic nurses to learn and understand the
research methods being used and to be in a position to articulate the use and limits of application
of those methods. All too commonly, holistic nurses embrace qualitative methods and develop an
incomplete knowledge of the quantitative methods used by others. It will be impossible to
negotiate holism in practice if nursing leaders do not have a level of sophistication in traditional
quantitative research and statistics, a basic level of knowledge about newer approaches to
quantitative analysis”, especially since the “gold standard” of evidence based research is applied
using the quantitative method of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Challenge 2: Computerized Patient-Care Records
Health care systems across Canada are making the move or have made the move to computerized
patient-care records. “A challenge for nurses, particularly holistic nurses, is the decision of how
nursing will be documented electronically. Today, holistic nurses who may have preferred
narrative documentation are faced with the challenge of either using the standardized languages
to give voice to nursing’s work or to become silent in a system that will include only electronic
entries based on coded terms. The challenge for holistic nurses may become to learn to use the
standardized languages to their fullest extent and to engage as leaders in activities that promote
recording of holistic practices in systems that could easily omit nursing and result in
computerized medical records rather than a computerized healthcare record”

Challenge 3: Sustaining Self over the course of a nursing career
“The holistic nurse becomes and instrument of healing when using unconditional presence and
intention to support the healing process of another. To do so, however, the nurse must attend to
his or her own personal assessment and self-care. Self care practices that assist the nurse to
sustain health begin with an honest assessment of one’s life demands and personal needs, one’s
risk for health problems, and forming a life pattern aimed at supporting one’s own health.” “Self
care practices are highly individualized. Such that practices that support one nurse may not be
those that support another. However, all self care practices give the nurse a s trength and a
balance or harmony that helps one to deal with the stressors, uncertainties and demands of
nursing’s work life. Considering the fact that nurses are at significant risk for vocational burnout

and emotional exhaustion, self care practices may be the distinguishing difference between those
who thrive in nursing and those who are unable to sustain the work life demands”

Slide #35 Closing Thought
Modern nursing work is complex & challenging. The shortage of nurses in Canada and
worldwide attracts attention to what nurses do and plays into the discussions of what nurses will
do in the future:
If nurses are to continue to serve as the “front- line” client contact, then we must be in a position
to provide care true to the art of nursing practice
Refuse to accept nursing as a science of disease & illness- our practice means so much more!

Shared By: