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                                                                                                                                         M I L I TA RY T R A N S F O R M AT I O N
                                                                                                     Tactical high energy
                                                                                                     laser beam director.

The ACTD Program
                                                                                                                             TRW, Inc.
By S U E C. P A Y T O N

                                              n the 1950s and 1960s, many             Now it is the turn of the defense
                                              business firms assumed that they   sector, which followed the same ap-
                                              had optimized production. Conse-   proach for a long time. But the compe-
                                              quently they removed production    tition moved ahead, ranging from ag-
                                         from the competition equation. In the   gressor states to terrorists who use
                                         two ensuing decades foreign competi-    technologies that previous enemies
                                         tors outproduced them. Manufacturing    never had, thus posing new chal-
                                         faced a hard choice: change or die.     lenges. The attacks on September 11
                                                                                 magnified the need for rapid change.
Sue C. Payton is Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Advanced Systems          Innovation within the Armed Forces is
and Concepts and also has served as director of the National Center for          coming from the advanced concept
Applied Technology.                                                              technology demonstration (ACTD)

                                                                                            Summer 2002 / JFQ           71
                                           ■    JFQ   FORUM

                                                                                                                                                          Bosnia. By 1999 some 20 percent of
                                                                                                                                                          ACTD products were supporting Oper-
                                                                                                                                                          ation Allied Force in Kosovo, By 2001
                                                                                                                                                          thirty products were deployed for Op-
                                                                                                                                                          eration Enduring Freedom in
                                                                                                                                                          Afghanistan as well as Operation
                                                                                                                                                          Noble Eagle at home.
                                                                                                                                                               The program enables military
                                                                                                                                                          transformation in ways not commonly
                                                                                                                                                          recognized. To date, 97 demonstrations
                                                                                                                                                          have been initiated. Significant im-
                                                                                                                                                          provements in joint capabilities have
                                                                                                                                                          occurred when innovative technology
                                                                                                                                                          was inserted at little cost. Across the
                                                                                                                                                          joint community, ACTDs are creating
                                                                                                                                                          paradigm shifts that are more than lin-
                                                                                                                                                          ear extrapolations of the present day.

                                                                                                                                        Lockheed Martin
                                            Line-of-sight anti-tank                                                                                       Moreover, they are focused on the
                                            propulsion system.                                                                                            areas where the United States must en-
                                                                                                                                                          sure preeminence.

                                                                                                                                                          Protecting Bases and Defeating
                                           program, but such developments alone       In addition, that report listed six trans-
                                           cannot ensure automatic preeminence        formational areas in which defense                                        Geography once secured our most
                                           or defeat terrorism. Technology as well    must ensure preeminence:                                            important base: the homeland. But
                                           as advanced concepts, tactics, tech-                                                                           today the Nation is not only vulnera-
                                                                                            ■ protecting bases of operations and
                                           niques, and procedures must be ap-                                                                             ble to attack from threats such as
                                                                                      defeating nuclear, biological, and chemical
                                           plied to competitive areas defined in      (NBC) weapons and their means of delivery
                                                                                                                                                          cruise and ballistic missiles, but to a
                                           the Quadrennial Defense Review.                  ■ projecting and sustaining U.S. forces
                                                                                                                                                          terrorist who wears explosive-filled
                                                                                      in anti-access or area denial environments                          tennis shoes and flies into the country
                                           Enabling Preeminence                             ■ denying enemies sanctuary by per-                           from abroad.
                                                                                      sistent surveillance and rapid precision strike                           New approaches to early warning
                                                 Military transformation is a major
                                                                                            ■ leveraging information technology                           are needed. The Area Cruise Missile De-
                                           DOD focus. But what does it mean? It
                                                                                      and concepts to develop a joint command,                            fense ACTD is giving a more complete
                                           is about ensuring preeminence in com-      control, communications, computers, intel-
                                           petition to deter and defeat all ene-                                                                          national air picture. Mobile units have
                                                                                      ligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance                           filled gaps that previously existed in
                                           mies. Just as manufacturing bounced        (C4ISR) architecture
                                           back in the 1980s and 1990s, the Fed-                                                                          coastal radar coverage and are tied into
                                                                                            ■ assuring information systems that
                                           eral government, defense industrial        face attack and conducting information
                                                                                                                                                          radar as well as other land-, sea-, and
                                           base, and nontraditional suppliers         operations                                                          air-based sensors. This demonstration
                                           must respond decisively and continu-             ■ enhancing the capability and sur-                           also integrates air pictures. Prior to
                                           ally to a changing marketplace. The re-    vivability of space systems.                                        September 11, North American Aero-
                                           sponse must maintain predominance                                                                              space Defense Command tracked air-
                                                                                          How transformation is achieved is
                                           in areas where the homeland and the                                                                            craft approaching the United States
                                                                                    just as important as the key areas. It re-
                                                                                                                                                          but not domestic traffic, which was
                                                                                             quires what the Secretary of
                                                                                                                                                          monitored by the Federal Aviation Ad-
                                           ACTDs are creating shifts that are                Defense calls new approaches—
                                                                                                                                                          ministration. The two pictures have
                                                                                             the essence of ACTD procedure.
                                           more than linear extrapolations of This program identifies needs                                               been fused.
                                                                                                                                                                Future attacks on the homeland
                                           the present day                                   and ways to meet them. A
                                                                                                                                                          are inevitable. This was anticipated in
                                                                                             warfighter-developed concept
                                                                                                                                                          the Consequence Management ACTD,
                                           security of allies are being challenged. of operations, underpinned by innova-
                                           It must be quick and continuous be-                                                                            which supports domestic efforts by
                                                                                    tive technology and demonstrated by
                                           cause of “disproportionate and discon-                                                                         detecting and identifying biological
                                                                                    the warfighter for the warfighter, de-
                                           tinuous changes in the security envi-                                                                          agents within an hour. Another prod-
                                                                                    fines success or failure.
                                           ronment,” as emphasized by the                                                                                 uct assists firefighters, police officers,
                                                                                          Since 1994 this program has rap-
                                           Quadrennial Defense Review in 2001.                                                                            and rescue workers who were previ-
                                                                                    idly and continually fielded technolo-
                                                                                                                                                          ously unable to communicate on the
                                                                                    gies. In its first thirty-six months it re-
                                                                                    sulted in the Predator unmanned aerial
                                                                                    vehicle that monitored the accords in

                                           72         JFQ / Summer 2002

same frequency. The Homeland Secu-                                                            Small early entry forces must

                                                                                                                                     M I L I TA RY T R A N S F O R M AT I O N
rity Command and Control ACTD has                                                       quickly dominate, even when con-
software facilitating radio contact                                                     fronting heavier forces. In this regard
among first responders. It permits                                                      two products are helpful. The rapid
networks to share data, enabling situ-                                                  force projection initiative demon-
ational awareness.                                                                      strated a sensor system for detecting
      An attack on a port or air base                                                   distant enemy armor and weapons to
could impede deployment. One                                                            engage it. The sensors have been
demonstration developed sensor net-                                                     fielded and the weapons are being pro-
works for known points of debarkation                                                   duced. The second is the Line of Sight
in Kuwait and Korea to detect eight bi-                                                 Anti-Tank ACTD, which is integrated
ological agents in 15 minutes. Another                                                  into a high mobility multipurpose
product has deployable sensors for sea-                                                 wheeled vehicle to rapidly engage mul-
ports of debarkation and several others                                                 tiple tanks.
will protect forward forces. The most                                                         Transformed forces require effi-
transformational are directed energy                                                    cient logistic systems. The Joint Logis-
ACTDs. The tactical high energy laser,                                                  tics ACTD provides decisionmaking
which was demonstrated in three years,                                                  tools to effectively plan, execute, and
rapidly detects, tracks, and destroys                                                   replan mission support. The tools are
multiple incoming rockets and comple-                                                   being incorporated into the global
ments other weapons in an air defense                                                   combat support system. The Joint The-
                                                                         Airborne laser
architecture. The challenge is making                                                   ater Logistics ACTD illustrates the util-

                                                                                     TRW, Inc.
the system mobile. The active denial                                                    ity of a near-real time, collaborative lo-
system will be the first non-lethal di-                                                 gistic planning system that can react to
rected energy weapon. It projects mil-                                                  changes in operational plans, provid-
limeter wave energy to heat the skin of                                                 ing a truly integrated capability.
targeted individuals, and thus repel              Power projection faces greater              Better maintenance both ensures
hostile crowds like those that threat-      anti-access and area denial resistance.     reliability and reduces footprints.
ened allied forces in Somalia and           Air defense is getting tougher. During      Many corporations have adopted con-
Kosovo. This system could be mounted        Allied Force, Serb operators illumi-        dition-based maintenance, using sen-
on ground vehicles, transport aircraft,     nated attacking aircraft, launched mis-     sors to monitor equipment. Sensors
ships, and other platforms.                 siles, and then shut down radars before     also transmit to area networks and re-
      The best protection against                                                                motely collect data. The Joint
weapons of mass destruction is destroy-     finding and hitting an enemy is the Advanced Health and Usage
ing them before they are used. The                                                               Monitoring System ACTD indi-
Counterproliferation ACTD yielded air-de-   essence of war, and speed counts                     cates the benefit of providing
livered munitions for attacking hard-                                                            real-time critical system infor-
ened sites and the Agent Defeat Warhead     NATO high-speed antiradiation mis-          mation to flight and ground crews of
ACTD produces an air-delivered pene-        siles could lock on. The Quick Bolt         Army and Navy helicopters. This open
trating munition to neutralize bunkered     ACTD is integrating global positioning      architecture system reduces mainte-
chemical and biological weapons while       system (GPS) receivers and millimeter       nance and life threatening mishaps.
minimizing collateral effects.              wave radar into these missiles to
                                            counter threat emitter shutdown. This       Rapid Precision Strike
Projecting and Sustaining                   enables the missiles to find the last lo-         Finding and hitting an enemy is
     To defend against terrorism and        cation of threat emitters and the mil-      the essence of war, and speed counts.
other threats, the Armed Forces must        limeter wave radar to detect targets in     Stopping the terror in Kosovo meant
take the fight to the enemy. This           the terminal homing phase.                  finding and hitting Serbian forces
means possibly projecting power on                Today an enemy may acquire ad-        faster than they could act. In
short notice and in unexpected loca-        vanced air defense systems on the in-       Afghanistan, the use of rapid precision
tions. Power projection requires pre-       ternational market that can be coun-        strike prevented protracted warfare.
planning to match deploying units to        tered by the Loitering Electronic Warfare         Several ACTDs can find enemy
transport assets. This was tedious and      Killer ACTD with air-delivered MK83         forces. Unattended ground sensors
was hampered by interoperability in         bomb, which turns into an inflatable        from a 1998 product have been avail-
the past. Moreover, emerging demands        wing unmanned aerial vehicle with a         able recently. Unmanned aerial vehicle
resulted in constantly changing plans.      radar jammer. This remotely controlled      demonstrations are better known.
The Agile Transportation 21 st Century      system is designed to remain in a tar-      Predator provides an eye in the sky for
ACTD optimizes strategic assets for         get area for seven hours, detect air de-
troop and equipment deployment.             fenses, and degrade them by employ-
                                            ing active countermeasures.

                                                                                                     Summer 2002 / JFQ         73
                                           ■    JFQ   FORUM

                                           commanders. In Kosovo and Afghan-                                                                                                                 Sensor fusion—meshing sensor
                                                                                          Quick reaction
                                           istan it watched, targeted, and                launch vehicle.
                                                                                                                                                                                       data into one picture—is one way to
                                           assessed. It observed noncombatants to                                                                                                      reduce targeting time as well as errors.
                                           prevent casualties and, armed with                                                                                                          Tactical sensors and reconnaissance are
                                           Hellfire missiles for Enduring Freedom,                                                                                                     integrated under the Joint Intelligence,
                                           acted as remote controlled sensor and                                                                                                       Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ACTD,
                                           shooter. Global Hawk offered 24-hour                                                                                                        which demonstrates two-way links be-
                                           station time over Afghanistan and hit                                                                                                       tween firefinder radars, millimeter
                                           numerous time-sensitive targets.                                                                                                            wave radars on Apache helicopters,
                                                 ACTDs launched in 2002 are fo-                                                                                                        and remote battlefield sensors. More-
                                           cused on unmanned aerial vehicles                                                                                                           over, the Network Centric Collaborative
                                           (UAVs). The Defense Advanced Re-                                                                                                            Targeting ACTD seeks to link sensors

                                                                                                                                      1st Combat Camera Squadron (Garrett D. Rosier)
                                           search Projects Agency will demon-                                                                                                          with machine-to-machine front-end
                                           strate a 6 to 9 inch, low-cost reconnais-                                                                                                   processing on the RC–135 Rivet Joint,
                                           sance and surveillance micro air                                                                                                            E–8 JSTARS, E–3 airborne warning and
                                           vehicle for ground forces to see beyond                                                                                                     control system, Global Hawk, Predator,
                                           their positions. Unlike other small ve-                                                                                                     U–2, and EP–3. Fusing multiple intelli-
                                           hicles, it hovers, perches, and stares for                                                                                                  gence sources will enable time-sensi-
                                           extended periods without user interac-                                                                                                      tive designation of mobile targets. Its
                                           tion, unless alerted by a changing situ-                                                                                                    purpose is reducing target location
                                           ation. A larger expendable UAV makes                                                                                                        error on mobile threat emitters to 10
                                           longer flights and carries more sensors.                                                                                                    meters and providing warfighters with
                                                 Enemies know that if they are de-                                                                                                     a targeting solution.
                                           tected, they can be hit. Extensive                                                                                                                Another challenge is getting the
                                           surveillance caused Serb forces to use             Targeting is often complex. In                                                           right information to the tactical level.
                                           camouflage and concealment in                 Afghanistan it was managed with soft-                                                         This was achieved by the Extending the
                                           Kosovo. The Hyperspectral Collection          ware from the Theater Precision Strike                                                        Littoral Battlespace ACTD, with a three-
                                           and Analysis System ACTD overcomes            Operations ACTD, which provides a                                                             tiered wide area network. Lightweight
                                           this problem by integrating hyperspec-        blueprint for attacking targets. This                                                         computers—which transmit text, im-
                                           tral sensors into platforms. These sen-       software can establish priorities, maxi-                                                      ages, and voice wirelessly—replaced ra-
                                           sors combine two radar frequencies to         mize the opportunities to engage time-                                                        dios. The system also distributed a
                                           track targets through foliage. This           sensitive targets, and deconflict target-                                                     common picture of the battlespace.
                                           demonstration shares sensor data              ing throughout the battlespace.                                                               This demonstration is transitioning to
                                           across intelligence networks.                                                                                                               an effort known as the JTF wide area
                                                 Although precision targeting de-        Joint C4ISR Architecture                                                                      network to enable secure, reconfig-
                                           pends on precise knowledge of the ter-             As Bill Gates has observed:                                                              urable tactical level interoperability
                                           rain, timely collection of data and mis-      “Changes will occur because of a dis-                                                         throughout a theater. Although this
                                           sile programming pose problems. The           armingly simple idea: the flow of digi-                                                       network is not yet operational, a for-
                                           Rapid Terrain Visualization ACTD short-       tal information.” This flow greatly de-                                                       mer commander of U.S. Pacific Com-
                                           ens this process. Two sensors mounted         pends on the digital network in an                                                            mand outlined its potential as follows:
                                           on aircraft rapidly generate high-reso-       organization. A joint C4ISR digital net-                                                      “special operators in Afghanistan
                                           lution topographic data and highly            work poses a challenge for DOD be-                                                            would have had the same picture as
                                           precise digital terrain elevation data to     cause of the number of incompatible                                                           15 th Marine Expeditionary Unit in
                                           target GPS weapons. The system re-            systems to be linked. One demonstra-                                                          Camp Rhino. . . . The same picture
                                           duces target-location error from eleven       tion breaking interoperability barriers is                                                    would have been in the F–15, F–18,
                                           meters to one.                                Link 16. Previously, two key networks                                                         and B–52 cockpits.” He also indicated
                                                 One significant problem is that         were incompatible, the Link 16 tactical                                                       that it would have been in JTF and
                                           enemy forces are going underground. In        data link network, used by the Navy                                                           JFACC headquarters.
                                           both Kosovo and Afghanistan oppo-             and Air Force, and the joint variable                                                               Information must also flow to
                                           nents hid in tunnels, caves, and hard-        message format network, used by the                                                           coalition partners. The air tasking order
                                           ened facilities. New products are aimed       Army and Marine Corps. This product                                                           for Afghanistan was electronically
                                           at such targets. The 2002 Thermobaric         provides a translator and fuses air and                                                       transferred between American and
                                           ACTD defeats tunnels and improves ca-         ground pictures and allowed com-                                                              British systems by products resulting
                                           pabilities and concepts relative to muni-     manders in Afghanistan to see E–8                                                             from the C 4 I for Coalition Warfare
                                           tions used in Afghanistan. In addition,       joint surveillance and target attack                                                          ACTD. This also speeded coordination
                                           a 2001 demonstration put Navy pene-           radar system (JSTARS) ground targets                                                          among national air staffs. Coalition op-
                                           trators on Army missiles, providing           and air targets in one precise and accu-                                                      erations will benefit from the Language
                                           forces in Korea with a critical capability.   rate picture.

                                           74         JFQ / Summer 2002

and Speech Exploitation ACTD, an auto-

                                                                                                                                                      M I L I TA RY T R A N S F O R M AT I O N
                                             JSTARS image.
matic translation tool. At present, per-
sonnel must translate operations plans
and documents for coalition partners, a
time-consuming process.
      Information superiority is not
enough. It must lead to decision supe-
riority. In Afghanistan operations were
aided by visualization tools within uni-
fied and subordinate commands. These
new tools automatically compile data
and display it on knowledge walls, pro-
viding situation awareness at a glance.
The information can also be distrib-
uted, enabling a broad understanding
of ground truth. These tools were from
the Commander in Chief for the 21st Cen-
tury ACTD.

Cyber Threats
     Information superiority is relative
to enemy capabilities. Some will try to
deny any friendly advantage by degrad-
ing networks. Iraq and other nations
are reportedly developing the capabil-
ity to mount cyber attack. Protecting
networks is thus key to maintaining in-
formation superiority.

                                                                                                                                   Northrop Grumman
     Recent exercises have tested our
ability to detect and counter cyber at-
tacks, a major challenge. Cyber radar
was developed in the Information As-
surance Automated Intrusion Detection
Environment ACTD. The first tier of
this architecture collects information     security is featured in the Content-Based   Enhancing Space Systems
on local environments using intru-         Information Security ACTD, which allows          From directing land forces to
                                                          authorized users to access   pushing real-time intelligence into the
recent exercises have tested our ability secret information on a                       cockpit, space systems possess myriad
                                                          tactical-level coalition     capabilities. The Nation is becoming
to detect and counter cyber attacks                       network and also operate     more dependent on space assets—
                                                          on disadvantaged net-        some think that investments in this
sions sensors. The next tier fuses the     works and those interfacing with public     sector could approach 10 percent of
information into a big picture, and        networks.                                   gross domestic product in this century.
the top tier provides analysis to iden-         Offense is the best defense against    But the vulnerability of these capabili-
tify threats and determine responses.      cyber attacks. It also degrades enemy       ties is increasing. Satellites may be-
Several defense sites have been instru-    networks to gain warfighting advan-         come attractive targets for an enemy.
mented with this technology.               tages. The Information Operations Plan-     Moreover, as the number of satellites
     The capability to respond to net-     ning Tool ACTD helps these operations.      grows, more systems will be affected by
work intrusions is manifest in the Active  It consists of linked workstations in       natural hazards and collisions between
Network Intrusion Defense ACTD, which      combatant command and subordinate           working satellites and space debris will
changes network components such as         headquarters that enable collaborative      become more common.
routers and firewalls to automatically     planning as well as modeling and sim-            Protecting space assets starts with
block hackers. Network protection in-      ulation tools to recommend targets.         improved situational awareness. The
cludes multilevel security, giving access  This asset was installed at U.S. Central    Space Surveillance Operations ACTD uses
to users cleared for classified data while Command in 1999.                            the first satellite designed to track ob-
denying entry to unauthorized users.                                                   jects in high Earth orbit. Most satellite
Such protection is especially needed for                                               observation is done by ground-based
coalition and interagency operations. A                                                systems, which have limited surveil-
proof of concept for multilevel network                                                lance abilities because of location,

                                                                                                   Summer 2002 / JFQ         75
                                           ■    JFQ   FORUM

                                                                                                                                                                                        Time lag is a complex problem.
                                                                                                             Global Hawk UAV,                                                     There is a great need to get technology
                                                                                                             Enduring Freedom.                                                    to commanders, which must often rap-
                                                                                                                                                                                  idly bridge a gap between what is al-
                                                                                                                                                                                  ready fielded and what is required to be
                                                                                                                                                                                  preeminent. While the military depart-
                                                                                                                                                                                  ments are resourced to organize, train,
                                                                                                                                                                                  and equip, they spend little on rapid
                                                                                                                                                                                  acquisition. Forging stronger ties with

                                                                                                                                    1st Combat Camera Squadron (Reynaldo Ramon)
                                                                                                                                                                                  the services for funding demonstra-
                                                                                                                                                                                  tions and helping commanders to find
                                                                                                                                                                                  resources are goals of the Advanced
                                                                                                                                                                                  Systems and Concepts Office. Without
                                                                                                                                                                                  forceful support from the services, time
                                                                                                                                                                                  is lost in searching for funds that could
                                                                                                                                                                                  be better spent on technology integra-
                                                                                                                                                                                      tion and utility assessments. One
                                                                                                                                                                                      example is the demonstration that
                                                                                                                                                                                      produced the Predator UAV. Al-
                                                                                                                                                                                      though needed for warfighting, it
                                                                                                                                                                                      faced cultural resistance that was
                                                                                                                                                                                      described by the President: “Preda-
                                                                                                                                                                                      tor had skeptics because it did not
                                           weather, and time of day. This space-
                                                                                                                                                                                      fit the old ways.”
                                           based system has found more than 100
                                           lost objects and reduced the number of
                                                                                                                                                                                           Technology is advancing at an
                                           missing satellites from 63 to 13.
                                                                                                                                                                                     unprecedented pace and is readily
                                                Satellites must be able to diagnose
                                                                                                                                                                                     available to anyone, friend and foe
                                           their health and sense threats in the
                                                                                                                                                                                     alike. Fielding technology faster
                                           immediate area. But it can be difficult
                                                                                                                                                                                     means solving funding problems.
                                           to distinguish between hostile actions
                                                                                                                                                                                  Northrop Grumman

                                                                                                                                                                                     Enhancing the role of unified com-
                                           and natural phenomena. Such ambigu-                                    Brilliant Anti-Armor
                                                                                                                                                                                     manders in the resource allocation
                                           ity could seriously degrade crisis man-                                Submunition.
                                                                                                                                                                                     process can adapt the defense es-
                                           agement. The Compact Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                     tablishment to the needs of
                                           Anomaly Sensor ACTD provides on-
                                                                                                                                                                                     warfighters. “Transformation is sim-
                                           board warning and diagnosis. It is de-
                                                                                        developed both GPS jammers and a                                                          ply fostering changes that result in a
                                           ployed on a defense support program
                                                                                        jam-resistant system.                                                                     dramatic improvement over time in
                                           satellite to monitor the environment
                                                                                                                                                                                  the way a combatant commander
                                           around spacecraft and warn of natural        The Hardest Step                                                                          wages war,” according to the Chair-
                                           hazards such as electrical charging, sin-
                                                                                             Technological innovations are                                                        man. Although the ACTD program is
                                           gle event upsets, and radiation effects,
                                                                                        clearly possible and warfighters are                                                      rapidly transitioning technologies, it is
                                           which can harm or kill a satellite.
                                                                                        using them, but they are not enough.                                                      only a partial solution. The challenge
                                                In addition, natural hazards affect
                                                                                        Military transformation depends on                                                        of military transformation is more cul-
                                           satellite-to-ground links (like ionos-
                                                                                        cultural acceptance—convincing an in-                                                     tural than technological.            JFQ
                                           pheric scintillation) that can disrupt
                                                                                        stitution to accept new ways of doing
                                           satellite communications and global
                                                                                        business. Harnessing innovative orga-
                                           positioning signals. This can have seri-
                                                                                        nizational and cultural changes is a
                                           ous military and economic conse-
                                                                                        stumbling block in corporate America
                                           quences. The Communication/Naviga-
                                                                                        and even more so within DOD. Some-
                                           tion Outage Forecasting System ACTD
                                                                                        times it has required a generation to
                                           provides a capability to forecast scintil-
                                                                                        make improvements, even when they
                                           lation 4 to 6 hours in advance, and
                                                                                        are recognized as being in the best in-
                                           possibly for 24 hours, to allow better
                                                                                        terest of the Armed Forces. Technology
                                           communications planning.
                                                                                        advances faster than the ability of the
                                                Some capabilities of the global po-
                                                                                        human mind to accept it.
                                           sitioning system are available to poten-
                                           tial enemies. The Navigation Warfare
                                           ACTD prevents such use while enhanc-
                                           ing friendly GPS employment. It has

                                           76         JFQ / Summer 2002