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                                                Analysis and
                                                visulization
                                                of large networks
                                                with Pajek
                                                Vladimir Batagelj
                                                University of Ljubljana


Vienna, St. Stephen’s Cathedral



                                          a ¨
               Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t fur Sozialwissenschaften
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                                                                         Outline
            1     Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .    1
            6     Complexity of algorithms . . . . . . . . .                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .    6
            7     Pajek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .    7
           11     Approaches to large networks . . . . . . .                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   11
           12     Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   12
           19     Clusters, clusterings, partitions, hierarchies                           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   19
           20     Representations of properties . . . . . . . .                            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   20
           30     Example: Snyder and Kick World Trade . .                                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   30
           35     Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   35
           38     Contraction of cluster . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   38
           42     Subgraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   42
           44     Important vertices in network . . . . . . .                              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   44
           52     Dense groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   52
           60     Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   60
           64     Cuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   64
           69     Citation weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   69
           70     k-rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                        70
           75     Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                        75
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           84     Bipartite cores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   84
           91     Directed 4-rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    91
           96     Pattern searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   96
         101      Multiplication of networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
         105      Networks from data tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
         107      EU projects on simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
         116      What else? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

         http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/doc/tut/Vienna07.pdf




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                                                                      Networks
                                                                                           A network is based on two sets – set
                                                                                           of vertices (nodes), that represent
                                                                                           the selected units, and set of lines
                                                                                           (links), that represent ties between
                                                                                           units. They determine a graph. A
                                                                                           line can be directed – an arc, or
                                                                                           undirected – an edge.
                                                                                           Additional data about vertices or
                                                                                           lines can be known – their prop-
                                                                                           erties (attributes). For example:
         Alexandra Schuler/ Marion Laging-Glaser:
         Analyse von Snoopy Comics                                                         name/label, type, value, . . .

                                     Network = Graph + Data
         The data can be measured or computed.
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                                                          Networks / Formally
         A network N = (V, L, P, W) consists of:

             • a graph G = (V, L), where V is the set of vertices and L = E ∪ A is
               the set of lines; A is the set of arcs and E is the set of edges.
               n = |V|, m = |L|

             • P vertex value functions / properties: p : V → A

             • W line value functions / weights: w : L → B




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                                          Example: Wolfe Monkey Data
                                                   20 "f20"
                                                 *Edges
                                                    1     2    2
                                                    1     3 10
                   inter.net                     inter.net
                                                    1     4    4            sex.clu            age.vec           rank.per
                                                    1     5    5
                     *Vertices 20                                          *vertices 20       *vertices 20       *vertices 20
                                                    1     6    5
                        1 "m01"                                             1                  15                  1
                                                    1     7    9
                        2 "m02"                                             1                  10                  2
                                                    1     8    7
                        3 "m03"                                             1                  10                  3
                                                    1     9    4
                        4 "m04"                                             1                   8                  4
                                                    1 10       3
                        5 "m05"                                             1                   7                  5
                                                    1 11       3
                        6 "f06"                                             2                  15                 10
                                                    1 12       7
                        7 "f07"                                             2                   5                 11
                                                    1 13       3
                        8 "f08"                                             2                  11                  6
                                                    1 14       2
                        9 "f09"                                             2                   8                 12
                                                    1 15       5
                      10 "f10"                                              2                   9                  9
                                                    1 16       1
                      11 "f11"                                              2                  16                  7
                                                    1 17       4
                      12 "f12"                                              2                  10                  8
                                                    1 18       1
                      13 "f13"                                              2                  14                 18
                                                    2     3    5
                      14 "f14"                                              2                   5                 19
                                                    2     4    1
                      15 "f15"                                              2                   7                 20
                                                    2     5    3
                      16 "f16"                                              2                  11                 13
                                                    2     6    1
                      17 "f17"                                              2                   7                 14
                                                    2     7    4
                      18 "f18"                                              2                   5                 15
                                                    2     8    2
                      19 "f19"                                              2                  15                 16
                                                    2     9    6
                      20 "f20"                                              2                   4                 17
                                                    2 10       2
                     *Edges
                                                    2 11       5
                        1     2      2
                                                    2 12       4
                        1     3 10
                                                    2 13       3
                        1     4      4
                                                    2 14       2
                        1     5      5
                                                    2 15       2
                        1     6      5
                                                    2 ... 6
                                                        16
                        1     7      9
                                                    2 17       3
                        1     8      7
                                                    2 18       1
                        1     9      4
                                                    2 19       1
         Important 10 3 0 is not3allowed as vertex number.
                        1 notes:
                                                          4    8
                                                                                          Pajek doesn’t support Unix text files –
                        1 11         3
                                                    3     5    9
                        1
                              be 7
         lines should12 ended with CR LF.
                        1 13         3
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                                                                 Size of network
         The size of a network/graph is expressed by two numbers: number of vertices
         n = |V| and number of lines m = |L|.
         In a simple undirected graph (no parallel edges, no loops) m ≤ 1 n(n − 1); and in
                                                                        2
                                                          2
         a simple directed graph (no parallel arcs) m ≤ n .
                                              m
         The quotient γ =                 mmax
                                                       is a density of graph.
         Small networks (some tens of vertices) – can be represented by a picture and
         analyzed by many algorithms (UCINET, NetMiner).
         Also middle size networks (some hundreds of vertices) can still be represented by a
         picture (!?), but some analytical procedures can’t be used.
         Till 1990 most networks were small – they were collected by researchers using
         surveys, observations, archival records, . . . The advances in IT allowed to create
         networks from the data already available in the computer(s). Large networks became
         reality. Large networks are too big to be displayed in details; special algorithms are
         needed for their analysis (Pajek ).
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                                                                Large Networks
         Large network – several thousands or millions of vertices. Can be stored in
         computer’s memory – otherwise huge network.
         Usually sparse m < n2 ; typical: m = O(n) or m = O(n log n) .
                           <
            network                                      size            n = |V |           m = |L|   source
            ODLIS dictionary                            61K                 2909              18419   ODLIS online
            Citations SOM                              168K                 4470              12731   Garfield’s collection
            Molecula 1ATN                               74K                 5020               5128   Brookhaven PDB
            Comput. geometry                           140K                 7343              11898   BiBTEX bibliographies
            English words 2-8                          520K                52652              89038   Knuth’s English words
            Internet traceroutes                       1.7M               124651             207214   Internet Mapping Project
            Franklin genealogy                          12M               203909             195650   Roperld.com gedcoms
            World-Wide-Web                             3.6M               325729            1497135   Notre Dame Networks
            Internet Movie DB                        113.6M              1324748            3792390   IMDB
            Wikipedia                                 53.8M               659388           16582425   Wikimedia
            US patents                                  82M              3774768           16522438   Nber
            SI internet                                 38M              5547916           62259968   Najdi Si

         Pajek datasets.
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                                             Complexity of algorithms
         From some thousands to some (tens) millions of units (vertices).
         Let us look to time complexities of some typical algorithms:
                                          T(n)                 1.000           10.000      100.000   1.000.000   10.000.000
                     LinAlg               O(n)                0.00 s          0.015 s       0.17 s      2.22 s        22.2 s
                     LogAlg           O(n log n)              0.00 s            0.06 s      0.98 s      14.4 s        2.8 m
                                           √
                     SqrtAlg           O(n n)               0.01 s            0.32 s       10.0 s     5.27 m         2.78 h
                     SqrAlg              O(n2 )               0.07 s            7.50 s     12.5 m     20.8 h         86.8 d
                     CubAlg              O(n3 )             0.10 s          1.67 m         1.16 d     3.17 y         3.17 ky

         For the interactive use on large graphs already quadratic algorithms, O(n2 ),
         are too slow.



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                                                                         Pajek
                                                                                           The main goals in the design of Pajek are:
                                                                                             • to support abstraction by (recursive)
                                                                                               decomposition of a large network into
                                                                                               several smaller networks that can be
                                                                                               treated further using more sophisti-
                                                                                               cated methods;
                                                                                             • to provide the user with some powerful
                                                                                               visualization tools;
                                                                                             • to implement a selection of efficient
                                                                                               subquadratic algorithms for analysis of
                                                                                               large networks.

         With Pajek we can: find clusters (components, neighbourhoods of ‘important’ vertices,
         cores, etc.) in a network, extract vertices that belong to the same clusters and show them
         separately, possibly with the parts of the context (detailed local view), shrink vertices in
         clusters and show relations among clusters (global view).

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                                                            Pajek’s data types
         In Pajek analysis and visualization are performed using 6 data types:


                                                                                   • network (graph),
                                                                                   • partition (nominal or ordinal properties of
                                                                                     vertices),
                                                                                   • vector (numerical properties of vertices),
                                                                                   • cluster (subset of vertices),
                                                                                   • permutation (reordering of vertices, ordinal
                                                                                     properties), and
                                                                                   • hierarchy (general tree structure on vertices).

                                                                               Pajek supports also multi-relational, temporal
                                                                               and two-mode networks.



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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                             S   G S        
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                                                        . . . Pajek’s data types
         The power of Pajek is based on several transformations that support
         different transitions among these data structures. Also the menu structure
         of the main Pajek’s window is based on them. Pajek’s main window
         uses a ‘calculator’ paradigm with list-accumulator for each data type. The
         operations are performed on the currently active (selected) data and are also
         returning the results through accumulators.
         The procedures are available through the main window menus. Frequently
         used sequences of operations can be defined as macros. This allows also
         the adaptations of Pajek to groups of users from different areas (social
         networks, chemistry, genealogy, computer science, mathematics. . . ) for
         specific tasks. Pajek supports also repetitive operations on series of
         networks.

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                                                                 ESNA Pajek




                                                                      An introduction to social network analy-
                                                                      sis with Pajek is available in the book
                                                                      ESNA (de Nooy, Mrvar, Batagelj 2005).
                                                                      Pajek– program for analysis and visu-
                                                                      alization of large networks is freely avail-
                                                                      able, for noncommercial use, at its web
                                                                      site.




        http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek/
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                                       Approaches to large networks
         In analysis of a large network (several thousands or millions of vertices,
         the network can be stored in computer memory) we can’t display it in its
         totality; also there are only few algorithms available.
         To analyze a large network we can use statistical approach or we can use
         the described decomposition approach – identify smaller (sub) networks
         that can be analyzed further using more sophisticated methods.




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                                                                       Statistics
         Input data

             • numeric → vector

             • ordinal → permutation

             • nominal → clustering (partition)

         Computed properties
         global: number of vertices, edges/arcs, components; maximum core
         number, . . .
         local: degrees, cores, indices (betweeness, hubs, authorities, . . . )
         inspections: partition, vector, values of lines, . . .
         Associations between computed (structural) data and input (measured) data.

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                                                                          Degrees

                                                                                   degree of vertex v, deg(v) = number
                                                                                   of lines with v as end-vertex;
                                                                                   indegree of vertex v, indeg(v) =
                                                                                   number of lines with v as terminal
                                                                                   vertex (end-vertex is both initial and
                                                                                   terminal);
                                                                                   outdegree of vertex v, outdeg(v) =
                                                                                   number of lines with v as initial vertex.



                      n = 12, m = 23, indeg(e) = 3, outdeg(e) = 5, deg(e) = 6

                    indeg(v) =                       outdeg(v) = |A| + 2|E|,                        deg(v) = 2|L| − |E0 |
            v∈V                              v∈V                                              v∈V

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                                                                      . . . Statistics
         The global computed properties are reported by Pajek’s commands or can
         be seen using the Info option. In repetitive commands they are stored in
         vectors.
         The local properties are computed by Pajek’s commands and stored in
         vectors or partitions. To get information about their distribution use the
         Info option.
         As an example, let us look at The Edinburgh Associative Thesaurus
         network. The EAT is a network of word association as collected from
         subjects (students). The weight on the arcs is the count of word associations.
         File/Network/Read eatRS.net
         Info/Network/General

         It has 23219 vertices and 325624 arcs (564 loops); number of lines with
         value=1 is 227481.
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                                                                      . . . Statistics
         To identify the vertices with the largest degree:
         Net/Partitions/Degree/All
         Partition/Make vector
         Info/Vector +10
         The largest degrees have the vertices:
                                    vertex                         deg                     label
                          1          12720                        1108                     ME
                          2          12459                        1074                     MAN
                          3           8878                         878                     GOOD
                          4          18122                         875                     SEX
                          5          13793                         803                     NO
                          6          13181                         799                     MONEY
                          7          23136                         732                     YES
                          8          15080                         723                     PEOPLE
                          9          13948                         720                     NOTHING
                         10          22973                         716                     WORK



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                                                      Statistics / Pajek and R
         Pajek (0.89 and higher) supports interaction with statistical program R
         and the use of other external programs as tools (menu Tools).
         In Pajek we determine the degrees of vertices and submit them to R
         info/network/general
         Net/Partitions/Degree/All
         Partition/Make Vector
         Tools/Program R/Send to R/Current Vector
         In R we determine their distribution and plot it
         summary(v2)
         t <- tabulate(v2)
         c <- t[t>0]
         i <- (1:length(t))[t>0]
         plot(i,c,log=’xy’,main=’degree distribution’,
           xlab=’deg’,ylab=’freq’)

         The obtained picture can be saved with File/Save as in selected format
         (PDF or PS for LTEX; Windows metafile format for inclusion in Word).
                         A

        Attention! The vertices of degree 0 are not considered by tabulate.
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                                                  EAT all-degree distribution
                                                                  EAT all−degree distribution




                                           5000
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                                           50




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                                           5 10




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                                           1




                                                   1                  5          10                 50     100                 500

                                                                                              deg



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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                                                     S   G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           18
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                                                                                                                                                Degree distribution
                                Random graph degree distribution, n=100000, degav=30                                                                                                                                US Patents degree distribution




                                                                                                                                                                                            1 e+06
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                     6000




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                                                                                                                                                                                            1 e+04
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                     4000




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              freq




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                                                                                                                                                                                            1 e+02
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                     2000




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                                               q                                                                                                        q
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                            q   qqqq                                                                                                                                  qqqq   q   q                                                                                                 qqq qqq q q qqq q
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                     0




                            10                         20                                      30                                   40                                50                             1             5         10                         50        100                        500      1000

                                                                                                        deg                                                                                                                                  deg




                                                               o
         Real-life networks are usually not random in the Erd˝ s/Renyi sense. The
         analysis of their distributions gave a new view about their structure – Watts
                                 a
         (Small worlds), Barab´ si (nd/networks, Linked).

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                  Clusters, clusterings, partitions, hierarchies
         A nonempty subset C ⊆ V is called a cluster (group). A nonempty set of
         clusters C = {Ci } forms a clustering.
         Clustering C = {Ci } is a partition iff

                                      ∪C =                Ci = V              in i = j ⇒ Ci ∩ Cj = ∅
                                                      i

         Clustering C = {Ci } is a hierarchy iff

                                                              Ci ∩ Cj ∈ {∅, Ci , Cj }

         Hierarchy C = {Ci } is complete, iff ∪C = V; and is basic if for all
         v ∈ ∪C also {v} ∈ C.


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                                       Representations of properties
         Properties of vertices P and lines W can be measured in different scales:
         numerical, ordinal and nominal. They can be input as data or computed
         from the network.
         In Pajek numerical properties of vertices are represented by vectors,
         nominal properties by partitions or as labels of vertices. Numerical
         property can be displayed as size (width and height) of vertex (figure), as its
         coordinate; and a nominal property as color or shape of the figure, or as a
         vertex label (content, size and color).
         We can assign in Pajek numerical values to links. They can be displayed
         as value, thickness or grey level. Nominal vales can be assigned as label,
         color or line pattern (see Pajek manual, section 4.3).


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                                                              Some comments
         While the technical graph drawing problems could ask for a single ’the
         best’ picture, the social network analysis is a part of data analysis. Its goal
         is to get insight into the structure and characteristics of a given network, but
         also how it influences related social processes.
         What is the goal: exploration of network data (layout editor), presentation
         of the obtained results (layout viewer), . . . ?
         What is a GD result: picture or layout ?
         What is the medium of the result: static picture on ’paper’, interactive
         layout, . . . ?
         What kind of user will use the result: simple, advanced, . . . ?
        Most methods are ’paper’ oriented. In larger/denser networks there is
        often too much information to be presented at once. A possible answer are
        interactive layouts where the user controls what (s)he wants to see.
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                           James Moody: Display of properties – school




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                                                               Lothar Krempel




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                                         FAS: The scientific field of Austria




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                                                        o
                                                  Katy B¨ rner: Text analysis




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                                      Jeffrey Johnson: St Marks food web




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                                             Big picture, V. Batagelj, AE’04




         subnetwork (n = 5952, m = 18008) of the symmetrized Edinburgh Associative Thesaurus
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Big picture

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   drip                                   lens                                                          strand                                           holiness keg bitter                                                                                                                                          samson                                                    swimming                 pool                                                                                                   dizzy          spa                          during       while                    starved                inside          outside                                                                                                                                                                   turnip


                                                     ted                                                                 slower             strain        stress                      textile                            sitting             yarn                                     filter             roofs                                        operation                            cain                                                                                                                                                                                                     herald                                                                                 explosion                                    hurting                             liquor          dry martini                              fuel                                    shearing         flock                        herd                                                                                           facile              hunger                 pangs                 feeble            juvenile                                      hopper           lip               easter                                      lakes                                venus                                                                                 gorilla                                                           hungry                                                                                                     milligan                              snakes           easier              swede
                                 heath                                 fastest             precarious                                                                                                    tack                                                 supply                                                    yacht                                                  accept                         13                        fears          receive                   port                  plastic               unsure          uncertain       vines                grapes                                 then                 immediately            hoarse                                        loser                                   ouch                                                 facility                              shepherd                                                                                shed                slash                  breakable cinch                                                                                                                          cure                                                                         pier                                            licking                           pleat                     pleats           chimpanzee                              smartie             solved                                          famished         rum                     wanted               zip                                                                                                                       hump


                                        possessing                                         dad                     dangerous            faster                                                       sorts              enquire                            demand                                   navigation               proffer         offer                                          abel                                                                                  june                                                                                                                                      now                                                            population             lovers       certainty                        straw            gallon         fold                   groin       wider               goats                 sheep             bleat                                       cattle                                        fragile                         easy                                                                catholic          delinquent          vodka                                                      fluid                                                      holst                      shoulders                                                                                                                  problem                                                         starving needed                               swoop                                                     bugs
                                                           having              mum                                                                              writer                kinds                                            profession                             flats                                                                                      paddle                             14                        hopes          provide                                   launching              literature               fabric        harpoon               scratch               itch                                                        rant                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         boys                                  hard                                   simple                swallow                                                                               sip               shoulder                          learnt                     horns                                                           skirt            monkey               ape              gut                  fascinating                                      solve            groceries                                                                             spike             germs                                           bunny                camel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             draught


                                                                                                                                             postcard                                               request                                                                                        schooner                                                       strap                                                                                                      july                      nous                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               fleece                                                            difficulty                         complex            gulp                                      cider                                                                                                                                                                                                       anthropoid                                                                                                                                                                      tackled                           replenished                 bacteria
                                         trove              treasure           deadly                                  consulate                               text book mythology                                                                         to be              maisonettes                             jib                    soon                                          yield              give                  donate                 gave                                                             chez                                   saucer       cup                         when            at once                                                                                                                             severe                                                                                                    baa                   crew cuts                 stopper                                 girls                                                           difficult                                                 protestant                                                                     wallpaper             taste-bud                              snog            epaulettes                   taught                                                     tarzan                intestine              pests                                                               throwing      bondage                                      tested                                                                              erupt
                                                                                               unsafe                                                                                                                    ask             or not to be                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       cloth                                                                                                 sure              empire                disc                    disk                                                          article      sons                   broader           cotton            wool                                                                                                                              soft                                                                                                                                    brown ale            trodden                                                       thorn                                                                          gibbon                                                                                                       chinese                  syrup                                                                                                                                      statistics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      toothache

                                                                       aunt                                                                               boost                                   greek               hindered                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    hornpipe                  folder             tea-cup             starched         revolve              sank                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   flocks                                                                                                                                            guts          tricky                                                         somerset                               foam                                                                               kiss             hug                                     offside                                         utensils             implement tool                                                                                                                                tried                 unexpected wrongs                                            twos                 superficial
                capone                  auntie       uncle                                          perfect              onward         vessels                                 stopped                                                     or not             editor          stamp                     houses              waste            times               guardian               overtake             take                                                given     spacious                                                                                                                                         sunset            sunrise           certain                                    record                                             robe                          daughters             flesh                                                                                                                  lenses                 glasses             shakes                                                                                                 buttons                                ass                                foggy                   tongue           grease                                                        fudge                                                                                                                                   lime juice           sunny            serf                 slave               attempted                                                                            ones                                                                             popeye
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         newsagent                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    player                                        wriggling                                   sufferer                                               reel            sport                                         dank                 fang                                                                          meadow                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            jungle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rained

                                                           jumping                                  practice             pops                                                                       pullover                                                                   key-hole              merchant                                                                                                                           legend             donated                               august                                      knickers           teacup          crawly              creepy                                                          falling                                                                                   agony                                                    put               placed                                    pins         decay                     tooth                                                                                                                   soak                                      whine                 inn                                  thieves                                    glandular      protein                                embrace                                                                                                                        insects                dinner                                                              homeward                                   spawn                            volcano                  newt                                  unhealthy             spinach                  tse tung
               al                        origin                          leaping                                                            weld             private eye
                                                                                                                                                                                      rover                             jumper                   hoyle        fred                                                           dwellings              memoir        writing                seaman                pass                                                          newspaper                                      extinct                                                                                         handkerchief select                                            failed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 groove             worm                                          floor              lino                                                       snip                                                                    incisor                  spectacles reach                       attain             damp                                      hymn                                                         donkey                                   robbers                                                      lips                                   pole                 ruins                      sink              kitchen         nibble                                                                solution servant                                                  larva                              servility                                                     pans


               signature                                                                                                             tops                                                                                padlock            sweater                                                homes                                                                                                              fail            myth              presented                                                           include                             factory               find out                                                                   choose                                                                                                     suffer                                  guides                                                         needles                                               corduroy                                                                                                                    moisture                                     windsor                                  cops             douse                 fever                                                                             starve           flirt                                                                                                                         gagged                                         bound            frog                                                       troubled                  terrified          pots                      surface cleanliness                       godliness
                                    o.k.                 all right             stupendous           raise               scrape                            sent                    indirect         magazine                                                lock                     slug                                      ed                     tar            heave                          anchor                                                                       journal            emery                                    exclude                                                  quest                  injection        fibre                                        fell               passed                                pain                                            scouts                                 diving           sever                                 weeds              braces                                                        cows                bilge                                       wet                                       drawbridge                            fortress                                                                      mouth                  drown                  tummy                                                      kippers                sugar lumps           seascape             helped              aided                                recipe                                                                   tadpole        smut
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              torture                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bulls                                                      guiness

                                                                                                  valid          wonderful                                                        direct              lethal            slack                key           hinges                                    knob                     grip                                aground                                                                                    news                                                                            pocket         look for                                                         search                                     pick      tales                                                                                                         ceiling                              windows                                 erosion                                                                                                                                                                                  arid                                 castle                      kings          drought                                                                                                  tremble                              float              fishing                                                                                                                             gel           talons                                                                   infective                        morals                                                         strawberry
                      next to                               vein              wits                                                      flux                                                                                                                                  funnels                                                                      shipment                      mast                      steward            sailing                                                                              require                                                      until        definite                                        egg-shaped                                               damsel          distress                                         glow                              stairs                                  gash                                   scissors              trousers                 trews            soil                                  nip                                        dry                                        task                                                                            toffee            tray             disregard                  ignore                                    plankton                                               creamy                     landscape                                 silica              housemaid                                                     toad                    croak                                 ethics                                    mao                 snipe                                    wholesome
                                        jugular                                                                                                             bored                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               pulp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        stationery                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  infliction                                                                                                                                                                                                                      herds                                  raining                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           alkali

                                                                                             solder                                                                                   britain                                                                  knocker door                         handle                                                                                                            cruise                            bulletin                                       tissue              need                                 unharmed                                 endure                       reeling composition                             stories                                                                                                                                     wick                  scissor              cut                                                                                                                      bullocks                                   dehydrated         martini                                                                                                  falls                                                                                                                   boyfriend girlfriend                                                                                                                               rights                                                       malady           illness                             ail                                                 tinned
               latter                                       unreal      talking                                  wit                     fantastic          nova                                    loose              tight                slams                                                                            destiny                wag                  captain               prow                                         sailor                               clip                                                        wounded                                     secure                                                                      join                                        spasm         discomfort                                                        steps          candle                                                                           shave               crease                                            cozy                                                                                                            desert                 england              queens                  confession                            drinking            thunder            lightning               planets                                                                         cuisine                appears        electric                apes                 monkeys                                eagle                    flour                                                                                                ailing                                             maid                um
                                         cripple                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ease                                                                                                                                                                                  creases                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     netting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ache                                                                                                                                                                                                  gasp                                   parched                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  indisposed

                                                                                                                                            kangaroo           pouch                                                                                                hinge                                                                    enter                tail                                           wreck                                                                                                necessity          image                                     safe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                carver            blade               razor                                                                                                                                                                                 imbibe                  hanger                                 jacket            dragon                agriculture                leak       filled                                    golden                                     digest                vicarage                                                   seems                                                                                       wander            roam                 nausea                                          anxious                                 unwell
                      adjacent wheel chair                  staying            speaking        sarcasm                  nit                                                           fabulous            great        marvellous                                                   doors             keys                   fate                                                              liner                                                    matelot               paper                      want                                                                                             vintage               ounce        essay                                    mutiny                bounty               suffering                                                                              sheath                                                                                       blades                                                                                                                       pitcher                                                   sheepskin                                                                                                                swim                                     personality                                                        raising                                                treacle                civil                        meander                                                                               worried                                                                       mod                rocker            er
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            close                                                                                                                                                                                          oars                                                                                                               reflections                                                                                               jersey                                                                      flue                      headache          delicate                                                                                          follicle                                     earth                    breath                                              frothy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   menu                                                                                                                                                                                                               ill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     siphon          soda

              tiredness                                                                           pod             pea                                          slide                                                                         shut                                                                                                                                                                  crew                                                                                                                  mirror                                                      puppet                                          quid          discovery                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               quake                                                                                                                                                                  fur                                                                                          plunge                 dive                                                                             jingle                                                                                                   tasty                                                                                disease                  rugger                     poorly
                                 phoney                     invalid             sender                                               slip                                             sailors                ports                                                open                                                        dock                                      deck            ship                                       boat                                                            document                                                    reflect                  ink                               wine                                                    employment                     danger        sunday                                                             spoon                 fork           knife                   wig               curlers       cropping             shampoo                                                                                    tap          booze                  drink                                   bowler                                  mink                dilute                                      thistle                                               character            welfare              jangle                                        feast                                                   peas                                               mosquito          health               sickness                                                                                 sick          puke                                      neater                     hatch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 nearby                                                  knock            locks                                                                                                                                            gazette                                                          desire                                                                                                                                                                                                                     chimney                migraine                                                                                                                                                                            pinch             casks                                                                         thirsty                                                                                                    dog-collar                                                                                                                                                                                 eats           refectory                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tidier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      vessel                                                                                                                quarto

                                                            closeness                       sooner                                                           oath                                                                ended                     closed                                                             lift                                                                                                                                                                                                           fairies                                                     vine                                                                                                                                                            anguish                  humid           nationality british                                                                                 pubic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             vital              silence           broker                        nauseous spew                                                                  placard       potatoes
              haemorrhoids               neurology                           paws                                 latest                     swear                            liners                masts                                       began                            ajar                      elevator                                                       funnel           cargo                 dingy                canoe            ferry                                                                                                 reflection            blob                                                                                                                          dagger                                                                                                                                stab                     comb             hair                                                                                    trickle                                                                     snack                 fields             coat                     scythe                    tunnel           contract         goal                oesophagus              french                          kraut             state                         consume eat                       nation                    bluebottle     kite                         lump         wing                          nazi                                                                                                                                             slime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               elevate                                                                                                                       snarl                     growl                                                                                                                            devalued pound           devalue                busy                                     broom              sweep                                                                                                                                                                                 coif                  lager                                        flood                coca-cola            bar                                                                                                                                                                                                german                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nauseating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           at

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  oar                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       magic                wand                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mersey
                                  strike                               near                               later                                                                                                                        commenced              started                                                         driving                                     berth                                    weapon                             sail                                                                                   vest             pants                     pen                                grape                     heather                                                     cloak                                                                                              drinker                                                                                                                                    brew                                                                                                                                                                sickle                                                                                                                                                                                  eating                                    larder                  fly              concord                                                       scones                 fitness                 eaters           stock                        healthy      pond                                                      sssh
                   proper                           odontology                                    from home                          earlier                   polo                                   harbours           ships                                                  begun                hold                                            director                              scribble                                                                           lung                       cancer        sword                                                                       string                                                                                                                             cement                                                                                                                    beards           brush                wavy                  pub               bottles                                ale                                                              saloon             wards                               hat                                                                                   currants           tigers              sole                 kipper         dolphin                        ate                                  pantry                                                                           jet                  fishes                                                                                                                                                   trim           shush                                      spuds
                                                                                                                                                                                 industry                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                absent                                                                        cable                                                                           turtle                                                                                                                                                                virile           fountain                                                     meadows                                                                            leagues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          tablet

                                   afar                                                                                                                     afterwards                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             exams           crane                                                                                                  error               sharpener                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        carpenter ply                                                                       froth                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    food                                                                                  bomber                                            pebbles sandy                                          toast                                                                                                  still                        shin
                      rear                               nigh          far                 away                  gone            with the wind                                    mint                                                      docks                 finished ever ready               pole vault              grasp                   came                                   girders                                                                                                                                                                                                                              shaggy                                                                       occupation            jive                 blimey              daily                                   carving                                                                                                     local                           brewing           pint                                              splash                               shower        ripple                 cap                 instant              cafe                                                                                             fin                                              plaice                roe                                   restaurant            plane                                                            frightened                                                       nuisance                                     grime                                                 quiet
                                                                                                                                                                                                          yachts          boats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         rigging                                                                            heap             tropic                      sharpen bitten                                                                 refill       cartridge                                patience              study                      pill                                                                                          indigestion                                  ceremony                                                        planks                                                                                            bouncer                                   crypt                                                                                                                  rugby                goalie             lions               shark                                     bait                                                                                                                        aeroplane                                                                                                                                                              squalor                        hush

                                                                                                                                                                                jagged                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       mistake                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  snap                                                                                                                                                                                                            meal                                                                                                                        beach                                                                                                                                           quiescent
                                 piles                distant           although            upper                                                                  lying                                                                                                       battery                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pencil                                                                         poodle                                                                                   dance             cor                     descending warning                concrete                                sore                                                                                 beer              hops                    arrows                                                 mineral           infirmary                                   tea                                                                                 football                            spiral            net                  fish                                          grub                    cater                               airport                                  flight                                            lake                                       pest           marmalade
                    untruth                                                                                      going               coming                                                                                 errant           at last           baron                                                                            went              decks                   moment                   finals           corrugated          ferrite              reading                     scotch        terrain                                                                                           leash                                                                                    job                                                                                                                    throat                            teak                                          carpentry                                                                           tonic           water                                                          ward                                  coffee                                     league                                  soccer                                                                              appetite                                                                                              spitfire                                    scared                                                                                                        dirt          filth                        silent            noiseless                        poster
                                                                                                                                                                                                          aluminium                                                                                      artificial           ink-pot                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           haystack            thread                                                                                  work                                                                                                                                                                                                  wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pup
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       crackle                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pilot                                                                                                          preserve tart
              recline                   methylated spirits              penultimate                 lower               higher              pillow-case             playing                              chivalry       knight              hang                  suspend       done                      contain             final                  matches antimony                      boxer                 filings        foundry                    pile                                                             passive         blunder
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      knit              needle                                    puppy      bitch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           toil                              draw                       isles          career              procure              arduous                                                   cork               plank                   splinter        barrels                   tankard           keg                 bows                                             h2o             ripples               pump             topper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              china                language                                   miners                              mines                  staircase              diet                cod         chips                   mackerel                 nourishment chef                  cook                                            tomato                screech                     sand                 pebble                                                 stork
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fearful                   paddy           southern noisy                          huff
                                                                                                                                                                                      snoring                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               toothbrush                    whisky                                                                                         barking                                                                                                                                                                                                  nurse                   whistle                                                                                                                                                              taps                                                                                                                                                                               scuttle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            paw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 sketch                                                                                                                                                                                             timber                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   mutton            ram                                                                                                                                             butty                 margarine                                                      rarely
                                                         lies                                       true                                    gulf                               nap                                                         mentioned              fag                    finally          conclude                           ending                 scrap                cuddly               steel            iron                        brace                                                                               crayon                sew                                                     dog            bark                                                                                      dimension canals                                          acquire            get             beadle                                                         cottage                               barrel                                     shutter                  alcoholic         reservoir                                  hospital           headgear                                english          blend                   miner                                    depth            fired                    gill          skate             porridge                    meals           prime                                                                                  sauce                judo                        thither         hither               tarts            jam                                                                                                                          serene
                    nightmare            truth                               honesty                                     hammock                          nightmares                                  sleeping            armour                                                                                               finish                                                                                                                                             dentists                                 active                                                     setter         hound                                                                 discover                                                                                             clear                                                                                        sawdust                                                                              sills                                                                                patients                                                                                                                                  coal                                                                                                                                                           life-boat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          irish              northern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        dentistry                                                                                                                                                                                 biter                                                                                                                                                   bottle                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              buns

                                                                                                                                                                                  waking                                                                                                             beginning end                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 obtain                                                                                                                                           sill                                                                                                                                                               channel
             fib                  lie                                                             false                                     fantasies        dreams                                                                                               dreaming               fleet                                                       token                metal         ore                 fables                 monger                  teeth                                       fangs           cox                    switzerland                                                pet                                                                                                                 concentrate                                                    crate                      raisins                                                                                                                                                                                boiling         soiree            afternoon                                   almoner                                    balmy                                wave                 breaker                                field                                                     fill                   oats                                   sausage                    pasture      lamb                   ewe                       karate                    loaves                dough             jar            loaf                                       kettle                                           bawl                 peaceful spread
                                                          falsehood      gospel                                   untrue                                                                                                  kittens                said                                                                                                                                                                                                                         dentist                                                                            lace              cruiser                                  handler                      puss       kitten                find                   rash                             ascending               achieve                                                                          button            shorter                                  slate                tumbler                  window                                                                                           matron                                   canon                                                                                                  rector                               turn                      digestion                                              minister                                                                                                                                                                                                                      butter                             stew
                                                                                                                                                                                                     snooze                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            thatch

                                                                             bye             scooters                                                                                  slumber                                                                                                                          begin                       start               accomplish aesop                              detective          fillings           gums                                                                                                                                                                                    cat             detect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        glass             pane                                                                                                                                               mad            crazy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            oceanography shore                                                                  fried                                                                                                                                      cutlet                 chop                                                                                                                                   marge                                                                      depths              calm
                detector            deceit                 dream                                                 lighter                 de plume                                                          doze           into              former             either                   finality    terminally                                                                                                                                                                    dental                 perspire           detached           semi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                pin             brick                encounter                  dung
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         seek                lose            win                          edge             panther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                bear             shear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      abroad             ribbon             longer                                       alcohol              wishers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ledge             clergy           evening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   morning                 churches           cans                                                                                                    atlantic         bamboo shoots                          fiction            fact                     milkmaid                axminster persian                 boil                                                                   pork                dinners              bakery                   bread           stale                                   seagull                      parrot        polly
                                                                                                                                                          slumbers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tiles

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         conclusion            producer         numerous                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    meet                 manure            pussy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         sane                insane                                  choppy                                                                                                                                                 carpet           underlay                                                                                                                                                                crusts                                                                                              placid
                      perjury            reverie                                                                                                                                                                                                stated        or                                                                                                                                                                                                                    flint                godmother           sweat                                                       mortar                                                                                                              precipice                            sodium                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     berserk                                                        brighton                                                                                                                 caramel                   pidgeon                                                      pastry         weep                   cry                                              baker                                                                                  worth             value
                                                           cheat             fantasy                after              ashtray                visual
                                                                                                                                                                                sleep                                                                                           gallows                                                                                    george              farther              weeding              silky             how                                                                                 prick            lofty                                                                                                   subject            hide                               cliff                                      claws                  bolts              nuts                truck                  ambulance fiddler                roof
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            alcoholism          well             window pane perspex                   bishop                                   vicar              present                 future                                                                                                                                                             blackpool
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    home rule                                                                                                                                                            sob
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                crumbs      crumb                                                                         soften                   foresee                                 pineapple
                                                                                                                                                               snore                                      genuine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           parson                                                                                                                                                                                    ocean              pacific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          real

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         states                                                                                      bricks                                                       thing                    drowning                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ales                                                                                                                                                                                                                           mask                                                                                                                                                           drape                    curtain               pelmet                                                                                                                                           gnat                                            harry                            rolls                 royce
                    deceive              mantis             preying             previous      before              cigarettes                                                           results              nom                                                                                          plaything           foil                                                                                                  not quite                                      colon                                  united               exam               low                  high                                      bow               cosy                                                        slippers             barn                                  whimper                  cushion              hall                              pissed                                                          vacant                                udder                deacon                                                                                                                    foretell             crests             hatter                                     sea                                                                                                cornflakes breakfast                                                                                                           wail                    fiddle                   crust                   baking            nimble                                                                            harden
                                                                                                                                                                 audio                                                   name              actual                 else           hanging                                                                                   incredible alert                several                                      snug                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           length                                                                         drop                                  tile                enamel                                                                                                  altar                                     curate             gift                  past                                                                                                                       coast                                    tower               castles                                                                                                                hue                                                                                                                                                     shout
                                                                                                                                              unite                                                                                                                                                                                           many                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                spires                                                                                                                                                                                                    insect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         plum

                    proceed                                                                                                                                                                          coma                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rummy                  gin                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            void                                                                                                   kirk                                                                              clergyman           waves                                        shanties                                                                                          flavour
                                         praying            lover               hater                                    cigars          fume             swift                       wake                            bedtime                                                       bureau                                                                       complete               edition                    washington                                               warm                  slippy                 manchester                                ledger                                                                    arrow                      object                                                     mark                               breadth              width                    residence                                                                                                                                 moo                 coventry                                   pew                                  evensong                 priest              cartilage                                                      breakwater                                                                                           taste                                whisk                   frighten                                   anxiety                                                                          convalescence                  fahrenheit            deep             profound               slice              yell                grains        of course
                                                                                                     tobacco                                                                                                                                                 and                                         toy                                        depart                                                                                 d.c.        skip                                                                                                                                                                                                                                gain                  twain                                  barns                                                                          sloshed            boozed             clanger                  frame          picture                                                                            commerce                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ribbons                                                                                                concern                                  ha                    afraid                 violin                                                                                                                                                                                   naturally                    diverse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pillowslip                                                                      few                                                                                                                                                                                                                wall                                                                          taylor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mower                index

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                sought                                                                                                  smoke                   rest                                                  beds                            envelope                                                           office              whether                                                                                                                                      hop                                                                                                   fairy                    leap                   liz                bag                                     loss            outboard                    stack                                                                                                drunk               soot               gloss                                                                                                                                          church         steeple                                          score           buzz             breakers                                                                                                                                     necessary                                seldom                  scare           fret                       worry         fear                                                                                                               fathoms         shallow                                                                                 pheasant
                                   smoking                    lung cancer                            cigarette                                                   fags                                                   letter                                 et                                                                                                   regulation rule                           exception               row              residing                                    centimetre caution                       fracture           airy                                                                                                     wary                                                                              hay                                        mat                inebriated                                                                                   portrait                                                                                                                                         tang                                                                                                                                                               terrify              cropper                                    mistress                                                                                                                  terror                  viola             of fact                                                                                                 scream                 tranquil                                lemon                   basin
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                                                         images                             stub                                         repose                                asleep                                                                                                                    occurence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sober                                                                                                             empty                                                                                                                                                                     aim                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          unlike                                    wheat
                                         mail                                label                                 pipe                                                                         pillows                   sheet             but                rope                 borrow                                                     abandon                  uneven                 rough           smooth                                 living              shelf                                       on                                                           jump                                                            polythene            wriggle             profit                                                                                            cellar                                     stoned                                              tent                  artist                                                                                                                        congregation                    profile          cassock                                             planetarium                 sergeant         major                                                                           essential                                                                         fright                                                        birthdays                 astonishment matter                                                            hitler                                                                                   murmur                chuck               partridge
              bad habit                                                                                                                                        cosine                                                                                                                                                         initially                                                                                            fetch                                                               off                               break                                                            stitch            learn                                                                                  motor              petrol            bale                    dart                                                                          animal               stomach                                                                             calf          cow                spire              methodist                                                                                               parent                                                                              lawns            pointed               knee                                   master             frequent           often                                             vegetarian dread                                                                                             amazement bellow                                                            cereal
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                   market        pictures                 leaving      limit                  cigar              hose                                                                                                                                                                                    happening                                  abrasive                                                     choke                                 thong                                                                                                                                                                                                        squirm                                                                                                                                              bedsit                                                                 camping          canvas                                                                                        chapel                                                                                                                                                                            minor                                   blunt                 sharp                                  cakes                hood             frequently                  broth                  soup                   pottage
                                                                                                                                            sine                 sheets                              post               posted           correspondence             skipping             connect                                   first                                  beg                  abate                                carry                                    nearly                    squares         shatter              reader              hurdle                barges              messing                  teach             educate                                               mileage                                 esso                       board              dolls                                                         wheels                                                                     full                         bull                                                                            pints                                 unladen               jigsaw              puzzle        crossword                mists                                  grass                                                          doctors                                                                                                                                                                                     stodgy                    log              edinburgh        puff                      exclaim        peck                                                          throw               fling
                                                                                                                                                                                      mattress                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   gasoline                                                                                                                                        shake                                                                                                milking                                                                               tears                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               vitamin c          aircraft

               road works                                               sky-line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    second                                                    prevent                                                                                                                        library                                                                                                                                lots                                                                                                                                                  bathroom                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              raspberry
                                         next            astray
                                                                                                    horizon                  ash-tray                bedroom            bed                                postman          doctor’s                      backward            forward                event                           last                                                         bring                           care                 leather               almost                      circles            fuck                                books                 cookery             about                 accident             conjurors spirit                                                              alimentary             canal                                  nearer                                                   bicycles                            duodenal             camp                       in
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               nurses               quacks           omelette              robin                  hen                                       crow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           cormorant                     beak               surprise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                pudding                 stodge           festival
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            horror                                             lagoon           plaintive       oh la la
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                                                                                                                                                                                      divan                                                     letters                                                                                                                        dose                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        silencer                                                        ironing                                     closer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     forks                                                                                           pastures                                                                                                                                                        salty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ulcer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          crystal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                minute                                                                                                                                                                                    binder                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       secretary
                   mexico                                                                                                                       ornament                                                                                                            weights     measures                               foremost                                         medicine                                                                       where                 scrawl                    write            read                                    book               novel                                                           coagulate                        manhole                                        vehicle                                                                                                                                                                                                                     not out                                                                                                                                                                                                            cleaner                                                     ireland         nut                    muck          scrambled             egg                                                                nest                               bird                     thrush                                                                                   chaff                                                  grain                                    ostrich                       alike
                                         morbid            napping           groom            bride              consciousness                                      pyjamas                         parcel                                 grab                                                       safety                                                                                   stop              slow down          scent                                                                                                                                                                 around                                                   puppies                                 cover                                    rally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cabin                 driver              lorry                 sewing         machine                                                      floyd                   out                                  carton                   pilfering question                     response              bells                              air                                        lunatic                                    washer             bowling                                                                                                                    laid                  mince                                                                                                        suet                 presents gifts                                                   whisper                                              fowl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           smash                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                circa                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           peptic        frock                                                                                                                                                                                         breathe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           starling
                                                                                                                                                                                       package                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ball

                                                                              however                                                                          happen                                                                                                                                                   hour                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   almond               referee          boiled              yolk                   timer
             nevertheless                trotted     lagging                                                                             handed                                                                                                                                                      flagstones                                                                                                                 arrive                      nude                recount                continent                novels        reference        text                author                   crag                                   ventricle       mass production                                                                     garage                                                                                                                                                        pink                     fizzle                                                        jaw               answer cello                                                                                                            asylum                                                         candlestickmaker republic                                                                                                                 butcher                       finch                                                                           blackberry                  apricot              coke               caked            mud                squelch            different                    crop       same               identical
                                                                                                  slept           take place                                                           cuff                                     elf        snatch          alphabet                   omit                                                   discontinue            come                          halt         pause                                                                                                                                                                                                             amen                                           yard                                                car                                   jeep                   cubs                  land               brake            bubble            clothe            dress                                                              dairy           asked                                                                                  belly                fools               bounce               bat                                 vacuum                  brigade                                                                                                                                                                                                     falcon                  feathers            sparrow
                                                                                                                                                                                                      stethoscope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           letter-box

                                                                                                    pillow                                                                                                                               cord                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          bikes                                                                                                                                                                             query                 unit                ants                                    atmosphere                                                                                                                                                                                     limb           baked                   beans                                       gull                                                                                                                         eater                                                                                                                                         kneecap
                     ahead        in front                                    trial                                     tablets          nineteen              eighteen occur                        link              umbilical                               fist             sidewalk             pavement          sometimes                have to            get set                go               desist                 nil                                                              biting             laughing                pages              harmony           page                                     clutch           transplants           throb            seatbelt                                                                                                    rolling                                                        best        worst             traffic light            leeks                    acid               astronaut         sphere                  bone                                                                      idiots                                           eggs                                 cricket             firth                  tub                bath                 infernal              sold                                                                                meat                                 budgerigar            osprey                                  custard                      blueberry                          claw                talon                chick                                                      grates
                                                              brisk                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    too                  much                                                                                                                         tenth                                                                                                                                         hire                   onyx                                stones                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               burning                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           haggis                                                                                                                                         reap                 pow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             brakes                   drive

                                                                                              jeffreys                                                         nappies                                                                      distance           dressing-gown                                           always               occasionally                                          locket      nothing             something also                                                                      purple                                                       smokes                                                         heart              tanker               oil                                                                                                                                         inebriating         piston            beetroot         scarlet                     wales                leek                                                                                                 wax                                                                                                                                                                   rug              flame                 loaded                                    leg                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         mix              sow                                                              similar                  similarity
                      doubtful          dubious      behind                  tribulation                               dwell             pills                                   babies                                   galore                                         not at all                  never                                                                get ready                                                                                         ado                  led                                      mauve                 bran                                     ninth             transplant                                                                                                                                       amethyst             stone             sticks                                                                                                                                                these       those                  marrow           wane                                        eleven              twelve           dozen                    hens                                                  forth                                                                                   bought                                arm                    beater               raw                 veal                cage               petrel                                                            strudel                usually           peppery                                                       snort             wow
                                                                                                                                                                                                     chain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wheel                                        ford                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              umpire                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      spinning                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             interesting                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      pie

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               cranny             snail                  pack                                 jury                                                                                     van                dolittle      doctor                                      sneeze             sometime           ever                measure                hoist                                     nought                                                cast                 as well                common market                                                                         target        hostel                                                                                                  barrow                   spoke             tyre                                     mason              hole               anthill                 toenail                               crimson           chloride               licence               kitty                 haze                             netball             game                  epilepsy                 fit            bacon                                                                                                                        pears                 apples                                     amputation                                                                                                              birds                                                                                     crumbly              dirtier       friendly                                   juicy                     highland                               plough
                                                                                                                   judge                live                                                                                                quack                                                                                                                          zero                                                       anything                                                                                    sign         blanket             comfortable                                                                                                                                                                                              paving                                                                                               red                                                                                                                        bearing                                                                                                                    chickens                                                 bake                  hearth                                                         amputate                                                                           quality              quantity                                                     sweety               apple                    grapefruit                                                                     pig
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          various
                    nook          remaining
                                                     lag                       left
                                                                                              rapid
                                                                                                                                                               tractor                 prescription medic                                                           hay fever         cough              breed              bicycle                  chatter               everyone              all               or nothing                                                                        aces                  drain            cerebrum            bleed                           youth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      adolescence                           comforts              midst              keep             better                improve                   talked              spare                bouts             mole              orifice         decorate               chalet                waggon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         panda           azure                      heat             fog                smog                 basketball                other         flowing                 epileptic         contention           impediment glucose                                          cake                 grate                    lemons           oranges              cinders         thigh                 burger                  rice                 biscuit             digestive      amount
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    budgie                pear           core                           juice        jaffa                  amiable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               trotter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       easel            hog                    in hand            fitted
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                                                                                                                        exist               die                                                                                             duck                                                                                                                                                                                    bean              as                     dealt                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            reddish

                                                                                                                   correct                                                                                 physician consultant                                                     vendor               seller                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            address                home                                worse                                                                                                       boxing                                                                                          toenails           communist                                                                                                                                                                                 thames                                                                                                                                                                                                                             dripping             curried                                                                                               fruit                                                                                    forestry         jelly                                                      mire
                                    strive                               lead                       right                                                    stall                                                                           personally        velocity                                                                                                                        spear          coroner              metre                                                                cards              canasta                                                                                                                                                                               bungalow                                                                                          mouse                 poppies                                                                                                                   cloud                   mist             burst                                                                                                                                                                                                        fire            burn                                                                                                                                                             transport                    ebb                 tide                                         orange                   avenue           firs                                                          commission joint
                                                          cha                                                                               expire                                     stains                                                                                                                                simultaneous discussion talk                                                                                              hearse                    deal                                                         brain              of                humour           bleeding                                                            retain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       bald               barge                scarf                                                                          himself           bonfire                                                       blue                                                                                chess               alternative        bay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       estuary                                      speech
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sweetness          sugar             icing                                                         bagpipes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   coo                   annoy          ham                                                                  keeper                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            succulent


                                                                                                                                                            spine                winter               summer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         clouds                                                                                    citrus                                                                                                                woods
                                                                               persevere                           wrong                     very                                                                                                                                                  section                     desk                                                      killed            inanimate              suicide                    bereavement                                                           tumour                        instead                                                                                                                                     sentry                                       cranium          nape                                                          casualty                                tot            fete                      tune                                                            sky                chalk            articulation                                                                                                             oration                                                               blaze        flames                                                                               caged               cloister                                  steak                                     flow                                  pip                                           tangerine                                                                        hedge                    shrubs      rome                  shouting
                                   hypothalamus               dozy                             matchbox                                                                                                                 surgery            acceleration                               haste                                                           chat         speak                                                                                                                    action             diamond                              brawn                               blithe           fingertips       screws                                        limited            commons                            semi-detached                                                      trap              squeak                                     herself                                                                           negroes            negro                                                                                spring       hudson                river              severn                    orator                                sweet                   honey                                                    ember                mousse               cadbury’s                                                                                         finder                                                                                       peel                                     trees
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    speed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            company                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             shock

              hesitation         swiftly              dawdle                   quick                                                                           tries                                graves                                                                                                                     discuss         athlete                                         dead                                                   fatal                reflex                 say                                                              saver                                                   nails                                                           manor                  house                                   skull                                                                                                                                balloon                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                extinguish                                                                                        colours            ankle               dove                                                                                                                                                                                                                  pips                   forest                 italy                   resort
                                                                                           hasty                   gossip               incorrect                               greatest                                back               beard                               touch                feel                                                                                                            death         life                                                                                sandal              manner                                                          plaster                                    roads          streets                                                           stifling                             head                 neck                                     down                 settle            midlands                                 melody                    africa              black        negress                 blackboard              waiting            collapse           brook             stream            dee                  speaker                  caster                              spoonful                                 arson                 hailer         loud              chocolate                                                                              corned                  beef                    seeker                   juices            departs         autumn             feathered                    attic                                                                                                                        orchard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             guard                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    granite                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sour                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             elms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         alive                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         giraffe

                      gradual slow                  evidence                                                      hearsay               extremely              attempts        and again                                                                      freeway               wrath            shooting                 blouse                                                                               coffin       mortality                                  burial                                                                                                                                          rock                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  day                                                                                                                                              respond                                   fall              decline          rivulet                                                                                  hive                                                    sound                                                   rainbow                                  tomatoes              stroganoff                                                                                                                                                                                    bush                   bushes                               locution
                                                                         bias                     khaki                                                                                             churchyard                                  stubble                                                                                       looked                                           died                                                     funeral                                    being              human               crying              clot               bible               scripture                                      tidings               lodging                                mortgage           mansion                                shrunken             mitten                                                                                          ascend                      try               nigger                              blanco                mellow                                         tumble                                                                          arrest                                                                                logs         warmth                                    abatement fry’s                                             sprain                                                               roast                                 painting                                leaves                                          loft                  shrub                                                       twins                             leafy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        front                                                                                                                                             corpse                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         construct                                                      hot                                                            fingers           up                    sit                                                                                                  white                                                                                                                                                                                   cane             diabetic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  stump                                   peeling                                     chicken

                    slowly                          predicate          fast                                                                                                        coarse                                      perfume                                                                                                                                                                                                   coffins            road                                                           tortoise                                                                         therapy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    yellow            jaundice                                                          rise                warrant                                                                                          bee                                             din           noise                avon                biscuits                                                                                                    ash                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pigeon
                                  owner                                                             irritation           hired           hurry                   hasten                                     continue                                                                   exhaustion                             shirt                                        eve                   birth             sniff                                                          insurance              mourn                              shell           haemorrhage            beatitude                                 boulder                 box                                                                                                                      piping                                   digits                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        bees                                sting                                                                                                   cookies        doves                 umbrella                 cherry                                                                                                                                                                                    below                     martin                                         cringe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             rage                   anger                                debate                                     saw                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   build              chill                                      cold                                    glove                                 thumbs                   stand             night           descend                    attempt             brown              corner          bodied                                                        exclamation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      marriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       police                cherries             bitter                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           fir              foliage                   cracker              tinsel             monastery hawthorn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          karl                                                   icy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           evergreen

                                                            remembering happenings                  events               information                                                   golf                                                                                                         exhausted                 circumstance pomp                                                                                    fifth                                          policy                                                                                                             anatomy                                                                                                                                           shiver                                                                                                                                    watchman                                                          hyde park                                lion-tamer      crook                                                           divorce                                    999                  meek                                   beet                                                                       deafening            decibel                                                                             rain                                        leaf                                                                                                            monk                                                                      picking               powder
                   proof          incidents                                                                                                     if                 club                                   clubs            links             fury                                      sleepy                                                                                  adam                                fourth                                         tarmac                                 middle            centre                   gore             blood        donor                                     scalpel                cardboard                             capital                 total           icicle                                        candles          hand                    vase                                   week         ring                                            shooter           trigger                                explode                                                       capable          able                                      illuminations                                                   mild                             root                     wasp              wedding                                                         daisies         buttercups             elbow                                                                                                                     elm            branches                                                       nun          ducks               above                                                                average
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                                                                                                  moped                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           transfusion                                                                                                                                                             freeze                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  peaches
                      misdeed                                          forgetting                                  bike                                                                                                                                                                              tired                   yawn                                                                                                                          bumpy                                                                                                                                     body                  relate                                                                                                                                         freezing                                      flowers                                bell         theme              engagement                bullet                gun               firearm                              choir                       tanned                                                                                               zoology                                                                        strawberries stripes               shotgun                                                                                                reverend              mackintosh                                            fig                                                                            rowan                  drakes
                                    nippy                 bash                                                                          thump               struck              sprint               argue                concur                                    deliver      sleepiness                                                           snuff             go back                return              come back          street                               encore                        trooper             navy             plasma             anaemic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  result           three-legged race
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   estate                                                         palm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           gardens                                                                                                                                   bandit                                                            turning        sticky                                   lights                                        animals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              zoo                                                                                              feather                   pot              cliffs                                                                                salad                                       acorn
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                                                                                                                        rung
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             regiment lieutenant
                   who            quickly                                    confinement                                                                                                             disagree                                                                                                                                 mushroom                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     narrate                                 consequence                                                                      built                                                                                                                                       alarm                                                                               bout                                                              impossible                                                                                                                                                                     stars               milky way                                                                                              crawl                                                                                                                                                                       poplar                                                                                                      stingy
                                                     sluggish                                       pedal                                rungs               hit                                                          agree                               rats                  fatigue                                  weary                                         apart               what                giver                                                                                                   barracks                                             haemoglobin               fable                               arithmetic                                                         inch                 mile                                cool                                    allotment            carnations                          menstrual                                shot                  pistol                                                      ugliness                                                        glue                                                             botany              tinker                                clotted        cream                                                          cosmology             bumble-bee calamity                  rodent                                            council      segment               creeper                                   twig                                                                                    thicket              pop group                                      minutes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            dispute                                                   fatigued                                                                                                                           anew              again                 binding                soldier                                                                                                                                                                         relay                                                                                                garden                                                            rang                                                                                               rifle                                                           transform                                                                       statue                                                      pollen                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            coniferous                              pine                                                                                              hollow                                                           glade
                                                                                                                                                                                 cross-country                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              concede                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      osborne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               prejudice            pride                                                                                                                                                                                     colonel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           maple                                                                                                                                                                          hours
                                                         springs                 stud                                   ladder          miss                                                                                                                                                                           toadstool                                                         separate                  detatched          taker                                                                              soldiers                                                                                                                                    sums               shoe                     foot                 furlong          constructed                                                                                             transition clock                                                                               nostrils                                                                                                                                       possible                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             bough                                                                                                                                                   mean
                      rapidly judicial                                                              cycle                                                      wait              amok                run                                     from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              mice                      at all             regard                                                                                                                                            repeat              been                    enlist                             army                                   story             tell                  william            casterbridge                                                                                                                      may          april                  bouquet            dictionary                                                period            time                   holster                                  range                    bud                   change         alter               stick             adhere                                                              tailor             boiler             song                                astronomy                galaxy          compartments                daddy           jane              limbs                prickly                    creep        wept                                              output             branch                                       john                   vacation               willing        ivy              holly                                                            poker
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               trot                                      stallion               shorts                                                                                                              runner                                                                                                portion                                                                                                                 least                                                                                                                                                             tale                        mayor                                                                       sock                                                                 boulders                                                                     shop        actions                                                                                   boom                                                                                                               hockey                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     legs                                                                            pimple                                                                                                     holiday                                                                         liver
                                 lente                                                       mare                      gelding                                                                                                                               according                 throbbing                                                     dash           dot                         abide                 most                                  rocking               has                                                       salvation                                                                                                city            america            slipper                               pax                   temperature                                  petals                arrange       words                                                                           clocks                                                         bang                                                                              broken                                  probable                                     suit                                  singer                                                                                                    mummy           shares                                    arms                                      creature                                     input            ness                   trumpet                                                              apple pie       cob              president                                    lollipop        miserly
                                                                                                                                         ride                filly               sprinter                                  perambulate to                                                                                    look                                                                                                                                                                        enrol             prodigy                                 peninsula          gentle                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    o’clock                                       aquiline                                                      cave              cavern              cowslips                                                                                                                   sing                                cornwall                                 constellation blossom                                                                                                            cabbage                                                                                                                         cooker
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                                                                               smack kingdom                                                                stable                                        flee                                                                                              observe                                 bred                                                                           stay                                                                                                       stink                                                                                                                newyork              belt               buckle                                                                                                                                         assistant                                                 early                          nose                   bore                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               station                                                   holidays                                      fuzz                               spot                                                               sap                                                                                                                                          american
               law-court         east                    intermediate                                             gallop             carriage                                                                           walk                belonging             ahoy                argument                                                                                            romper                                                           squint               players                                                                                                                                         mayoress                                                                                       non-violence            thermometer                rocks           beetle                                  armies                                                                                                                                                                            atomic                                                     baggage                                                                                                                                                                                       platform                                  stocks           locomotive                                 vacations                              drivers                                    loch                                                                gas          high-speed           whore                imply                kennedy            poke
                                                                                                                                                                                 pony                                                                                                                                         see                                        born                                      ally                                                                                troops          stench                                                         giggle               pitt                                   london                                                                                                                                                                rifleman                                             boy               girl                                                                                       dam                bluebell                                 malt               vinegar                                                       feasible            queue             ditty              broad                senior                                    curry                                                                                                                                                                                                                         willow
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               solitary          west                       hooves horses                                         hoof                      horse                              foal                                      promenade                                                                                                             refuse             place                   foe              acquaintance                                    remain                corps                                                      smell                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  acquired                                   obtained                                              late                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        blow                 tornado                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     mould                     yank
                                                                                              hobby                                                                                                       stroll                            there             everybody               communicate              recognize           perceive                                                                                              together                                                graph                                                                                                                                                                                  chastity             peace                                                        geology               angel                                                                            shoot         au pair                                                        nostril                    man                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         junior                                  technology            freight             train                                                           distribute                                                                         thermodynamics oxygen                          hydrogen                 rail                harlot         acne                kidney              monks
                                                                                                                                                             jockey                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    fragrance                              castaway                                                           country             town               alderman                                                   tranquillity     chair                                                                                 got                                                                                              visage                                                           woman                 games        bomb                 napalm             luggage                                         forsyte             bus               conductor                           narrow                                 cloudy                                                                                                                                                         morse               code                char
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        confide
                                                                                                                                                                                rider                amble                                                           will                shall              was               is                location                                       colleague friend                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   shine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              wind                        breeze                                                                                                                                                                                         warden                  spots              meter
               alone                recognise               lodge                                                                                                                                                     subtraction                                                                                                                                                                                                   comrade             darn                                                           tick                                                                                                 village                                                                                                                                                                              shit                blinds                    fireside          crescent                          sun                  ray                     face                                                                               atom                                    salt                                    saga                                                                                                                                             railway          rails                 compartment                                                                                                 raffle                                      friar            traffic          drake                  tube                                                                             gnu                  miser
                                                                         gonzales                 ridden               rode          saddle                  bridle                                                                        here                                                                                                                                                                                                                             companionship                    tock                        odour               chuckle                                      joke                                        shanty                           radish                boot                war                   table              westminster abbey                                                                                                                                                                                         features           actress                    in-law                             pepper                                   saline                                                         fare               inspector                                                     science                                                                                                                female                     ticket                                   lady                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ripe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      smile                                                                               existence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    conducted                                                 criminology              quilt

              quarrel               mourning                                                  trotting                  harness         cavalry                                                                                                                     be                   add                subtract                           it                   enemy                                                                                                                        bucket                                      maths              algebra                                  amuse                   ville                                                                                             vietnam                                                                       bulbs                lantern                 point              religion        moon                                               beast         beauty           expression                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             engine                blown                  willows                                                                                                                                                                                        measles               greenhouse mini-skirt               plants            onions
                                                         livery                                                                                                mane            avoid               shod                 addition                                                                                            isn’t                                                        companion                 buddy        aquaintance                                     pail                                        chew                                                        cubic                                                         crags                                 toe             heel                                       tanks                                    neon                                                                                                                     rising                                                                                                                       leaver                          seasoning                                  moss                                        circus               clown                                                                             signalman             express                                                                          male                  bugle                   cried      gentleman               tuck                    imbecile             garlic           stool                                                                                                                        pickles
                                                                             riding                                                                                                                                                         fortnight                                                                                                                                                                                                      rush                                                                                                                                                                                                         communists                                                                                               ejector                                                                                                                                                                                                                    sombre            mother                                 boss                                     costume                                                                                            beneath                 cauliflower              ludwig
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                                                                                                                                                cart                                               in addition                                  conception          conditioned member                                                                              provost                                                                                                                                                                  hatred                                                      grin                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cactus                                                                    tan                  rays                      loveliness                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    diesel                                                        firework                                                                             exchange                remittance        gong                                    performance                                   lomond              photosynthesisrailroad
             promise                     speedy            necklace injustice                observed                  seen
                                                                                                                                                               neigh           shaft                                      grave
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          not me                listen                 among                                   pal                 neighbour       next door                breeds                both           chewing                    gum                                      love             loathe                                                         case                                   palms            hands               corns             currency                      seat           bench                  lamps                                  bottomless         blacksmith          anvil                                                                          chisel                                   father            matrimony             waving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           comic               blast             lichen                                                         armchair         under
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                                                            lone                                                                                                 hiding                                                   grief              dead-end                                  yourself                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cherish                                                                                                                                                             feet                                                           panning                                                                      pit                               today                                                                                                                                                                                      amusing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               hilly             teller                                                                                                 impressionism                                                                         strip
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           buying                  selling            dearest              bit                                                              tenderness                                                                                                            conjunctivitis        paris                                                                                                                                     light                                                          yesterday                                                                                                                     thumb          digit                                                                            spherical           circular                                                                                            flakes                                                                                               quietly                   wrist                                                                                                   idiot
                                                                                                                             heard                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cortex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    hastings                                                                                           plump                                                                                                                  axe
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             ken                 salts                      joined             magistrate
                                                                                       listener                                                                               court                                        data             sorrow             ego                      self                                                    they                                                                                                                         sitter                                                           passion           emotion             dislike                                                                                                                      toes                                  sweets             plated                                       dark                 aspidistra                                                nanny                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    snow                                                          fat                                                                softly                                                           cruel                                                             garter                 gorge           save            hart                stockings              wee                 intake                                        timing                    slim
                                                                                                                                                            broadcast                                hasn’t                                                                                          me                                                           because                       height             route                                    of cake                                  baby                    cot                                                                     resurrection                 charge             eyes                                       inches                           blisters                                                         bulb                                                                             tomorrow                                scape               billy                                 nail                     finger          alchemy             benign             accordion                damn            charm                    circumference                                                                                     faculty          arts                                    lard                                                                watch                                                                tempest             storm                                                                                                                                                               and on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      mate                                                                                                                                                                                                                              france                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    feature                                                                                                                                                                           cube                     oxo                                                                                                                                                                                                      chopper

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             narrows              magistrates themselves                       know                divide               multiply                                                                                     excuse                                  slothful               myself                oneself                              we                                                stature                                                                                                                                     pansies                                                     christ                                      pupils                                                                                        chocolates                                    lamp           darkness             brightness               daffodils                              kind                  goat                                                                                              chemistry                              classical                                     round                circle                                                                            flake                                 thick                                                                            fizzy                                                                                     displease hook                 accounts                 wages              overdraft            pay                            tights                                              denude                    solar system
                                                                                                                                            everywhere                           jester              affirm                              nearest                                                                              us                                        why                                           guide           scout           piece                                        pram                      laughter                                              like                                           bunch                             manufacturer                annoyance entrance               exit                                           gold                                                                                             advice                                                                            cinema            twentieth                century                                                                        basement                                                diagonal                                                                                 dense                                                                                                                  cower            dover                    bold                                                                                                                                                                                            tongs                                                               rotten
                                                                                                                                                                 chase                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       combat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          trafalgar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           considerate             play                                                                                                                                                                          holy                                                                                skiing                                                                     spindly                                                                                                                                                                                                              millionaire
                    smelling ourselves                                                                                                      radio                             inspect                 extra              bliss             indolent             lazy                      idle                                                                  them                       tantrum                                                                                                                                        facts                                       crucify             jesus                                                                                                                                    glitters                                     lampshade          switch                                                                                                                                           toys                                                  20th                                                                                                                              square            bargain           rich                                                                                                                                                                 coffer                                                                                                  debts                                                                                    singing        greeted            geese                                              sacred           striped
                                                            pathway            perceived            listened wireless                                          hunt                                                                                                                                                         are               must                                                                                        fragment      mantel                     aggression hostile                      mirth                                   prefer                                                                            uniform          brilliant            europe                                  path                                        glitter                                                   bloom                   shadows           clamber                                                                                            films                 movies                               organic                                                      orchestra                                                                                                                  dean                    crossing zebra                                                                   lemonade                            north                                              disturbance fund                                           bank                                         bills                                                                        goose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     i                                                                                                             counter                                                                                                                                                                                                  christianity                                                                         way                                                                                                                                                                              glacier                                                                                                                                                           chopin                        melt                                                                                                                                                                                                                    art                                                                              inherited

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                                                                                                                                            pursue                  more                                 daughter                                              cuts                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         burden                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       generous                                                                                                                                                                              concerto           oblong                                                                       slush                                                                                                                             pop                                                                                                     owing                                                       reward               bribe                       booty                                                   gander
             position                   pledge              abrupt              halifax             anywhere follow                                                                   son                                lair              did                                                           definitely          ice age                 does           not                                            maiden             naked                struggle              fight                                     clever                               blazer                climber        cross                      crucified
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pilfer          rob               roy                                               hall-mark         silver           birmingham              beam            aster              flower                  stem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 decade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   glacial                               act                hearing         aid               co-operation           octaves               music                                                       rectangle                                poor                                          brave                                  stags       deer                                                                                south                                                                                                              purse                                                                         guilty             twit                                     noises             towel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       am                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        burglar                                                                                                                                                                         berg                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            level                                                     gallery                                                                        serenade                payment
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                                                           december                               such                 sly                                                     fewer                                   computer                                didn’t                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ice                  skates                                                                                                                                                          mozart                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            organ                                                                                                        money
                     endlessness
                               sprinted                                        november                                                 fox                   less
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ballet           own                                       have                                   vanish              bare                stark                   conflict               furious               numbers        figures            convenience            load                 crucifix
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              glisters         brum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                bull ring                                     petal       geranium                                                                                                      perform                                           help                assist                choral
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                clash                                        ban                bid                  cowboy              fearless                                   bracelet       cubism                                        punishment                                 edam                               cheshire                  cheque                                           finance wage                                                spent            verdict                  innocent        minster         sounds                         underground
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          premium                                                                             possess                               pets                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cub                      nick                   theft         steal                                      robber                   stamen                                                                        entry                                                        homo                                                                                               women               milk bottle                                                                   bach                                                                  drum                                                                                                 valiant                                                       corporal                                                                                                                                                                                                      fee
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                   ran                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fair         bright                                    daffodil           hyacinth                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       coins                                     allowance
                                         walked                                scaffoldingwere                     examine            lodgings                                                                                                              bond              james                                    certainly                                                                                                           between repetition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   crocus                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    let                       allow                                                                                                  apartment                                                                                                          isosceles                                                                                                                                                                       invest                                 loot                                                    mart
                                                          strolled                                                                                                  infinity thou                   others             edifice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          architecture                                              arcade                                   amusement              consider             reconsider         once upon a time                                                     angry                 gentlemen           pyramid        public             conveniences             glimmer        fetched             bent                     den            thieve                        tamer             cop             kennels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          maker                                                                                                                  sapiens          steep                  hill
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   semibreves                                        counterpoint                 cylindrical     auction        bidder                                         fairy tale            unicorn                                  dime         crime                                     buses             crap                   cheddar                                       cash                                          expenses                                                                       neighbours            york                                       rescue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               rink                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                nickel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      till

                                                                               paths       punch                  noun                      verb             digs             thee                  construction                                wolf                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         sect                                                                         pansy               chin                   eye                                  cats                                                              shining                               consumer                               merchandise                                                                                                                                                                             monotonous                                                   lass               lad                       permit             smashed                                                       flat                                                                                                                triangle            due                                                             earn                                           lily
             theirs                      retard          mine                                                                                                                                                              site                                 for                 against          opposing                ecstasy           cogitate            contemplate                                                                          annoyed                                                            egypt                                      tigress         tiger               crooked                                                                   shiner                                                             menstruation                             iris                               communism                                       peak          mount                                          slope                  floe                                  bottom         lid                                             notes            space                                                                                                chief                                                   sculpture                  cost                cent              dollar           felony                                                             macaroni                  bill                                  spend                                             salary     encountered              met                      gambling mates                   permission unkind
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            think              ponder              courts                                          gents                ladies                                                                                                                                                                                                                         vanity                                                                                                                                                                            ant                                                             flower-pot                                                                                                                                                                                                               indian                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   old age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 wink                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       pox
                                                                                                                         pronoun            architect                                                                      jubilation           ja                               anti                                   appear                 chemist                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    sight                               careful                                     lion                               dogs                       young                                                                                                                                                                                  persons                                                                                                                                                         pulse                              custody                                                                                                                           price                                  retail                                                                                                                                        refund                    owed                     piggy bank gap                           not nice                                                   granted
                    ours                 yours             thine        erected            kith                                                                                                     building                                                 no                                            seem                                                          imagine                                                   legislate                deed                 miles                                                                                                                                                                                                                      roar                                                                                 class                                                                             mountain everest                      climbing                                      crowds                                 backside dustbin                    boring                                                                          ellipse                                                                      squaw                      compel                                                                                                                                                                                       account           buffalo                                                                                                                        pan                      friends                         wings
                                                                                                                                                            dong               structure                                                                                                                                                                                                        meditate            law                                                                                 black eye           her              him                   obey            command                                      vision                                                                                                                                         parents                            atheist             belief                   goods                                                                                                                      leisure                                                                        beethoven symphony                                                                                 prosperous             dollars                                                      force                                      national                                              micro               constable                trams                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       pension

               retreat                  retaliate     truly              believing                                                           consent           ding                                                    scarce                                                                        opposed                                                                                                                                                                     bones                                                                                             order                                                          buttercup        lioness                                antique                                                                                 tulip                                                                      rabble                                                                                                                                                                                                    beat                 tuner                      piano         forte                                         cents                                famous                                  poverty                                                                                                     gent        needy                                                                       banks           owe                       paid                              shilling
                                                                                                  kin                   only                                                     mind                                                       joy                yes                     slaughter                                                solicitor                lawyer                   barrister        martial        defend               heavy                                           indication                                                                                    glad                   elated                                                                                                 agent                  new                    masses                           god             creator                     paternal                         meeting                    sterling             people               mob                                accumulate           county              dull                  drab                                                                                                   stretch                            kane                                            coerce                               anthem                 small                                     billion                                                     spice                           loan                                                                      shillings                                    horrid                                    hothouse mercenary                   thrift
                                                                                                                                                                                                    leader                                                                                                                   pleasure                                                                                                                                                                                       his             hers                     disobey                                                                                                                   ancient                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              unpleasant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         part                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tiny

                                                         my                    professor seeing                    concept                                   indeed                                                                                     happiness                                                                                                                                                                 column             weighty                      skeleton         compound                                                                             pleased                                                                                   leo                              perforation                                                                    deity          almighty                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            abdicate                                  roses              keyboard                                                      straight          parallel                                                                          petite                                                                                                     wagon           prize                                                              saving                                                                             nasty                                                        receipt                   economics
                                 worlds                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                feeling            do                    don’t                 dancer                                                                                           fun                                                                           happy                   joyful               daisy            attack                                                        craving         old                      aged                                                     ageless                worship                            sonata                   dim                      crowd                                                                                                                                         defeat                                                  arse                                                                                citizen                 folk          jumps                                                                                                 dunce                                                               honk                 francs                                      debt                                        darwin                            repay                 erect
              lonely                                                                                                                          trek                               lifting           squadron              rare                uncommon                                   handsom aye                         calendar                                                                                                                                                                                                          calculation       social                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           rhythm                                                                                turban            entire         whole               farce                 dreary                                                                                                                   line                                                                                                                                                                    large             gastric
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               big

                                                                                                                                      somewhere                  ways                                                                                                                                                                                               destroy                 test                                                              laden                                                                                                                                                                                                                         roars                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              primary                                                                                                                                                        elastic                                                                                                                                            cleanse                                                                         dipper                                                                                                                                                                                                               evolution                               uphill
                    sighted      advance           absent-minded         nobody              somebody idea                                                                     means                      ping        pong                      cabby        taxi                       imperative dispense                  accordance sensation                                                                  ear             nelson                                    celebration party
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cocktail              mournful         unhappy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            contented
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              contentment                                                          unearth         archaic              ageing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           decrepit                noon         minus                    snowdon               peer          collect            gather                fellow                                       education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         demi           half                india                wicked            dodgems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           motors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 brass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      university           campus                    heating            central              lines                                  doubles              badminton little                                      flu                  ho                    shakespeare                     wealth                   expense stupid                       packet              grating              pounds                                  diffraction                                 downhill             sixpence         upright
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cheerfulness          gay                                                         lashes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      should                                                                                                                                                                     lobe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              hell                                                                                                                                           school                                                    quarter                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      elephant
              spades                anybody                your
                                                                         inspiration                their               notion                really         actually         tomb                amnesia                                   cab               sisters         brothers                   set                  with             neither            tory                                           oh                                    weight                   get-together            prawn               groovy            miserable sad                                                                                        armed                                  shovel                 spade                                 age                     outdated              plus                             divine                    lord            hong          kong                  judgement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                leavers                                   headmasterfailure                                       evil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            hello                band                college                                                     bars                     one                       triad           triplet              tennis                                    trunk             tidy             neat                                                                     horn                           policeman                                      ounces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               stormy                       bob         snooty                  accountant crisp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          inferior
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   gramme                                                                                                                                           morose                  ammunition guns                                         years                                                        dig                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cars                   good-bye                                                                         pusher            flog                                                                                                                                                                                                              poison                      toot                              silly                                        coin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         conservative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               mass                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       huge
                    unjust       unfair                    strategy           our                   this                     reaction thought               nowhere
                                                                                                                                                                              check               boggle                   ought                     media                     kill                  occurs           without                       nor            labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              free
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    gram                   ton                  cannot                 shaker         ago
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fornicate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    teacher             pupil                     excavation                           era                    eyelid         10                    heaven
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ridge                     arthur     throne             cole                                                              comprehensive grammar                       spelling       success             achievement          darling                 goodbye         association spoken                    decimal                  drugs             bubbles                                                                   two           three         trio                   racquet                 wipe                 clean               enormous                                 riches                                                                                                                        snob               peeler                 heathen           pagan                flip                 superior
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     melancholy           content               rifles           create            defence                                                                  chaos                                                                                                                                                                                        business               tins                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              orbit                       unity                                                                                                                                                                                                             daft               foolish              bobby            pennies            weather

                                    television                                  judy              that                                                           examination reveal                                                        hounds                                                    happens           within                                                                                                                                                                    gunpowder plot                                                triste                                       make                unload                               adult                                                                                                                                                             reign             russia                  king            lear                                                                                                                                                                                      costly             dear                                     meaning              thirty                                                                                                                                      racket                                   mucky                                                             bog                                                                                                                                                 potato                                                    flop
              whom                                                                                                       innocence            ideas                                               legal              rabbits                                  slay            rip                                                                    ends                                 lanky                     pray           scales                  can                    grown                                                                                                                                                                                                  orphan              kid                                       brought commandment borough                               humans                                                                                                                        classes                                     prefect                                                                                                                                     word                                                     gazer                                         pair                                  four             generation                                   spotless                                                       rags                                       loo          foolhardy                                                 shopping                                                             blight                                                         enemies
                                                          arrival                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       tall                                                                                                                                                                 sex                                      glum                                                           napkin                                                                    havoc                                                                                                                                                                                 husband                                              actor                             beneficent            rose            bosom              breast                                                                                                                                     gazers                                            of a kind                                                                                                            dust                                                                                                                               mountains                            list                                                             pin-stripe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          hills

                    martyr          saint                departure                                                                                             guilt           show                                      hares                               tear             compulsory                   hike                                                                                                     kneel                                   tin                  enjoyment                                                gender              masturbation                                manufacture amends                                         grown-up                                lucky                                                                                                                                                          monarch              spouse                                                                                                                                                                                                     cheap                                     forty            suds                                                                                                                                                                       flush          dirty            filthy                                            inner                  prosper                               hundred                                                                                spud                                         smith’s
                                                                       what’s              plan                  solitude                                                                         indicate                                      tape                                                                                                 odds               brief                                                            opener                                                      surely          soul                                                          masturbating                                                                                           child                                                                          disorder                                   spoilt             royalty          queen                                                                                  dandelion number                    count                                          bad            manners             pure              dale                                                                                                                    cancerous                couple                  growth                              quartet               dwarf                                                                                                                                          million                                          thousand                                                                                                                                     frying
                                                                                                                                            u                                                                                                                                                                               hitch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                date                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          grew                                                                              each                                                        9                                                                                                                         wife                                                                                  good                                                                                                                  chaste                                                        soap                                                                               five                                                                                                                  massive                                                                                                                                 notorious penny                                            crisps                                  farthing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       distaste

                   searching       refused            natural                                                      loneliness motion                      ample                                                                             recorder forget                                                                                         short                                 minimum                                decree                                                                                    decrease          fornication mating                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chap                                                      universe                 globe                                                         stage                                                    nights                                 honours                                   expensive           jottings                                                                                              grand                 moth                                                                                 unclean                          bin                                                                                     anonymous tim                            prepared                                        z
                                                                       contemplating scheme                                                                                       demonstrate busby                  homicide                                                  recollect            obligatory                glee                                      long                                gained                                   found                   hoar                frost                                                                             dumb                   rabbit           burrow                    sandals         infant             brat                     fortunate         every               six                ten                                                         elizabeth                                                                          de gaulle             peg                                   chrysalis                 days                                reagents                            celebrated                                                   colder                 hotter                               detergent                                                           bachelor         climate            purchase                                 soiled                                                                  outer                 toilet                                                                              infamous                             tax             spree                  the                     b                unpleasantness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             archaeology                                                 majesty                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                lather                                                                                                                                                                                                         vast

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     would                                                                               bruises                                                                                                                            increase                                                                hare                         laces                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 exceptionally                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     buy                                           garbage                                                                                                                                                               rocky                y
             looking                    unnatural
                                                            pity               thinking             thoughts             incomplete movement                        variety   matt
                                                                                                                                                                                                   murder            societies              forgive         remember                doesn’t                            could                          maximum           credible                              maze             discovered                   lost            unhappiness                forces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              reproduce maniac
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  deaf                                                                             playground             offspring              cherubs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   adults              seven              18                  children          ears              wear                   crown                     world              clothes-line        corridorsdoer                         pregnant                 props                     weeks                           blues         lotus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      degree                 pakistani
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                warmer            jailor              spinster                   clink          featuring cabbage-white                        butterfly            flutterby     duckling                                  prosperity                                rubbish             dump                           perhaps               squash stations                          steady       ready
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      sits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                essence vanilla                           a             indefinite article
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      borne

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            everlasting                                                    bolognese
                    sequence                                series             shame meditation                          unfinished             perpetual                                                 suggestion memory                                                      womb                                 month                                                                dejected                                                    paradise               bastard                                        fray         annihilate                                                      spaghetti                               shoes              drag                                         epoch            angels                                                                       twice               once                  coronet           chart            atlas                 geometry                     goes           polar bear         greet                 excellent                 greens                                 wash                              trinity               coral                                                             drug                                                                                                                 sell                                           blows                                                                              possibly          trains                                                               ridiculousstands                                          income
                                         pieces                                                                                                                  sufficient enough                                                         romantic               quo                               gladness                                           strange      even                                           labyrinth chemical                                                                  illegitimate                                                               hearing-aid                                                                                             glare                                                     eight                19                  kids                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                madam                                      devil                                                          corral                 reef                          quinine               starring                  ugly                 elusive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   he                                           foreigners                           lavatory           probably               maybe                                                                unknown                known                                                            senseless                          contrabandsmuggle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              year                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ager                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   shape
                                        bits              sues                                      oral                                                                       suffice                hence                                so                                           status     longing                                                               odd                                                          mend                                   illegitimacy                             weasel                                eternal                                                             socks             boots             forlorn                                                                                               20                                                      upon a time                                      fashion                           group                                                               fashioned helper                                                                                         satan        park                    particle                              sentence            nice                                                                                                                    elopement recital                            nonsense affluence                       sister                                                                                                                       vigour                                                                           spending                                   highest
                      shrews                                                   disgrace                            aah                      stanza          adequate                                                 therefore                               recall                                                         torn                                                           delight                 forgotten                         neuter                                              stoat                           healer                                                          fierce                                                                            lids                  envy            ninety                 nine                                     charles         panorama                                      clothes                          map                                      comes                   banner                                                                                              apex                                                                                  tit                                                  pauper                    phrase                grotesque gravity                    she                                                                                                                       brother                  wogs                      railways coons                             per cent                            futile              useless                                                           lowest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 sir

                                                                                           contraceptive                                                           ooh                                               wordsworth plenty                     positive                                       couldn’t                                                                                          homosexual                                                                                   satisfy                                                                                                                                  vivid              heels            admit                                                                                                 charming                              panoramic                                                                         broke                              geography                                                                                                      contours              jutland                               succour                                                                                                 beautiful                                                                                                                                                       ben                                               flatten          trivial                                                                                               immaterial
             harold              wilson              sadism            masochism                                        verse         poem                                                        thus                                                                        negative                                        release           1968                    peculiar         queer                                           repair      grieving                                                               jonathan          goliath       march                teen               ferocious            sneak                                                                                                        avarice      greed                        prince                                 view                            garments                  garment hinder                                                 monarchy                                  storage                             mainland            pores                                                    shade                                  sun-tan                                    methedrine         pleasant                                       metric         hiss                       solar                                                          stuff                                                                                                                    unimportant                 incognito            strength fortitude                                    irrelevant
                                                                                                                                                                                 poet                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        kinky                                                                                                                                                                                                                           confess                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    washing                                                                                                                                                            prison                                                                                                                                       pilgrim                 gosh                                                                              bonny


                   taming                                                                                                                   poetry                                    elect               opinion        bountiful        declare                                      phallus                              let go                                                             unbound                                   gratify                                                         erotica            faire                                                                                                                                   calcium                                  greyhounds                                grow               germanium poisonous                    breathtaking                                                                                                                                       history                                 wed                                                                       elan                                                             cell                                                          lovely                                                                               pretty                                               golly                                                               clyde                agitate                                                                           weakness                                                                              grandpa                   consist
                                         rules            statesman politician             finite                       prose                                      ah                                                                                               nursery                               than                                saliva                running                                         1969                              liberal                     expect                                                  david                    protest optimism                hope                    honest                 gloom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           modern                                  caress                                                                                          togs                 royal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pegs                penniless
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                emblem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              flag                                       intentions                       junction             form                      jazz                                   captive           tyrant                                     jail                    larger                          unmarried                  newton system                                                  progressluck                                                           abuse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               faeces                                                       trip                 excursion           sanction                                         unready unprepared                      grandma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      misuse

                                                          confirm        consideration infinite                  transmit                                                                                              rhyme                    rhymes oppose                  symbol               regret                  weird                                                         walking                                                    thanks                                                            savoir                 carried                brows        iniquity         faith                     district               cities       towns                                                        venetian                                                                           vista                quarantine              garb        lessons                                   flagpole                                                       jewels                                     graft                skin                               lecture                                                                                                     inmate                                                                                                                                  chance                                                         muscle                   horrible                                                                                                       shirts       ties                    totally                                                           comprise
                                  regulations                                                                                                  aft        fore                 vote                  poll                                                                                                                                    spit                loth                                               unusual please                                                tacks                  lust                                                                                                                                                                     maturity                       mid-way                          nursery school                snake            holy ghost                                                                                     tempo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         mode
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                union jack                                                   laundry                                                dermis                                        lotion           prisoner warder                         bigger                              ski                  improbably                articles       things                       export           boo                                 treble                insignificant                                                  stir                 twin                    outing                      rhodesia                                                                           dogfish            catfish


                                                                                                                                     dative                                           unemployed                       customs              temper           ripped            apology             sorry               yearn                        opposite             visible                                   goodness                                                                       received                                  pessimism              heeled quaint                   sin                   urban                    wild            schoolroom rattle                         pretender                                   merry                               twenty                                   locus             wardrobe             regal                     months                                                  answers              questions                molehill                                                             terribly                                                          gaol                           tip                 violins stocking               unlikely                                 objects                                          leaps             possibility         opportunity                                     wholesaledeltoid                                                                                                                                              thoroughly           completely                                         follower disciple
                                                          hoop          nosy                                     ablative                                 beggars                                    positively                                                                                                                                                                           nisi                                          thank you merci                    thankful                                        metres                                                                                                                                                                                            enquiries                                          reptile                          princess                                                                                            tricolour          hexagonal                                                                             laundrette epidermis                       pensions                                  give out convict                                                                                                                            size                                       attractive                                                                       knocks                                                       terrible         awful

              assume             presume                                                                                                                                        dole                                                                                                                                                           forgot                                                          gracious                                                                                                                   signpost                                                                                                invisible      stroke               frank                  family                                                            individual                        coon                    patriotism octopus                                                                                                       chest                                                                         hemp                                                                                              hostage                 sputnik               neath                                  saves                                                                                                     import
                                                    la                 parker                                                                                choosers                                     negativelyexcise                      surmise       a daisy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              oops                         aches      woo                                        remembered                 suburb                                    turkish         anticipate          grateful             masturbate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           yards                            wish                      glittering          gleam                  reason                                                                                               tickle      folks                                           shooters                                                                 narcissus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          method
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             mountaineering                                     marry                             drawer                     power          horrific                               quadruped harpsichord penthouse                                prisoners
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        vale                                               glen            giant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  valley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       majority           pains                              rather              contrary                                                                                                         personalstore                              private satiate                   carbonate              title                                      motive sparkle                                                                                                                            lizard                                      person                                                                                             reports                                                                                           sari                  sense                                       seventh          suite                                                         satellite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  minority                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         unforgivable                                                   tame            planning                       shimmer      thrill                    long time                            polite                                       wog            prayer                 welcome virgin                                            mushroomssnooker                         shines              fiendish                                                    sixth                                                                                                                        whip           lash
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      corrosion           rust
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 department                 warehouse                                                                                                                                                                             excitement                           no see                               well mannered                                 foreigner stranger                                                                                   toadstools              gleams
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  fiasco                                             imprisonment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pajek




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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 S                                                                          G S                                                                                            
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                           29
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                                        Temporal networks / September 11
                                                                                           Steve Corman with collab-
                                                                                           orators from Arizona State
                                                                                           University transformed, using
                                                                                           his Centering Resonance Anal-
                                                                                           ysis (CRA), daily Reuters news
                                                                                           (66 days) about September
                                                                                           11th into a temporal network of
                                                                                           words coappearance. This net-
                                                                                           work was a challange network
                                                                                           for Viszards 2002 session.
         Pictures in SVG: 66 days. (SVG viwer)
         Every year (from 2002) we have at the Sunbelt conference a Viszards
         session presenting solutions of Viszards group to a visualizations of
         selected network or type of networks.
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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                      S   G S         
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                           30
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                      Example: Snyder and Kick World Trade
         The data are available as a Pajek’s project file
         SaKtrade.paj
         The network consists of trade relations (118 vertices, 515 arcs, 2116 edges).
         The source of the data is the paper: Snyder, David and Edward Kick
         (1979). The World System and World Trade: An Empirical Exploration of
         Conceptual Conflicts, Sociological Quaterly, 20,1, 23-36.
         The project file contains also the (sub)continents partition:
         1 - Europe, 2 - North America, 3 - Latin America, 4 - South America, 5 -
         Asia, 6 - Africa, 7 - Oceania.



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V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                                                                                                                                                 31
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                                                                                                                   Draw / Partition
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                                                      par
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                                                            lib                                    hai
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                ausfin
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         Draw/Draw Partition
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai/Free
         Layout/Energy/Fruchterman Reingold/2D



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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                                                                                                                      S         G S                         
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                         32
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                                                                          Zoom in




                                                                                     Using right button on the mouse se-
                                                                                     lect the zoom area.
                                                                                     To restore the standard view select
                                                                                     Redraw.




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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                     S   G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                                                                                                                                                                                 33
    '                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              $

                                                            Fruchterman Reingold / factor = 9
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                                                   alb       lib                   eth      tun                                                                                  afg
                                                                                                                                                                                 alb         lib                       eth      tun
                                                                   par     ivo                                                                                                                     par         ivo



         Layout/Energy/Fruchterman Reingold/3D

         3D picture / King

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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                                                                                                                                       S           G S                                      
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                           34
    '                                                                                                        $
                                                                 Matrix representation
                                           Pajek - shadow [0.00,1.00]
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         Partition/Make Hierarchy [Yes][No]
         Hierarchy/Make Permutation
         File/Network/Export Matrix to EPS/Using Permutation [SaKmatrix.EPS][No]
         GsView: Media/User Defined ... [1300 pt][1300 pt]

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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007       S   G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                  35
    '                                                                                                               $

                                                                      Clustering
         Better network matrix reorderings can be obtained using clustering:
         Cluster/Create Complete Cluster [118]
         Operations/Dissimilarity*/d5 [1][SaKdendro.EPS]
         Hierarchy/Make Permutation
         [select network SaK.net]
         File/Network/Export Matrix to EPS/Using Permutation [SaKmatrix.EPS][No]




                                                              or blockmodeling.

                                                              P. Doreian, V. Batagelj, A. Ferligoj:
                                                              Generalized Blockmodeling,
                                                              CUP, 2004. Amazon.




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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007           S      G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                              36
    '                                                                                                           $


                                                                           Clustering
                    Pajek - Ward [0.00,135.13]
                                                                 Pajek - shadow [0.00,1.00]
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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007          S   G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                                 37
    '                                                                                                                              $


                                                        Reordering clustering
         The order of clusters in a hier-                                           Pajek - shadow [0.00,1.00]
                                                                                    uki
                                                                                    fra
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         archy is not fixed and can be
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         changed.
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         We see the typical center–periphery structure.

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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                             S   G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                           38
    '                                                                                                        $


                                                   Contraction of cluster
         Contraction of cluster C is called a graph G/C, in which all vertices of the
         cluster C are replaced by a single vertex, say c. More precisely:
         G/C = (V , L ), where V = (V \ C) ∪ {c} and L consists of lines
         from L that have both end-vertices in V \ C. Beside these it contains also
         a ’star’ with the center c and: arc (v, c), if ∃p ∈ L, u ∈ C : p(v, u);
         or arc (c, v), if ∃p ∈ L, u ∈ C : p(u, v). There is a loop (c, c) in c if
         ∃p ∈ L, u, v ∈ C : p(u, v).
         In a network over graph G we have also to specify how are determined the
         values/weights in the shrunk part of the network. Usually as the sum or
         maksimum/minimum of the original values.
         Operations/Shrink Network/Partition


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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007       S   G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                                                            39
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                                       Contracted clusters – international trade
          Pajek - shadow [0.00,1.00]
         usa
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                                                                                                              S. America
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                                                                                                 Europe
         den
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                                                                                                                                                 Africa
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                                                                                      Asia
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                                                                                                                   N. America
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                                                                                                  Australia                         L. America
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         Snyder and Kick’s international trade. Matrix display of dense networks.

                                                                                      n(Ci , Cj )
                                                            w(Ci , Cj ) =
                                                                                    n(Ci ) · n(Cj )


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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                                        S       G S                    
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                           40
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                                                       Computing the weights
         File / Pajek Project File / Read [SaKtrade.paj]
         Net / Transform / Remove / Loops [No]
         Net / Transform / Edges -> Arcs [No]
         Operations / Shrink Network / Partition [1][0]
                       1    2    3    4    5    6    7
         ---------------------------------------------
          #usa 1.      2   30   13   56   42   45    4
          #cub 2.     30   74   25 196    20   37   12
          #per 3.     12   28   33 124    16   36    5
          #uki 4.     55 217 130 695 427 483        41
          #mli 5.     42    8   14 406 122 117      11
          #irn 6.     43   37   43 444 142 307      30
          #aut 7.      4    4    5   39    9   30    2
         Partition / Make Permutation
         [select partition (Sub)continents]
         Operations / Functional Composition / Partition*Permutation
         Partition / Count
         Partition / Make Vector
         Operations / Vector / Put loops




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V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                      41
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                                                   . . . Computing the weights
                                                                                           In Pajek sequences of
                      1    2    3    4    5    6    7                                      commands can be com-
         --------------------------------------------
          #usa 1.
          #cub 2.
                      4
                     30
                          30
                          89
                               13   56
                               25 196
                                         42
                                         20
                                              45
                                              37
                                                    4
                                                   12
                                                                                           bined into a macro com-
          #per 3.    12   28   40 124    16   36    5
          #uki 4.    55 217 130 723 427 483        41                                      mand using
          #mli 5.    42    8   14 406 155 117      11
          #irn 6.    43   37   43 444 142 337      30                                      Macro / Record
          #aut 7.     4    4    5   39    9   30    4
          count       2   15    7   29   33   30    2                                      and
         Vector / Create Identity Vector [7]
         [select as second vector From partition ...]                                      Macro / Recording...
         Vectors / Divide First by Second
         Operations / Vector / Vector # Network / input                                    The macro can be acti-
         Operations / Vector / Vector # Network / output
         [edit partition - rename vertices]                                                vated by
                       1    2    3    4    5    6    7
         ---------------------------------------------                                     Macro / Play
          N.Am 1. 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.97 0.64 0.75 1.00
          L.Am 2. 1.00 0.40 0.24 0.45 0.04 0.08 0.40
          S.Am 3. 0.86 0.27 0.82 0.61 0.07 0.17 0.36
                                                                                           The sequence for com-
          Euro 4. 0.95 0.50 0.64 0.86 0.45 0.56 0.71
          Afri 5. 0.64 0.02 0.06 0.42 0.14 0.12 0.17                                       puting     the     weights
          Asia 6. 0.72 0.08 0.20 0.51 0.14 0.37 0.50
          Ocea 7. 1.00 0.13 0.36 0.67 0.14 0.50 1.00                                       w(Ci , Cj ) is saved in the
                                                                                           macro weights.
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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007              S   G S        
V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                           42
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                                                                      Subgraph




         A subgraph H = (V , L ) of a given graph G = (V, L) is a graph which set of lines
         is a subset of set of lines of G, L ⊆ L, its vertex set is a subset of set of vertices of
         G, V ⊆ V, and it contains all end-vertices of L .
         A subgraph can be induced by a given subset of vertices or lines. It is a spanning
         subgraph iff V = V.
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V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                                                                           43
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              Cut-out – induced subgraph: Snyder and Kick – Africa
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         Operations/Extract from Network/Partition [6]
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Methodenforum der Fakult¨ t f¨ r Sozialwissenschaften, Universit¨ t Wien, 21-22. 6. 2007                                                                       S   G S        
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                                              Cut-out: Snyder and Kick
                                            Latin America : South America
                                          cos

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         Operations/Extract from Network/Partition [3,4] Pajek
         Operations/Transform/Remove lines/Inside clusters     [3,4]
         The vertices can be manually put on a rectangular grid produced by
         [Draw] Move/Grid
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                                      Important vertices in network
         It seems that the most important distinction between different vertex indices
         is based on the view/decision whether the network is considered directed or
         undirected. This gives us two main types of indices:

             • directed case: measures of importance; with two subgroups: measures
               of influence, based on out-going arcs; and measures of support, based
               on incoming arcs;

             • undirected case: measures of centrality, based on all lines.

         For undirected networks all three types of measures coincide.
         If we change the direction of all arcs (replace the relation with its inverse
         relation) the measure of influence becomes a measure of support, and vice
         versa.

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V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                           46
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                                          . . . Important vertices in network
         The real meaning of measure of importance depends on the relation
         described by a network. For example the most ’important’ person for the
         relation ’ doesn’t like to work with ’ is in fact the least popular person.
         Removal of an important vertex from a network produces a substantial
         change in structure/functioning of the network.




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V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                           47
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                                                                        Closeness
         Most indices are based on the distance d(u, v) between vertices in a network
         N = (V, L). Two such indices are
         radius                  r(v) = maxu∈V d(v, u)
         total closeness                          S(v) =               u∈V      d(v, u)
         These two indices are measures of influence – to get measures of support
         we have to replace in definitions d(u, v) with d(v, u).
         If the network is not strongly connected rmax and Smax equal ∞. Sabidussi
         (1966) introduced a related measure 1/S(v); or in its normalized form
                                                               n−1
         closeness                     cl(v) =
                                                              u∈V d(v, u)

         D = maxu,v∈V d(v, u) is called the diameter of network.

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V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                                                  48
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                                                                      Betweeness
         Important are also the vertices that can control the information flow in the
         network. If we assume that this flow uses only the shortest paths (geodesics)
         we get a measure of betweeness (Anthonisse 1971, Freeman 1977)
                                                               1                                           gu,t (v)
                                         b(v) =
                                                         (n − 1)(n − 2)                    u,t∈V:gu,t >0
                                                                                                            gu,t
                                                                                           u=v,t=v,u=t


         where gu,t is the number of geodesics from u to t; and gu,t (v) is the number
         of those among them that pass through vertex v.
         If we know matrices [du,v ] and [gu,v ] we can determine also gu,v (t) by:
                               
                                g ·g                 du,t + dt,v = du,v
                                     u,t   t,v
                    gu,v (t) =
                                0                    otherwise

    For computation of geodesic matrix see Brandes.
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                                                        Hubs and authorities
         To each vertex v of a network N = (V, L) we assign two values: quality of
         its content (authority) xv and quality of its references (hub) yv .
         A good authority is selected by good hubs; and good hub points to good
         authorities (see Klienberg).

                                   xv =                         yu    and   yv =               xu
                                              u:(u,v)∈L                            u:(v,u)∈L

         Let W be a matrix of network N and x and y authority and hub vectors.
         Then we can write these two relations as x = WT y and y = Wx.
         We start with y = [1, 1, . . . , 1] and then compute new vectors x and
         y. After each step we normalize both vectors. We repeat this until they
         stabilize.
        We can show that this procedure converges. The limit vector x∗ is the
        principal eigen vector of matrix WT W; and y∗ of matrix WWT .
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                                                      . . . Hubs and authorities
         Similar procedures are used in search engines on the web to evaluate the
         importance of web pages.
         PageRank, PageRank / Google, HITS / AltaVista, SALSA, teorija.
         Examples: Krebs, Krempl.




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V. Batagelj: Analysis and visulization of large networks with Pajek                                 51
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                                                        Clustering coefficient
         Let G = (V, E) be simple undirected graph. Clustering in vertex v is
         usually measured as a quotient between the number of lines in subgraph
         G 1 (v) = G(N 1 (v)) induced by the neighbors of vertex v and the number of
         lines in the complete graph on these vertices:
                             
                                    2|L(G 1 (v))|
                                                             deg(v) > 1
                             
                             
                             
                     C(v) =      deg(v)(deg(v) − 1)
                             
                              0
                             
                                                             otherwise

         We can consider also the size of vertex neighborhood by the following
         correction
                                                                      deg(v)
                                                             C1 (v) =        C(v)
                                                                        ∆
        where ∆ is the maximum degree in graph G. This measure attains its largest
        value in vertices that belong to an isolated clique of size ∆.
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                                                                Dense groups
         Several notions were proposed in attempts to formally describe dense
         groups in graphs.
         Clique of order k is a maximal complete subgraph (isomorphic to Kk ),
         k ≥ 3.
         s-plexes, LS sets, lambda sets, cores, . . .
         For all of them, except for cores, it turned out that they are difficult to
         detemine.




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                                                 Cores and generalized cores
                                                 The notion of core was introduced
                                                 by Seidman in 1983. Let G =
                                                 (V, E) be a graph. A subgraph H =
                                                 (W, E|W ) induced by the set W is
                                                 a k-core or a core of order k iff
                                                 ∀v ∈ W : degH (v) ≥ k, and H is
                                                 a maximal subgraph with this prop-
                                                 erty. The core of maximum order is
                                                 also called the main core.
         The core number of vertex v is the highest order of a core that contains
         this vertex. The degree deg(v) can be: in-degree, out-degree, in-degree +
         out-degree, etc., determining different types of cores.


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                                                            Properties of cores
         From the figure, representing 0, 1, 2 and 3 core, we can see the following
         properties of cores:

             • The cores are nested: i < j =⇒ Hj ⊆ Hi

             • Cores are not necessarily connected subgraphs.

         An efficient algorithm for determining the cores hierarchy is based on the
         following property:

                  If from a given graph G = (V, E) we recursively delete all vertices,
                  and edges incident with them, of degree less than k, the remaining
                  graph is the k-core.

         For details see the paper.

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                                        6-core of Krebs Internet industries




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                                                              Generalized cores
         The notion of core can be generalized to networks. Let N = (V, E, w)
         be a network, where G = (V, E) is a graph and w : E → R is a function
         assigning values to edges. A vertex property function on N, or a p-
         function for short, is a function p(v, U ), v ∈ V, U ⊆ V with real values.
         Let NU (v) = N (v) ∩ U . Besides degrees, here are some examples of
         p-functions:

           pS (v, U )             =                         w(v, u), where w : E → R+
                                                                                    0
                                           u∈NU (v)

         pM (v, U ) =                         max w(v, u), where w : E → R
                                           u∈NU (v)

           pk (v, U ) =                     number of cycles of length k through vertex v in (U, E|U )

         The subgraph H = (C, E|C) induced by the set C ⊆ V is a p-core at level
         t ∈ R iff ∀v ∈ C : t ≤ p(v, C) and C is a maximal such set.
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                                                Generalized cores algorithm
         The function p is monotone iff it has the property

                                        C1 ⊂ C2 ⇒ ∀v ∈ V : (p(v, C1 ) ≤ p(v, C2 ))

         The degrees and the functions pS , pM and pk are monotone. For a monotone
         function the p-core at level t can be determined, as in the ordinary case, by
         successively deleting vertices with value of p lower than t; and the cores on
         different levels are nested

                                                              t1 < t2 ⇒ Ht2 ⊆ Ht1

         The p-function is local iff p(v, U ) = p(v, NU (v)) .
         The degrees, pS and pM are local; but pk is not local for k ≥ 4. For a local
         p-function an O(m max(∆, log n)) algorithm for determining the p-core
         levels exists, assuming that p(v, NC (v)) can be computed in O(degC (v)).
    For details see the paper.
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                                         pS -core at level 46 of Geombib network
                                                              E.Arkin


                                                              J.Mitchell                                                     I.Tollis
                                M.Bern                                                                                                    A.Garg
                                                                                                                                                      L.Vismara
                                          D.Eppstein

                                                                                                                                         G.diBattista
                                                                                                    M.Goodrich
                                                                                                                                  R.Tamassia

                                                                                                                                               G.Liotta
                             D.Dobkin                S.Suri                       J.O’Rourke
                                                                                                   J.Vitter

                                                     J.Hershberger


                                      B.Chazelle                                                                          F.Preparata
                        R.Seidel B.Aronov L.Guibas                   J.Snoeyink
                                      H.Edelsbrunner
                                             M.Sharir    P.Agarwal
                   R.Pollack
                    J.Pach                                    D.Halperin                                                                                                            P.Gupta

                                                                                                                                                                      M.Smid     R.Janardan
                                  E.Welzl                                  M.Overmars                         P.Bose
                                                                                                                                  J.Boissonnat
                                                                                 M.vanKreveld                                 O.Devillers
                                        J.Matousek                                                                                                                               J.Majhi
                                                                                                                                         M.Yvinec
                                                      C.Yap                     M.deBerg
                                                                                                                                                                               J.Schwerdt
                                                                  O.Schwarzkopf                 G.Toussaint         M.Teillaud




                                                                                                                                 J.Czyzowicz
                                                                                                              J.Urrutia




                                                                   C.Icking

                                                                              R.Klein




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                         Cores and generalized cores / Pajek commands
         File/Network/Read [Geom.net]
         Net/Partitions/Core/All
         Info/Partition
         Operations/Extract from Network/Partition [13-*]
         Draw/Draw-Partition
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai
         Options/Values of lines/Similarities
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai
         Operations/Extract from Network/Partition [21]
         Draw
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai
         Options/Values of lines/Forget
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai
         [select Geom.net]
         Net/Vector/PCore/Sum/All
         Info/Vector
         Vector/Make Partition/by Intervals/Selected Thresholds [45]
         Info/Partition
         Operations/Extract from Network/Partition [2]
         Draw
         Options/Values of lines/Similarities
         Layout/Energy/Fruchterman-Reingold



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                                                                 Connectivity

                                                                                   Vertex u is reachable from vertex v iff
                                                                                   there exists a walk with initial vertex v
                                                                                   and terminal vertex u.
                                                                                   Vertex v is weakly connected with ver-
                                                                                   tex u iff there exists a semiwalk with v
                                                                                   and u as its end-vertices.
                                                                                   Vertex v is strongly connected with ver-
                                                                                   tex u iff they are mutually reachable.


         Weak and strong connectivity are equivalence relations.
         Equivalence classes induce weak/strong components.

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                                                             Weak components

                                                                                           Reordering the vertices of network
                                                                                           such that the vertices from the same
                                                                                           class of weak partition are put to-
                                                                                           gether we get a matrix representa-
                                                                                           tion consisting of diagonal blocks –
                                                                                           weak components.
                                                                                           Most problems can be solved sepa-
                                                                                           rately on each component and after-
                                                                                           ward these solutions combined into
                                                                                           final solution.



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                                                    Reduction (condensation)




         If we shrink every strong component of a given graph into a vertex, delete
         all loops and identify parallel arcs the obtained reduced graph is acyclic.
         For every acyclic graph an ordering / level function i : V → N exists s.t.
         (u, v) ∈ A ⇒ i(u) < i(v).
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                                                         Reduction – Example
         Net / Components / Strong [1]
         Operations / Shrink Network / Partition [1][0]
         Net / Transform / Remove / Loops [yes]
         Net / Partitions / Depth / Acyclic
         Partition / Make Permutation
         Permutation / Inverse
         select partition [Strong Components]
         Operations / Functional Composition / Partition*Permutation
         Partition / Make Permutation
         select [original network]
         File / Network / Export Matrix to EPS / Using Permutation
                                                                                               Pajek - shadow [0.00,1.00]
                     b                                        k                                i
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            k                     j                                       #e               i




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                                                                             Cuts
         The standard approach to find interesting groups inside a network was based
         on properties/weights – they can be measured or computed from network
         structure (for example Kleinberg’s hubs and authorities).
         The vertex-cut of a network N = (V, L, p), p : V → R, at selected level t
         is a subnetwork N(t) = (V , L(V ), p), determined by the set

                                                           V = {v ∈ V : p(v) ≥ t}

         and L(V ) is the set of lines from L that have both endpoints in V .
         The line-cut of a network N = (V, L, w), w : V → R, at selected level t is
         a subnetwork N(t) = (V(L ), L , w), determined by the set

                                                           L = {e ∈ L : w(e) ≥ t}

         and V(L ) is the set of all endpoints of the lines from L .
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                          Vertex-cut: Krebs Internet Industries, core=6




                                                                                                                                    Lucent
                                                                                                                                                                                     CommerceOne


                                                                                                                                                                                        UPS




                                                                                                                                                                                                  SAP

                                                                                                                         Motorola                                                  CIBER
                                                                                                       Yahoo!                                                                Ariba
                                                                                                                                                      EMC                Oracle      Peoplesoft
                                                                                                                                                            Sun
                                                                                                                                       FoundryNetworks                  EDS
                                                                                                                                                                                  divine    WebMethods
                                                                                                                                                                  IBM
                                                                                                                                                                                    E.piphany
                                                                                                                                               HP             Siebel         BMCSoftware
                                                                                                                                              Cisco
                                                                                                                                                   Novell Intel
                                                                                                                  AT&T                     ExodusComm
                                                                                                                                     KPNQwest                                              Vignette
                                                                                                                                                                      CacheFlow

                                                                                                                                                                        Loudcloud
                                                                                                                                                            Compaq                RedHat
                                                                                                                                       RealNetworks
                                                                                                                                                                      Dell



                                                                                                                                             Akamai                      MSFT
                                                                                                                                                            Inktomi

                                                                                                                          AOL



                                                                                               Pajek



         Each vertex represents a company that competes in the Internet industry, 1998 do 2001. n = 219, m = 631. red – content, blue – infrastructure,
         green – commerce. Two companies are linked with an edge if they have announced a joint venture, strategic alliance or other partnership.

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                             Line-cut: Krebs Internet Industries, w3 ≥ 5
                                                                                                                              Motorola                                                  CIBER
                                                                                                                                                                                  Ariba
                                                                                                                                                                               Oracle
                                                                                                                                                              Sun
                                                                                                                                          FoundryNetworks
                                                                                                                                                                      IBM
                                                                                                                                                                                           E.piphany
                                                                                                                                                HP
                                                                                                                                                      Cisco
                                                                                                                                                                    Intel
                                                                                                                       AT&T
                                                                                                                                         KPNQwest




                                                                                                                                                                                           KPMG
                                                                                                                                                              Compaq
                                                                                                                                           RealNetworks
                                                                                                                                                                        Dell



                                                                                                                                             Akamai                         MSFT
                                                                                                                                                              Inktomi

                                                                                                                               AOL




                                                                                                                                               TerraLycos




                                                                                                           FoundryNetworks           RealNetworks




                                                                                                                                                                                                        KPMG
                                                                                                   TerraLycos                                                       AT&T                                           Pajek



                                                                                                                     AOL                                                                                            Compaq
                                                                                                                                                 Inktomi




                                                                                                                                                                                                  MSFT                     Dell
                                                                                                                                  Sun               HP


                                                                                                                                                                                                          Akamai
                                                                                                                    IBM
                                                                                                   Intel                                                            Cisco                                   KPNQwest


                                                                                                                                                                                                        Motorola
                                                                                                                                  Oracle                                                        Ariba

                                                                                                           CIBER



                                                                                                                                                          E.piphany

                                                                                           Pajek




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                                                      Cuts / Pajek commands
         Vertex-cut:
         File/Pajek Project File/Read [Krebs.paj]
         Net/Partitions/Core/All
         Partition/Make Vector
         Draw/Draw-Partition-Vector
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai
         Operations/Extract from Network/Partition [6]
         [select Types ... as First partition]
         [select All core ... as Second partition]
         Partitions/Extract Second from First [6]
         Draw/Draw-Partition
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai
         Line-cut:
         [select Krebs ... network]
         Net/Count/3-Rings/Undirected
         Info/Network/Line Values
         Net/Transform/Remove/Lines with Values/lower than [5]
         Net/Partitions/Degree/All
         Partition/Make Vector
         Operations/Extract from Network/Partition [1-*]
         [select Types ... as First partition]
         [select All Degree ... as Second partition]
         Partitions/Extract Second from First [1-*]
         Draw/Draw-Partition
         Layout/Energy/Kamada-Kawai
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                                                   Simple analysis using cuts
         We look at the components of N(t).
         Their number and sizes depend on t. Usually there are many small
         components. Often we consider only components of size at least k and
         not exceeding K. The components of size smaller than k are discarded as
         ’noninteresting’; and the components of size larger than K are cut again at
         some higher level.
         The values of thresholds t, k and K are determined by inspecting the
         distribution of vertex/arc-values and the distribution of component sizes
         and considering additional knowledge on the nature of network or goals of
         analysis.
         We developed some new and efficiently computable properties/weights.


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                                                                                               Citation weights
                                                                      POGGIO-T-1975-V19-P201


                                                                                     KOHONEN-T-1976-V21-P85                                                                The citation network analysis
                                                        KOHONEN-T-1976-V22-P159
                                                                                        ANDERSON-JA-1977-V84-P413                                                          started in 1964 with the paper of
                                                                     KOHONEN-T-1977-V2-P1065         PFAFFELHUBER-E-1975-V18-P217
                                                                                COOPER-LN-1979-V33-P9

                                                             WOOD-CC-1978-V85-P582
                                                                                                                    AMARI-SI-1977-V26-P175

                                                                                                     PALM-G-1980-V36-P19                                                   Garfield et al. In 1989 Hummon
                                                                                 BIENENSTOCK-EL-1982-V2-P32

                                                                SUTTON-RS-1981-V88-P135                  HOPFIELD-JJ-1982-V79-P2554          AMARI-S-1980-V42-P339
                                                                                                                                                                           and Doreian proposed three
                                                                                 ANDERSON-JA-1983-V13-P799                                        KOHONEN-T-1982-V43-P59


                                                                                          KNAPP-AG-1984-V10-P616
                                                                                                                                                                           indices – weights of arcs that are
                                                                                     MCCLELLAND-JL-1985-V114-P159
                                                                                                                                                                           proportional to the number of
                                                                         CARPENTER-GA-1987-V37-P54


                                                                         GROSSBERG-S-1987-V11-P23       HECHTNIELSEN-R-1987-V26-P1892
                                                                                                                                                                           different source-sink paths passing
                                                              GROSSBERG-S-1988-V1-P17                      HECHTNIELSEN-R-1987-V26-P4979
                                                                                                                                                                           through the arc. We developed
                                                          SEJNOWSKI-TJ-1988-V241-P1299                     HECHTNIELSEN-R-1988-V1-P131


                                         BROWN-TH-1988-V242-P724                                                KOHONEN-T-1990-V78-P1464
                                                                                                                                                                           algorithms to efficiently compute
                                            BROWN-TH-1990-V13-P475
                                                                                                                                                                           these indices.
                               TREVES-A-1991-V2-P371
                                                  HASSELMO-ME-1994-V7-P13

                                 HASSELMO-ME-1993-V16-P218
                                                                                                                                                                           Main subnetwork (arc cut at level
                         HASSELMO-ME-1994-V14-P3898                                                                                                                        0.007) of the SOM (selforganizing
                                                BARKAI-E-1994-V72-P659


                                   HASSELMO-ME-1995-V67-P1
                                                                                                                                                                           maps) citation network (4470 ver-
                                   HASSELMO-ME-1995-V15-P5249                                                                                                              tices, 12731 arcs).
                GLUCK-MA-1997-V48-P481
                                                                                                                                                                           See paper.
                ASHBY-FG-1999-V6-P363

                                                                                                                                                                                           Pajek




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                                                                      k-rings
         A k-ring is a simple closed chain of length k. Using k-rings we can define
         a weight of edges as
        wk (e) = # of different k-rings containing the edge e ∈ E
                                                Since for a complete graph Kr , r ≥ k ≥ 3 we have
                                                wk (Kr ) = (r − 2)!/(r − k)!, the edges belonging to
                                                cliques have large weights. Therefore these weights
                                                can be used to identify the dense parts of a network.
                                                For example: all r-cliques of a network belong to r−2-
                                                edge cut for the weight w3 .
        We can assign to a given graph a triangular network in
        which every line of the original graph gets as its weight
        the number of triangles that contain it. The triangular
        weights provide us, combined with islands, with a very
        efficient way to identify dense parts of a graph.
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                                                      Triangular connectivity
         Related to triangular network is the notion of triangular connectivity




         that can be used to operationalize the notion of strong ties.
         These notions can be generalized to short cycle connectivity (see paper).




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                                                                    o
                   Edge-cut at level 16 of triangular network of Erd˝ s
                                   collaboration graph
             WORMALD, NICHOLAS C.           LASKAR, RENU C.             SHELAH, SAHARON



             MCKAY, BRENDAN D.              HEDETNIEMI, STEPHEN T.      MAGIDOR, MENACHEM

                          KLEITMAN, DANIEL J.

                                    CHUNG, FAN RONG K.
                                                         GRAHAM, RONALD L.
                        SAKS, MICHAEL E.

                                              ARONOV, BORIS
                    LINIAL, NATHAN        PACH, JANOS
                                      POLLACK, RICHARD M.
                                           SPENCER, JOEL H.
                                                                       HENNING, MICHAEL A.                      o
                                                                                                     without Erd˝ s,
                  FRANKL, PETER
                                   ALON, NOGA
                                       LOVASZ, LASZLO
                               KOMLOS, JANOS
                                                          OELLERMANN, ORTRUD R.
                                                                  GODDARD, WAYNE D.
                                                                                                     n = 6926,
           FUREDI, ZOLTAN
                                   TUZA, ZSOLT                                   ALAVI, YOUSEF
                     BABAI, LASZLO
                                SZEMEREDI, ENDRE                            CHARTRAND, GARY          m = 11343
                                       BOLLOBAS, BELA              HARARY, FRANK
                                 AJTAI, MIKLOS                                  KUBICKI, GRZEGORZ
                                                                SCHWENK, ALLEN JOHN

                                      RODL, VOJTECH
                         NESETRIL, JAROSLAV                           ROSA, ALEXANDER
                             GYARFAS, ANDRAS
                                           SCHELP, RICHARD H.          STINSON, DOUGLAS ROBERT
                      LEHEL, JENO           CHEN, GUANTAO
                                                                                 MULLIN, RONALD C.
                                  FAUDREE, RALPH J.
                                                                   COLBOURN, CHARLES J.
                          JACOBSON, MICHAEL S.
                                                              PHELPS, KEVIN T.




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                                                                Directed 3-rings
         In directed networks there are two types of 3-rings:




                                               cyclic                                      transitive

         The 3-rings weights were implemented in Pajek in May 2002.


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                   Edge-cut at level 11 of transitive network of ODLIS
                                     dictionary graph
                                                                                                                     serial
                                                                                                   publication
                                                     American Library Directory
                                              transaction log
                                                                                          periodical
                                      suggestion box
                                                                                                  review                                           frequency
                                  charge
                                                                                                       series
                                                                                                                                           issue
                                                     library                                                                                                           colophon
                                call number                                                               Library Literature

                                                                                                           journal                                                       layout
                                fixed location                                           publishing
                                                                                                                                                            printing
                                   blanket order                         American Library Association /ALA/
                                                                                                                              title page
                                                                                               Books in Print /BIP/
                                       vendor
                                                                                     homepage                                    International Standard Book Number /ISBN/
                                                  entry                                                    published price
                                                                              round table
                                                                                                                                     dummy                                edition
                                                                         librarian             condition
                                                               catalog                                                                     plate                                         fiction
                                                                                           Oak Knoll
                                                 bibliographic record                                                                         imprint                                     abstract
                                                                                dust jacket                                                                              work
                                                                                                              book
                                                                                                                                                   bibliography                           editor
                                                                            half-title

                                                                         library binding                                                                                                 title
                                                                                                                                                       table of contents /TOC/
                                                                                                                                                                                       index
                                              invoice                     new book                              text
                                                                                                                                             endpaper                               copyright
                                                                           book size                       parts of a book
                                                                                                      front matter                         collation
                                              publisher                              binding
                                                                                                                                      folio

                                                                                          cover
                                                                                                       page




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                                                                         Islands
         If we represent a given or computed value of vertices / lines as a height of
         vertices / lines and we immerse the network into a water up to selected level
         we get islands. Varying the level we get different islands. Islands are very
         general and efficient approach to determine the ’important’ subnetworks in
         a given network.




         We developed very efficient algorithms to determine the islands hierarchy
         and to list all the islands of selected sizes.
    See details.
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                                                                                               Islands - Reuters terror news
                                                 airline            united_airlines                                                                   plant


                                         attendant
                                                                              american_airlines                                                                                                                                                             Using CRA S. Corman
                                                                                                                                             nuclear
                                                                                                                                                                                                            pakistani                herald


                                       arabic-language
                                                           flight
                                                                                     train
                                                                                                  pilot                     power
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and K. Dooley produced
                                                                                                                                                                                                   organization             boston
                                                                                                                                                      weapon

                                                contain
                                                                              manual
                                                                                                                     service                                                             saudi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 newspaper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           congressional    the Reuters terror news
                          car                                  passenger
                                                                                                       member                                                 chemical

                                                                                                                                                                                        saudi-born
                                                                                                                                                                                                            bin_laden             leader
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            network that is based on
                                   rental                                                                            uniform


                                                   scare
                                                                            inhale
                                                                                                                 firefighter                               jet
                                                                                                                                                                                           dissident              taliban
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            necessary       all stories released dur-
                                 suspect
                                                                                                                                                                             fbi
             call
                             man                               anthrax
                                                                                                            police                            knife-wielding
                                                                                                                                                                             world
                                                                                                                                                                                         agent
                                                                                                                                                                                                   afghanistan            airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ing 66 consecutive days by
                                                                                                                                                                                                               thursday            force
                                                                                      skin                                                                         commercial
             phone

                           arab
                                                case
                                                                                                       officer                         airliner
                                                                                                                                                              hijacker
                                                                                                                                                                                        official

                                                                                                                                                                                       support
                                                                                                                                                                                                         pakistan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         special                            the news agency Reuters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           terrorism
            cell                                                                                                                                                                    country                    war
                                                                    trace                                                                              hijack

            help                                                                      jonn                                          mighty                                   plane        deadly
                                                                                                                                                                                                   united_states                    embassy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            concerning the September
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       wednesday
                                                                                                                                                       twin

            plea
                                        space
                                                                                              specialist                       110-story
                                                                                                                                                                                          attack
                                                                                                                                                                                                       week

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 act        military
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       strike
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    east    11 attack on the US. The
                                                                            edmund                                                                                     world_trade_ctr                                                      headquarters

                                 air
                                                                                                                                                       pentagon
                                                                                                                                                                             the_worst
                                                                                                                                                                                                            terrorist
                                                                                                                                                                                                        apparent              action                        vertices of a network are
                                                                       cheyenne                                             north            tower
                                                                                                                                                           washington                                            morning                     africa
             louisiana
                                                                                                                               south
                                                                                                                                                                           late
                                                                                                                                                                                   tuesday

                                                                                                                                                                                        news
                                                                                                                                                                                                   terror
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 anti-american                              words (terms); there is an
                                                                        wyoming                                                                city
                          base                  offutt                                                            florida                                           new_york                                                           group

            air_force                                                                                                                                 mayor
                                                                                                                                                                                              responsibility

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   american
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            edge between two words
                                                                            pfc                                                                                                       conference
                                                                                                                                                              mayor_giuliani
                     barksdale
                                         nebraska                                              team
                                                                                                                 exchange
                                                                                                                                                                   landmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                       miss
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           debris           iff they appear in the same
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         people

                                 dept
                                                                      effort                 rescue
                                                                                                                               stock
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             thousand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            text unit. The weight of an
                                                                                                                                                  market                       center
                                                           edward                                                       aid                                                                                    buildng
                                 fire
                                                                                                       worker
                                                                                                                                                                 financial                                                          toll
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            edge is its frequency. It has
                     smoke                      plaugher



                                                  chief
                                                                                              postal                 emergency
                                                                                                                                                                                                         large

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     death
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            n = 13332 vertices and
                                                                                                                                                                  district
                                                                                                                                        state
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            m = 243447 edges.

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                                                          Islands – US patents
         As an example, let us look at Nber network of US Patents. It has 3774768
         vertices and 16522438 arcs (1 loop). We computed SPC weights in it and
         determined all (2,90)-islands. The reduced network has 470137 vertices,
         307472 arcs and for different k: C2 =187610, C5 =8859,C30 =101,
         C50 =30 islands. Rolex
          [1]   0 139793                               29670 9288 3966 1827 997 578 362 250
         [11] 190    125                                 104   71   47   37 36 33 21 23
         [21] 17      16                                   8    7   13   10 10    5   5   5
         [31] 12       3                                   7    3    3    3   2   6   6   2
         [41]   1      3                                   4    1    5    2   1   1   1   1
         [51]   2      3                                   3    2    0    0   0   0   0   1
         [61]   0      0                                   0    0    1    0   0   2   0   0
         [71]   0      0                                   1    1    0    0   0   1   0   0
         [81]   2      0                                   0    0    0    1   2   0   0   7



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                                                                 size distribution
                                                         Island Theme size distribution
                                            q




                                                     q


                                    10000
                                                            q


                                                                 q


                                                                      q

                                                                          q

                                                                              q
                             freq




                                                                                  q
                                                                                      q
                                                                                           q
                                                                                               q
                                    100




                                                                                                   q
                                                                                                       q
                                                                                                           q
                                                                                                               q qq

                                                                                                                  qq
                                                                                                                    qq
                                                                                                                            q     q
                                                                                                                             qq
                                                                                                                           q
                                                                                                                            q         q                        q
                                                                                                                                          q
                                                                                                                                          q
                                                                                                                                 q
                                                                                                                                qq              q
                                                                                                                                              q
                                                                                                                                        q
                                                                                                                                     q qq     q      q
                                                                                                                                                     q
                                                                                                                                          qq    q qq      q   qq

                                                                                                                                                qq
                                                                                                                                            q q qq          qq
                                                                                                                                                         qq q q
                                    1




                                            2                    5                    10                              20                            50             100

                                                                                               size

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                                         Main path and main island of Patents
                                              5855814                                                                                                                                                             4456712



                                              5683624                                                                                                                                                             5555116


                                              5543077
                                                                                 5124824                                                           5171469                                                        5283677

                                              5374374
                                                                                               5016988                                             5122295                                                        5016989
                                              5308538

                                                                                 4957349                                                           4877547                             4820839                    4832462
                                              5171469


                                              5122295                            4770503                 4795579                                   4797228                             4752414                    4721367



                                              4877547                            4709030                 4719032                4695131            4710315         4713197             4704227                    4657695


                                              4797228
                                                                                 4630896                                                           4659502         4621901

                                              4710315
                                                                                           4583826              4510069         4558151                            4550981
                                              4659502

                                                                                                                                                   4526704         4502974                   4514044
                                              4550981


                                              4526704                                      4460770                              4480117            4472293         4472592                   4455443



                                              4472293                                                                           4419263            4422951


                                              4422951
                                                                                                                                                                             4415470         4400293              4386007

                                              4386007
                                                                                                                      4349452         4368135                       4340498
                                              4340498

                                                                                     4387039         4387038          4293434         4290905          4361494                4302352        4330426              4357078
                                              4302352


                                              4229315                                                                                 4195916                       4229315                                       4261652



                                              4149413                                                                 4202791                                       4149413                                  4198130


                                              4082428
                                                                                                            4154697              4113647               4130502      4032470            4083797        4082428     4118335

                                              4011173
                                                                                                            4013582              4029595            4077260      4017416      3975286              4011173        4000084
                                              3960752

                                                                                                     3954653                                                     3947375                    3960752               3876286
                               3872140                       3881806


                     2544659        3675987             3731986        3795436   3891307       3697150         3636168      3767289      3666948       3322485   3773747     3796479     3795436       2682562    3691755




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                                                                                                Liquid crystal display
                                 Table 1: Patents on the liquid-crystal display                                               Table 2: Patents on the liquid-crystal display                                               Table 3: Patents on the liquid-crystal display


               patent            date author(s) and title                                              patent                date   author(s) and title                                                  patent            date author(s) and title
              2544659   Mar 13, 1951 Dreyer. Dichroic light-polarizing sheet and the like and the     4083797   Apr 11,      1978   Oh. Nematic liquid crystal compositions                             4514044   Apr 30, 1985 Gunjima, et al. 1-(Trans-4-alkylcyclohexyl)-2-(trans-4’-(p-sub
                                      formation and use thereof                                       4113647   Sep 12,      1978   Coates, et al. Liquid crystalline materials                                                 stituted phenyl) cyclohexyl)ethane and liquid crystal mixture
              2682562   Jun 29, 1954 Wender, et al. Reduction of aromatic carbinols                   4118335    Oct 3,      1978   Krause, et al. Liquid crystalline materials of reduced viscosity    4526704     Jul 2, 1985 Petrzilka, et al. Multiring liquid crystal esters
              3322485   May 30, 1967 Williams. Electro-optical elements utilazing an organic          4130502   Dec 19,      1978   Eidenschink, et al. Liquid crystalline cyclohexane derivatives      4550981    Nov 5, 1985 Petrzilka, et al. Liquid crystalline esters and mixtures
                                      nematic compound                                                4149413   Apr 17,      1979   Gray, et al. Optically active liquid crystal mixtures and           4558151   Dec 10, 1985 Takatsu, et al. Nematic liquid crystalline compounds
              3636168   Jan 18, 1972 Josephson. Preparation of polynuclear aromatic compounds                                       liquid crystal devices containing them                              4583826   Apr 22, 1986 Petrzilka, et al. Phenylethanes
              3666948   May 30, 1972 Mechlowitz, et al. Liquid crystal termal imaging system          4154697 May 15, 1979          Eidenschink, et al. Liquid crystalline hexahydroterphenyl           4621901   Nov 11, 1986 Petrzilka, et al. Novel liquid crystal mixtures
                                      having an undisturbed image on a disturbed background                                         derivatives                                                         4630896   Dec 23, 1986 Petrzilka, et al. Benzonitriles
              3675987    Jul 11, 1972 Rafuse. Liquid crystal compositions and devices                 4195916  Apr 1, 1980          Coates, et al. Liquid crystal compounds                             4657695   Apr 14, 1987 Saito, et al. Substituted pyridazines
              3691755   Sep 19, 1972 Girard. Clock with digital display                               4198130 Apr 15, 1980          Boller, et al. Liquid crystal mixtures                              4659502   Apr 21, 1987 Fearon, et al. Ethane derivatives
              3697150   Oct 10, 1972 Wysochi. Electro-optic systems in which an electrophoretic-      4202791 May 13, 1980          Sato, et al. Nematic liquid crystalline materials                   4695131   Sep 22, 1987 Balkwill, et al. Disubstituted ethanes and their use in liquid
                                      like or dipolar material is dispersed throughout a liquid       4229315 Oct 21, 1980          Krause, et al. Liquid crystalline cyclohexane derivatives                                   crystal materials and devices
                                      crystal to reduce the turn-off time                              4261652 Apr 14, 1981          Gray, et al. Liquid crystal compounds and materials and             4704227    Nov 3, 1987 Krause, et al. Liquid crystal compounds
              3731986    May 8, 1973 Fergason. Display devices utilizing liquid crystal light                                       devices containing them                                             4709030   Nov 24, 1987 Petrzilka, et al. Novel liquid crystal mixtures
                                      modulation                                                      4290905   Sep 22, 1981        Kanbe. Ester compound                                               4710315    Dec 1, 1987 Schad, et al. Anisotropic compounds and liquid crystal
              3767289   Oct 23, 1973 Aviram, et al. Class of stable trans-stilbene compounds,         4293434    Oct 6, 1981        Deutscher, et al. Liquid crystal compounds                                                  mixtures therewith
                                      some displaying nematic mesophases at or near room              4302352   Nov 24, 1981        Eidenschink, et al. Fluorophenylcyclohexanes, the preparation       4713197   Dec 15, 1987 Eidenschink, et al. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds
                                      temperature and others in a range up to 100◦ C                                                thereof and their use as components of liquid crystal dielectrics   4719032   Jan 12, 1988 Wachtler, et al. Cyclohexane derivatives
              3773747   Nov 20, 1973 Steinstrasser. Substituted azoxy benzene compounds               4330426 May 18, 1982          Eidenschink, et al. Cyclohexylbiphenyls, their preparation and      4721367   Jan 26, 1988 Yoshinaga, et al. Liquid crystal device
              3795436    Mar 5, 1974 Boller, et al. Nematogenic material which exhibit the Kerr                                     use in dielectrics and electrooptical display elements              4752414   Jun 21, 1988 Eidenschink, et al. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds
                                      effect at isotropic temperatures                                 4340498   Jul 20, 1982        Sugimori. Halogenated ester derivatives                             4770503   Sep 13, 1988 Buchecker, et al. Liquid crystalline compounds
              3796479   Mar 12, 1974 Helfrich, et al. Electro-optical light-modulation cell           4349452   Sep 14, 1982        Osman, et al. Cyclohexylcyclohexanoates                             4795579    Jan 3, 1989 Vauchier, et al. 2,2’-difluoro-4-alkoxy-4’-hydroxydiphenyls and
                                      utilizing a nematogenic material which exhibits the Kerr        4357078    Nov 2, 1982        Carr, et al. Liquid crystal compounds containing an alicyclic                               their derivatives, their production process and
                                      effect at isotropic temperatures                                                               ring and exhibiting a low dielectric anisotropy and liquid                                  their use in liquid crystal display devices
              3872140   Mar 18, 1975 Klanderman, et al. Liquid crystalline compositions and                                         crystal materials and devices incorporating such compounds          4797228   Jan 10, 1989 Goto, et al. Cyclohexane derivative and liquid crystal
                                      method                                                          4361494   Nov 30, 1982        Osman, et al. Anisotropic cyclohexyl cyclohexylmethyl ethers                                composition containing same
              3876286    Apr 8, 1975 Deutscher, et al. Use of nematic liquid crystalline substances   4368135   Jan 11, 1983        Osman. Anisotropic compounds with negative or positive              4820839   Apr 11, 1989 Krause, et al. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic esters
              3881806    May 6, 1975 Suzuki. Electro-optical display device                                                         DC-anisotropy and low optical anisotropy                            4832462   May 23, 1989 Clark, et al. Liquid crystal devices
              3891307   Jun 24, 1975 Tsukamoto, et al. Phase control of t