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									ESARSWG: Background and
     Current status

             Atalay Ayele
       AfricaArray 2nd Workshop
            Palmanova, Italy
         February 26-27, 2005

1.   History
2.   Current status with respect to its recent past
3.   Current activities
4.   Problems
5.   Plans in the years ahead
6.   Ethiopian case?
•Seismicity after Sieberg and
   •Rare or unknown
   •Moderately frequent not
   •Frequent occasionally
   •World-shaking shocks
since 1960s

 There are a lot of events passing
unnoticed at local scale b/se of poor
station distribution and technology
          ESARSWG formed
• The first activity of ESARSWG started in 1993 in
  Dar es Selam
• Participating countries were: Eritrea, Ethiopia,
  Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi,
• Funded mainly by IPPS (International Program in
  the Physical Sciences) of UU
• Prof. Lennart.Hasselgren played a major role
• University of Bergen through Prof. Jens Havskov
  in training and data analysis using SEISAN
Seismic Stations in the region at
         the beginning
             Data analysis
• Mainly to produce bulletin
• At the beginning it was clumsy and costly
  b/se people have to carry seismograms to
  the analysis center
• Then we started to bring phase readings of
  each country on a floppy
• At the present we exchange data by e-mail
  and only one country processes the data and
  prepares the bulletin on a rotation basis
• Many PhD and Msc students have been
  trained in Bergen and Uppsala
• That is a great capacity building in
  seismology in Africa
• Many technicians have been trained also at
  regional centers or in Norway and Sweden
Current status of seismic stations
    No.   Country    STAtn             Type of instrument
                             Seism            Comp          Record        Clock   Period   P.status
1         Eritrea    ASME    S-13             1SZ           A/Lenarz      Radio   1986-    Operat.
                     SHBE    Geophon          3SZ           GeoSIG        GPS     2003     Operat
                     GELE    Geophon          3SZ           GeoSIG        GPS     2003     Test
                     ABSE    L4C              1SZ           D/Nanom       GPS     1998-    Operat.
                     AAE     Beinoff          3SZNE         A/WWSSN       Radio   1959-    Operat.
                     FURI    CMG-3T           3BBZNE        Quantera      GPS     1997-    Operat
                     DESE    Le-3d/5          3SZNE         Ref.DAS       GPS     1989-    Operat.
2         Ethiopia
                     WNDE    Le-3d/5          3SZNE         Ref.DAS       GPS     1985-    Operat.
                     ALME    Le-3d/5          3SZNE         Ref.DAS       GPS     1986-    Operat.
                     ENT     L4C              1SZ           A/MEQ800      GPS     1990-    Operat.
                             CMG-40T          3BZNE         D/SEISLOG     GPS              Down
3         Uganda             L4-3D
                             KS-54000         3SZNE         D/ORION       GPS     1995-    Operat.
                     MBAR                     3BZNE         D/MK-71SP-D   GPS     1995-    Operat.
                             CMT-3T           3SZNE                       GPS              Operat.
                     KIL     L4C              1SZ           A/MEQ-800     GPS     1990-    Operat.
                             L4-3D            3SZNE         D/ORION       GPS              Operat.
                     HOI     L4C              1SZ           A/MEQ-800     GPS     1991     Operat.
                             L4-3D            3SZNE         D/ORION       GPS              Operat.
                     MAG     Le-3d/5          3SZNE         D/Zip drive   GPS     1994-    Down
4         Kenya
                     KMBO    IRIS             3BZNE         D/IRIS        GPS     1995-    Operat.
                     MER     Le-3d/5          3SZNE         D/MARS88      GPS     1997-    Down
                     LAN     Le-3d/5          3SZNE         D/MARS88      GPS     1997-    Operat.
                     NAI     Le-3d/5          3SZNE         D/SEISLOG     GPS     1995-    Operat.
                     MORO    L4-C             3SZNE         D/ORION       GPS              Operat.
5         Tanzania
                     MBA     L4-C             3SZNE         D/ORION       GPS              Operat.
                     ARTT    L4-C             3BZNE         D/ORION       GPS     1991-    Operat.
                     DOT     L4-C             3SZNE         D/ORION       GPS     1990-    Operat.
No   CNTRY      STN              TYPE OF INSTRUMENT

                      Seism         Comp       Record     Clock   Period      Present status

                CLK   S-13          3SZNE      A/EARSS.   Radio   1962-       Operational
6    Malawi
                ZOM   L4-C          1SZ        A/TELED    Radio   1989-       Down

                MAL   L4-C          1SZ        EARSSIG            1989-       Operational

                MAZ   L4-C          1SZ        EARSSIG            1989-       Operating

                LIL   L4-C          1SZ        EARSSIG            1989-       Operational
                LSZ   Strakes       3C,VBB     D/IRIS     GPS     1994-       Operational

7    Zambia
                KMZ   Lennartz      3C, SP     D/Reftek   GPS     1998-date   Down
                MZZ   Lennartz      3C, SP     D/Reftek   GPS     1998-date   Down
                IKZ   Lennartz      3C, SP     D/Reftek   GPS     1998-date   Down
                PTZ   Lennartz      3C, SP     D/Reftek   GPS     1998-date   Down
                BUL   Benioff       3SZNE      A/WWSSN    Radio   1957-1996   Down
                      Benioff       3LZNE      A/WWSSN    Radio   1957-1996   Down

8    Zimbabwe   BUL   S-13          3SZNE      A/         Radio   1983-1996   Down

                MTD   S-13          1SZ        A/         Radio   1983-1995   Down

                CIR   S-13          1SZ        A/         Radio   1983-1995   Down

                KRI   S-13          1Sz        A/         Radio   1083-1995   Down
                 Current activities
• Bulletin preparation is going on
• A workshop was held in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe from
  Feb.7 – Feb. 11, 2005
• The objective was to train seismogram analysts
  – The content of the training was more or less on:
     •   Intro. to seismic wave propagation
     •   Intro. to seismology and plate tectonics
     •   Digital filtering
     •   Phase picking and event locations (manually & with comp.)
     •   Magnitude estimates
     •   Demonstrating software like: SEISAN, DIMAS, PITSA, SAC
• Lack of funding for station operations in all
  countries (at least running cost)
  – respective governments are not involved in funding
    or even not aware of the benefit of running seismic
    station network
• Fragile data archiving system
• Vandalism of equipments, specially in field
• Lack of spare parts of hardware and competent
  expertise to maintain stations
• Brain drain
           Future plans

• To make governments aware of the problem
• Training more Msc and PhD students in the
• Do much research on seismology and improve
  seismic hazard map of the region
The Ethiopian case
                      1CMG-3T G. &
                        1 Le-3d/5s
                         are spare

                       1 DAS is not
                     operating and sent
                       to RefTek for
ALME station installation
Frequency content of Le-3d/5s record
Melka-Sedi (near DOFEN) earthquake as picked by ALME station
  The December 26, 2004 earthquake in
Indonesia as recorded at our station FURI
   Our location for the Indonesian
earthquake using only our one station
The December 26, 2004 event at WNDE (Le-3d/5s)
The December 26, 2004 event at DESE (Le-3d/20s)

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