Fastener Identification Students must be able to identify the following fasteners Common nail o a common construction wire nail with a head: common nails have larger shanks than box nails of the same size Casing Nail o These nails are used where the nail head must be hidden. They have small heads and smaller diameters than common nails. Casing nails have a conical head, sometimes cupped, and are somewhat thicker than a finishing nail. Finish Nail o Finishing nails are used where the nail head must be hidden. They have small heads and smaller diameters than common nails. Box Nail o Box nails are made for use in thin dry wood. To reduce a nail's tendency to split such wood, the point is slightly blunted, so that it crushes the wood fibers and punches its way through instead of enlarging a crack. Box nails are thinner than the corresponding penny size in common nails, and about 1⁄8 inch shorter than their nominal size. Brad o Brads, which have small diameter heads and look like miniature finishing nails, come from ½ to 1½ inch. Galvanized nail o treated for resistance to corrosion and/or weather exposure Duplex o a common nail with a second head, allowing for easy extraction Ring Shank o Small rings on the shank to prevent the nail from being worked back out often used in flooring Pan Head Wood Screw o Wood screws have a smooth shank that allows the screw to pull the two pieces of wood together for a tight joint. Wood screws also taper along the threaded portion optimizing the screws holding power in wood. Round head protrudes above the surface of the material to be fastened. Flat Head Wood Screw o Wood screws have a smooth shank that allows the screw to pull the two pieces of wood together for a tight joint. Wood screws also taper along the threaded portion optimizing the screws holding power in wood. Flat head screws are countersunk into the material for a smooth surface area. Sheet Metal Screw o Highly versatile, used in wood, fiberglass and metal, also called self-tapping screws. Available in steel and stainless steel. Note threads go all the way to the head. Drywall Screw o Drywall screws are case hardened and are designed with metal piercing points and a bugle shaped Phillips heads which ingeniously and securely fastens drywall to metal stud work without the heads pulling through the paper surface of the drywall. Modified versions are available today and are classified as “multipurpose” screws. The have larger threads, and optional self tapping cutters built into them. Carriage Bolt o A bolt mostly used in wood with a domed top and a square under the head. This pulls into the wood as the nut is tightened. Lag Bolt o Often called a lag screw. Hex lag bolts are for fastening in wood. Available in a variety of materials. Machine Screws o Available in many styles and materials. Also referred to as a stove bolt. Washers o Flat A flat washer used to distribute load. o Split Lock The most common style of washer used to prevent nuts and bolts from backing out. o Tooth Locking A washer with internal 'teeth' Used to prevent nuts and bolts from backing out. o Finish Washer A washer used to obtain a 'finished' look. Usually used with oval head screws. Types of Nuts Hex Nylon Insert Lock Jam A six sided nut. Also referred to as A nut with a nylon insert A hex nut with a reduced height. a finished hex nut. to prevent backing off. Wing Cap Flange A nut with 'wings' for hand A nut with a domed top over the end A nut with a built in washer like tightening. of the fastener. flange. Screw sizes. Screws are sized by gauge number and length. The gauge number was thought up by someone with a weird mind, if the gauge is not known, simply measure the diameter of the head in sixteenths of an inch, take away one and double - that is the gauge number. Screw head types s Example: if the head is a quarter of an inch, that equates to 4 sixteenths; take away 1 equals 3; double that equals 6, so it is a 6 gauge screw. Screw drive types In the United States, a wood screw is Flathead ("Slotted") sized Screw Shank Pilot hole Pilot hole by gage # Body dia. pilot hole in softwood in hardwood Phillips its…. 0 0.060 1/16 1/64 1/32 o le ng Torx th The length of a wood screw is Hex measured from the tip of the point to the surface of the Robertson material into which the screw is driven, o gauge o head style (for example, flat head), o type of drive (for example, slotted or Phillips) o and increasingly by style of screw. Pilot Holes and Installing Screws o Pilot holes should be viewed as a necessary when driving screws. A properly drilled pilot hole, along with the installed screw, is less likely to split the wood, and will hold better! These dimensions are for standard American wood screws, which are tapered. They are not suitable for screws which are not tapered, such as dry wall screws. All dimensions are in inches. The shank pilot hole is one which will clear the thickest part of the screw body. 1 0.073 5/64 1/32 1/32 2 0.086 3/32 1/32 3/64 3 0.099 7/64 3/64 1/16 4 0.112 7/64 3/64 1/16 5 0.125 1/8 1/16 5/64 6 0.138 9/64 1/16 5/64 7 0.151 5/32 1/16 3/32 8 0.164 11/64 5/64 3/32 9 0.177 3/16 5/64 7/64 10 0.190 3/16 3/32 7/64 11 0.203 13/64 3/32 1/8 12 0.216 7/32 7/64 1/8 14 0.242 1/4 7/64 9/64 16 0.268 17/64 9/64 5/32 18 0.294 19/64 9/64 3/16 20 0.320 21/64 11/64 13/64 24 0.372 3/8 3/16 7/32 A = Tapered Countersink B = Shank C= Pilot Hole Nail sizes & Use The size of a nail is measured in a unit known as a penny. o Penny is abbreviated with the lowercase letter d. o It indicates the length of the nail. A 6d (6-penny) nail is 2-inches long. A 10d (10-penny) nail is 3-inches long (figure 3-76). o These measurements apply to common, box, casing, and finish nails only. o Brads and small box nails are identified by their actual length and gauge number. o A nail, whatever the type, should be at least three times as long as the thickness of the wood it is intended to hold. Two-thirds of the length of the nail is driven into the other piece of wood for proper anchorage. The other one-third of the length provides the necessary anchorage of the piece being fastened. Protruding nails should be bent over to prevent damage to materials and injury to personnel. There are a few general rules to be followed in the use of nails in building. Nails should be driven at an angle slightly toward each other to improve their holding power. You should be careful in placing nails to provide the greatest holding power. o Nails driven with the grain do not hold as well as nails driven across the grain. A few nails of proper type and size, properly placed and properly driven, will hold better than a great many driven close together. Nails can generally be considered the cheapest and easiest fasteners to be applied. A Little History Lesson And how did 'd' become the abbreviation for penny? The 'denarius' was an old Roman coin and as the centuries passed, the abbreviation ’d’ eventually became associated with the old British penny. What about the expression "10 penny nails"? o Well a LONG time ago, this was the cost of buying 100 of these nails. Yes, way back then you could buy 100 10 penny nails for 10 cents OR 100 16 Fastener Identification Activity penny nails for 16 cents, etc.!! Times sure have changed! Directions: Obtain the box of sample fasteners from your instructor and perform the following steps. 1. Sort the fasteners into the following sets. 2. Sort the Bolts into the following groups a. Nails a. Carriage bolts b. Screws b. Machine Screw / Stove Bolt c. Bolts c. Lag bolt d. Washers e. Others 3. Sort the Nails into the following groups 4. Sort the Washers into one group. a. Common nails b. Casing nails c. Finishing nails d. Brads e. Duplex nails f. Ring Shank nails 5. Sort the Screws into the following groups 6. Sort the Nuts into one group. a. Drywall screws b. Traditional Wood Screws c. Sheet metal screws. d. Multipurpose wood screw Answer the following questions by placing them out on the table in the order shown.) 1. Identify the 16d common nail. 2. Identify the 8d finish nail. 3. Identify the pan head machine screw. 4. Place the brass wood screw through the finish washer. 5. Identify the nylon lock nut. 6. Identify the 2-1/2” multipurpose wood screw with the Robertson drive. 7. Identify the screw with the Torx head. 8. Identify the fastener with the galvanized coating. 9. Identify the 1-1/4 inch drywall screw. 10. Identify the sheet metal screw with the self tapping/drilling tip. Once completed you are ready for your fastener identification quiz. Your instructor will ask you to layout and identify 10 fasteners from the box. Good Luck!