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					Fastener Identification

Students must be able to identify the following fasteners

   Common nail
      o    a common construction wire nail
           with a head: common nails have
           larger shanks than box nails of the
           same size
   Casing Nail
      o    These nails are used where the nail
           head must be hidden. They have
           small heads and smaller diameters
           than common nails. Casing nails
           have a conical head, sometimes
           cupped, and are somewhat thicker
           than a finishing nail.
   Finish Nail
      o    Finishing nails are used where the
           nail head must be hidden. They have
           small heads and smaller diameters
           than common nails.

   Box Nail
       o Box nails are made for use in thin
           dry wood. To reduce a nail's
           tendency to split such wood, the
           point is slightly blunted, so that
           it crushes the wood fibers and
           punches its way through instead of
           enlarging a crack. Box nails are
           thinner than the corresponding
           penny size in common nails, and
           about 1⁄8 inch shorter than their
           nominal size.
   Brad
      o    Brads, which have small diameter
           heads and look like miniature
           finishing nails, come from ½ to 1½
           inch.

   Galvanized nail
      o    treated for resistance to corrosion
           and/or weather exposure


   Duplex
      o    a common nail with a second head,
           allowing for easy extraction


   Ring Shank
      o    Small rings on the shank to prevent
           the nail from being worked back out
           often used in flooring
   Pan Head Wood Screw
       o Wood screws have a smooth shank
         that allows the screw to pull the
         two pieces of wood together for a
         tight joint. Wood screws also taper
         along the threaded portion
         optimizing the screws holding power
         in wood. Round head protrudes above
         the surface of the material to be
         fastened.
   Flat Head Wood Screw
       o Wood screws have a smooth shank
         that allows the screw to pull the
         two pieces of wood together for a
         tight joint. Wood screws also taper
         along the threaded portion
         optimizing the screws holding power
         in wood. Flat head screws are
         countersunk into the material for a
         smooth surface area.
   Sheet Metal Screw
       o Highly versatile, used in wood,
         fiberglass and metal, also called
         self-tapping screws. Available in
         steel and stainless steel. Note
         threads go all the way to the head.
   Drywall Screw
       o Drywall screws are case hardened
         and are designed with metal
         piercing points and a bugle shaped
         Phillips heads which ingeniously
         and securely fastens drywall to
         metal stud work without the heads
         pulling through the paper surface
         of the drywall. Modified versions
         are available today and are
         classified as “multipurpose”
         screws. The have larger threads,
         and optional self tapping cutters
         built into them.
   Carriage Bolt
       o A bolt mostly used in wood with a
         domed top and a square under the
         head. This pulls into the wood as
         the nut is tightened.

   Lag Bolt
       o Often called a lag screw. Hex lag
         bolts are for fastening in wood.
         Available in a variety of
         materials.

   Machine Screws
       o Available in many styles and
         materials. Also referred to as a
         stove bolt.
   Washers
       o   Flat
                A flat washer used to
                 distribute load.
       o   Split Lock
               The most common style of
                 washer used to prevent nuts
                 and bolts from backing out.
       o   Tooth Locking
               A washer with internal
                 'teeth' Used to prevent nuts
                 and bolts from backing out.
       o   Finish Washer
               A washer used to obtain a
                 'finished' look. Usually used
                 with oval head screws.




Types of Nuts




                 Hex                           Nylon Insert Lock                           Jam
A six sided nut. Also referred to as        A nut with a nylon insert        A hex nut with a reduced height.
         a finished hex nut.                 to prevent backing off.




               Wing                                     Cap                              Flange
    A nut with 'wings' for hand        A nut with a domed top over the end   A nut with a built in washer like
            tightening.                           of the fastener.                       flange.




Screw sizes.

 Screws are sized by gauge number and length. The gauge number
  was thought up by someone with a weird mind, if the gauge is
  not known, simply measure the diameter of the head in
  sixteenths of an inch, take away one and double - that is the
  gauge number.                                 Screw head types
                                                                                 s
    Example:
         if the head is a quarter of an inch,
          that equates to 4 sixteenths;
         take away 1 equals 3;

         double that equals 6, so it is a 6
          gauge screw.                                                     Screw drive types

 In the United States, a wood screw is                                     Flathead ("Slotted")
  sized
              Screw                  Shank       Pilot hole      Pilot hole
  by          gage #
                       Body dia.
                                   pilot hole   in softwood    in hardwood
                                                                                  Phillips
  its….
            0        0.060       1/16         1/64          1/32
     o le
       ng                                                                          Torx
       th
           The length of a wood screw is                                          Hex
            measured from the tip of the
            point to the surface of the
                                                                                 Robertson
            material into which the screw is
            driven,
     o gauge
     o head style (for example, flat head),
     o type of drive (for example, slotted or Phillips)
     o and increasingly by style of screw.




Pilot Holes and Installing Screws

      o Pilot holes should be viewed as a necessary when driving screws. A
        properly drilled pilot hole, along with the installed screw, is
        less likely to split the wood, and will hold better! These
        dimensions are for standard American wood screws, which are
        tapered. They are not suitable for screws which are not tapered,
        such as dry wall screws. All dimensions are in inches. The shank
        pilot hole is one which will clear the thickest part of the screw
        body.
             1       0.073     5/64      1/32        1/32

             2       0.086     3/32      1/32        3/64

             3       0.099     7/64      3/64        1/16

             4       0.112     7/64      3/64        1/16

             5       0.125     1/8       1/16        5/64

             6       0.138     9/64      1/16        5/64

             7       0.151     5/32      1/16        3/32

             8       0.164     11/64     5/64        3/32

             9       0.177     3/16      5/64        7/64

             10      0.190     3/16      3/32        7/64

             11      0.203     13/64     3/32        1/8

             12      0.216     7/32      7/64        1/8

             14      0.242     1/4       7/64        9/64

             16      0.268     17/64     9/64        5/32

             18      0.294     19/64     9/64        3/16

             20      0.320     21/64     11/64       13/64

             24      0.372     3/8       3/16        7/32




A = Tapered Countersink

B = Shank

C= Pilot Hole


Nail sizes & Use

   The size of a nail is measured in a unit known as a penny.
      o Penny is abbreviated with the lowercase letter      d.
      o It indicates the length of the nail.
     A 6d (6-penny) nail is 2-inches long.
     A 10d (10-penny) nail is 3-inches long (figure 3-76).
o These measurements apply to common, box, casing, and finish nails
  only.
o Brads and small box nails are identified by their actual length and
  gauge number.
o A nail, whatever the type, should be at least three times
  as long as the thickness of the wood it is intended to hold.
     Two-thirds of the length of the nail is driven into
        the other piece of wood for proper        anchorage.
     The other one-third of the length    provides   the    necessary
         anchorage    of  the piece being fastened.
     Protruding nails should be bent over to prevent damage
        to materials and injury to personnel.
     There are a few general rules to be followed in the use of
       nails in building.
           Nails should be driven at an angle slightly toward each
            other to improve their holding power.
           You should be careful in placing nails to provide the
            greatest holding power.
               o Nails driven with the grain do not hold as
                   well as nails driven across the grain.
           A few nails of proper type and size, properly placed and
            properly driven, will hold better than a great many
            driven close together.
       Nails can generally be considered the cheapest and easiest
       fasteners to be applied.


    A Little History Lesson

    And how did 'd' become
     the abbreviation for
     penny?
    The 'denarius' was an old
     Roman coin and as the
     centuries passed, the
     abbreviation ’d’
     eventually became
     associated with the old
     British penny.
    What about the expression
     "10 penny nails"?
        o Well a LONG time
          ago, this was the
          cost of buying 100
          of these nails. Yes,
          way back then you
          could buy 100 10
          penny nails for 10
          cents OR 100 16
                Fastener Identification Activity
          penny nails for 16
          cents, etc.!!
          Times sure have
          changed!
Directions: Obtain the box of sample fasteners from your instructor and perform the following steps.

   1. Sort the fasteners into the following sets.           2. Sort the Bolts into the following groups
         a. Nails                                                 a. Carriage bolts
         b. Screws                                                b. Machine Screw / Stove Bolt
         c. Bolts                                                 c. Lag bolt
         d. Washers
         e. Others

   3. Sort the Nails into the following groups              4. Sort the Washers into one group.
         a. Common nails
         b. Casing nails
         c. Finishing nails
         d. Brads
         e. Duplex nails
         f. Ring Shank nails

   5. Sort the Screws into the following groups             6. Sort the Nuts into one group.
         a. Drywall screws
         b. Traditional Wood Screws
         c. Sheet metal screws.
         d. Multipurpose wood screw



Answer the following questions by placing them out on the table in the order shown.)
   1. Identify the 16d common nail.
   2. Identify the 8d finish nail.
   3. Identify the pan head machine screw.
   4. Place the brass wood screw through the finish washer.
   5. Identify the nylon lock nut.
   6. Identify the 2-1/2” multipurpose wood screw with the Robertson drive.
   7. Identify the screw with the Torx head.
   8. Identify the fastener with the galvanized coating.
   9. Identify the 1-1/4 inch drywall screw.
   10.          Identify the sheet metal screw with the self tapping/drilling
       tip.


Once completed you are ready for your fastener identification
quiz. Your instructor will ask you to layout and identify 10
fasteners from the box. Good Luck!