body fat monitor by theonething

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Broadening Course YPHY0001 Practical Session II (Feb 25, 2009)
Assessment of Body Fat

REQUIRED FOR THIS PRACTICAL SESSION:
1. Wear no-sleeve or short-sleeve shirts / blouses. Shirts / blouses
   should be loose-fitting for skin-fold measurements.
2. Calculator.

Introduction
Fatness can be assessed by methods ranging from simple anthropometry to complex
instrumentation.
I.    Anthropometry methods: weight, height, and circumferences.
      A.   Growth charts for infants, children and adolescents.
      B.   “Desirable” (ideal) weights from the Metropolitan Life Insurance weight-
           height tables for men and women: reflect weights of those with the lowest
           mortality of insured persons:
           1. overweight: 10% above ideal weight;
           2. obese: 20% above ideal weight.
      C.   Waist circumference:
           1. Hong Kong men: < 35 inches (89 cm);
           2. Hong Kong women: < 31.5 inches (80 cm) for women.
      D.   Waist - hip circumference ratio (abdominal/gluteal ratio):
           1. android obesity: increased risk for obesity-related disease:
              a. male: ratio of 0.95 or >0.95;
              b. female: ratio of 0.8 or > 0.8.
      E.   Body mass index (BMI): weight (in kilograms) ÷ height2 (in meter2) OR
           weight (in pounds x 703) ÷ height2 (in inches2):
           1. <18.5:       underweight;
           1. 18.5 - 24.9: normal;
           2. 25 - 29.9:   overweight;
           3. >30          obese.
II.   Skinfold measurement
      Measures thickness of the subcutaneous fat tissue using skinfold calipers. This
      measurement assumes that 50% of body fat is subcutaneous. Sites identified as
      most reflective of body fatness are: biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and
      upper thigh. Triceps and subscapular skinfold sites are most commonly used.
      Equations have been developed to calculate body fat from various skinfold
      measurement sites. It is practical for use in clinical settings.
III. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)
     Portable and widely used in field study. It is based on the relationship of
     electrical conductance and fat-free mass. Fat-free body mass has a much greater
     conductivity than does fat because fat-free mass has a higher electrolyte content.




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NAME: _______________________; STUDENT #:___________________


ASSESSMENT OF YOUR OWN BODY FAT: TO BE HANDED IN AT THE
END OF THE PRACTICAL CLASS

1.   Ideal (“desirable”) body weight

     A.   Weight (with shoes 1-inch heels + indoor clothings): _______ lb.;

     B.   Height (with shoes 1-inch heels):        ________________ ft and in.;

     C.   Body frame size (see Appendix I):        ______________.
     D.   Compare your own weight for height from "desirable" weight table
          (Appendix II):
          i.     "desirable" body weight from table: __________ lb.;
          ii.    % "desirable" body weight: __________ %

          Example of calculation of % ”desirable” body weight, assuming an
          individual is a female with the following characteristics:
          i.      body weight: 135 lb.;
          ii.     height:      5 ft 2 in.;
          iii.    frame-size: small frame;
          iv.     her “desirable” body weight from table in Appendix II is 108-121 lb
                  (average = 114.5 lb);
          v.      % "desirable" body weight = (135 ÷114.5) x 100 = 118%; i.e. she is
                  18% above “desirable” weight;
          vi.     if her weight is between 108 and 121 lbs, her % “desirable” weight is
                  100%.


2.   Percentile body weight, percentile height, and percentile weight-for-height (from
     growth charts – to be made available during practical session)
     A.   Body weight:                                             ______ percentile;
     B.   Height (use the above weight less 1-inch for shoes): ______ percentile;
     C.   Weight-for-height:                                       ______ percentile.


3.   Waist-hip circumference ratio
     A.   Waist circumference:               __________ cm;
     B.   Hip circumference:                 __________ cm;
     C.   Waist-hip ratio:                   __________




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4.   Body Mass Index (BMI)
     A.   Weight:                       __________ kg OR _____________lb;
     B.   Height:                       __________ meters OR __________inches;
     C.   BMI (weight/height2):         = kilogram ÷ (meter x meter)
                                          OR
                                          (pounds x 703) ÷ (inches x inches)
                                        = _____________.


4.   Skinfold thicknesses
     A.   Triceps:                      __________ mm; __________ percentile;
     B.   Subscapular:                  __________mm; __________ percentile.


5.   Bioelectrical impedance analysis
     A commercially available body fat monitor will be used.
     A.   Body fat:                     __________ % body weight.
     B.   Body fat: normal, low or high: ___________________.




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RESULTS


      Parameters measured               Values                    Comments
                                                        (values: low, average, or high)

% “desirable” body weight

Body weight percentile

Height percentile

Weight-for-height percentile

Waist circumference

Waist-hip circumference ratio

BMI

Skinfold thickness (percentile):
 Triceps:
 Subscapular:

% body fat (from body fat
monitor):




Conclusion:

1.    What is the weakness of using the values obtained from “desirable” body weight
      and BMI as criteria for “overweight”?

2.    Are your measured values consistent? If not, what explanation can you suggest?

3.    From your measured values, do you think that you need to change your life-
      style?

4.    If an individual is overweight/obese, what advice would you give to the person?




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APPENDIX I: Determination of body frame size.

Measure wrist with a tape measure and use the chart below to determine if you are
small, medium, or large boned.


 Frame size                                       Females

                 Height <5'2"             Height 5'2" - 5'5"   Height >5'5"

 Small           wrist size <5.5"         wrist size <6.0"     wrist size <6.25"

 Medium          wrist size               wrist size           wrist size
                 5.5" - 5.75"             6.0" - 6.25"         6.25 - 6.5"

 Large           wrist size >5.75"        wrist size >6.25"    wrist size >6.5"



 Frame size         Males

                 Height > 5'5"

 Small           wrist size 5.5" - 6.5"

 Medium          wrist size 6.5" - 7.5"

 Large           wrist size > 7.5"




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APPENDIX II: “Desirable” weights for adults aged 25 to 59 years based on
lowest mortality.

Data from height and weight tables of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company,
1983. The weights assume you are wearing shoes with 1-inch heels and clothing
weighing 3 lbs.


“Desirable” weight table for Women ages 25 to 59.

 Height (with 1-inch heels      Small Frame         Medium Frame     Large Frame
         shoes on)
           4'10"                 102-111 lb          109-121 lb       118-131 lb
           4’11”                 103-113 lb          111-123 lb       120-134 lb
            5’0”                 104-115 lb          113-126 lb       122-137 lb
            5’1”                 106-118 lb          115-129 lb       125-140 lb
            5’2”                 108-121 lb          118-132 lb       128-143 lb
            5’3”                 111-124 lb          121-135 lb       131-147 lb
            5’4”                 114-127 lb          124-138 lb       134-151 lb
            5’5”                 117-130 lb          127-141 lb       137-155 lb
            5’6”                 120-133 lb          130-144 lb       140-159 lb
            5’7”                 123-136 lb          133-147 lb       143-163 lb
            5'8"                 126-139 lb          136-150 lb       146-167 lb
            5'9"                 129-142 lb          139-153 lb       149-170 lb




“Desirable” weight table for Men ages 25 to 59.

 Height (with 1-inch heels      Small Frame         Medium Frame     Large Frame
         shoes on)
            5’2”                 128-134 lb          131-141 lb       138-150 lb
            5’3”                 130-136 lb          133-143 lb       140-153 lb
            5’4”                 132-138 lb          135-145 lb       142-156 lb
            5’5”                 134-140 lb          137-148 lb       144-160 lb
            5’6”                 136-142 lb          139-151 lb       146-164 lb
            5’7”                 138-145 lb          142-154 lb       149-168 lb
            5’8”                 140-148 lb          145-157 lb       152-172 lb
            5’9”                 142-151 lb          148-160 lb       155-176 lb
           5’10”                 144-154 lb          151-163 lb       158-180 lb
           5’11”                 146-157 lb          154-166 lb       161-184 lb
            6’0”                 149-160 lb          157-170 lb       164-188 lb
            6’1”                 152-164 lb          160-174 lb       168-192 lb
            6’2”                 155-168 lb          164-178 lb       172-197 lb




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