Nikkita McPherson by absences

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									Nikkita McPherson                                            Mr. Murphy
Frederick Douglass Academy                                   March 27, 2007
Period: 3&4                                                  Essay # 1

Title:
Chapter 23: The Age of Nation States

Author(s)
Nikkita McPherson

Overview of the Age:

      Within the years of 1854 and 1894 various nations began to pursue various ways
       of governing their nation. The Crimean War that took place from 1853-1856 was
       on of the most important parts of the paths of the nation states. In doing so, they
       had to incorporate the influence of nationalism and trying to reform all the
       policies that they have in order to have a better capability of having a more
       productive country. These various nations within this chapter will begin to
       experiment with the type of governments that will please its people and make the
       nation stronger and more capable of governing without any unrest within its
       borders. The paths they take will be vastly different, but the influences and major
       issues surrounding the nations development will be in coordination with one
       another.

Five Big Points

      Nationalism- This was a primary driving force, in which was used in order to
       build up the various nation states because the idea of nationalism was to embrace
       and have pride for one’s country. Hence, with nationalism being present the
       government and its civilians will always keep in mind the best ways in order to
       allow their country to reform and exist for the better.

      Paths of Government- The various nations had different needs when it comes to
       the best way to rule their nations. Being that every nation was different, all of the
       nation states took different paths of government that would best help the nation
       prosper.


      Reforms- In taking on their various paths to government, reforms needed to be
       created in order to allow for the governments to be effective and gain respect and
       honor from its civilians.
     Resistance- Not all of the people in the within a particular nation wanted to have
      those types of governments established. Thus, many of the nations, as they began
      to developed experienced resistance in which the all handled in different ways.

     Unification- Allowing for unification to occur was assisted by nationalism. A
      nation cannot be a nation without having a unified state in which can be seen as a
      nation. Only when there is unity will an identity for nationhood truly be
      established.


Hit List and ID’s- Italy
     Giuseppe Mazzini- Became the leader of romantic republican nationalism. Tried
      to unify Italy but could not because if the experience with Pius IX in the Roman
      Republic in 1849.

     Giuseppe Garibaldi- Was in accordance with Mazzini in the 1830s and 40s and
      was Involved with Mazzini both allowing for the Roman Republic to fail. With
      his campaign in Italy, he would eventually be overtaken by Cavour’s troops and
      his hopes for a roman republic eliminated.

     Count Camillo Cavour- Between 1852 and 1860, he was able to transform Italy
      into a nation-state governed by a constitutional monarchy. He would be able to
      defeat Garibaldi’s troops and be able to unite Italy.

     Napoleon III- Leader of France, and Cavour made sure to ally with France and
      Napoleon Saw this as an opportunity to allow for him to have Piedmont as an ally
      against Austria.

     Victor Emmanuel II- Proclaimed the King of Italy in March 1861.

     Transformismo- This allowed for political opponents to be transformed into
      government supporters through bribery, favors, or a seat in the cabinet, which
      caused major corruption.

     Romantic republicans- The many people who wanted to establish Italy as a
      republic like it once was during the Roman times.

     Romantic Republicanism- The want of returning back to the Roman Republic
      era.

     Constitution of 1848- Allowed for a conservative constitutional monarchy.
      Parliament consisted of two houses: a senate appointed by the king and a chamber
      of deputies elected by a narrow franchise.
Key Events-Italy
     1853-1856 – The Crimean War was mainly caused by long tensions between
      Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was the first to declare war
      on Russia. The reasons are, one, the Ottoman Empire granted Catholic France
      rather than Orthodox Russia oversight of the Christian shrines in the Holy Land.
      Another reason is because Russia wanted t extend its control over the Ottoman
      provinces of Moldavia and Walachia. France and Britain then declare war on
      Russia. The Russian forcers finally fell to the French and British.

     1856 – Treaty of Paris made Russia surrender territory near the mouth of the
      Danube River and recognize the neutrality of the Black Sea, as well as to
      renounce the claims of protection over Christians in the Ottoman Empire.

     1858 – Attempt to assassinate Napoleon III by an Italian, making him concerned
      about the Italian peninsula.

     December 1858 – Confirmed the agreement to when they met at Plombieres in
      which to provoke war in Italy to allow them to defeat Austria.

     1859 – War with Austria in which on April 22, Austria demanded that piedmont
      demobilize; in not doing so they went to war.

     July 11, 1859 – France feared a Piedmontese victory, thus signing a peace treaty
      with Austria at Villafranca, which made Cavour feel betrayed by France.

     1860 – Garibaldi landed in Sicily with 1,000 troops, capturing Palermo and
      preparing to attack the mainland of Italy. In September he controlled the city and
      the kingdom of Naples. Soon Cavour sent Piedmontese troops to the south and
      Garibaldi accepted the Piedmontese domination.

     1861 – Victor Emmanuel II becomes the king of Italy, Kingdom of Italy
      established.

Hit List and ID’s-Germany
     Zollverein – A tariff union, which allowed the major German States to trade with
      each other.

     William I – Took the regency from insane brother, Frederick William IV, in
      1861. He wanted to expand and build up the army but him and Parliament could
      not come to terms. He will be the one to have Otto von Bismarck as the unifier of
      the German state.
     Otto von Bismarck – Appointed by William I as Prime Minister of Prussia and
      who will be involved in waging numerous wars and be the key to creating a
      united German State.

     Kleindeutsch – Meaning small German; Bismarck’s policy in his solution of a
      unified Germany.

     North German Confederation – Established in 1867, in which consisted of all
      of Germany, North of the Main River, which were the states of Hanover, Hesse,
      Nassau and the city of Frankfurt.

     Bundesrat –The upper house of the legislature created by Bismarck in which
      members were appointed by the government of the states.

     Reichstag – The lower house of the legislature in which members were chosen by
      universal male suffrage.

     Ems Telegram – When Bismarck altered a telegram sent by William I, in which
      he made it appear as though William I was insulting the French ambassador in
      order to provoke France to go to war with Germany.

     “Iron and Blood”- Bismarck’s policy on how to create a unified Germany; by
      pursuing war efforts.

     Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen – A catholic cousin of William I
      of Prussia who would son assume the Spanish throne.

     Count Vincent Benedetti – The French ambassador who met with William I to
      speak about having Leopold as the ruler of Spain and trying to eliminate him as
      such because France did not want a Hohenzollern Spain.

Key Events-Germany
     1860 – William I war minister and chief of staff proposed to enlarge the army in
      which Parliament refused to approve the necessary taxes; making the relationship
      between the monarch and Parliament to be deadlocked.

     1862 – Appointed Otto von Bismarck to be the Prime Minister of Prussia.

     1863 – An election in which was a disappointment for Bismarck because the
      majority that were elected were liberals in which Bismarck did not want to occur.

     1863 – Bismarck gained sympathy from Russia by helping suppress a Polish
      revolt.
     1864 – The Danish War: Two northern duchies, The Schleswig-Holstein, were
      being ruled by Denmark without being apart of Denmark. United with Austria,
      Bismarck had an easy victory against Denmark.

     1865 – Convention of Gastein, which include Austria and Prussia. It put Austria
      in charge of Holstein and Prussia in charge of Schleswig.

     1866 – Treaty with Italy that promised that Italy would receive Venetia of it
      attacked Austria in support of Prussia if war broke out leading to Bismarck
      provoking war.

     1866 – The Austro Prussian War: Bismarck provoked war with Austria and when
      Austria appealed to the German Confederation with the dispute, Bismarck
      declared that the violated the terms of the Convention of Gastein which lead to
      the Seven Weeks War

     1866 – The Seven Weeks War during the summer of 1866 in which lead to an
      Austrian defeat at the Battle of Koniggratz in Bohemia.

     1866 – August 23, Treaty of Prague ended the conflict between the two powers.
      Austria lost Venetia; it was given to Napoleon III who then gave it to Italy. This
      treaty and the military defeat will keep the Hapsburgs out of German affairs.

     1870-1871 – The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire: William I had a
      cousin, Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, how was chosen to be the
      new monarch of the Spaniards. When the French found out about he succession
      they were not happy and so William I discussed the matter with the French
      ambassador Count Vincent Benedetti. July 12, Leopold’s father renounced his
      son’s position. William then sent a telegram to Bismarck about how he prevented
      conflict with France, Bismarck did not want that and altered the telegram to make
      it seem as if William I insulted the French ambassador causing France to declare
      war on July 19.

     1870 September 1 – Battle of Sedan, Germany defeat French army and captured
      Napoleon III and Paris besieged and it capitulates on January 28, 1871.

     1871 January 18- In the Hall of Mirrors at the palace of Versailles, the German
      Empire had already been proclaimed.

Hit List and ID’s-France
     Napoleon III – Emperor of France, he began to move from having a conservative
      policy over France to having more of a liberal policy.
     Adolphe Thiers – Negotiated the settlement with Prussia in the Treaty of
      Frankfurt.

     The Paris Commune – Elected by the Parisians, to be able to administer Paris
      separately from the rest of France. The commune was officially proclaimed on
      March 28, 1871. It included socialists and radicals. Marx regarded it as the
      genuine proletarian government. It ended because if the suppression by the
      National Assembly’s army.

     The Third Republic – Not being able to find a king to rule over France they had
      to resort to adopting a law that provide for the Chamber of Deputies elected by
      universal suffrage, a senate chosen indirectly and a president elected by the two
      legislative houses. This republican was a result of the monarchists arguing. The
      republic was able to survive much opposition.

     Count of Chambord – he refused to become king when asked to do so unless
      they changed France tricolor flag into the previous white Bourbon flag.

     Marshal MacMahon – A conservative army officer elected as president in 1873
      but would resign in 1879 because of quarrels with the Chamber of Deputies.

     Captain Alfred Dreyfus – a wrongfully accused officer, who was Jewish and
      found guilty of sending secrets to Germany.

     The Dreyfus Affair – On December 22, 1894, a French military court found
      Captain Alfred Dreyfus guilty of passing secret information to the German army.
      The evidence was false; someone in the officer corps was passing documents to
      the Germans. They only accused him because he was Jewish. Even after he was in
      prison in French Guiana secrets still reached Germany, showing that he was
      wrongfully accused. The army, French Catholic Church, political conservatives
      and anti-semitic newspapers still believed he was guilty. Dreyfus was convicted
      again but pardoned by the president of France in 1906. This affair left France
      divided and will divide the Third Republic.

     Emile Zola – Published “J’accuse”(“I accuse”) in 1898; he states that the army
      had consciously denied due process to Dreyfus and plot to suppress and forge
      evidence. He was convicted of libel and received one-year prison sentence but
      fled to England.

Key Events-France
     1870 – Battle of Sedan caused the Second Empire to come to an end in which the
      emperor was captures, imprisoned, and sent to England.

     1870 – When defeated by Prussia France was able to declare itself as a republic.
     1871-January – When under Prussian siege in which Paris finally surrendered.

     1871-May 23 – Treaty of Frankfurt in which France was charged a large
      indemnity and would be occupied by Prussian troops until indemnity was paid.
      France lost Alsace and Lorraine as well.

     1871-May 8- National Assembly army bombarded the city of Paris.

     1871-May 21- The army broke through the city’s defenses and for the next seven
      days killed about 20,000 inhabitants.


Hit List and ID’s-The Habsburg Empire
     Francis Joseph – Emperor of empire form 1848 thru 1916. During 1850s his
      ministers attempt to impose a centralized administration. This resulted in a
      military and bureaucratic government dominated by German-speaking Austrians.

     Vienna Government – Abolished all internal tariffs and divided Hungary into
      military districts. Roman Catholic Church control education.

     Reichsrat – A bicameral imperial parliament with an upper chamber appointed
      by the emperor and an in directly elected lower chamber.

     Magyars – Many of the civilians that reside on Hungary.

     Trialism – A concept used by the Czechs in which they were calling for a triple
      monarchy.

Key Events-The Habsburg Empire
     1860 – The October Diploma issued by Francis Joseph, which created a
      federation among the states and provinces of the empire. The landed classes
      would dominate the local diets and a single imperial parliament but the Magyar
      nobility of Hungary rejected the plan.

     1861 – The February Patent which established the Reichsrat, but the Magyars did
      not send any delegates to the legislature but it still governed over the empire for
      the next six years.

     1867 – The Compromise of 1867, which transformed the Habsburg Empire into a
      dual monarchy.

     1867- Francis Joseph crowned the king of Hungary.
     1871 – Francis Joseph was willing to allow for a triple monarchy to exist in which
      the Czechs would be the other major power but the Magyars vetoed it.

     1907 – Francis Joseph introduced Universal male suffrage, which still did not
      eliminate chaos in the Reichsrat.

Hit List and ID’s-Russia
     Alexander II – Son of Nicholas I and took the position as tsar; imposing reforms
      like that of Peter the Great: abolishing serfdom, reforming the local government
      and the judicial system, military reform and the repression of Poland.

     Zemstvos – Councils that were organized in 1864 in which oversaw local matters,
      education and agricultural improvement.

     Alexander Herzen – Published a newspaper, The Bell, in which he would put
      forth his reformist positions.

     Populism – A revolutionary movement in which ideas like that of Herzen and
      other radicals seeking more efficient reforms. They looked for a social revolution
      based on the communal life of the Russian peasants. A chief society was a radical
      one called Land and Freedom.

     Alexander III – Will become tsar in 1881 after Alexander II is filled. He will
      pursue a complete autocratic government.

     Nicholas II – The son to Alexander III who will become tsar in 1894.

Key Events-Russia
     1856 – Russia was defeated in the Crimean War.

     1861 – Abolished serfdom believing that it would allow Russia to organize its
      human and natural resources to maintain its status as a great power. However,
      they could not have right to land until having paid off allotments with interest that
      lasted forty-five years. Process of emancipation completed in 1905, canceling all
      debts.

     1864 – Alexander II official announced a new statute on the judiciary. Western
      legal principals were used; equality before the law, impartial hearings, uniform
      procedures, judicial independence, and trail by jury. Still, the tsar had the power
      to increase or reduce sentences; offences involving the press did not have a jury.

     1860s – Army lowered period of service to 15 years from an original set of 25
      years and discipline was slightly reduced. In 1874 their was six years of active
      duty and nine years of reserves; all male subject to military service after the age
      of twenty.

     1864 – Alexander II emancipated the Polish serfs to punish the politically restive
      Polish nobility. Russian law, language, and administration was imposed on Polish
      life.

     1870s – Hundreds of young Russians took revolutionary message to countryside
      living as the peasants did.

     1877-1878 – About 200 students were tried most were set free, but the ones given
      heavier sentences the tsar believed that all the revolutionaries should endure
      heavy penalties.

     1879 – Land and Freedom split into two groups; one advocated educating the
      peasants but soon dissolved. The other was called The People’s Will, which
      wanted to overthrow the autocracy.

     1881-March 1 – A member of The People’s Will assassinated Alexander II by
      using a bomb.

     1881 – Alexander III took the tsarist role and reversed his father’s reform,
      becoming mainly autocratic.

Hit List and ID’s-Great Britain
     Benjamin Disraeli – Leader of the House of Commons in the conservative
      ministry. He would be elected prime minister from 1874 thru 1880. He believed
      in paternalistic legislation and believed that the state should protect the weak.

     William Gladstone –Prime minister of Great Britain, from 1868-1874, who was
      liberal and made many reforms that were liberal.

     Charles Stewart Parnell – Leader of the Irish movement for a land settlement
      for home rule.

Key Events-Great Britain
     1867 – The Second Reform Act passed by Disraeli among many amendments and
      was able to expand the electorate, the number of voters increased from 1,430,000
      to 2,470,000. A large number of male working-class voters admitted to the
      electorate.

     1868 – William Gladstone elected Prime Minister.
   1870 – Under Gladstone, competitive examinations for the civil service replaced
    patronage.

   1870- Under Gladstone, the government assumed the responsibility for
    establishing and running elementary schools.

   1871 – Under Gladstone, purchase of officers’ commissions in the army was
    abolished. Also Anglican religious requirements for the faculties of Oxford and
    Cambridge universities removed.

   1872 – Under Gladstone, The Ballot Act introduced the secret ballot.

   1875 – Under Disraeli, The Public Health Act consolidates previous legislation on
    sanitation and reaffirmed the duty of the state to interfere with private property on
    matters of health and physical well-being.

   1875 – Under Disraeli, the Artisans Dwelling Act allowed for the government to
    be actively involved in providing housing for the working class and in the same
    year they allowed trade unions to raise picket lines.

   1884 – Under Gladstone, third reform act gave the vote to most male farm
    workers

   1869 – Gladstone disestablished the Church of Ireland so from then on the Irish
    Roman Catholics did not have to pay taxes to support the Protestant church.

   1870 – Land act that gave compensation to Irish tenants who were evicted and
    gave out loans to those who wanted to purchase land.

   1870s – The Irish Land League was organized which led to intimidation if
    landlords who were English.

   1881 – Second Irish land act that strengthen tenants rights which was
    accompanied by the Coercion Act to restore law and order in Ireland.

   1885 – The election allowed for the Irish Party to hold a balance of power
    between the English Liberals and Conservatives.

   1903 – The conservatives carried out the finale transfer of land to tenant
    ownership making Ireland a country of small farms.

   1912 – Liberal Ministry passed the third Home Rule Bill.

   1914 – The provisions that were to occur with the Irish Home Rule Bill was
    postponed because of the outbreak of WWI.
Intellectual Movements and Historical Trends
      The Crimean War – It seems as though after any war there is always instability
       in the continent regardless of the nations involved. From the time of religious
       years, when war always dealt with religion such as the thirty years war, to the
       French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. After all of these various wars
       occurred they left lasting effects. The Crimean War was based on land on the part
       of Russia, especially since they were banned from the Black Sea. As well as the
       interest Austria had in the Balkans, will also be an issue in WWI.

Changes In Political Ideology
      The Dual Monarchy (The Habsburgs) – never before in European history has
       an experiment like this one take place. For Austria and Hungary to bond together
       under one monarchy is completed different from that of a republic, and autocratic
       state or a path towards democracy like what was shown in Great Britain.

      The Republic (France & Italy) – Even though they did not want to establish a
       complete republic with a president in chare they had no choice but to do so. No
       longer was a King the one to be in complete control. The Italians were not so
       successful in their attempts to create a republican state.

Changes in Economic Structure
      Abolition of Serfdom (Russia) – The use of Serfdom has been a major part of
       the economic processes of the Russian economy. Very close to that of slavery
       being that Russia was not as industrialized as the west, Alexander II realized the
       importance of allowing for a new way of making the Russian economy more
       efficient. With the abolishment of serfdom, even though it still had its flaws, it
       was a major move away from old Russia in which their economy depended
       greatly on serfdom.

Thematic Essays
1. Compare and Contrast the unification movements between that of Italy and Germany.
Be able to state specific leaders, events and movements that occurred in the two
countries.

Introduction:

        Within the years of 1854 and 1894, there were many nations that were beginning
to take steps towards becoming more of a unified nation than just that of geographical
expressions. Italy and Germany were the two major places that had to undergo vast
unification in order to be able to be deemed as a nation. Even though either country took
vastly different steps towards unification, many of their tactics toward building the nation
were similar.

       1. Body I: Differences
      Italy- Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi wanted to establish an Italian
       Republic but were unsuccessful. By 1849 there still was not a united Italy. Count
       Camillo Cavour was able to establish a constitutional monarchy. Cavour sought to
       ally with France. When the Italian state was established its government soon
       became corrupt because of transformismo. Also, Italy was still unable to become
       completely unified for they still d were unable to have control over Trent and the
       city of Trieste.

       2. Body 2: Differences

      Germany- Unlike Italy, Germany did not have to go through a change in
       governmental structure. William I had to deal with the Prussian Parliament and
       was able to turn to Otto von Bismarck to allow for a strong army and a unified
       Germany to begin to be formed. When Germany was established it was seen as an
       important political development unlike that of Italy. After it being established, it
       grew stable and did not have corruption like that seen in Italy.

       3. Body 3: Similarities

      In both of the nations, Cavour and Bismarck took policies of warfare. Cavour
       went against Garibaldi in his campaign of Italy. Cavour was able to force
       Garibaldi to accept Piedmontese domination. Bismarck also waged war, more to
       spread German borders by being involved in the Danish war of 1864, the Austro-
       Prussian War of 1866, and the Franco-Prussian War in 1870-1871.

Conclusion:

        Cavour and Bismarck were apart of different countries and took many different
routes in establishing unified nations. Even so, both nations took on policies of warfare,
Cavour to unify within the borders it already had established and Bismarck to spread its
borders. The unification levels seemed to vary, but the successes can be seen as great.

2. Explain how the Crimean War, 1853-1856, contributed to the start of the building of
the nation- states in the east. Be able to link the issue in the Balkans with that of the path
to WWI.

Introduction:

        There are many issues that can arise from war. At times these issues can last
through many years like that of the Crimean War. The conflict was mainly between that
of the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Russia was looking to expand its borders where as the
Ottomans would not allow for that to occur.
       1. Body 1- Causes:
              The Ottoman Empire allowed the Catholic France to oversee the
                Christian Shrine of the Holy Land instead of Orthodox Russia.
              Russia wanted control of Ottoman provinces of Moldavia and
                Walachia and in 1853 occupied it in which caused the Ottoman
                Empire to declare war on Russia.

       2. Body 2- Effects

                  France and Britain became involved in conflict because of their
                   opposition of Russia being able to have any influence over the
                   Mediterranean. On March 28, 1854 they declared war on Russia.
                  Austria and Prussia remained neutral Austrians wanting to pursue their
                   own ambitions in the Balkans.
                  September 1855 The Russian fortress of Sevastopol fell to French and
                   British.
                  Treaty of Paris in 1856 which required Russia to surrender territory
                   near the mouth of the Danube River, to recognize the neutrality of the
                   Black Sea and renounce claims of protection over Christians in the
                   Ottoman Empire.

       3. Body 3- Relationship to outbreak of WWI:

                  The Ottomans had control of the Balkans.
                  Russia would approve for Austria to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina.
                  Russia would be able to have warships in the Dardanelles.
                  This shows how the Ottoman Empire, even 61 years after the Crimean
                   War played a major role in the outbreak of WWI.

Conclusion:

       Events that occur do not just conclude because a peace treaty is established. The
Crimean war beings up this issue of the Balkans and of Austria expanding its borders.
Preventing Russia to expand its borders was an agreement by major powers during the
Crimean war, as well as during the reign of Bismarck. The Ottoman Empire may not be
the immediate cause for the outbreak of WWI but it certainly is a long term one that
should be considered greatly.

								
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