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					                         University of Durham
                                EXAMINATION PAPER

                              date                                    exam code

                              May/June 2004                           461081 /01



      Time allowed: 2 HOURS

      Examination material provided: NONE

      Answer TWO questions in English.
      This examination is worth 50% of the total mark for this module, divided equally
      between the two questions.

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        2                                                                       461081 /01

1.      ‘Icons and archetypes both operate at a fundamental level within particular cultures and
        also have universally applicable resonances of meaning’ (Bill Richardson, 2001).
        Compare two of the Hispanic iconic/archetypal figures discussed by Richardson or in
        class in terms of this tension between the particular and the universal. You may include
        reference to material from the Latin American part of the course if you wish.

2.      Both El Greco and Velázquez paint themselves into the two paintings we have studied.
        What does the manner in which each has done this tell us about the values of the age in
        which they worked and/or those of the painter himself?

3.      EITHER
        (a) With reference to either Spanish civil war propaganda posters or Picasso’s
        Guernica, or to both, discuss the depiction of the effect of violence on civilian

        (b) Discuss what the posters reproduced below reveal about the propaganda priorities of
        the two sides during the civil war. How typical are they of the genre?

        Poster A

                                                                    The text on this poster (published
                                                                    by the anarchist trade union, the
                                                                    CNT) reads:

                                                                    ¡Acusamos de asesinos a los

                                                                    Niños y mujeres caen inocentes.

                                                                    Hombres libres, repudiad a todos
                                                                    los que apoyen en la retaguardia al

                                                                    He aquí las víctimas.

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        Poster B

                                                                 The text on this poster (published by the
                                                                 Nationalists in 1937) reads:


                                                                 España, orientadora espiritual del mundo.

4.      Discuss the significance of the following fundamental rights established by the Spanish
        Constitution of 1978 as compared with the ideological values and political structures of

        Article 16: Freedom of ideology, religion and worship of individuals and communities is
        Article 20: The following rights are recognized and protected: a) the right to freely express
        and disseminate thoughts, ideas and opinions through words, in writing or by any other
        means of reproduction; b) the right to literary, artistic, scientific and technical production
        and creation; c) the right to academic freedom; d) the right to freely communicate or
        receive truthful information by any means of dissemination whatsoever.
        Article 23: Citizens have the right to participate in public affairs, directly or through
        representatives freely elected in periodic elections by universal suffrage.

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5.      ‘Rapid changes in the workplace and the home since 1975 have been accompanied by
        no less significant changes in women’s social roles, values, and relationships. Newer
        forms currently interact with more traditional ones in complex and unpredictable ways and
        in a climate of intense social and economic uncertainty’ (Anny Brooksbank Jones, 1995).
        Discuss with reference to Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios.

6.      Discuss the relationship between language and the development of national identities in


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