futuristic technology by tomsgreathits

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									Futuristic Technologies for
           Police

                               By




                   Subodh Johri, Scientist F

   Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani.




                          Kapil Garg

                       Inspector General

           Anti Corruption Bureau, Rajasthan, Jaipur




                         Sachin Mittal

                    Superintendent of Police

                 Dstrict Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan
                   Futuristic Technologies for Police

Subodh Johri, Scientist F, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani


Kapil Garg, Inspector General, Anti Corruption Bureau, Rajasthan, Jaipur


Sachin Mittal, Superintendent of Police, Dstrict Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan




        Police have always strived to provide their forces with tools to reduce
response time to critical events, effectively investigate incidents, quickly
identify and locate offenders, render aid and assistance to the public, and
reduce risk to fellow officers and the public in potentially dangerous
situations. These needs are as old as the law enforcement profession itself
and their importance have not tarnished with age.

        To better address these and other requirements, law enforcement
professionals today require innovative tools. From technologies in the
earliest concept stages to products in evaluation now at various agencies
across the globe, the tools of the "police of the future" will be designed to
help police officers protect and serve, and most will have roots in
technologies being developed and proven today.

        Crime is growing at a rapid pace, and law enforcement agencies are
struggling to keep up. Criminals today are often better equipped than the
agencies responsible for stopping them. Law enforcement agencies lag far
behind in their procurement and use of high technology equipment, and
methods of conducting technology-related investigations.




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   The present paper is an effort to identify the technologies that are in use
today in the most modern forces around the world, those being tested and the
ones that are still in various stages of development. Few emerging areas
which would revolutionize the working of police are:

   • Nano-Technology
   • Development of electronic nose
   • Wearable computers
   • Robotic bomb neutralization squad
   • Biometric tools
   • RFID (radio freq. identification) based tools
   • Video Lie-Detector
   • Accordion Fringe Interferometry (AFI)
   • Infrared motion sensing devices as anti burglary alarms
   • The Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR)
      software by NASA
   • Technology Convergence related developments

Nano Technology

      Nanotechnology,     or,   as   it   is    sometimes   called,   molecular
manufacturing, is a branch of engineering that deals with the design and
manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices
built at the molecular level of matter. It is also described as "science and
technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1 nanometer
(nm) to 100 nanometer play a critical role." Nanotechnology is often
discussed together with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), a




                                 Page 2 of 13
subject that usually includes nanotechnology but may also include
technologies higher than the molecular level.




              Rotary stepper motor in chip (2000nm or 2µm)

Nano Technology based Portable DNA Analyzers

        This equipment consists of an analyzer and single-use disposable test
cartridges. This two-component approach provides maximum configuration
flexibility, while keeping the system inexpensive to operate. The technology
is simple to use and requires no special training. Once a sample is introduced
(either manually or via an automated collection system), the device takes
over.

        Nowadays, it typically takes about one day to complete a DNA
analysis (one week if re-testing or confirmation is required), and a variety of
different equipment is used to perform the separate processes. The new
portable system, on the other hand, can perform all the processes within the
same unit — and it can do it all more quickly. The compact unit dramatically
speeds up the processes— particularly the repeated heating and cooling
processes performed in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification—
making it possible to complete the entire DNA analysis in 25 minutes.


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     The new portable DNA Analyzer Test Card




Nano Technology based Flexible Solar Cells

      A major obstacle in enabling the field police officers to be fully
equipped with the latest technology tools is the lack of availability of
portable power source that can power or recharge the sophisticated gadgets
that are carried by them. The development of Nano Technology based
Flexible Solar Cells has completely revolutionized the way the issue of
power source requirements shall be viewed by the world in future. These
new materials are made from conducting polymers & nano engineered
materials that can be coated or printed on to a surface in a process similar to
how photographic film is prepared. Also known as power plastic, they are
flexible transparent strips of solar cells that can be worn on the body. What
is even more important is the fact that these are printable, can be colored and
may be used to camouflage wherever required.




                                 Page 4 of 13
                      Flexible Plastic solar cell strip

Electronic Nose

      An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies the specific
components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it. An
electronic nose consists of a mechanism for chemical detection, such as an
array of electronic sensors, and a mechanism for pattern recognition, such as
a neural network. Electronic noses have been around for several years but
have typically been large and expensive. Current research is focused on
making the devices smaller, less expensive, and more sensitive. The smallest
version, a nose-on-a-chip is a single computer chip containing both the
sensors and the processing components.

   An odor is composed of molecules, each of which has a specific size and
shape. Each of these molecules has a correspondingly sized and shaped
receptor in the human nose. When a specific receptor receives a molecule, it
sends a signal to the brain and the brain identifies the smell associated with
that particular molecule. Electronic noses based on the biological model
work in a similar manner, albeit substituting sensors for the receptors, and
transmitting the signal to a program for processing, rather than to the brain.
Electronic noses are one example of a growing research area called




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biomimetics, or biomimicry, which involves human-made applications
patterned on natural phenomena.

   • Electronic noses were originally used for quality control applications
      in the food, beverage and cosmetics industries. Current applications
      include detection of odors specific to diseases for medical diagnosis,
      and detection of pollutants and gas leaks for environmental
      protection.
   • Electronic Nose May Help Diagnose Asthma.
   • Electronic Nose Sniffs Bad Seafood like fish.
   • The electronic nose is a newer version of a sensor that has been used
      in the food, wine and perfume industries.
   • It is also being used as an aid against terrorism, to sniff out
      explosives or toxic chemicals in the air.
   • It can also be put to use in detecting drugs, etc.

   An electronic nose responds to a given odor by generating a pattern, or
"smell print," which is analyzed and compared with stored patterns.

                                                  The Second Generation
                                                   ENose. The volume of
                                                  this design is ~760 cm3,
                                                 about 35% of the original
                                                    ENose. The computer
                                                 (right) can be attached to
                                                   the back of the sensor
                                                        package (left)




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How it works?

Baseline Resistance

         All of the polymer films on a set of electrodes (sensors) start out at a
measured resistance, their baseline resistance. If there has been no change in
the composition of the air, the films stay at the baseline resistance and the
percent change is zero.



 e              e              e                  e           e           e




The Electronic Nose Smells Something

         Each polymer changes its size, and therefore its resistance, by a
different amount, making a pattern of the change:




     e                        e               e
                    e                                 e           e




If a different compound had caused the air to change, the pattern of the
polymer films' change would have been different:




                                  e
         e                                        e                   e
                        e                                 e




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The various patterns so generated are compared with the help of pre-stored
patterns to identify the odor and/ or the material.

Wearable Computers

         Wearable computers are battery-powered computers that are worn on
the body. They have been applied to areas such as behavioral modeling,
health     monitoring   systems,    information       technologies   and   media
development. Government organizations, military and health professionals
have all incorporated wearable computers into their daily operations.
Wearable computers are especially useful for applications that require
computational support while the user's hands, voice, eyes or attention are
actively engaged with the physical environment.

         There are four problems in wearable computing - power, networking,
privacy, and interface. Adding more features to a computer - a faster CPU,
bigger disk, wireless network connection, etc. - requires more power, which
in turn implies larger batteries and more weight. Along with this, heat is a
problem. A system that consumes a lot of power in a small form factor
concentrates a lot of heat in a small space and can result in uncomfortable
temperatures. Systems that take little power and little space and last a long
time are being designed. For example, power is being generated for these
wearable computers from motion, wind, solar radiations and heat.

         The exciting thing about wearable computers is the fact that they're
with you everywhere and they have access to the same sort of sensory
information that you do. The display in eyeglasses might also integrate a
camera so the computer can see as we see. If a headphone is used for



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listening to music or for cellular phone calls, that headphone could also
incorporate a microphone, so the computer can hear as we hear. Suddenly,
for the first time, our computers have the ability to see and hear the world
from our perspective. Instead of being deaf, dumb, and blind sitting on our
desks or in our pockets, our computers might be able to observe what we do
all day, understand what is important to us, and act as a virtual assistant who
helps us on a second-by-second basis.

Advantages of wearable computer:

   • Always with you, comfortable and easy to keep and use even while
      moving.
   • Unobtrusive as clothing.
   • Hands-free use.
   • Sense the world through wireless communications, global positioning
      systems, cameras, microphones and other technologies like any other
      computer.
   • Attention-getting. e.g. e-mail alert, displaying or reading it aloud,
      health monitoring etc., all in real time.
   • Always on- working, sensing, and acting.

Bomb disposal robot- Distance saves human life

      In recent decades, most military conflicts have unfolded along broadly
similar lines. Whereas major combat operations tend to be over relatively
quickly (e.g. Kuwait, Afghanistan, Yugoslavia, Kosovo or Iraq), the process
of post-war pacification and the establishment of democratic rule is
considerably more time-consuming and complicated. As a rule, this can only


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be accomplished by deploying a peacekeeping force, which automatically
enjoys a degree of legitimacy that units used in initial offensive operations
find it both difficult and dangerous to attain. Whereas forces engaged in
actual combat operations are able to draw on massive firepower, those
deployed in a peacekeeping role are often on their own – just as an entirely
new set of threats rear their heads. Security patrols have to contend with
landmines, while explosive booby-traps can make searching suspicious
buildings extremely hazardous; and in the aftermath of any war, unexploded
ordnance poses an added risk.

      Robots have largely taken over the hazardous task of neutralizing
improvised explosive and incendiary devices. After all, their ability to
operate at a safe standoff keeps bomb disposal engineers out of harm's way.
However, terrorist organizations have recently taken to targeting public
transport systems and civilian aircraft. Unfortunately, most robots are
incapable of searching for a suspicious item in the cramped passenger
compartment of an Airbus A320, for example, or in an underground railway
carriage. They are simply too big for the purpose. Small robots designed for
the purpose have independent digits (arms) with various tools that can
perform different operations independently allowing the officials to remain
at a safe distance. Sometimes, using the robot's arm by remote control, they
can disarm it. Other times, they send the robot out with a small explosive to
safely destroy the bomb. Occasionally, the bomb explodes anyway.




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                The teleMAX - an entirely new generation of bomb disposal robot



                                                             A prototype, designed and developed by the
                                                             defence research group QinetiQ. A steel claw
                                                             with three independently operable digits can
                                                             open a car door and pick up and remove objects
                                                             from inside. And Carver can carry a number of
                                                             attachments on its chassis, switching from one
                                                             to another without returning to its operator.




Manipulator vehicles for the disposal of explosive devices to 7-ton heavy manipulator vehicles for
                        the elimination of damage after nuclear incidents.




                                         Page 11 of 13
Biometric Tools - “Bio (life) metrics (measure of)"

      Biometrics is the automated use of physiological or behavioral
characteristics to determine or verify identity. Use of Biometrics is
extremely secure; it allows easy access to information, eliminates the need to
remember complicated passwords, permits fast access to systems, provides
instant transaction authorization and enhances the safety of valuable data.
Some common examples of biometric security are Iris scans, fingerprint
processing, facial scans and signature analysis. An example of its relevance
to police work is:

Biometric Guns, Firearms & Security Vaults

      It is one of the most advanced and innovative gun security systems on
the market incorporating biometric fingerprint scanning technology for easy,
but tamper-proof entry. Instead of conventional locks, these fingerprint
(biometric) gun safes use fingerprint recognition technology; the finger is
the key! These security locks open in seconds. There are no combinations,
codes or sequences to remember. Biometric Sensor System Allows up to 6-
finger print scans to be stored. No longer will one have to worry about losing
the key, the FINGER is the key.


                                  Page 12 of 13
                                           Development of the first “Smart Gun” with
                                           Dynamic Grip Recognition technology: a gun
                                           with a biometric locking mechanism that will
                                           only work with one owner. The technology
                                           consists of a handle outfitted with 32 pressure
                                           sensors that record unique holding pattern.




The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) (13.56 MHz to 2.45 GHz)
Range: (few cm to 100s m)

       RFID (radio frequency identification) systems are used to recognize
objects hands-free at different identification ranges. Like barcode
technology, RFID technology is a modern automatic identification system.
And like barcodes, RFID systems are made up of at least one reader/scanner
and a tag mounted on the object that is to be identified. Since no line-of-
sight connection to the reader is necessary, tags can be completely integrated
in the objects. Further benefits include the identification of objects over
large distances and the simultaneous identification of more than one object
in a single operation. RFID tags are resistant to rain, dirt and light sources.
They can even be scratched and painted over - and correct object
identification is still assured. This is why the RFID technology is becoming
increasingly widespread - particularly in fields like logistics.




                                  Page 13 of 13
                                                       An illustration of how RFID
                                                       can detect the vehicle as well
                                                       the goods being transported
                                                       without interfering in any way
                                                       with its movement




Future of RFID

      RFID tag is like an electronic security marker that is unique data code
which, by itself or in conjunction with a network, can distinguish the product
as genuine. This marker is unique to the individual product and cannot be
easily altered, providing an enhanced level of security. Smart electronic
security markers based on RFID technology make it easier to authenticate a
product as genuine, compared with current anti-counterfeit methods that
require human intervention. A range of increasingly secure methods of using
RFID to prevent different types of counterfeiting, using both an off-network
and on-network approach to enable "anywhere, anytime" authentication of
tag data and thus identifying the product as legitimate, is being developed.
May be tomorrows CDs, DVDs will bear a RFID TAG or similar technology
to minimize the risk of video, audio piracy.

Video Lie-Detector

      British scientists claim they have invented the world's most
sophisticated lie detector. Named, "Silent Talker", it delivers degrees of
lying — complete lie and half-lie.
It's said to be over 80 percent accurate in ferreting out liars. That's roughly
comparable to the polygraph, but this system doesn't involve wiring subjects



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up. They just look into a camera connected to a laptop computer, while
software analyzes thousands of tiny facial movements. The assumption for
both polygraphs and the Silent Talker is that lying triggers a sense of conflict
and anxiety in the person being questioned. This leads to physiological
change, for the polygraph, and facial movements, for the Silent Talker.

Accordion Fringe Interferometry (AFI)

      The tool in question is a laser-imaging system that provides pictures
in three dimensions of target objects using a technique known as Accordion
Fringe Interferometry (AFI). In the future, police might bring a portable
version of one of these 3-D cameras to crime scenes, where they could
photograph everything from footprints to tooling marks - scratches or nicks
left by tools or other hard objects.
                                                     3-D Mugshot




AFI at work

        First, a laser illuminates the subject with a pattern of stripes, or
fringes. The pattern comes from splitting the laser beam into two point
sources of near-infrared light, each bearing a wavelength of 780 nanometers
(780 billionths of a meter). By making fine adjustments to the two sources of
light, the thickness and placement of the fringes can be manipulated - hence


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the term Accordion Fringe Interferometry. (Interferometry is the measuring
of objects using interference patterns as a tool.) To take accurate readings of
complex shapes, such as a nose, it should be possible to adjust the fringes.
Initially, only a few thick fringes are laid over the subject, allowing a
reading of the general outline of the head. Then the fringes are thinned to get
a more accurate reading.

Infrared motion sensing devices as anti burglary alarms

      The "motion sensing" feature on most lights (and security systems) is
a passive system that detects infrared energy. These sensors are therefore
known as PIR (Passive Infra Red) detectors. A human body, having a skin
temperature of about 93 degrees F, radiates infrared energy with a
wavelength between 9 and 10 micrometers. Therefore, the sensors are
typically sensitive in the range of 8 to 12 micrometers.




      It has the unique advantage of sensing very small movements in the
entire detecting area which is rather wide as compared to the usual detectors
which act on the basis of detecting interruption of a straight.

The Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) software by
NASA

      NASA scientists have invented promising, new software technology
to help law enforcement agencies catch criminals by improving the analysis

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of crime scene video. It has already been used to help the FBI improve video
of the bombing at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. The software
clarifies dark, nighttime videotape made with a handheld camcorder,
revealing obscured important details. The technology also may be useful for
medical imaging, scientific applications and home video. It has immense
possibilities for use by police.

      Imagine a dark crime scene captured on videotape by a security
system. The VISAR software will eliminate flaws in the video, remove blurs
and stabilize images. The crime scene will appear as if the crime happened
in daytime, giving law enforcement officers the capability to identify
valuable clues for crime solving. This technology has the potential to
stabilize images so that criminals and other important clues can be
identified, even in blurred images. It's like a video eraser as it removes
defects due to image jitter, image rotation and image zoom in video
sequences.

      The VISAR software stabilizes camera motion in the horizontal and
vertical as well as rotation and zoom effects; produces clearer images of
moving objects; smoothes jagged edges; enhances still images; and reduces
video noise or "snow." Once the software improves the video quality, it is
possible to use existing software to sharpen and "de-blur" images, thus
further enhancing video clarity.

      Sample videos showing how a blurry, "busy" video can be cleared up
to reveal a person in a crowd, or how a jittery video can be enhanced,
allowing a license plate to be read, are available. Once digital cameras




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become more affordable, it might even be practical to use the system inside
video recorders to stabilize and enhance images as they are recorded.

Technology convergence opens a new world of possibilities

Convergence of voice, data and video

      The proliferation of wireless and the convergence of digital voice,
data, and video technologies are opening a new world of possibilities for
situational awareness, force multiplication and visual verification of remote
people and incidents.

      Cameras on street corners and other locations can transmit data back
to a data center. A PCR van can be dispatched if an incident or behavior
occurs that needs to be investigated. Ultimately, the video itself also can be
sent to the police officers in the field to inform them about the threat and
help them be fully prepared when they arrive at the scene.

      The technology exists today to enable an officer to sit in a patrol car
and access a video feed from any block in the city. Armed with this
technology, officers could cover a much larger territory than they could on
foot or even in a vehicle. In this type of application, the convergence of
video and wireless would create a value that could supplement a law
enforcement budget by enabling fewer officers to be in more places at once.

Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

      Another technology that exists today is automatic, proactive license
plate recognition using in-car video systems. While such systems are
typically triggered to record specific events, the new plate-scanning

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technology constantly scans license plates during routine patrols. The plates
are automatically compared to multiple local, regional, state and central
databases and the system generates an audible alert when a positive match is
made. The officer can then take appropriate action. This technology enables
agencies to leverage their investments in digital video solutions and provides
critical data to officers automatically without distracting them from
performing other duties and driving safely.

Voice Technologies

      Today, voice technologies are most effective when the officer wears a
microphone that can distinguish the human voice from ambient noise outside
and inside the vehicle. In the future, a more sensitive directional microphone
may be located on the dashboard or communications console of the patrol
vehicle, freeing the officer from wearing a headset. And while simple
commands such as "run plate" are functional now, in the future it will be
possible to use more complex statements and natural language to interact
with the wide range of applications at the patrol officer's immediate
command.

Perspectives on the future

      What can be said is that technology vendors are working today to
design and fine-tune the tools that will help them better address a wide range
of requirements of police. These needs include the ability to monitor
incidents in real time, view the scene of an incident prior to arrival, access
data from any location and effectively communicate with a control room and
other officers at any time from any location.



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With tools rising directly from needs familiar to anyone in law enforcement
today, the future will mean increased communications mobility and access to
information on the beat, in patrol cars, in police control rooms and in the
headquarters leading to the realization of the ultimate objective of any police
force – safety and security of community and fellow police officers.




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