Dictators and World War II

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					20th Century: World War II

   Causes and results Adler Ch 46
  Dictatorships: Fascists and Communist
    Dictators: Totalitarianism

 “Total State” Not passive obedience
 Expected active loyalty and commitment
 control of political, economic, social and
  cultural aspects of life
 led by a single leader and party
 not interested in individual freedom (civil
 used modern technology and
    Representative 20th Century

   The Fascists           The Communists
   Benito Mussolini-      Joseph Stalin -
    Italy                   USSR
   Adolph Hitler-         Mao Zedong- China
    Germany                Ho Chi Minh-
   Fransico Franco-        Vietnam
    Spain                  Fidel Castro- Cuba
   Juan Peron-            Tito- Yugoslavia
    Benito Mussolini 1883-1945
             Il Duce

 First Fascist Dictator
 Italy- in political and economic crisis
 had support of middle class seeking
 1922- march on Rome- Victor
  Emmanuel made him PM
 Could legislate by decree, police state
 Created Young Fascists- Never really in
  control of all culture/society
      Adolph Hitler 1889-1945
           Der Fuhrer

 born in Austria-early life in Vienna
 core of beliefs- anti-Semitic
 wrote “Mein Kampf” in jail in 20’s
 built Nazi party on dissatisfaction
 won over elite and establishment
 fear of communists- largest party
    » became chancellor
   Reichtag burned-emergency powers
      The Nazi State 1933-1945

   Total State techniques
    » propaganda masters
    » mass demonstrations
    » rearmament of the military
    » SS control of police using terror based on
      Nazi ideology (secret police,camps
      execution and extermination)
    » Churches and youth groups under control
    » GOAL Aryan ???? racial ??? state.
    Joseph Stalin and the USSR
         Communist State

 Similar to Total state
 oppression of the masses
 ownership of production and land by the
 forced rapid industrialization cruel
 purges- wondered who was in power
 elections? one party. 10% member
              Fascists (cont..)

   Spain General              Latin America
    Francisco Franco           military dictators
    1892-1975                   popular
   resulted from a civil      Juan Peron in
    war with                    Argentina
   aided by Italy and
        Path to World War II

 Looking for “living room” expansion
 Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia
    » Munich Conference- Chamberlain believed
      Hitler - would not demand more
 repudiated the Versailles Treaty-
 1938 annexed Austria
 Poland invasion 1939- Treaty with GB
  and France declared war
    Blitzkrieg- Lightening War

 Poland surrendered in 4 weeks
 Same speed took Denmark, Norway
  Belgium, Holland and France (s of
 Troops on continent trapped at Dunkirk
 Importance of airwar- bombing of
 allied with Italy- took North Africa
    Allied Offensive 1943-45

 Began in North Africa
 Japan and the United States enter war
  in 1941
 Sicily 1943
 Italy to So France
 Normandy- largest invasion in history
 Other battles, Battle of the Bulge,
  Arnheim, Remagen, Berlin
    The Holocaust- the plan to
     eliminate the opposition

 Concentration Camps become death
  Camps (more than 100 of these)
 Brought Jews and any in opposition
  from all over Europe (Denmark the
 Labor Camps- Arbeit Mach Frei
 killed two out of every 3 Jews- 6 mil
 Another 9-10 mil more
          Pacific War
      Japan, China , US GB

 Japan had invaded and controlled much
  of China resisted by Mao Zedong and
  Chaing Kai Sheck
 Dec 7, 1941- Bombs on Pearl Harbor
 United States in the war
 Economy- rationing- war machines built
 Beginning of the end of tyranny
 United States Undisputed World Leader
    Making Plans for Peace

 The Big Three: Chruchill, Roosevelt,
 Locations: Teheran, Yalta, Potsdam
  (Truman) VE Day
 Atomic Bomb Test / Dropped
 Ended War VJ Day
 Churchill “An Iron curtain has
  descended in Europe” Beginning of the
  Cold War

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