MINORITY ADMISSIONS IN LAW SCHOOLS* A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Articles: Aldave, Barbara Bader, Affirmative Action: Reminiscences, Reflections, and Ruminations, 23 Southern University Law Review 121 (1996). Aldave, Barbara Bader, Hopwood v. Texas: A Victory for `Equality' That Denies Reality-An Afterword, 28 St. Mary's Law Journal 147 (1996). Aldave, Barbara Bader, Hopwood v. Texas: Much Ado About Nothing, Texas Lawyer at 43 (Nov. 11, 1996). Aleinikoff; T. Alexander, A Case for Race-Consciousness, 91 Columbia Law Review 1060 (1991). Amar, Akhil Reed; Katyal, Neal Kumar, Bakke's Fate, 43 University of California at Los Angeles Law Review 1745 (1996). Anderson, Corrine E., A Current Perspective: The Erosion of Affirmative Action in University Admissions, 32 Akron Law Review 181 (1999). Armour, Jody David, Hype and Reality in Affirmative Action, 68 University of Colorado Law Review 1173 (1997). Bahls, Jane Easter, The Race Case; Law Schools Across the Nation Wrestle with the Role of Affirmative Action in Admissions, 25 Student Lawyer 26 (April 1997). Bannai, Lorraine K.; Eaton, Marie, Fostering Diversity in the Legal Profession: A Model for Preparing Minority and Other Non-Traditional Students for Law Schools, 31 University of San Francisco Law Review 821 (1997). Behind-the-Scenes Advice to a Governor on Ending Affirmative Action, 46 Chronicle of Higher Education at A32 (June 2, 2000). Bell, Derrick A., Jr., The Final Report: Harvard's Affirmative Action Allegory, 87 Michigan Law Review 2382 (1989). Bell, Derrick A., Jr., California's Proposition 209: A Temporary Diversion on the Road to Racial Disaster, 30 Loyola Los Angeles Law Review 1447 (1997). Bloom, Lackland H., Jr., Hopwood, Bakke and the Future of the Diversity Justification, 29 Texas Tech Law Review 1 (1998). Bowen, William G.; Bok, Derek, Response to Review by Terrance Sandalow. (Response to book review in this issue, p. 1874) (Identity and Equality) (1999 Survey of Books Related to the Law) (Review), 97 Michigan Law Review 1917 (1999). Bray, By Thomas J., Perspective: Is Initiative 200 headed for Michigan?, The Detroit News at B 1 I (November 15, 1998). Brest, Paul; Oshige, Miranda, Affirmative Action for Whom? 47 Stanford Law Review 855 (1995). Brown-Nagin, Tomiko, A Critique of Instrumental Rationality: Judicial Reasoning About the "Cold Numbers" in Hopwood v. Texas, 16 Law & Inequity Journal 359 (1998). * The items selected for listing in this bibliography are primarily about law school affirmative action policies published post-Hopwood v. Texas and California Proposition 209 (1996). A few pertinent items published earlier, however, are also included. Carter, Terry, On a Roll(back); After its Big Win in the Hopwood Case, Setting Aside Affirmative Action at the University of Texas Law School, the Center for Individual Rights is on A Mission-To Do More of the Same at Other Public Universities, 84 ABA Journal 54 (Feb. 1998). Chemerinsky, Erwin, The Impact of the Proposed California Civil Rights Initiative, 23 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 999 (1996). Chen, Jim, Diversity in a Different Dimension: Evolutionary Theory and Affirmative Action's Destiny* [* Cf. (loosely) Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development (1982)], 59 Ohio State Law Journal 811 (1998). Chen, Jim, DeFunis, Defunct (Race-Based Law School Admissions), 16 Constitutional Commentary 91 (Spring 1999). Chin, Gabriel J., Bakke to the Wall: The Crisis of Bakkean Diversity, 4 William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 881 (1996). Corzo, Cynthia, Governor Bush Fights Race-Based College Admissions, Set-Asides, 13 Hispanic at 18 (April 2000). Cosner, K. L., Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Lessons and Directions from the Supreme Court, 71 Indiana Law Journal 1003 (1996). Cunningham, Clark D.; Menon, N.R. Madhava, Race, Class, Caste...? Rethinking Affirmative Action, 97 Michigan Law Review 1296 (1999). Daniel, Philip T. K.; Timken, Kyle Edward, The Rumors of My Death Have Been Exaggerated: Hopwood's Error in Discarding Bakke, 28 The Journal of Law and Education 391 (1999). Dassance, Ellen, Note: Affirmative Action Implications for Colleges and Universities Beyond The Scholarship and Student Admissions Areas, 5 William & Mary Bill of Rights. Journal 661 (1997). Decker, Cathleen, Affirmative Action: A Bitter National Fight Begins in California, The Los Angeles Times at A1 (February 19, 1995). Delgado, Richard, Rodrigo's Tenth Chronicles: Merit and Affirmative Action, 83 Georgetown Law Journal 1711 (1995). Delgado, Richard, Affirmative Action Critics Misfired, The Denver Post at 2 (November 2, 1997). Delgado, Richard; Stefancic, Jean, Home-Grown Racism: Colorado's Historic Embrace -And Denial- Of Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, 70 University of Colorado Law Review 703 (1999). DeSario, Jack P., Colaluca, Thomas L.; Kuhlman, Gina A., The Future of Affirmative Action: The Legal Imperative Nationally and the Ohio Experience, 46 Cleveland State Law Review 765 (1998). Devis, Neal, Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena and the Continuing Irrelevance of Supreme Court Affirmative Action Decisions, 37 William & Mary Law Review 673 (1996). Doherty, Benjamin A., Comment: Creative Advocacy in Defense of Affirmative Action: A Comparative Institutional Analysis of Proposition 209, 1999 Wisconsin Law Review 91. Donahue, Robert J., Racial Diversity as a Compelling Governmental Interest (California), 30 Indiana Law Review 523 (1997). Epstein, Richard A., Affirmative Action in Law Schools: The Uneasy Truce, 2 Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy 33 (1992). Evelyn, Jamilah, Affirmative Action: Bush-Whacked in Florida, 16 Black Issues in Higher Education 16 (1999). Fallon, Richard H., Foreword: Implementing the Constitution, 11 I Harvard Law Review 56 (1997). . Fineout, Gary, One Florida Initiative, 17 Black Issues in Higher Education 12 (2000). Forbath, William E.; Torres, Gerald, Merit and Diversity After Hopwood, 10 Stanford Law & Policy Review 185 (1999). Garfield, Leslie Yalof, Squaring Affirmative Action Admissions Policies With Federal Judicial Guidelines: A Model for the Twenty-First Century, 22 Journal of College and University Law 895 (1996). Geshekter, Charles L., Affirmative Action in Principle, Non-discrimination in Fact: Higher Education After Proposition 209 (California), 10 Stanford Law & Policy Review 205 (1999). Ginsburg, Ruth Bader; Merritt, Deborah Jones, Affrmative Action: An International Human Rights Dialogue, 1 Rutgers Race & The Law Review 193 (1999). Goring, Darlene C., Affirmative Action and the First Amendment: The Attainment of a Diverse Student Body is a Permissible Exercise of Institutional Autonomy, 47 University of Kansas Law Review 591 (1999). Goring, Darlene C., Private Problem, Public Solution: Affirmative Action in the 21st Century, 33 Akron Law Review 209 (2000). Gotanda, Neil, Failure of the Color-Blind Vision: Race, Ethnicity, and the California Civil Rights Initiative, 23 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 1132 (1996). Gotanda, Neil, Legal Implications of Proposition 209- The California Civil Rights Initiative, 24 Western State University Law Review 1 (1996). Graglia, Lino A., Race Norming in Law School Admissions, 42 Journal of Legal Education 97 (1992). Graglia, Lino A., Professor Loewy's `Diversity' Defense of Racial Preference: Defining Discrimination Away (Response to Article by Arnold H. Loewy in this issue, p. 1479), 77 North Carolina Law Review 1505 (1999). Hall, Timothy L., Educational Diversity: Viewpoints and Proxies, 59 Ohio State Law Journal 551 (1998). Hansen, Mark, The Great Admissions Debate; Texas School Officials Wrestle With Education Department and Hopwood Ruling, 83 ABA Journal 28 (June 1997). Harvard Law Review Association, Note: An Evidentiary Framework for Diversity as a Compelling Interest in Higher Education, 109 Harvard Law Review 1357 (1996). Harvard Law Review Association, Note: The Constitutionality of Proposition 209 As Applied, 111 Harvard Law Review 2081 (1998). Healy, Patrick, A Lawsuit Against Georgia University System Attacks a Range of Race-Based Policies, 43 Chronicle of Higher Education at A25 (Mar. 14, 1997). Holly, Danielle; Spencer, Delia, The Texas Ten Percent Plan, 34 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 245 (1999). Holmes, Stephen A., Victorious Preference Foes Look for New Battlefields, New York Times at A25 (November 10, 1998). Horner, Jeff S., The Practical Effects of Hopwood v. State of Texas, 64 School Business Affairs at 18 (November, 1998). Howard, Roscoe C., Jr., Getting It Wrong: Hopwood v. Texas and Its Implications for Racial Diversity in Legal Education and Practice, 31 New England Law Review 831 (1997). Issacharoff, Samuel, Can Affirmative Action Be Defended?, 59 Ohio State Law Journal 66 (1998). Jacobius, Arleen, Affirmative Action on Way Out in California, 81 ABA Journal 22 (Sept. 1995). Johnson, Kevin R.; Perez, Amagda, Clinical Legal Education and the U.S. Davis Immigration Law Clinic: Putting Theory into Practice and Practice into Theory, 51 Southern Methodist University Law Review 1423 (1998). Joint Statement, Constitutional Scholars' Statement on Affirmative Action After City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., 98 Yale Law Journal 1711 (1989). Jones, J.E., The Origins of Affirmative Action, 21 University of California-Davis Law Review 383 (1988). Kahlenberg, R.D. Getting Beyond Racial Preferences: The Class-Based Compromise, 45 The American University Law Review 721 (1996). Kay, Herma Hill, The Challenge to Diversity in Legal Education, with comments by Henry Ramsey and Rosalie Wahl, 7- Indiana Law Review - (forthcoming 2000). Kelley, Robert H., The Washington Civil Rights Initiative: The Need for a Meaningful Dialogue, 34 Gonzaga Law Review 81 (1998-99). Kennedy, Randall, Persuasion and Distrust: A Comment on the Affirmative Action Debate, 99 Harvard Law Review 1327 (1986). Killenback, Mark R., Pushing Things Up to Their First Principles: Reflections on the Values of Affirmative Action, 87 California Law Review 1299 (1999). Klein, Chris, At AALS Confab, Dean, Faculty Ponder Race, Computers, Tenure (American Association of Law Schools), 19 The National Law Journal at A10 (Jan. 20, 1997). Klein, Chris, Law School Diversity Policy Hinges on Race Policy, The National Law Journal at - (Jan. 27, 1997). Klein, Chris, Hopwood Forces File Copycat Suit; Anti-Affirmative Action Group Sues U. of Michigan, 20 The National Law Journal at A6 (Oct. 27, 1997). Knickerbocker, Brad, Affirmative Action's Future on Line in Washington State, 90 Christian Science Monitor at 3, col.2 (October 16, 1998). Lauer, Robert A., Hopwood v. Texas: A Victory for "Equality" That Denies Reality, 28 St. Mary's Law Journal 109 (1996). Law, Sylvia A., White Privilege and Affirmative Action, 32 Akron Law Review 603 (1999). Lawrence, Charles R., Each Other's Harvest: Diversity's Deeper Meaning, 31 University of San Francisco Law Review 757 (1997). Leftwich, Terri F., Segregation v. Integration in Education: Is History Repeating Itself?, 24 Thurgood Marshall Law Review 183 (1998). Liu, Goodwin, Affirmative Action in Higher Education: The Diversity Rationale and the Compelling Interest Test, 33 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 381 (1998). Loewy, Arnold H., Taking Bakke Seriously: Distinguishing Diversity From Affirmative Action in the Law School Admissions Process, 77 North Carolina Law Review 1479 (1999). Lorenzo, Marty B., Race-Conscious Diversity Admissions Programs: Furthering A Compelling Interest, 2 Michigan Journal on Race & Law 361 (1997). Malamud, Deborah C., Class-Based Affirmative Action: Lessons and Caveats, 74 Texas Law Review 1847 (1996). Malamud, Deborah C., Values, Symbols and Facts in the Affirmative Action Debate, 95 Michigan Law Review 1668 (1997). Malamud, Deborah C., Assessing Class-Based Affirmative Action, 47 Journal of Legal Education 452 (1997). Malamud, Deborah C., Affirmative Action, Diversity, and the Black Middle Class, 68 University of Colorado Law Review 939 (1997). Martin, Thomas Glenn, Jr., Comment: UCLA School of Law Admissions in the Aftermath of the U.C. Regents' Resolution to Eliminate Affirmative Action: An Admissions Policy Survey and Proposal, 18 Chicano-Latino Law Review 150 (1996). Matsuda, Mari J., Affirmative Action and Legal Knowledge: Planting Seeds in Plowed-Up Ground, 11 Harvard Women's Law Journal 1 (1988). Merritt, Deborah, The Future of Bakke: Will Social Science Matter? 59 Ohio State Law Journal 1055 (1998). Millenson, Debra A., Whither Affirmative Action: The Future of Executive Order 11, 246, 29 U. Memphis Law Review 679 (1999). Morris, John E., Boalt Hall's Affirmative Action Dilemma, 19 The American Lawyer at 4 (Nov. 1997). Morris, Kathleen, Through the Looking Glass: Recent Developments in Affirmative Action, 11 Berkeley Women's Law Journal 182 (1996). Morrison, J. E., Colorblindness, Individuality, and Merit: An Analysis of the Rhetoric Against Affirmative Action, 79 Iowa Law Review 313 (1994). New York Times Editorial, Affirmative Action in Florida., The New York Times at p.14 (Nov. 14, 1999). Olivas, Michael A., Constitutional Criteria: The Social Science and Common Law of Admissions Decisions in Higher Education, 68 University of Colorado Law Review 1065 (1997). Padilla, Laura M., Intersectionality And Positionality: Situating Women of Color in the Affirmative Action Dialogue, 66 Fordham L. Rev. 843 (1997). Parker, Frank R., The Damaging Consequences of the Rehnquist Court's Commitment to Colorblindness Versus Racial Justice, 45 The American University Law Review 763 (1996). Rabkin, J. Diversity Snobs, American Spectator at 63 (August 1997). Rapp, Cristopher, Bushism in One Florida, 52 The National Review at 24 (March 6,2000). Reske, Henry J., Law School Lessons; The Supreme Court Lets Stand a Ruling Barring Race-Based Admissions. (Texas v. Hopwood), 82 ABA Journal 29 (Sept. 1996). Reske, Henry J., Law School Affirmative Action in Doubt; 5" Circuit Ruling Strikes Down University of Texas Admissions Preferences. (Hopwood v. Texas), 82 ABA Journal 36 (May 1996). Reynoso, Cruz, California Law Schools Need Diversity; An Affirmative Action Plan is Insurance of Racial, Ethnic Equality for All, 112 The Los Angeles Daily Journal at 6 (Dec. 29, 1999). Robinson, Mike, Foes of Racial Preferences Target Illinois Universities, 145 Chicago Daily Law Bulletin at 1 (April 1, 1999). Rodriguez, Roberto, Life After Hopwood, 13 Black Issues in Higher Education at 8 (Aug. 8 1996). Roithmayr, Daria, Deconstructing the Distinction Between Bias and Merit, 85 California Law Review 1449 (1997). Rothstein, Laura F., The Affirmative Action Debate in Legal Education and the Legal Profession: Lessons from Disability Discrimination Law, 2 Journal of Gender, Race & Justice 1 (1998). Rubenfeld, Jed, Essay: Affirmative Action, 107 Yale Law Journal 427 (1997). Sandalow, Terrance, Racial Preferences in Higher Education: Political Responsibility and the Judicial Role, 42 University of Chicago Law Review 653 (1975). Sandalow, Terrance; Stone, Randolph N., Rejoinder (Response to Article) by William G. Bown and Derek Bok in this issue, p. 1917 (1999 Survey of Books Related to the Law) 97 Michigan Law Review 1923 (1999). Sander, Richard H., Experimenting With Class-Based Affirmative Action, 47 Journal of Legal Education 472 (199'7). SanMiguel G.; Valencia, R.R., From the Treaty of Guadalupe to Hopwood: The Educational Plight and Struggles of Mexican Americans in the Southwest, 68 Harvard Education Review 353 (1998). Savage, D.G., UC Affirmative Action Halt May Clash With US Law, Los Angeles Times at Al (July 26, 1997). Scanlan, Laura C., Note: Hopwood v. Texas: A Backward Look at Affirmative Action in Education, 71 New York University Law Review 1580 (1996). Schimmel, David, Is Bakke Still Good Law? The Fifth Circuit Says No and Outlaws Affirmative Action Admissions, 113 Education Law Reporter 1052 (1996). Schwartz, Justin, Comment: A Not Quite Color-Blind Constitution: Racial Discrimination and Racial Preference in Justice O'Connor's "Newest" Equal Protection Jurisprudence, 58 Ohio State Law Journal 1055 (1997). Scott, Sean M., Justice Redefined: Minority-Targeted Scholarships and the Struggle Against Racial Oppression, 62 University of Missouri at Kansas City Law Review 651 (1994). Sealing, Keith E., The Myth of a Color-Blind Constitution, 54 Washington University Journal of Urban & Contemporary Law 157 (1998). Sealing, Keith E., Proposition 209 as Proposition 14 (As Amendment 2): The Unremarked Death of Political Structure Equal Protection, 27 Capital University Law Review 337 (1999). Sedler, Robert A., The Constitution and Racial Preference in Law School Admissions (Civil Rights in the Academy), 75 Michigan Bar Journal 1160 (1996). Selingo, Jeffrey, Florida Officials Move to Delay End of Affirmative Action in Graduate Admissions, 46 Chronicle of Higher Education at A33 (December 17, 1999). Selmi, Michael, Book Review: The Facts of Affirmative Action (Review of The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. By William G. Bowen and Derek Book, c 1998), 85 Va L. Rev. 697 (1999). Selmi, Michael, Essay: The Life of Bakke: An Affirmative Action Retrospective, 87 Georgetown Law Journal 981 (1999). Sharlot, M. Michael; Kay, Herma Hill, Nation's Lawyers Should Reflect Our Diverse Society, The Houston Chronicle at A25 (September 3, 1999). Spann, Girardeau A., Proposition 209, 47 Duke Law Journal 187 (1997). St. John, Eric, Taking the initiative, 15 Black Issues in Higher Education 12 (November 26, 1998). Steele, Claude M., A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance, 52 American Psychology 613 (1997). Stefancic, Jean, Affirmative Action: Diversity of Opinions-An Overview of the Colorado Law Review Symposium, 68 University of Colorado Law Review 833 (1997). Straub, Stephanie E., Note: The Wisdom and Constitutionality of Race-Based Decision-Making in Higher Education Admission Programs: A Critical Look at Hopwood v. Texas, 48 Case Western Reserve Law Review 133 (1997). Strobel, Warren P.; McDonald, Marci;et al., Anti-preference drive sets its next targets, U.S. News & World Report, November 16, 1998, Vol. 125, Issue 19, p12. Sturm, Susan; Guinier, Lani, The Future of Affirmative Action: Reclaiming the Innovative Ideal, 84 California Law Review 953 (1996). Summers, Clyde W., Preferential Admissions: An Unreal Solution to a Real Problem, 1970 U. Toledo Law Review 377. Sunstein, Cass R., The Supreme Court, 1995 Term-Foreword: Leaving Things Undecided, 110 Harvard Law Review 4 (1996). Sunstein, Cass R., Public Deliberation, Affirmative Action, and the Supreme Court, 84 California Law Review 1179 (1996). Sunstein, Cass R., Affirmative Action, Caste, and Cultural Comparisons, 97 Michigan Law Review 1311 (1999). Takagi, D.Y., Affirmative Action and Minority Enrollments in Medical and Law SchoolsWelch, S.; Gruhl, J., 93 American Political Science Review 721 (1999). Taylor, U., Proposition 209 and the Affirmative Action Debate on the University of California Campuses, 25 Feminist Studies 95 (1999). Tharp, Mike, Copying California, U.S. News & World Report, November 9, 1998, Vol. 125 at .34, 3 co 1. 1. Thernstrom, Stephan, The Scandal of the Law Schools (Legacy of Affirmative Action) 104 Commentary 27 (Dec. 1997). Thernstrom, Stephan, Diversity and Meritocracy in Legal Education: A Critical Evaluation of Linda F. Wightman's "The Threat to Diversity in Legal Education," 15 Constitutional Commentary 11 (1998). Thernstrom, Stephan; Thernstrom, Abigail, Book Review: Reflections on The Shape of the River, 46 University of California at Los Angeles Law Review 1583 (1999). Ueda, Michael, Affirmative Action Focuses Scrutiny on Legal Education, The Los Angeles Daily Journal at 1 (February) 7, 1998). Verhovek, Sam Howe, In a Battle Over Preferences, Race and Gender Are at Odds, The New York Times at A1, col. 4 (October 20, 1998). Volokh, Eugene, The California Civil Rights Initiative: An Interpretive Guide, 44 University of California at Los Angeles Law Review 1335 (1997). Waldron, Jeremy, The Substance of Equality (Review of Peter Westen's Speaking of Equality: An Analysis of the Rhetorical Force of `Equality' In Moral and Legal Discourse), 89 Michigan Law Review 1350 (1991). Wallace, Amy; Lesher, Dave, UC Regents, In Historic Vote, Wipe Out Affirmative Action, The Los Angeles Times at A1 (July 21, 1995). Ware, Leland, Tales From the Crypt: Does Strict Scrutiny Sound the Death Knell for Affirmative Action in Higher Education? (Focus on Emerging Issues in Civil Rights), 23 Journal of College and University Law 43 (1996). Weng, Garner K., Comment: Look at the Pretty Colors! Rethinking Promises of Diversity as Legally Binding, 10 La Raza Law Journal 753 (1998). Westen, Peter, The Empty Idea of Equality, 95 Harvard Law Review 537 (1982). Wightman, Linda F., The Threat To Diversity in Legal Education: An Empirical Analysis of the Consequences of Abandoning Race As a Factor in Law School Admissions Decisions, 72 New York University Law Review 1 (1997). Wightman, Linda F., Through A Different Lens: A Reply to Stephan Thernstrom, 15 Constitutional Commentary 45 (1998). Wightman, Linda F., An Empirical Investigation of the Consequences of Including Race as a Factor in Law School Admission, 28 Southwestern University Law Review 1 (1998). Williams, Gregory Howard, Transforming the Powerless to the Powerful: The Public Responsibilities of Law Schools, 28 New Mexico Law Review 1 (1998). Wolff, Jeffrey B., Affirmative Action in College and Graduate School Admissions - the Effects of Hopwood and the Actions of the U.C. Board of Regents on its Continued Existence, 50 Southern Methodist University Law Review 627 (1997). Wright, Victor V., Note, Hopwood v. Texas: The Fifth Circuit Engages in Suspect Compelling Interest Analysis in Striking Down an Affirmative Action Admissions Program, 34 Houston Law Review 871 (1997). Books, Book Chapters Monographs and Publications Association of American Law Schools. Perspectives on Diversity: AALS Special Commission on Meeting the Challenges of Diversity in an Academic Democracy (1997). [Chapter 7 contains a comprehensive bibliography which is described as a "Partial and Working Bibliography which Emerged from the Joint Efforts of the Commission Members." Some of the items listed therein appear herein as well.] Bakst, Daren L. ed., Hopwood, Bakke & Beyond; Diversity On Our Nation's Campuses, American Association of Collegiate Registrars, Washington, D.C. (1998). Banks, Taunya Lovell, Contested Terrains of Compensation: Equality, Affirmative Action and Diversity in the United States in Gender, Race and Comparative Advantage-A Cross-National Assessment of Programs of Compensatory Discrimination 110 (Penelope E. Andrews, ed. 1999). Bergmann, Barbara R., In Defense of Affirmative Action (1996). Bowen, William G.; Bok, Derek. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions (1998). Bunzel, John H., Affirmative Action in Higher Education; A Dilemma of Conflicting Principles. Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford University (1998). Cahn, Steven M.., ed. Affirmative Action and the University: a Philosophical Inquiry (1993). See Francis, Leslie Pickering, In Defense of Affirmative Action, (Ch. 1). Caplan, Lincoln, Up Against the Law: Affirmative Action and the Supreme Court (1997). Carter, Stephen L. Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby (1991). Chapa, Jorge, Lazari, Vincent A., Hopwood in Texas: The Untimely End of Affirmative Action, in Chilling Admissions: The Affirmative Action Crisis and the Search for Alternatives 51 (Gary Orfield & Edward Miller eds., 1998). Chavez, Lydia, The Color Bind: California's Battle to End Affirmative Action (1998). Connerly, Ward, Creating Equal: My Fight Against Race Preferences (2000). Crosby, Faye J.; Van DeVeer, Cheryl, eds. Sex, Race, and Merit; Debating Affirmative Action in Education and Employment (2000). Eastland, Terry, Ending Affirmative Action (1996). Edley, Christopher, Jr., Not All Black and White: Affirmative Action, Race, and American Values (1996). Kahlenberg, Richard D. The Remedy: Class, Race, and Affirmative Action (1996). Kaplan, William A.; Lee, Barbara A., The Law of Higher Education 400-418 (3d ed. 1995). Law School Admissions Council. Preserving Affirmative Action Programs in the Late 90s, (1996). Law School Admissions Council. Preserving Access and Diversity in Law School Admissions: An Update (1998). Law School Admissions Council. New Models to Assure Diversity, Fairness, and Appropriate Test Use in Law School Admissions (2000). Lawrence, Charles R., 111; Matsuda, Mari J. We Won't Go Back: Making the Case for Affirmative Action (1997). Lowe, Eugene Y. , Jr., ed. Promise and Dilemma; Perspectives on Racial Diversity and Higher Education (l999). Manning, Winton W., The Pursuit of Fairness in Admissions to Higher Education, in The Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education: A Summary of Reports and Recommendations 381 (1980). Mills, Nicolaus, ed., Debating Affirmative Action (1994). Orfield, Gary, Campus Resegregation and Its Alternatives, in Chilling Admissions: The Affirmative Action Crisis and the Search for Alternatives 1 (Gary Orfield & Edward Miller eds., 1998). Sindler, A. P. Bakke, DeFunis, and Minority Admissions: the Quest for Equal Opportunity (1979). Skrentny, Jonathan David. The Ironies of Affirmative Action: Politics, Culture, and Justice in America (1996). Steele, Shelby, The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America (1990). Steele, Shelby, A Dream Deferred: The Second Betrayal of Black Freedom in America (1998). Thernstrom, Stephan, The End of Preferences: Behind the UC Admissions Controversy. CEO Policy Brief Center for Equal Opportunity. Washington, D.C., September 1997. Welch, Susan; Gruhl, John. Affirmative Action and Minority Enrollments in Medical and Law Schools (1998). White, Richard A. Preliminary Report: Law School Faculty Views on Diversity in the Classroom and the Law School Community. Association of American Law Schools (May 2000). Symposia: Conference: Race, Law And Justice: The Rehnquist Court and The American Dilemma, 45 The American University Law Review 567 (1996). Symposium: Affirmative Action, 43 University of California at Los Angeles Law Review 17312076 (1996). Symposium: Affirmative Action: Diversity of Opinions, 68 University of Colorado Law Review 833-1216 (1997). Symposium: Affirmative Action, 30 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 451 (1999). Symposium: LatCrit Theory, Latinas/os and the Law: (A Joint Symposium by California Law Review and La Raza Law Journal), 85 California Law Review 1087-1685; 10 La Raza Law Journal 1-599 (1997). Symposium: Race-Based Remedies, 84 California Law Review 875-1291 (1996). Symposium: Twenty Years After Bakke: The Law and. Social Science of Affirmative Action in Higher Education, 59 Ohio State Law Journal 663-1067 (1998). Symposium: Whose Mosaic Now? Political Devolution and. the Future of Affirmative Action, 10 Stanford Law & Policy Review 129-245 (1999). Cases: Texas v. Lesage, ___ U.S.___, 145 L.Ed. 2d 347, 120 S. Ct. 467 (1999) rev'g, in part, & remd'g Lesage v. Texas, 158 F.3d 213 (5" Cir. 1998).. Taxman v. Board of Educ., 91 F.3d 1547 (3d Cir. 1996) (en banc), cert., granted., 117 S. Ct. 2506 (1997), later proceedings at Piscataway Twp. Board of Educ. V. Taxman, 519 U. S. 1089 (1997), cert. dismissed 522 U. S. 1010 (1997). Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 515 U.S. 200 (1995). City of Richmond v. JA. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989). Wygant v. .Jackson Board of Education, 476 U. S. 267, reh'g denied, 478 U. S. 1014 (1986). United Steelworkers of America v. Weber, 443 U.S. 193 (1979). Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974), and 529 P2d 438 (Wash. 1974) (on remand). Tracy v. Board of Regents of the Univ. Syst., 59 F. Supp. 2d 1314 (S.D. Ga. 1999) vacated and rem'd by Tracy v. Board of Regents, 208 F. 3d 1313 (11'" Cir. 2000). Gratz v. Bollinger, 183 F.R.D. 209, rev 'd & rem 'd by Grutter v. Bollinger, 188 F.3d 394 (6`" Cir. Mich. 1999). Hopwood v. Slate of Texas, 861 F. Supp. 551 *W.D. Tex. 1994), rev'd and rem'd, 78 F.3d 932 (5`" Cir. Tex. 1996), cert. denied, 518 U.S. 1033, 135 L. Ed. 1095, 116 S. Ct. 2581 (1996). Podberesky, v. Kirwan, 38 F.3d 147 (4th Cir. 1994), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 2001 (1995). Hopwood v. State of Texas, 21 F.3d 603 (5th Cir. Tex. 1994). Hopwood v. Slate of Texas, 999 F. Supp. 872 (W.D. Tex. 1998). Washington Legal Foundation v. Alexander, 778 F. Supp. 67 (D.D.C. 1991), aff'd, 984 F.2d 483 (D.C. Cir. 1993). DeRonde v. Regents of the University of California, 28 Cal. 3d 875 (1981). U.S. Constitution. Statutes and Executive Orders: U.S. Constitution, 5th Amendment. U. S. Constitution, 14th Amendment § 1 (1868). 42 U.S. C. §§ 1981, 1983, and 2000(d) ("Title VI"). Executive Orders 11, 246, 11,375 & 12,067 published in 30 Fed. Reg. 12,319 (1965), 32 Fed. Reg. 14,303 (1967) & 43 Fed. Reg. 46,501(1978), respectively. Other Sources: California Proposition 209, codified at Cal. Const. Art. 1, 31. Regents of the University of California, Policy Ensuring Equal Treatment in Admissions (SP-1), Policies of the Regents, July 20, 1995. Washington State Civil Rights Act, Wash. Rev. Code Ann. 49.60 (West Supp. 1999).
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