Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy by kxo18838


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Technical Document ## 8

Tourism Human
Resources Development

                                                      Project Report

                                                  National Tourism                   & Quality
                                                 Development Plan

                                                          Action Pla

                                          /      Tourism Strategies
                                         (        6iem Reap
                                                  6   Greater Phnom Penh      Human Resources
                                                  0   Potoch Village       Development Strateg

ADB TA 3454CA has produced a
series of documents as illustrated in
                                        I td     'Tourism Planning
                                                       Background          /.'    For Train the

the diagram.

INTRODlJCTION ............................................................................................................                      3
   DIFFEKING           LEVELS 'rKAINING NEEDS........................................................................
                             OF                                                                                                                 5
   I N ~ . K O D ~ C . I................................................................................................................ 6
   METHODOLOGY ASSESSING  FOR                       PUBLIC SECTOR TIWININGD EDUCATION            AN                             NEEDS 6      .....
   THE MINISTRY TOURISM OF                   ............................................................................................          7
      Academic Background q f .MOT Stuff .................                                                   ................................. 8
      Domestic Training..............................................                   ....................................................       8
   MOT AND OTHER MINISTRIES' TRAINING                              NEEDS........................................................... 9
       Minislry of Tourism..                                                  ........            ..........         .........              ...... Y
       Twining Needsjiw MOT und Other Relevant kinistries ......................................... 10
         7'he SelfFinuncing oj'Training ................................................................................ 13
         Role of the Depurtment of'Truining aid Edrrcut,:on,Ministry of lourism .                                                 .... 13
         Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 14
PRIVATE SECTOR ......................................................................................................                          15
                  ..............................................................................................................                15
                                     ..................................................................................................         17
                                                                                           ...............................................      17
        Findings .......................                                                   ........                                        .... 113
          Training/ Education                      ................................................................................     22
          Cost of Truining ....................................................................................................... 23
          C'oncltrsions .........................         .......               ..............                               ........... -33

 3 . EXISTING TRAINING PROGRAMS ....................................................................27
 4 . DEFINING TRAINING AND EDUCATION NEEDS ............................................             29
 5 . MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONC'LUSIONS....................................                     35
      PRIORITY ACTIONS ................................................................................................. 37
      CON CI, U SI ON S .......................................................................................................... 38

  'I'ourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                                                                     Page I
List of Figures
Figure 1:      Training Nccds Assessment Proccss
l’igurc 2:     Different Learning Needs
Figure 3:      Public Sector Tourism Activities
Figure 4:      Private-Sector Tourism Activities
Figurc 5 :     A Suggested Process for Course/L,earning Dcsign

List of Tables
‘l’able 1:      Academic Background of MOT Staff
‘fable 2:       Recruitment Policy
Table 3:        Recruitment Policy Regarding Applicants Holding Formal Qualifications
Table 3:        Staff Turnover
’Table 5 :      Percentage of Staff Participating in Outside Staff Training
‘I‘ablc 6:      Plans for Future Training
Table 7:        Language Priority
 Tablc 8:       Maximum Amount the Company Would Pay for Staff Training
 Table 9 :      Table 1,ine: Private-Sector Training Needs
 Table 10:      Existing Public and Private Academic Institutions

  Tourism H u m a n Resources Development Strategy                                h g e 2.
The success of tourism in Cambodia depends in Fart on the country’s ability to develop a
knowledgeable and skilled workforce. Meeting the wide range of education and training
needs must therefore be seen as essential for d l sectors of the industry. Failure to
cmbrace all of the training issues will result in an imbalance within the travel product.
Visitor satisfaction can diminish in a number of ways, and destinations that fail to
recognize and address the needs and expectations of their tourists place the tourism
industry at risk.

Figure 1 demonstrates that there are a number of different dimensions in beginning to
understand a human resource development slrategy. It cannot be assumed that
classrooms are the only settings for education aild training but rather that training and
education can occur in a number of different ways. Given new technology and means of
delivery, significant number of Cambodians can develop new skills and knowledge that
are essential in ensuring the quality of the country s tourism industry.

There are a number of new providers in the ccuntry that have shown entrepreneurial
skills in beginning to address some of the implxtant training and education needs in
tourism. It is essential that the public and private sectors come together and the research
work behind the strategy clearly recognizes the importance of this partnership.

The docuinent is divided into three parts:
      An assessment of public sector training and education needs.
   ’ A survey and a series of recommendations for the private sector.
   ’ Conclusions and recommendations.

 lourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                         Page 3
                TOllRlSM H R D STRATEGY
                                                                                           L             Strategy

                                                                                                                                          In Country
               Public Sector Capacity/
                  Needs Analysis:
                 National Politicians
                                                                                           i    Education & Training
                                                                                                                                       V i d e o K D ROM
                                                                                                                                     O n the Job Training
                                                                                                                                          Field Work
                                                                                               Instructors/Facilitators:                  Wands On
                                                                                                    * Cambodians
                                                                                                 * Foreign Instructors                 Out of Country:
                                                                                                      * Distance                            Degree

                                                                                                 Curriculum Levels:                       Financing:
                                                                                                * Awareness Creation                   * SelfFinancing
                                                                                                 *   Basic Knowledge                 * Donor Supported
                                                                                                     * Professional                  * Scholarship Pool      H
                                                                                                      Development                       * Government
                                                                                                       * Diploma                       * Private Sector
                                                                                                        * Degree

                                                                                                  Quality Control:
                                                                                               Certification Committee
                                                                                                                                       * International
                                                                                               International Standards
                                                                                                                                       * Professional
                                                                                                 National Standards
              Public & Private Sector                                                                                      I

                 EducatiodTraining                             Capacity of
                     Providers:                                                                       Audience:
                                                                Providers                                                                Providers:
             Present & Planned Programs                                                              * Communities
                                                                                                 * Politicians                             * MOT
                  Needs Assessment
                                                                                                Hotel Workers
                                                                                                                                        * Universities
                                                                                             Restaurant Workers
                                                                                                                                    * Individual Trainers
                                                                                                                                    Vocational Institutes
                                                                                                 * Managers
                                                                                                   * Guides                         * Private Institutions
     - Education: Refers to learning over l o n g e r periods o f time and requiring   a                                               WTO, UNESCO,
     theoretical base.                                                                        * Tour Operators
     -Trnining: Refera to learning over short periods of time and concerned with               * Travel Agents
     knowledge, skills and attitudes                                                       Transportation Workers
                                                                                                                                   * Foreign Universities
                                                                                            Government Officials
              Figure 1: Training Needs Assessment Process

Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                                                 Page 4

The assessment process recognized that there a e many different levels of education
and training needs as illustrated by Figure 2.

                                   /    I.E:tItNIK<;          \
                               /          I, E v b 1. s

                                           1 iplom a
                                1’ rofessianlrl Develop in ent
                                    Basic Knowledge
                                   A w a re n e ss C re tl ti 4 en

                            Figure 2: Different Learnrng Needs

Based on this understanding, the human resource strategy attempts to develop
opportunities for all working within the tourism industry. It also recognizes that there
are varying levels of education within the country and that opportunities must be
developed in order to ensure that sectors of the society, and especially the poor, can
hecome part of the industry.

  Tourism Human Kcsaurces Development Strategy                                    Page 5
'I-k Public Sector is made up of a number of different govcrnmcnt ininistries and
agencies. Figure 3 charactcrizss the nature of the activities of these ministries. 'I'hc
challenge is to ensure that all the relevant actors are trained and educatcd to support
thc overall tourism development and nianagcrnent process.

                              Figure 3 : Public Sector Activities

 'l'raining and education needs were assessed using a wide range of sources including
 surveys. interviews and questionnaires as well as input from 'TA 3454 teain members.
 The overall model for needs assessment can be found in Figure 1. This HRD policy is
 based in part o n the work of the WTOLJNDP 1996 but it has been signiticantly
 updated and expanded.

 'fhe assessment used the following list of public sector occupational activities        3s   a
 means of organizing its work.

         Advertising                                           Graphics/Presentation
         Manager/C:oordinator/Assistant                        Manager/Assistant
         h a s t a I Zone Managetncnt                          Heritage Interpreter
         Computer l'rograininer                                Information Officer
         Cultural Resource Planner                             Infrastructure I'lanncr
         Data Base Management                                  Ins pea o r
         Data Gathcring and Analysis                           Investment Counselor
         (,Statisticsj                                         I.,c.galAdv i SOT
         I;conomic Analysis                                    Ixisurc C:enter ManageriAssistant
         Gift Shop R/lanaEc'?Assistant                         I .kensi ng'G r i d ing

  Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                                Page (1
           Market Research and forecasting                   Team ManagedLeader
           Marketing Manager/                                Tour Guide
           Coordinator/ Assistant                            Tourism Planner
           Natural Resource Planner                          Tourism Visitor Information
           Product Development Expert                        Counselor
           Promotion ManagedAssistant                    8
                                                             'l'ourism Visitor Information
           Publication Design                                 Supervisor
           Regulator                                         Trainer
           Researcher                                         Travel Counselor
           Site Manager                                       Web Page Design and maintenance
           Special Events Coordinator                         Writer
           Spccial Events Manager

    In assessing the training needs for each of the departments, there appears to be overlap in
    responsibilities. In many cases the tasks withi.1 a particular department would logically
    be the responsibility of other departments within the Ministry of 'Tourism. In somc
    instances, the responsibility would be that oi other government ministries where the
    appropriate expertise would be more readily available.

    As of October 2000, the registered number o i staff at MOT based in Phnoin Penh is
    approximately 450. It is believed that 30% - 40% of the registered employees are
    actually active. This is derived from interviews as well as advice from consultants
    assigned to M 0 1 . Thc percentage of active staff to registered staff will serve as basic
.   data necessary for determining the scale of Mt)T staff training and capacity to perform
    daily duties. In other words we arc not dealing with 450 staff members who require
    training but rather a much sinaller subset that actually are working within the Ministry.

     Tourism Human Resources Dcvelopment Strategy                                         Page 7
:2 regional tourism office is established i n each province c.oniprising an Adniinistration &L
Financc Oftkc, Industry gL Planning Office and C.’ultural Devclopment Officc.
Information & Promotion Offices are established at principal tourist destinations and
gatcways (,the three provinces of Siem Reap, Krong Preah Sihanoukville and Phnoni
Penhj. As of July 2000 there were 501 staff from M0‘1’ working in provincial offices.
The number of these who are ac.tive is not known.

Academic Background of MOT Staff
Rased on .4DB T.4 3454 and advice from the consultants the acadeniic background of
MO‘I‘ staff is presented in Table 1 .

                1 Academic Background
                , Ph. D.                                          0
                I Master degree
                 Bachelor degree                           25
                 Professional skill                               3 010   ___.-

                           -______.___                     _-__I_
                                                                 63 ‘10

                                                                I00 ?in

                           Table 1 : Academic Background of MOT Staff

A number of staff have participated in overseas training, a high percentage being
university graduates which reflects the practice of‘ donors to impose requirements for
overseas training such as the need to posscss a Lrniversity degree or equivalent
qiialilic.ations, three years of’ employment in a related field. and language c.ompetencr;
(English) before training is provided. While there has been a satisfactory level of
international training therc has not been any formal evaluation from the point view 01’
quality and re1evanc.e of that training. It is recommended that all international training
exercises require a ibrrnal report both of the individual as wcll as of the. individual

 Domestic Training
 Domestic training carried out in the past five years can be catcgorized as “introductory
 traininghetraining for tour guides”, “basic training” (tourism development and
 management). “skill training” (computers, English. ctc.) for MOT staff, and “hospitality
 training related to tourism awareness”.

 The tuajority o F the training was related to %warc.iiess”. Though this can bc appraised
 froin the viewpoint of broadening the tourism base. one cannot help but say that this
 activity only covers a small part of the training and education gap. There is no evidence
 that a needs survey was conducted before deciding on the content, hereby indicating that
 t h e is no assurance that thc desirable level of training was necessarily provided.

 T’nurism l1u nian Rcsou rces Develop ment Strategy                                      !’age 8
Through a series of questionnaires and several meetings ADB TA 3454 has identificd a
number of training requirements that need to be met if the government bureaucracy in
Cambodia is to meet the country’s tourism objectives. However,until staff is paid a
living wage much of the training will not necessaril! increase the capacity of staff given
their need to seek additional forms of livelihood.

A possible solution might be in job sharing where two persons share the responsibility for
specific objectives and outputs. The working day could be split into two time units, with
a handover period, e.g., 7.30 to 12.30 and 12.00 tl:, 17.00 hours. Staff would then be
officially free to undertake secondary employment. This stratgey relieves office space.
increases motivation, and allows employees to supplement their income until such time
as the Government is in thc position to enhance the Fasic wages of civil servants.

Ministry of Tourism
Introduction to Basic Tourism Planning and Development Concepts
There is an urgent need for staff at all levels to understand what is meant by ‘tourism’; to
appreciate that it is basically the sale of a shared experience, based on physical comfort,
providing a visual experience and a service component. The expectations of the tourists
need to be clearly understood, in order to create a positive growth environment. Within
this context thc Ministry can then embrace its responsibility to provide guidance and
support to a growing industry.

Basic General Skills
The following training needs have been identified. Private sector training organizations
offer courses covering all of’ these topics. Selected staff can be enrolled on an individual
basis, or group rates can be negotiated for larger nuinhers.
          -   -
        Language skills - Basic, Intermediate and Advanced
        Report writing
        Keyboard skills
        Word processing
        Computer literacy
        Numeracy skills
        Basic accounting
        Database management
        Stock control

 Tourism Human Resources Dcvelopnient Strategy                                         Page 9
Statistical Analysis:
In the report on the developnicnt of an cconomic base study for Cambodia carried out by
AIIH 'I'A 3454 the need for such training is well illustrated and discussed. A basic
introduction to economic analysis should be includcd.

lraining Inspectors & Rcwlators

When the tourism law is enacted thcre will be an urgent need to train inspectors in a wide
range of technical and jurisdictional issues if they arc to bc effectivc in carrying out thcir
important tasks.

Basics of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Crcation
Staff must begin to understand how to support small and medium-sized enterprises if
poverty redwtion is to oc.cur. It is important that. staff move from the rhetoric that is now
becoming common about the importance of small and medium-sized cnterpriscs to
ac.tually beginning to understand the dynamics behind the c.rcation of such initiatives.

Training Needs for MOT and Other Itclevant Ministries
Iiiforniation Officers
It is evident that the staff of various ministries interacting with tourists needs assistance to
develop its tourist information services. Infomiation should include communication and
courtcsy skills, care and prcsentation of information desks, collection and filing of'
information. display of promotional materials, etc. Interpretation, design of exhibits and
publications. and the developnicnt of multimedia prescntations also need to be trained.
This will have to be at various levels and directed at specific staff.

 Relevant Ministries: Ministry of 'I'ourism, Ministry of Cultural and Fine Arts. and
 Ministry of Environment.

 Marketing and Promotion
 Staff should be exposed to thc basics of niarkct rescarch and promotion in order to allow
 thcni to participate effectively in the rcsearch process and to interact with marketing and
 promotion professionals. 'l'here should be no attempt to train a large number of skillcd
 people but it is clear that market research skills are an important need in Cambodia.

 Relevant Ministries: Ministry of Tourism. Ministry of Cultural and Fine Arts. and
 Ministry of Environment.

 Managing Service Exccllcncc in the Cambodian Tourism Industry
 Knowlcdgeable travelers are demanding the best quality the tourism industry can
 provide. A competitive hospitality or tourism organization or business requires
 employces who (a> arc c.ommittcd to cxcceding industry standards for quality service. (h)
 can perform el'fectively in a niulticultural environment. and (c) can contribute creativcly
 to addrcssing service challenges in the workplacc. C'onsistent, predictable servic.e quality
 translatcs into customcr satisfxtion and incrcased revenues from positive referrals to
 potential customers and rcpcats visits. Quality service training can also hcighten
 en1ployt.c satisfaction and positi\!ely influencc employee retention.

  lourism Human Resources Devclopmcnt Strategy                                           kige 10
Relevant Ministries: Ministry of 'Tourism, Ministry of Cultural and Fine Arts and
Ministry of En\.

The Management of Ecotourism
Such a course would allow the participants to understand the basic elements of
ecotourism, evaluate market trends, assess the ?otential of individual and group
ccotourist specialty markets. use green guidelines for operating a successful ecotourism
business, analyze and address the special needs oi ecotourists and local communities,
establish an ecotourism planning process at the local and regional levels, develop trip
circuits and travel packages that are safe and offer a wide variety of experiences and
understand the vital role of interpretation and educalion in adding value.

Relevant Ministries: Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Forestry and Ministry of

Ecolodge Development
Such a course would allow the participants to assess the market demand for ecolodge
types and the experiences they provide, estimate realistic cost projections/ revenue
potential and develop pricing strategies, and undcrstand how to tind the best locations
and evaluate si tc development opportunities and ccmstraints.

Relevant Ministries: Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Environment.

Coastal & Marine Ecotourism
Such a course would allow the participant to integrate coastal zone management and
marineireef conservation into a sustainable tour ism development strategy. identify the
special characteristics of marine ecotourists, use innovative resource planning techniques
and coastal zone management best practices, establish zoning and visitor tracking
methods, educate visitors and staff about low-impact forms of recreation, monitor and
assess more accurately the long-term effects of tourism on local resources and increase
government's commitment in marine park proteciion and effective coastal management.

 Relevant Ministries: Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Environment.

 Historical Site Management
 Observation of activities within the Angkor Wat complex would indicate that site
 management would need to be urgently i,nproved. While the present ad-hoc
 arrangements may have been acceptable for lo.,v volume traffic, there is an urgent need
 for staff to be trained to deal with ever larger number of visitor numbers.

 Relevant Ministries: Ministry of Tourism and hiinistry of Cultural and Fine Arts.

 Proiect Manayenient
 Staff must be exposed to leading-edge projecl management skills and knowledge areas.
 It is becoming increasingly important, as transparency and good governance are required
 that team leaders and managers understand how to manage large-scale projects in a
 financially responsible manner. There is incrc asing concern within the donor community
 about the level of projcct management in Cambodia. It is clear that this is ae skill and
 knowledge area that will bc urgently required as donors and others become inore

 'Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                       Page 1 1
Iklevant Ministries: Ministry of' Tourism. Ministry of Cultural and Fine Arts. and
Ministry of Environmcnt.

Povcrty Reduction through Tourism
As we discover more and more about the role that sustainable tourism can play in
alleviating poverty, staff must be provided with the opportunity of developing their skills
and knowledge in poverty reduction initiatives. The training should range from simple
awarcness raising to sophisticated training for small numbers in developing policics and
programs designed to deal with the povcrty issue in a comprehensive manner.

Relevant Ministries: All ministries dealing with tourism.

Ministry Specific Tourism Related Training and Education
Ministrv of Health

Employees must be trained to:
       Deliver emergency medical services and conduct 'Medivac' procedures,
       cmphasizing the need for a core team of doctors and nurses with the

    .  communication skills necessary to conimunicatc with injured foreigners.
       Consider worse case scenarios, e.g., an airline crash; a major nightclub tire, and

    .  have pre-planned strategies in place.
       Develop action procedures for emergencies such as a major food poisoning
       outbreak. (Lack of hospital beds often requires that medical emergencies of this
       nature be dealt with within the hotel/resort location.)
       Ensure that an effective public health cducation policy on STD/AIlIS is firmly in

Ministrv of the Interior

Employees must be trained to:
      Ensure that entry and exit procedures are courteously implemented.


      Ensure that customs officers exercise their authority with tact and consideration.
      Ensure that firc-lighting services are adequate.
      Carry out fire inspections of hotels. restaurants and places of public entertainmeill.

Ministry of the Environment
Employees must be trained to:
       Kespond quickly to requests for guidance on development proposals.
   = Work with the Ministry of Health to ensure that new tourist developments do not

    .  result in further pollution of the rivers and beaches.
       Develop carrying capacities ibr natural areas.

Ministry of Social Aflairs. Labor and Veteran Affairs

Employees must be trained to:
       Work with the industry to integrate handicapped persons into the work force.
       (,Failure to create employment opportunities for all sectors of thc communiiy
       results in a social disenchantment and the eventual abuse. and exploitation of
       tourists. )

 Tourism Human liesources L)eveloprnent Strategy                                      Page 12
Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts
Employees must be trained to:

    .  Develop carrying capacities for all cultural sites.
       Ilevelop site management skills.

Ministry of Public Works and Transportation
Employees must be trained to:
       Conduct inspection for safety of boats
       Integrate tourism aspect into transportation planning and management

Ministw of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Employees must be trained to:
Communicate with the rural communities in ordcr to link their production with the
market opportunities, enabling the sale of qualit\.*vegetables, fish. poultry and dairy
products to hotel operators. Failure to address this issue results in financ.ia1 losses to the
country as hoteliers import produce from neighboring countries. Moreover, failing to
emphasize to farmers the opportunities for sharing the benefits from tourism encourages
urban drift, a situation where people move away from the farming communities in search
of direct employment in areas where tourism is being developed.

The Self Financing of Training
l'ersons willing to finance their own education m d who enroll in recognized training
programs should be given study leave, and receivc 75 YOof their basic wage. The balance
of salary could then be paid upon successful coinpletion of the course and a minimum
period of service within relevant government depilrtment).

 Role of the Department of Training and Education, Ministry of Tourism
 The Department of Training and Education within the Ministry of Tourism has been seen
 as the agency that would deliver training. It is clear from the needs identified above that
 there is little capacity within the Department or 1he Ministry itself to provide this level of
 training. The Human Resource Development Strategy therefore recommends that the
 Department of Education and Training be renan ,ed as the Human Resource Development
 Department responsible for monitoring and L oordinating training activity within the
 Ministry and acting as the Ministry's agent in training and education matters. Any
 thought that the Ministry staff could be trained as trainers to deal in most of the areas
 described above is simply not feasible. Department staff should be trained in such
 matters as curriculum design and evaluation, nlonitoring of self-paced learning exercises
  and in needs asscssment.

 The required skills and knowledge cases eithcr are of a very specific nature or of such a
 general nature that the needs can be met by many of the private sector providers in the
 community. In addition, there will be many illstances where there will be a need to train
 only small numbers of staff. I n some cases having foreign and domestic experts carry out
 the training may be the best option but there must be serious consideration given to the
 development of distance learning and self p x e d materials. Donor agencies should be
 contacted to see whether this type of capacity building support could be supported. It
 would allow for self paced learning and woiild enable new staff to access the necessary
 skills and knowledge t o car? out their work ;!s they join MOT.

  Tourism Human Resources Development Strategj                                          Pagr 13
C on c lus io ns
There are significant training and education needs that must be met not only within the
Ministry of Tourism but also within several other ministries if successful sustainable
tourism development is to occur. It is clear that the Ministry must work closely with all
of those involved in bolh product development as well as the hospitality industq in
ensuring the right skills and knowledgc education is available.

‘I’hc Ministry must move from a role of provider to onc of coordinator and leader in
helping to establish the directions that training niust take within thc tourism community.

  Tourism Human Ilesourccs Development Strateg)                                     I ’ a p !4
The Private Sector is made up of a numbcr of cifferent organizations and activities as
illustrated by Figure 4. The challenge is to ensurc. that the relevant actors are trained and
educated to support the overall tourism developmcnt and management process. From the
beginning it is important to stress that the Mipistry of Tourism is only one of many
government actors responsible for delivering : quality tourism product. There are

therefore a series of other ministries that require capacity building.

                                Figure 4: Private Sector Activities

 The assessment used the following list of privLtte sector occupational activities as a means
 of organizing its work:

     I   AdventurdOutdoor Tourism Guide                       Food & Beverage Manager
     N   Advertising Manager/Assistant                        Food Sr Beverage Server
         Amusement Park Employee                              Food Service Counter Attendant
         Amusement Park                                       Front Desk Agent
         Operation/Manageinent                                Golf Club Manager
     N   Bartender                                            Guest Services Attendant
     N   Beverage Services Manager                            Housekeeping Room Attendant
     N   Campground Operator                                  1 luman Resource Management
     8   Casino Dealer                                        Hunting Guide
         Casino Slot Attendant                                Kitchen Helper
     m   Catering Manager                                     I..eisure Center Manager/Assistant
     1   Ilirector of Salcs and Marketing                     Linc Cook
         Door Staff                                           Marketing Manager/Assistant

 Tourism Human Resources Development Strateg:.                                        Page 15
     Proinotion Managcr/Assistant                Tour Bus/Vaii Driver
     Reservations Sales Agent                    Tour Director
     Retail First lxvel Manager                  'Tour Guide
     Retail Sales Associate                      Tour Operator
     Sales Manager                               Tourism Sinall Business Owner
     Small Business Owner/Operator               Tourism Trainer
     Special Events Coordinator                  'Travel Counselor
     Special Events Manager                       Wine Service
     Taxicab Driver

Tourism Human Rcsourcrs I>evrloprnent Strategy                              Pagr 16

In order to better understand the nceds of the travel and lourism sector several initiatives were
taken. In addition to the significant number of interviews and meetings with many members
of the tourism industry, the project worked with Rege:it College in l’hnoni Peiih in a study
that was intended to provide a snapshot of the current human resource capacity in the travel
and tourism industry. This included not only the hospitality sector, but also related industries
of‘ international and domestic travel services and other support services. The key objectives
were to provide a clear and relevant overview of the current level of skills among personnel
 working in the hospitality and travel industry and, by analysis of current recruitment
 practices, human resource and training policies, to identify clear areas where a skills gap
 exists. ln addition the study aimed to assess the commitment and capacity of owners.
 managers and currently existing training institutions 10 address these questions. To achieve
 these objectives. primary data was collected from a CI oss section of accommodation services.
 restaurant and catering services, and travel and tour operators. Secondaq data was provided
 by the hospitality. travel and tourism sectors, the Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of
 Education. ’The project team wishes to thank Rcgent College for its cooperation and
 professionalism in completing the survey.

 Due to the necessarily limited nature of the time and financial resources available to carry out
 a survey. three key sites were selected as representing the current focus of tourism activity in
 Cambodia. These were:
        Phnom Penh, the capital city and principal port of entry for the Kingdom. Despite a
         significant decrease of growth in arrivals, a< a result of the government’s Open Skies
        policy, 56.75% of all visitors to Cambodia in 2000 still arrived through Pochentong
         International Airport.
         Siem Reap, home of Angkor Wat and the principal center for tourism development. In
         3,000, 18.66% of all visitors to the kingdt)m arrived through Siem Reap Airport. a
         figure that has shown an enormous increase in the year to date, with a 110.98% rise in

     .   the first quarter alone.
         Sihanoukville (formerly Kampong Som), Cambodia’s principal seaside resort town.
         located 230km south of Phnom Penh. one of four international border checkpoints and
         a popular destination for domestic holidaymakers.

 Primary research in each of these locales consisted of questionnaires, scheduled interviews
 and, in the case of Phnom Penh, follow-up fclcus group discussions (FGD’s). Potential
 respondents were drawn from PADECO’s comprehensive listings of hotels, guesthouses,
 restaurants and travel and tour operators. PA1 IECO’s categories were further subdivided
 based on considerations of price. facilities, sii e, ownership and location. Subsets in each
 locale were identified using thesc four criteria, md from thcse subsets a random sample was
 made, proportionate to the size/ numbcr of each location. A total of one hundred respondents
 were selected across the three locations.

  Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                     Page 17
Questionnaires focused on currcnt recruitment and H R policy, the current cducational and
skill levels of tnanagemcnt and staff, reccnt experience of, or participation in. internal o r
externally conducted training, management commitment to staff development. perceived
constraints or obstacles to thc provision of training. and the prioritization of specific skills for
enhaiicemcnt or development. In addition to the quantitative data obtained, the questionnaires
contained a qualitative coinponent in the form of brief interviews based on a sct of prc-
sclccted qucstions. 'I'he questionnaires were administcred in face-to-face interviews with
owners or managers of hotels. restaurants or travel and tour opcrators. Questionnaires were
available in English or Khmer as required. and each intcrview team consisted of one nativc
speaker and one Khmer interviewcr to minimize problems of comprehension. Secondary
information sources consisted primarily of the Ministry of Tourism Statistical Report for
7000. the 1999 MPDF rcport on Developing SMEs in the Tourism Industry and the 1996
National I Tuman Resource Strategy developed by WTO/UNDP.

Immediately following completion of the formal questionnaires, respondents were invitcd to
ciplorc issues. which had at-iscn in the course of the interviews in an informal setting, and to
provide a more personalized insight into the topics covered.

1-ollowing completion of all primary data collection, two focus group discussions were
conducted to further explore the issues raised by the study, involving respondents fioni the
training and education ficld, and owners and mangers froin the private sector.

'This report provides information on the most important findings.

Recruitment Policy
It was discovered across each of the sample groups (hotels, guesthouses. restaurants. travcl
and tour opcrators) that rccruitmcnt in thc main depended on either the employment of
relatives of owners or managers or on word-of-mouth from current staff as can be seen from
Table 2. A clear majority 01' all companies interviewed expressed a prefercnce for this lorni
of internal recruitment, usually citing simple issues of trust as the principal criteria.
outweighing other considerations of specific skills or suitability. Although this was truc for
all groups and in each location, it was particularly marked in the restaurant sector and in
Category 2 and Category 3 hotels. While newspaper advertising, usually in Reaksmey
Kampuchea. was the second most popular form of locating new staff. this was still relatively

                                                                             I Percentage-'- -1
                                .        _. -____ ___         __-       -.
                                      Iiccruitrnent Policy    .____._

               Newspaper advertisements
               NewsDaoer advertiscments and Flver
                                                                                    1 4%

          I    Notices at trainine schools. NGO's                            I      5?.'0     I
          I_____ Hire rclativcs or bring from the provinces
            Flyers and                   __                                  -I     1YO
                                                                                    __        I
          1    Hirc relatives   01   -      liom the provinces
                                     hrinr .-         -.___ ----   -

 'Toorism tluman Kcsources Development Strategy                                              Page 18
                                                Table 2: Recruitment I’olicy

Educational requirements
In terms of specific qualifications for positions, few employers expressed a preference for
these. with the majority having no specific requircrnent at all levels except managerial/
supervisory as can be seen in Table 3. There was a clear identification of educational
attainment being important at these levels, but upon further exploration, this was more
hypothetical than actual. with the majority of managzment and supervisory staff having no
 formal qualification in any related specialization. In the hotel and accommodation sector,
experience was clearly rated highly for all staff, but tiiere was also a clear recognition of the
need for at least Baccalaureate I1 level of education in front desk staff.

When employers were asked to specifically consider their policy regarding formal
qualifications. almost two thirds stated categoricall?. that qualifications were not a major
consideration. Almost universally among Category I , 2 and 3 hotels. recruitment depended
solely on the personal assessment of the owner or ma:iager, regardless of educational level or
specific training. A significant numbcr did respect and recognize the value of qualifications,
but this was mostly the case in I’hnom Penh rather than Sihanoukville or Siem Reap.
r-                                       -.

                                                                                              ___.                Percentage
m i r l n g u p s c h o o l that the certificate is granted from and t nquire about              10                  11%
i the content of training, and the student’s performance
1  We consider the applicant because they have the certificate listed                            10                  I lOi0
,        We do not hire the applicant because heishe will probably ask for too much
                                                                                                 3                   3.5%

         We do not hire the applicant because we prefer to have our staff learn from us              5               k                i
’        Wc hire&r
                 o     applicants with qualifications that are from reco2nized training          3
I        centers                                                                                                                       I
I        Does not matter to us, we decide on the person
                                                                                                 56                  63%               i

           do not know                                                                           2                  2.25%
                                     _ -
                                      _ .

                     ?’able 3: Recruitment Policy Regarding Applicants Holding Formal Qualifications

        ‘l’he reasons stated for this were varied, and often related to the previous data regarding
        recruitment of family members. Some variations wt‘re found at the extremes of the scale. In
        the casc of the major hotel chains, and as a result .if their confidence in their own training
        programs, the key requirements were felt to be facility in languages. completion of High
        School Diploma (Baccalaureate 11). and ability to lcarn quickly. While they were supportivc
        in principle to recruiting previously qualified staff lor starter positions. they did not fccl this
        \ \ o d d offer any significant advantage, and would ;ilso bc dependent on their assessment of
        thc institutions and qualifications involvcd.

        Tourism H unia n Kesou rces Develop ment Strategy                                                          Page 19
At the opposite end of the scale. as predicted. there was a reluctance to consider staff with
inorc than basic. qualifications due to the necessarily low wages paid and the. perception that
better qualified staff would eithcr seek higher salaries or would not remain in place long.

Attitudes Towards lnvestment in Training
One of the recurring concerns stated when discussing rccruitment or training was the
impression that investment in training or in recruitment based on merit or achievement was
undesirable due to the mobility of cmployees. Repeatedly owners and managers stresscd that
if staff were not family members, or were traincd to higher standards, they would eithcr lcavc
For better employment or would establish their own business in competition. Indeed, when
asked the most common reason for staff changes it is true that 40% were due to employees
linding better positions, but whcn asked about staff turnover. the results showed a relatively
high degree of stability with 72% of companies securing a minimum of six months’
eniploynicnt from staft: and almost 62% retaining staff for over a year. Given the seasonal
 nature of the industry, and the rate of hotel and restaurant development in Phnom Penh and
 Sictn Keap, this suggests that even in those businesses not employing family members. thc
 situation is less volatile than one would expect.
                                                                                  .. .-_

                                                          1-’ P e r c e n t a e e

                       I                                                                 I
                        Less than 3 months
                        3 months to 6 months
                        6 months to a w a r                             10%
                           More than a year
                       --.___.-.                                   -~   62?O   -
                        1 do not know


                                              Table 4: Staff Turnover

 lraining and Staff Devclopiiicnt
 Following on from the above data, the questionnaire then focused on what training was
 provided to staff, eithcr intcrnally or externally following recruitment. Respondents were
 questioned about specific positions to provide a dctailed insight into the relative importancc
 placed on training of management, front-line and back-office staff.

 In the case of hotels and guesthouses, those employed in management or supervisory
 positions ordinarily rcceivcd little more than orientation. primarily due to being perceived as
 alrcady qualified or expcriemcd. Only 5% of respondents offered a slructured training plan
 For these positions and than 90/0 of respondents sought outside training f‘or managemcnt
 or supc.rvisory starf.

 In the case of front-of-housc staff. results were broadly similar with again only 50/0 of
 companies having a structured training programme, relying instead on the prcvious
 experience of new staff membcrs o r limited in-service training to achieve the results rcquired.
 ‘lhc majority either received no training or were trained as required. on the joh.

 Tourism Iluman Resources Development Strategy                                        Page 20
llse of Outside Training Providers
When it came to the use of outside training providers, clear divisions could be seen between
smaller. family-run businesses, companies owncd or managed by non-Cambodian
respondents, or Cambodian-owned and managed companies wherein the owner or manager
themselves had a higher level of professional training. In the latter two groups, staff was
inore likely to have been sponsored for outside training, whether in English language,
computer skills, or a hospitality related course.

        Table 5 : Percentage of Staff Participating in Outside Staff Training in the Last T h r e e Months

In the case of approximately 20% of respondents, fimr or more staff had undergone some
extcrnal training in the last three months, mainly in English or Computing, and an additional
14% of respondents had at least one staff member who had undergone training. However it
must be emphasized that in many cases thc staff memhers were expected to finance this study
themselves, and it was cntirely voluntary. It should also be noted that in the case of almost
66?4 of companies surveyed. no staff member had undergone training of any kind in thc
prcceding threc months. and many of these respondents stressed that it was extremely
unlikcly any training would be forthcoming. While some employers indicated their
willingness to send outstanding staff for training, almost 60% clearly stated that they had no
plans for future training. Indeed. even among the 1(1% who nominally encouraged staff to
seek their own training. it was not unusual to be told that it would be highly unlikely that they
would be given any time off work to follow a course oi'study.

     We routinely send staff out, as a group, on external training courses specifically          7%
     designed for our company
     We send people out for training individually, on the basis of merit (it is earned)         24.5%
i We rely on the staff to seek their own professional educational iidvancenient and we
I    niay sponsor it if we feel it is of beticfit, or we simply give them time off to study
                                                                        -   -F___

     We do not offer further training of staff of any kind, it is up to sraff to train           2 6%
     This is not a consideration                                                                3 1.5%

                                            Table 6: Plans for Future ';'raining

    'lourism H u m a n Resources Development Strategy                                                   Page 2 1
Performance Assessment
In an attempt to clarify procedures regarding staff training and developinent? respondents
were then questioned on performance assessment. ?'he results were encouraging in that ovcr
90% of respondents conduct performance assessments, although in most cases these do not
follow a systematic pattern. Ilowever, it must be noted that only 21 3 5 ?A of those responsiblc
fix assessment have any spe.cific training in evaluation, with the majority depending on their
o w n experience.

Training/ Education Needs
1 .anEuage Skills
'The above lack of structured training was repeated when it came to discussing the language
levels of managenlent and staff, While English, for example, was clearly identified, as the
priority for almost all hotels and travel agencies. a i d for most restaurants, there was little
systematic attention paid to eithcr assessing the abilities of current staff or to dewloping
skills for the hture. While most companies indicated that conversational English was a pre-
requisite for employment in Ikont-of-house or customer service related work, only one in five
 used any structured assessment method (review of certi tication. interview with a native
 speaker or formal testing). Most depended on interviews with the owner or manager. It
 should be noted here that in many cases these questionnaires were administered in Khmer
 because the owner or manager did not have a sufficient level of English to discuss the matters
 covered - the same person responsible for asscssing the staff. In many cases interviewers
 commented on the low level of English evident even among restaurant and front-desk staft-.
 'This was particularly acute in Sihanoukville. where almost all of the owners or managers
 interviewed spokc little English. and where the lcvcl of English among staff was generally
 much loiv-er than in Phnom Penh or Siem Reap.

 Most owners arid managers clearly recognized the importance of English for all staff
 including housekeeping and security staff. but as dctailed above were unwilling or unable to
 sponsor staff in training.

                        ~__-__-___-             I     --
                                                           Percentage         --
                        English                     ____       51%
                        Chinese                                23%
                        JaDanese                                   7Yo

                                     Table 7 : Language Priority

 Following English, Chinese was a clear second-place priority for all groups. Considering that
 in the first quarter of the the iiuniber of Chinese tourists visiting C.ambodia rose to be the
 second highest after the USA. coupled with the fact that Chinese travelers in general do not
 spcak English to the level of other visitors, this clearly represents a priority area for the
 coming years. In general most businesses are currently limited to a few C.hinese speaking
 stxff. but many expre.ssed a desire to improve the language skills of certain staf'f in this are.a.
 I n the casc of Frcnch and Japanese. several owners and managers commented that whilc thcy
 \vould like t o have staff c.apablc 01' using both these languages. most trawllers from Europe
 () r ;Ia p a 1 co u 1d co ni m un i ca tc adcy ua tel y in English .

 Tourism Fiumnn Resourccs Devclopment Strategy                                           rage 22
Specific Skills
liespondents from each group were presented with ( hecklists of skills and micro-skills
specilic to certain positions within their organisations e.g. food & beverage supervisor,
ticketing agent etc. In an attempt to priontise specific areas for attention, respondents were
requested to check just the three training needs for cach position, which they felt to be
immediate priorities. These lists were prepared in Khmer and English as appropriate. Due to
the relatively small size of the sample, the spread of responses was oftcn too large to provide
useful data. In such cases. this is indicated in the table 8

Again there was a clear variation across groups in terms of ability to clearly and effectively
identifj specific skills that could have an immediate impact on performance. In the case of
travel agents and tour operators. for example, the shills which were most requested were
coniputer skills, interpersonal communication skills. and administrative skills - clearly
directly applicable to their work. But in many cases, these questions seemed to provide as
many anomalies as answers, with, for example word-processing skills identified as the second
highest priority for servers/ bartenders. and enhanciiig memory skills scoring considerably
higher than food and hygiene procedures for kitchen staff. In the latter case it could be argued
that this is because most establishments questioned believed their hygiene standards to be
adequate already, but this is by no means certain.

Equally, many smaller. non-computerised restaurants and guesthouses selected computer
skills as their priority, but when questioned further did not provide an explanation of how
these skills would be directly applied to their business.

Cost of Training
Respondents were questioned regarding a range of options to assist with the cost of training.
An earlier question had established that the level of fees most respondents willing to sponsor
training were prepared to pay was in the US$20-50 range, based on an average ten-week part-
time course of 40 hours.

                   I                             Number        Percentage     -
                       Less than $20 USD            17             19 Yo
                       $20-50 USD                   3 1'           48%
                       $50-80USD                     6              9%
                       More than $80 LJSD            6             12Yo
                       NIA -___                      t             12%
                                                    (-7            I0096

                 Table 8: Maximum Amount a Company Would Pay for Staff Training

 Preferred Training Providers
 Anothcr key question concerned the preferred training provider. should external training be
 required. Intcrestingly, in Siem Reap and Phnoin Penh a clear majority preferred private
 sector providers to a Ministry-run training inst.tution, with 48.6% in favor of a private
 institution against 37.5% in favor of a Ministry Tlaining Center. Most respondents were very
 reccptivc to the ideas of thc Ministry adopting a {upervisory and licensing role rather than a
 direct training role.

  Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                       Page 23
It is clear from the bulk ofrcspondents surveyed that while skills levels remain lo\+ across thc
tourism industry. training represents a low priority for most owners and managers, wlicther of
niediuin sized hotels. small gucsthouses. restaurants aimed at the tourist market or family-run
travel and tour operators. While a few companies interviewed showed an impressive
commitment to training and staff development, as well as a keen awareness of the areas
where i niprovcincnt was most needed. thesc were clearly exceptions.

Of course significant variations exist between the three locales, with a sense of despondency
to be found among some owners in Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville, compared to the bullish
mood found in Siem Reap. At several of the mid-range hotels in Phnoin Pcnh (Hawaii.
Champs Elysecs. Diamond etc.) owners or managers bemoaned low levels of occupancy and
commented that their income and staff levels were actually lower now than four years ago.
Some othcr hotcls quite openly discussed the level and extent of their financial losses.
Although fcw hotels have declared bankruptcy in the last year (three in Phnom Penh in 2000)
it seems that many of the interviewers encountered businesses in Phnom Penh and
Sihanoukville with few positive signs of growth. In Sihanoukville, the situation is acute. with
a clear oversupply oT rooms in the $10-25 range. The inexperience of many hotel and
restaurant owners is apparent fi-om the moment of arrival, with little attention paid to
customer service. cleanliness or presentation. The vulnerability of many smaller operators to
 better-organized or bctter-fiinded competitors is also evident. While this is truc in all
 countries. in such a small and concentrated area it is surprising to be able to go from a clcan,
 modcrn hotel with facilities such as a swimming pool. LOO. tennis courts. rcstaurrints.
 hairdresser etc. to a hotel with cstremely basic room facilities, no additional facilities. a very
 poor standard of cleanliness and customer servicc, and to be offered the same rate (lJS$30)at
 both. It is clear that managers and staff of such hotels could benefit from training in the
 expectations of lbrcign tourists regarding dicor. flirnishings etc, as well as service
 considerations, but there is little awareness of the iniportance of these issues.

 I n Sicm Reap the contrast with Sihanoukville is obviously striking. Whcreas Sihanoukvillc in
 low season is a quiet, almost moribund setting, with little activity evident on the streets and
 rows of empty or sparsely populated restaurants. hotels and bars, Siem Reap continues to
 display vibrant signs of life. Morc than one business commented that low season now is
 similar to high season in previous years. While this is clearly cause for optimism, in the case
 of some of the respondents interviewed. this clearly leads to a sense of complacency. in that it
 is clear that tourist numbers arc growing at a rate unprecedented in the history of thc town.
 and that seasonally at least. business is booming with little effort necessary on their part. As
 has been noted elsewhere, Siem Reap is not a budgct location. Prices are cspensivc coniparcd
 with neighboring countries while the quality of service remains low. Consideralion of this
 among owners arid managers however. is limited.

 C.orrespondingly. while there was a greater proportion of owners and managers who
 expressed a commitment to training, particularly in languages and improved customer
 service., there were many inore who clearly felt that business was proceeding well enough
 without the additional expensc of training staff. As stated in the MPIIE' report from 1999.
 "many managers have a short tcrm vision in conducting thcir business and are not willing to
 in1:est in improving the quality of thcir serviccs and facilities."

 'l'ourism Human Resources Dcvcloprncnt Strategy                                        Page 24
Perhaps the most significant findings of the survey ,ire that despite the fluctuating fortunes of
reccnt years, the majority of owners and mangers persist in a short-term view of tourism
development, lacking the business experience and vision to consider the impact that future
market changes could have on their businesses. Issucs of quality are seldom addressed. or
w e n considered, and the result is that trained stair is perceived as a luxury rather than a
necessity. Perhaps due to inexperience, the connection between training, education and
productivity is not often made. In line with a reccnt study by Merrill Lynch showing that
companies employing a workforce with a 10% higher than average educational attainment
level enjoyed an 86% higher-than-average producti:/ity, the message that training pays off is
one that must be stressed i f the industry is to embrac: any future proposals.

In line with this, it seems clear that left to their own devices few businesses are likely to take
a proactive approach to training.

Table 9 defines the priority training needs for the private sector in Cambodia.

  Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                         Page 25
                                                                                      .   __ Training Needs for
                                                                                                       - -        icti Position
                                                               Front-of House staff    Food 6c Beverage            Food & Beverage            Housekeeping Staff         Administrative/

                                    Business knowledge
                                    and skills
                                    Computer skills
                                                               1   Interpersonal
                                                                  skills              =
                                                                                       1   Team building
                                                                                           Customer service
                                                                                                                        Enhancing memory
                                                                                                                                              1  Customer service
                                                                                                                                                                         Accounting Staff
                                    Interpersonal              .
                                                               1  Customer service
                                                                  Skills in serving
                                                                                      1    Wine knowledge
                                                                                           and presentation
                                                                                                                   1    Wine knowledge
                                                                                                                        and presentation      .  skills
                                                                                                                                                 Skills in serving
                                                                                                                                                                         1  Administration
                                    conmunication skills          the demands and
                                                                  expectations            .skills
                                                                                           Supervision and
                                                                                           assessment skills
                                                                                                                        Computer skills
                                                                                                                        Premises/ Table
                                                                                                                                                 the expectations
                                                                                                                                                 and demands of
                                                                                                                                                 foreign tourists
                                                                                                                                                                         *  Business skills
                                                                                                                                                                            and knowledge

                                                                                      1    Premises/table               Presentation skills      Imrpersonal
                                                                                          presentation skills                                    communication
                                                                                      m    Skills in training                                    skills
I 2.
                                Enhancing memory           .
                                                           Server/ Bartender
                                                               Enhancing              .
                                                                                                                  Kitchen Staff
                                                                                                                      Time management

                                Kcsearch skills

                                                               memory skills
                                                               Computer skills
                                                                                      .   skills
                                                                                          Supervision and
                                                                                          assessment skills       .
                                                                                                                      Enhancing memory
                                                                                                                      Customer service
                                accounting skills              skills                 1   Enhancing memory
                                Interpersonal                  Wine knowledge             skills
                                communication skills          and Presentation            Business
                            I  Skills in training others                                  knowledge and
                            I   Premises/ room and                                        skills

                               personal presentation                                  ---__-_-                                                       -- -
             Travel         Bookings and Sales             Travel Agent/ Tour         rravcl Agent/ Tour
             Agents &       I  Computer skills (at         Operator - Tour            3perator - Driver                                                              !
             Tour              various levels)             Guide                      I   Customer service
             Opera tors     I  Business knowledge          =   Problem solving        I   Problem solving
                               and skills                     Customer service        I   Communication
                               Communication and           1  Interpersonal               and promotion
                               promotion                      communication           I   Time management
                            1  Interpersonal business         skills                  1   Multi-tasking

                                                                              Table 9: Private Sector Training Necds

             Tourism Human Resources Devrlopmcnt Strategy                                                   Page 26

Training and education is provided at various 1ev:ls ranging from certificates. diplomas, and
Bachelor and Master degree programs. The Royal IJniversity of Phnom Penh currently offers
a Masters program in Tourisni Development, while the National Institute of Management and
four other institutions offer undergraduate studie 4 in tourism. Also several private schools
provide technical training. Approximately I OC students per year graduated from these
institutions seeking tourism related employmeni in both the public and private sectors.
However, the demand for people with technicill training is very high making technical
cducation and training a major issue.
    I here is a significant need for more cooperatioil between educational institutions and the

    public/ private sectors.

    Table 10 indicates existing public and private academic institutions that have provided
    training and education on tourism.

             Koyal Phnom Penh [Jniversity (RPPU)
             National Institute of Management (NIM)
                                                          Norton 'Jniversity (NU)
                                                          Institutt of Technology and Management (ITM)
                                                          Intematlonal Institute of Cambodia ([IC)
                                                          Faculty J f Management and Law

                                                          Regent 1 :olleague
                                                          Raffles ,ntemational Training Center
                                                          Cambor!ian Hotel and Tourism Academy (CAHATA)
                                                          Australi in Center for Education (ACE) (There are
                                                          branche , in Siem Reap, Battambang and Konipong

iL                                                    1
                                                          JAMAhlO'TO School (Siem Reap)
                                                          French ('ultural School (Siem Reap)

                                'Table 10: Existing Public and Priv.ite Academic Institutions

         As indicated above there are several institutions .>roviding tourism education and training.
         Given the lack of national standards there is a corcern about the quality of students/ people
         who are trained from these tourism providers. This is due to several reasons.
            9   Lack of cooperation among tourism edwation providers including government.
                NGOs, private sector and domestic and international institutes.
                Teaching staff that does not have the necessxy qualifications and experience.
                Inadequate resources and materials of viuious kinds to assist students in their
                classroom as well as private study

         The private sector teaching establishments are keel1 to develop programs specifically for the
         tourism industry. While most of these institutions would favor topics which are an extension
         of their existing teaching fields, i.e.. hotel front office and tour guiding Techniques, some
         have already investigated the possibility of working in partnership with hotel operators to
         provide practical training \*enuesfor the training of :lousemaids and waiting staff.

         Tourism H uma ti Kesou rces Development Strategy                                        Page 21
Most eniployers would be happy to see operational standards improve, arid would contributc
niore to in-house training if they had the ability. Most operators cxperience problems
recruiting staff competent at basic skills level, let alone find trainers capable of upgrading the
skills ofothers.

With the exeption of the lop hotels, few havc ever carricd out ii training needs analysis,
mainly because they themselves are unable to detine desirable standards of performance. or
to relate these to guest expectation.

Any further developments in in-house training by the private sector will bc dependent in part
on the availability of training materials and the opportunity for their heads of department to
attend a skills upgradinghaininp techniques workshop.

 Tourism Human Kesources Development Strategy                                          Page 28

Developing a learning experience is at times a complex process that requires the participation
of a number of individuals. This short chapter attempts to identify some of the major stcps
and issucs to be considered when designing a learning experience. It is not designed to
replace the need for trained and experienced ccurse designers. Rather it is aimed at
identifying the nature of the issues and the process that are normally followed in course
design and delivery. There is certainly no one route to the development of a course or
learning experience and no magic formulas to rely 011.

Very often after an idea for a course has been identified an expert is hired to dcliver a course
without any planning occurring. While this may be cost-efficient it is not effcctive in actually
meeting the needs that will have been identified through the research process. Figure 5 looks
at a possible process for designing a learning experience. ?'he course designer should ideally
be somebody with a sound knowledge of adult edu-:ation and preferably with a good grasp of
the subject material. In many cases it is necessaq to combine the skill of the educator with
the subject specialist. When we refer to the term course designer it can either be an
individual or in some cases a group of people. Increasingly with the introduction of
interactive information technology there is a necd to havc a specialist in this area as part of
the design process.

Is important that the designers start off with an .)pen mind on how best to meet the need
identified. 'Too often it is an automatic assumptjon that the only way to train peoplc is to
develop a course or learning experience in the standard classroom fashion. Delivering
knowledge in a classroom may at times be the least efficient and efl'cctive way of attempting
to raise the knowledge and skills of a group of participants from the tourism industry. With
our increased knowledge of how people learn it is becoming increasingly clear that the
standard classroom experience may in fact be the least effective way of imparting knowledge
and skills. In this short discussion the term coursu could mean a number of different types of
 learning experiences that will be discussed later in this chapter. The following steps can be
 followed in determining the nature of learning experience.

 Step 1: Identification of the Training or Education Need
 The need for a particular skill or knowledge to be developed into a course can come from a
 number of sources. In the case of Cambodia a stdff person of the Ministry of 'Tourism in his
 or her work could observe the need for knowledge and skills to be developed and then
 transmitted to a particular group responsible for particular tourism planning or development
 issues. The need can come from a community group seeking help in addressing issues in
 their community or a group of professionals could collectively define a gap in their training
 or knowledge set. 'The necd could also come fr\)m an overall human resource development
 strategy such as the one that has bcen developed for Cambodia. Whatever the source of the
 need identification it is important to start with clear identification of the need and the
 establishment of the priority of that particular necd.

  Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                       Page 20
                                                        A Suggested Process for Course/Learning Design


                                 Stell 2 :                                                                                                              S t e p 5:
                                                                                                                                                 Detailed ('nurscl
                             o f C'I11 a c i t i c s
                                                                                                                                                J.. e x r n in g D e s i g n :
                               a n d Needs:                  S t e p 3:
                                          . ..          h s s e s s m r n t of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Step 7:
                                 Audience              the lntrrest and                                                                                                                 S t e p G:
      Step 1 :                                                                                            Step 4:                               * I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of                              Evaluating a n d
                              * Numhers                    C a p a c i t y of
                                                                                                      Definition of                                                                D e v e l o p m e n t of
  Identificatiun of                                                                                                                                   instructors                                             Innitoring the
                                 * I.evel                .
                                                        . -.
                                                            P r o-v i-. e r s :- -
                                                                                       t     t         1.earning                         -+         Dcrcrm inafinn                    the Course
  thr Training nr                                                                                                                                                                                               Lrarning
                                * Length                                                               0hjectives                                                                       Package
  Fducatinn Sced                                                                                                                                of specific c o u r s e
                              Certification                       cost
                                                           * Capacity
                               * I.ncatinn
                              hbilit? to p a y
                              " Employer
                                                         -  Reputation
                                                                                                                                                  * Prerequisites
                                                                                                                                                * Development of

                       I                               I
                                                                                                                                                c o u r s r mil t e r i n l s

                                                                                                                                               A -

                                                              F i g u r e S: :\ S u g g e s t e d P r o c r s s f o r ( ' o u r s r / l . e a r n i n g D e s i g n

Tourism 1.1u m a n Resources Development Strategy                                                                                  Page 30
Step 2: defining Capacities and Needs
Depending on the nature of the identification process there then must be a clear definition of
the actual need. This requires that the eventual provider or sponsor carry out a careful
research process in order to determine the actual dimensions of the training need. Too often a
w r y general concept is quickly turned into a course that never mects the actual needs of the
participants. Normally within the course development process the designcrs will use existing
data from a human resource development research process or at times must carry out their
own investigation. Depending on budget and the complexity of task the following sources

 may be consulted:
        Representatives from within the particular sector where the need has been identified
        (e.g. the management within the hotel industry).

    .   People actually carrying out the task (e.g. guides working at or near an historic site).
        Employers in the particular sector identified as requiring training.
     = The providers of training to determine thcir views on the need itself and the actual
        learning experience.
         Consultations with institutions or organiLations offering similar types of courses
         either in Cambodia or elsewhere in the world.

ln order to systematically collect information the designer can employ a range of techniques
including questionnaires, survcys and focus groups. It must be remembered that the survey
process simply collects information and cannot replace the need for the skill and judgment of
the course designer. The course designer will briiig to the process the knowledge of how best
to meet the needs of a particular group given a set of realities.

 This process should allow the dcsigners to identify the following factors within the overall

 course design process:
        The nature of the audience (level of education. nature of their experience, language
        skills, previous training opportunities etc.)
     9  ‘The number of people who could be trained given the opportunity. (It is important in
        this case to define not only the existing number of potential participants but the
        anticipated demand for a learning experience in the future. In some instances there is
         a significant pent-up demand that must bc met for that need only to find that after that
         demand has been met there is little potential for the ongoing delivery of the course

     .   experience.)
         The level of training needs to be addressed which can range everywhere from the
         imparting of basic awareness creation to cstablishing a sound basic skill or knowledge

     .   set to professional development experiences.
         The lcngth of the course must be determined based on the course objectives and thc
         length of time participants will be in a position to spend in the learning experience.
         The nature of the certification is certaiiily always an important issue and in some
         cases it may bc determined that the particular skill or knowledge must be met within
         the context of a group of courses that ca:i take the form of a certificate, diploma or in
         some cases a university degree.
          The locatioii o f the people requiring the training and their ability to travel is especially
          important. Do they exist in one central location or are they in fact scattcred over the
          entire country? ’I’hisissue becomes particular important from a financial perspective.

  Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                         Page 31
   =       The process must determine the ability of the individual to pay for the educational
           experience. If there is to be no subsidy provided this becomes an important issue in
           both determining the feasibility of offering a course and the nature of such an
           experience. Sources of funding for course delivery can come from the following


                   Self-financing by the individual himselfherself.
                   Llonor supported delivery.
               9   Access to a scholarship pool that can help students jn need to participate i n
                   market-oriented delivery.

               .   Government-sponsored training education.
                   Private sector support either through subsidies to of course and/or subsidy or
                   support for their cniployces.
           The willingness of’ the employer to allow an individual to participate in a learning
           experience and hisker willingness to pay for the training is a crucial factor. While a
           research process niay indicate the need for a course and a willingness on the part of
           employees to participate. there may not be the agrecment on the part of employers to
            support such activities. Without cniplopcrs support there itiay be no need to continue
            with the developincnt of a learning experience

Whcn this infomiation has been collected and analyzed it is possible to have a firm idea of
thc various dimensions of the eventual learning experience.

Step 3: Assessing the Interest and Capacity of Providers
Depending on the nature of course determined by Step 2 it is important to then work with
providers to sec how the course can be dclivered. I f the course is to be coniplctelj. subsidized
thcn this step becomes less iniportant but niore oAen than not the delivcty process depends on
sonic form of market response. Is important that discussions he held on:
        The cost of‘ delivering such a Ienrning cxpcrience. It is important to reinember that
        the course development process has to be factorcd into thc eventual course delivery
        fecs unless it is subsidixd.
        The capacity of the local or national providers to delivcr the course must be
        deterrnincd. In othcr words do they have the experience and the trained personnel to

       .deliver the course experience?
        Does the institution have the necessary reputation to enable the participants to obtain
        a job or for advancement in an agreement once the learning experience has been

        The sustainability of the provider must be assessed especially if ‘ n ongoing set of
        courses is being contemplatcd.

Coursc providers can includc:

       Universities or colleges
       Vocational institutes
   = Private institutions

       International organizations such as W‘J’O. ESCAP and UNESCO.
       Foreign universities.

Tourism Human Resources Drl;elopmrnt Strategy                                          Page 32
Step 4: Determining Learning Objectives
At this point the course can be more clearly undersiood and the factors discussed earlier
detcrniincd. It is particularly important at this point that a series of course objectivcs for the
Icarniug experience bc determined and agrecd to by thz relevant stakeholders. In effect these
objectivcs now become the guiding principle for thc delailed course development process.

Step 5: Detailcd CourselLearning Design
Is not possible within this document to describe the dztailed design process but as identified
in Figure 5 thcre are nuriihcr of issues to be considerec:. This includes the following factors:
         Hie identification of instructors and facilitatois and whether they themselves require
        training either in the I‘orm ot‘ subject specific dcvclopment or in training methods.
        There are times whcn there are people wirhiii thc industry who may havc the
        necessary knowledge but not the ability to traiismit that knowledge in a professional

    .   and effective way.
        ‘The nature of the subject material and the laccts to be delivered should then be
        identified in sufficient detail that a course instructor can deliver the required

    .   object ivcs .
        It should be determined whether any form of prerequisite is necessary for the learning
         experience. l h i s can hc as basic as language skills or can be more complex requiring
         a participant to havc participated in one or nore previous courses. The delivery
         methods arc then carefully identified and as siggested in figure there are a series of
         ivays of delivery methods available always ren,embcring that the classroom is but one
         specific rcsponsc. Ilomestic and out of country dcliveiy methods include:

            .      I n classroom work
                   Distance education of various forms including:
                            Video based courses
                        = CD ROM based courses
                            liiternet based courses

            .      On the job training
                   Fieldwork based experiences (e.g. working with a community in developing a
                   quality assurance program)
                   I Iands on experiences (e.g. cooking clases).
          ‘The cost of the coursc has to bc carefully cojisidered in the overall course delivery
          process. While i t might be ideal to have paiticular kinds of experiences available,
          costs may make this impossible.
          Course materials should ideally be developed and not lcft up to the resources of the
          instructor. Instructors with significant years c f training work may often have course
          packages already dcveloped. Howcver, thi? is often not the case and it is not
          reasonable to expect that instructors, who are often paid v e v Inodest wages. to put
          together the necessary course material. This bt comes especially important in distance
           learning situations. It is always important to rrmeniber that the distance methods very
          often discusscd, whilc possibly being a most suitable form of delivery, are expensive
           to develop. It also should be remembered that while there is a great deal made of
           Iiitcrnct learning it rcquires access to the neczssary tcchnology and connection to a
           high-spccd Tntcniet provider in order to be abk to access the necessary infbrination.
            l’hc recr,mmcndation for a center in part is dcsigned to help to deal with this access

 ’I‘ourism Human Kesoii rces Devclopnien t Strategy                                    Page 33
Step 6: Developing the Course Package
'The course package that includes the information from the steps described abovc can then be
produccd. In the ideal situation it is then possible to select the instructor and/or facilitator
based on thc material that is produced. This material would include such things as the
 detailed course objectives, the learning sequences. the nature of the group work to be carried
 out: books: video or CDs, the evaluation methods to be used and a well-dcsigned course
 evaluation techniquu.

Step 7: Evaluating and Monitoring the Learning Experience
There must be an ongoing process of assessment both while the course is being delivered and
certainly once the experience has been completcd. It is not sufficient to rely on an cvaluation
form that is often hastily completed at thc cnd of the course. If one is truly interested in
understanding the effcctiveness of a learning experience the respondents. their employers,
fcllow employecs and most importantly in the tourism industry customers should be carcl'ully
surveyed in order to determine whether the course objectives havc been met. This
information of course is important in terms of redesigning or reformatting the nest offering of
the course experience.

In a world that is quickly changing. it is oficn necessary to update material on a regular basis
and to adapt delivery methods to new and more accessible tcchnology.

 Toiirism ?litman Resources Dcvclopmcnt Strategy                                      Page 34

    Cambodia is faced with a number of significant human resource development challenges. As
    an emerging economy thcre are a number of demands placed on the country to meet a series
    of needs necessary to allow the country to achieve its full potential. It is very important that
    national authorities recognize the need to place a high-priority on human resource
    development at all levels. There is a need to ensulc that children in schools are made aware
    of tourism as an activity and its role in the national society, therc must be clear information
    available on opportunities in all classes o F tourism activity, vocational schools must provide
    opportunities for obtaining basic skills especially in the hospitality industry. graduate level
    programs must conform to international standards and there is an extreme urgency for
    professional developrncnt and skills and knowledge development for those already working
    in the industry.

    Faced with this challenge the country must serious:y address its human resource needs in the
    tourism industry given its importance in the overall development of the society. It is
    important to recognize that training and educatioii must be available to all sectors of the
    society and in particular the poor and women wh,) have an opportunity of benefiting from
    tourism activity if they have the necessary skills and knowledge. It is clear that human
    resource development is an esscntial element in an overall poverty reduction strategy related
    to tourism.

    As discussed earlier in this document the role of’tht Ministry of lourism and in particular the
    ‘Trainingand Education Department is crucial in helping to ensure consistent human resource
    development activity in the country. However. as discussed the role of the Ministry should
    not be to act as a provider but to contribute advice and direction on crucial issues within the
    overall tourism planning and development process. This will rcquire that the Ministry staff is
    trained in human resource development in order to msure that needs and requirements can be
    professionally identified and that the Ministry staff can effectively work with the range of
    public and private sector providers that now exis. in Cambodia. It is also important that
    Ministry staff is in a position to design funding proposals that will meet international
    standards as they relate to human resource development. The Ministry is in a unique position
     given its presence in all parts of the country to be arvare of problems within all sectors of the
    tourism industry. Through its human resource d:velopment staff it can identify specific
     needs and work with the essential providers in meet~ng    skill and knowledge gaps.

     .4s recornmended in this 1 Iurnan Resource Development Strategy there must be an emphasis
     on both public as well as private sector needs. IT is not sufficient to concentrate on very
     specific sectors to the exclusion of other areas of significantly more importance to achieving
     societal goals and ob-jectives.

     The following specific actions are seen to be essrntial in insuring quality human resourcc
     development in Cambodia.

     Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                          Page 35
Cambodian Tourism Human Resource Development Commission
liecognizing the challengcs identiticd in this strategy it is recoinniended that a public/private
Cambodia Tourism Human Resource Development Commission bc created that would be
rcsponsible for both needs assessment as well as helping to bring together thc necessary
public and private resources to mect the significant tourism capacity building requirements 01‘
the country. The Cornmission would be made up of representatives from the tourism
industry, the Ministry 01‘Tourism and other government ministries. It is recommended that
the Commission be made up of equal numbers of public and private nienibers. Private sector
participants would be representatives of various groups including the hotel industry, the
 restaurant sector, travel companies and the tour and travel areas of activity. lraining
 institutes and universities would have both public as well as private representatives. It is
 further recommended that in addition to the Ministry of ‘Tourism the Ministry of Education.
 the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts and the Ministry of the Environment have membership
 on the Coinmission.

The Commission would also be responsible for establishing national standards for all
occupational groups. In addition, the Commission would be responsible for working with
colleges and universities in designing degree programs that meet international standards. The
Commission would be established in such a way that it would monitor various educational
programs and on a regular basis assess these programs using both Cambodian as well as
international experts to ensure that Cambodians have access to international level training and
education that is adapted to the Cambodian contest.

 The Ministry of ‘Tourism would act as the secretariat for the Commission and provide all
 necessary administrative support in order to ensure the effective functioning of the
 Commission. It is recommended that a task force be established immediately made up of
 representatives from the essential sectors to further define the nature of the Commission. ‘I’hc
 approach used by the Canadian government could serve as a useful model for development.

 Establishing Professional Associations
 There is a need to further encourage the private sector to i’orm and support professional
 associations. i.e., hotels and restaurants, tour operators and tour guides. Such associations
 can then speak with one voice to influence the content of training programs and to moderate
 the examination and testing procedures. In addition, professional associations can present
 specialist workshops on a cost-sharing basis by bringing in experts to meet specific

 Tourism Human Resources Developmerit Strategy                                        Page 36
                                                             -                   ~~

                           Priority Actions                          Time Span            Responsible f o r 1
                                                             -        (Months)            Implementation                  j
      Cambodian Tourism Human Resource Development
      Commission with MOT as a secretariat

            Establish the Cambodian Tourism Human Resourcc
            llevelopment Commission comprised of
            representatives from the industry, Ministry of
                                                                     3 months

                                                                                          MOT to coordinatc

            Tourism and other agencies                           __
      ___  -Establish training and education priorities            - 6 months                Commission
            Establish national standards in all occupational         3 months                Commission                       I

        .   groups
            Seek financial support from donor agencies for
                                                                     6 months                Commission
        .   priority training and education requirements
             Develop training programs on priority areas of
             tourism planning and management for government
                                                                       1 year                Commission
                                                                                                          ~               .


             officials from Ministry of Tourism and other
             relevant agencies                                    -                                            -.   - -

             Provide training for Department of Training and
             Education’s staff on curriculum design and

    I evaluation for tourism, monitoring of self paced                                                                            !
-   I        learning exercises and needs assessment               -
     I Develop training program required by the private
             sector according to the training needs identified in

        .    the strategy
             Develop a range of different types of learning and
                                                                      Ongoing                Commission

        __ education activities
              Seek to bring together several existing tourism
              training and education initiatives in order to
                                                                                                                      -   -i
              maximize resource use
              Establish collaboration with international institute$/  Ongoing         I      Commission
              organizations for providing training courses        -
        Establish Professional Associations                        -
              Encourage thc private sector to form and support        6 months            MOT to coordinate
        .     professional associations                                               i
              Professional associations present spccialist             Ongoing               Professional--
              workshops on a cost-sharing basis, bringing in                                 Associations
                                                                 I                    I

       -      experts to meet specific objcctives
                                               . -             -I                     L                   .-

              Tourism Human Resources Development Strategy                                      Page 37

 I'hc Human Resource Development Strategy for Cambodia outlines thc principal necds
lhcing the country as it attempts to use tourism as a major tool of societal development. It is
essential that the needs identi1jit.d i'or the public sector be scen as priority areas for action.
Unless there are traiiicd government employees working in various arcas of cultural and
natural resource developnient and protection wilh a sound understanding of market issues
there is a distinct possibility that the important opportunities facing tourism in Cambodia will
bc lost.

Given the very rapid growth of the hospitality sector there are significant needs to he fulfilled
to help position Cambodia as an international destination. It is of concern that the private
sector appears placc a high priority on training and education and the Ministry of Tourism
along with other sectors of the iiidustry must establish a climate were training and education
is seen as essential as Canibodia continues to enjoy significant tourism growth. it is clear that
without further opportunities achieving international status will be impossible. IHowever,
given the realities of the private sector it is important that be Conmission adopts innovative
techniques for delivering skill and knowledge development. It is stressed that innovative
techniques are used to meet thc market realities.

Once the Commission has been formed and priorities established, the task of dcvcloping
specific c.urricula and matcrials begin. 'This is a task that the C'ambodian 'I'ouristn
lraining and Education Resource Ccnter can help to fullill in an intcgrated and

 Tourism Human Kesourccs I)evelopment Strategy                                         I'agr 38

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